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Records with Keyword: Energy
Design and Evaluation of the Lab-Scale Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (STHE) for Poultry Litter to Energy Production
Xuejun Qian, Yulai Yang, Seong W. Lee
July 2, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: analysis, design, electricity, Energy, hot water, poultry litter, shell tube heat exchanger, space heating, temperature change, trailer temperature
Poultry litter is one type of biomass and waste generated from the farming process. This study performed a performance and process analysis of poultry litter to energy using the lab-scale shell and tube heat exchanger (STHE) system along with a Stirling engine and a swirling fluidized bed combustor (SFBC). The effects of tube shape, flow direction, and water flow rates on water and trailer temperature changes were investigated during the poultry litter co-combustion process. Energy flow analysis and emissions were also studied. Results showed that the water outlet temperature of 62.8 ° C in the twisted tube was higher than the straight tube case (58.3 ° C ) after 130 min of the co-combustion process. It was found that the counter-current direction had higher water temperature changes, higher logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD), and higher trailer temperature changes than the co-current direction. A water flow rate of 4.54 L/min showed adequate heat absorption... [more]
Energy Requirements for Biomass Harvest and Densification
Kevin Shinners, Joshua Friede
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: bales, Biomass, density, Energy, processing
This research quantified the unit and bulk density of several biomass crops across a variety of harvest and processing methods, as well as the energy and fuel requirements for these operations. A load density of approximately 240 kg·m−3 is needed to reach the legal weight limit of most transporters. Of the three types of balers studied, only the high density (HD) large square baler achieved this target density. However, the specific energy and fuel requirements increased exponentially with bale density, and at the maximum densities for corn stover and switchgrass, the dry basis energy and fuel requirements ranged from 4.0 to 5.0 kW·h·Mg−1 and 1.2 to 1.4 L·Mg−1, respectively. Throughputs of tub grinders when grinding bales was less than any other harvesting or processing methods investigated, so specific energy and fuel requirements were high and ranged from 13 to 32 kW·h·Mg−1 and 5.0 to 11.3 L·Mg−1, respectively. Gross size-reduction by pre-cutting at baling increased bale density by l... [more]
A Review of Exergy Based Optimization and Control
Corey James, Tae Young Kim, Robert Jane
May 22, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: control, Energy, Exergy, Optimization
This work presents a critical review of the use of exergy based control and optimization for efficiency improvements in energy networks, with a background of exergy based analysis given for context. Over the past three decades, a number of studies using exergy were conducted to gain a performance advantage for high energy consumption systems and networks. Due to their complexity and the increased scale of the systems, the opportunity to misuse energy inevitability leads to inefficient operations. The studies accomplished in this area are grouped into either control or optimization to highlight each method’s ability to minimize system irreversibilities that lead to exergy destruction. The exergy based optimization and control studies featured demonstrate substantial improvements (as high as 40%) over traditional methods based on the first law of thermodynamics. This paper reviews the work completed in the area of exergy based optimization and control as of the end of September 2019, out... [more]
Porous Aromatic Melamine Schiff Bases as Highly Efficient Media for Carbon Dioxide Storage
Raghad M. Omer, Emaad T. B. Al-Tikrity, Gamal A. El-Hiti, Mohammed F. Alotibi, Dina S. Ahmed, Emad Yousif
February 3, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: adsorption capacity, carbon dioxide storage, Energy, melamine Schiff bases, porosity properties, surface area
High energy demand has led to excessive fuel consumption and high-concentration CO2 production. CO2 release causes serious environmental problems such as the rise in the Earth’s temperature, leading to global warming. Thus, chemical industries are under severe pressure to provide a solution to the problems associated with fuel consumption and to reduce CO2 emission at the source. To this effect, herein, four highly porous aromatic Schiff bases derived from melamine were investigated as potential media for CO2 capture. Since these Schiff bases are highly aromatic, porous, and have a high content of heteroatoms (nitrogen and oxygen), they can serve as CO2 storage media. The surface morphology of the Schiff bases was investigated through field emission scanning electron microscopy, and their physical properties were determined by gas adsorption experiments. The Schiff bases had a pore volume of 0.005−0.036 cm3/g, an average pore diameter of 1.69−3.363 nm, and a small Brunauer−Emmett−Telle... [more]
Special Issue: Modeling and Simulation of Energy Systems
Thomas A. Adams
October 26, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Energy, energy systems, Modelling, operations, Optimization, process design, process systems engineering, Simulation
This editorial provides a brief overview of the Special Issue “Modeling and Simulation of Energy Systems.” This Special Issue contains 21 research articles describing some of the latest advances in energy systems engineering that use modeling and simulation as a key part of the problem-solving methodology. Although the specific computer tools and software chosen for the job are quite variable, the overall objectives are the same—mathematical models of energy systems are used to describe real phenomena and answer important questions that, due to the hugeness or complexity of the systems of interest, cannot be answered experimentally on the lab bench. The topics explored relate to the conceptual process design of new energy systems and energy networks, the design and operation of controllers for improved energy systems performance or safety, and finding optimal operating strategies for complex systems given highly variable and dynamic environments. Application areas include electric powe... [more]
Determination of the Potential Impact of Domestic Anaerobic Digester Systems: A Community Based Research Initiative in Rural Bangladesh
Khondokar M. Rahman, Lynsey Melville, David J. Edwards, David Fulford, Wellington Didibhuku Thwala
October 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: anaerobic digestion, Bangladesh, biogas, Energy, feedstock, impact
This research examines the potential impact of domestic anaerobic digester (AD) systems adopted in Bangladesh and similar developing countries. Cattle dung and poultry litter feed stocks were specifically investigated, because these were freely available and plentiful to people living within agricultural areas of rural Bangladesh. Data was collected to ascertain whether these two representative AD facility types provide tangible social, economic and environmental impact that benefits homeowners. Primary quantitative and qualitative data was obtained by field data collection, and meeting with expert groups and stakeholders. Empirical analysis conducted revealed that variations were found in the biomass feedstocks available on different sites but also differences were apparent in terms of the operations and maintenance (O and M) systems of the biogas plants operated. The biogas and methane yield variation was also measured, and variations were found in the cattle dung and poultry litter... [more]
Investigating the Dynamic Impact of CO2 Emissions and Economic Growth on Renewable Energy Production: Evidence from FMOLS and DOLS Tests
Muhammad Waris Ali Khan, Shrikant Krupasindhu Panigrahi, Khamis Said Nasser Almuniri, Mujeeb Iqbal Soomro, Nayyar Hussain Mirjat, Eisa Salim Alqaydi
September 30, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: carbon emissions, dynamic panel cointegration model, economic growth, Energy, Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square (FMOLS), Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Understanding the dynamic nexus between CO2 emissions and economic growth in the sustainable environment helps the economies in developing resources and formulating apposite energy policies. In the recent past, various studies have explored the nexus between CO2 emissions and economic growth. This study, however, investigates the nexus between renewable energy production, CO2 emissions, and economic growth over the period from 1995 to 2016 for seven Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square (FMOLS) and Dynamic Ordinary Least Square (DOLS) methodologies were used to estimate the long- and short-run relationships. The panel results revealed that renewable energy production has a significant long term effect on CO2 emissions for Vietnam (t = −2.990), Thailand (t = −2.505), and Indonesia (t = −2.515), and economic growth impact for Malaysia (t = 2.050), Thailand (t = −2.001), and the Philippines (t = −2.710). It is, therefore, vital that... [more]
Data-Mining for Processes in Chemistry, Materials, and Engineering
Hao Li, Zhien Zhang, Zhe-Ze Zhao
July 25, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: chemistry, data-mining, Energy, engineering, Machine Learning, materials, neural networks
With the rapid development of machine learning techniques, data-mining for processes in chemistry, materials, and engineering has been widely reported in recent years. In this discussion, we summarize some typical applications for process optimization, design, and evaluation of chemistry, materials, and engineering. Although the research and application targets are various, many important common points still exist in their data-mining. We then propose a generalized strategy based on the philosophy of data-mining, which should be applicable for the design and optimization targets for processes in various fields with both scientific and industrial purposes.
Drying of Drill Cuttings: Emphasis on Energy Consumption and Thermal Analysis
Esra Tınmaz Köse
July 25, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: conveyor belt, drill cuttings, drying, Energy, microwave
Drill cuttings, contaminated with drilling fluids, are characterized by their high moisture content, which can cause problems for collection, storage, and transportation. Additionally, the practice of disposing waste with high moisture content into sanitary landfills is undesirable and mostly forbidden. For that reason, drying of waste with high moisture content, such as drill cuttings, is an essential operation. In this work, microwave and conveyor belt drying processes for drying drill cuttings containing water-based drilling fluids were examined in a lab-scale study. The results of the study indicated that the microwave dryer has been shown to be advantageous in terms of time and energy consumption for drying of thin film layers, while the conveyor drying system was more appropriate for bulk drying.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulations and Experimental Measurements in an Inductively-Coupled Plasma Generator Operating at Atmospheric Pressure: Performance Analysis and Parametric Study
Sangeeta B. Punjabi, Dilip N. Barve, Narendra K. Joshi, Asoka K. Das, Dushyant C. Kothari, Arijit A. Ganguli, Sunil N. Sahasrabhude, Jyeshtharaj B. Joshi
July 11, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Energy, impedance, inductively-coupled plasma, plasma
In this article, electrical characteristics of a high-power inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) torch operating at 3 MHz are determined by direct measurement of radio-frequency (RF) current and voltage together with energy balance in the system. The variation of impedance with two parameters, namely the input power and the sheath gas flow rate for a 50 kW ICP is studied. The ICP torch system is operated at near atmospheric pressure with argon as plasma gas. It is observed that the plasma resistance increases with an increase in the RF-power. Further, the torch inductance decreases with an increase in the RF-power. In addition, plasma resistance and torch inductance decrease with an increase in the sheath gas flow rate. The oscillator efficiency of the ICP system ranges from 40% to 80% with the variation of the Direct current (DC) powers. ICP has also been numerically simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to predict the impedance profile. A good agreement was found between the... [more]
Recent Advance on Draw Solutes Development in Forward Osmosis
Qingwu Long, Yongmei Jia, Jinping Li, Jiawei Yang, Fangmei Liu, Jian Zheng, Biao Yu
April 8, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: draw solutes, Energy, forward osmosis, membrane separation, regeneration
In recent years, membrane technologies have been developed to address water shortage and energy crisis. Forward osmosis (FO), as an emerging membrane-based water treatment technology, employs an extremely concentrated draw solution (DS) to draw water pass through the semi-permeable membrane from a feed solution. DS as a critical material in FO process plays a key role in determining separation performance and energy cost. Most of existing DSs after FO still require a regeneration step making its return to initial state. Therefore, selecting suitable DS with low reverse solute, high flux, and easy regeneration is critical for improving FO energy efficiency. Numerous novel DSs with improved performance and lower regeneration cost have been developed. However, none reviews reported the categories of DS based on the energy used for recovery up to now, leading to the lack of enough awareness of energy consumption in DS regeneration. This review will give a comprehensive overview on the exis... [more]
Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Transportation in Beef Cattle Production
Narayanan Kannan, Ali Saleh, Edward Osei
February 5, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: animal trailer, beef-cattle, CO2 equivalent, Energy, gooseneck, greenhouse gas, life cycle analysis (LCA), model, pot belly, transportation
Accounting for transportation is an important part of the life cycle analysis (LCA) of beef cattle production because it is associated with energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper describes the development and application of a model that estimates energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of transport in beef cattle production. The animal transport model is based on the weight and number of animals in each weight category, type of trailer, vehicle, and fuel used. The energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission estimates of animal feed transportation are based on the weight of a truckload and the number of truckloads of feed transported. Our results indicate that a truckload is travelling approximately 326 km in connection with beef cattle production in the study region. The fuel consumption amounts to 24 L of fossil fuel per 1000 kg of boneless beef. The corresponding greenhouse gas emission is 83 kg. It appears from our results that the majority of energy... [more]
Exergy Accounting: A Quantitative Comparison of Methods and Implications for Energy-Economy Analysis
Jack Miller, Timothy J. Foxon, Steve Sorrell
February 5, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: decoupling, economic growth, Energy, Energy Efficiency, Exergy
Assessments of the feasibility of decoupling energy consumption from economic growth could benefit from an improved understanding of the size, nature and value of different energy flows. This understanding may be enhanced by focusing upon so-called “useful exergy”—a measure of both the quantity and “quality” of energy (defined here as its thermodynamic ability to perform physical work) at the “useful” stage of the energy conversion chain. Useful exergy flows within national economies are increasingly being quantified and their role in economic activity explored. However, this so-called “exergy economics” field currently lacks a consistent methodology. This paper contributes to the development of a more consistent approach. By constructing a “useful exergy account” for the United Kingdom covering the period 1960⁻2012, we explore how different methodological choices influence estimates of useful exergy for different categories of end-use as well as estimates of total national useful exer... [more]
The Impact and Determinants of Environmental Taxation on Economic Growth Communities in Romania
Jean Andrei, Mihai Mieila, Gheorghe H. Popescu, Elvira Nica, Manole Cristina
January 31, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: development, economic growth, emergent economy, Energy, environment, renewables, taxation
Environmental taxation represents a key influence on sustainable development in post-transition countries. Romania has experienced important transformations of environmental policy, including taxation, due to sustained reliance on traditional energy sources to satisfy its energy needs. The aim of this paper is to show a possible causal relationship between the Romanian GDP and several explanatory variables related to taxation of environmental damage and energy generation and consumption in the country. In order to do this, the authors make use of several statistical tests to verify the existence of a meaningful relationship between economic variables expressed in time series. The study has also attempted to identify the influence of environmental taxation on ensuring green economic development, starting from the premise that for emergent economies these taxes provide both a GDP increase and prevent environmental degradation by decreasing the pollution and environmentally harmful suppli... [more]
Solar Energy as a Form Giver for Future Cities
Alessandra Curreli, Glòria Serra-Coch, Antonio Isalgue, Isabel Crespo, Helena Coch
January 7, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: cities, Energy, renewable energies, reuse, solar access, urban morphology
Energy is considered as a main influence on urban configurations. However, there is a difficulty on translating the city models based on theoretical renewable energy concepts into practical applications. This study considers the possibility of understanding this future model as a transformation of the existing urban centres. With this objective, a methodology to intervene in existing cities based on the study of solar access is developed. Therefore, an analysis of solar potential in relation with urban morphology is carried on through a simulation software in l’Eixample, a neighbourhood of Barcelona. The distribution of the sun factor in the different areas of the building blocks envelope displays possible morphological modifications that would facilitate solar energy collection. Consequently, the analytical method presented could be applied to regulate urban interventions with the aim of obtaining more solar energy based cities.
McMaster University Course Lectures in Energy Systems Engineering
Thomas Alan Adams II
December 17, 2018 (v1)
Lecture slides from the Fall 2018 CHEM ENG 4A03/6A03 Energy System Engineering course at McMaster University are attached. Energy Systems Engineering is a survey course that discusses many ways in which energy products are produced, transported, converted, and consumed in our society today. The lectures correspond to two 50-minute lectures a week for 13 weeks (some slide decks take 2 or 3 lectures to complete). The course cannot cover all energy systems of course, but focus mostly on large-scale or common processes either in use today or currently in development and research. The course takes a chemical engineering perspective so more attention is paid to processes and thermochemical phenomena and less attention is paid to issues related to mechanical engineering or electrical engineering, although there is some intersection.

The lecture slides include the following topics:

1.1. Life Cycle Analysis (basic review)
1.2. Key Metrics in Energy Systems
2.1. Coal Production
2.2. Nat... [more]
Chemical Analysis of Different Parts of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Using Ultimate, Proximate and Thermo-Gravimetric Techniques for Energy Production
Ramadan A. Nasser, Mohamed Z. M. Salem, Salim Hiziroglu, Hamad A. Al-Mefarrej, Ahmed S. Mohareb, Manawwer Alam, Ibrahim M. Aref
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: date palm, Energy, proximate analysis, thermo-gravimatric analysis, ultamiate analysis
The objective of the study was to analyze chemical structure of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by employing ultimate, proximate and thermo-gravimetric techniques. Samples from different anatomical parts of date palm, namely trunk, frond base, frond midrib, leaflets, coir, fruit stem, date stone, and fruit empty bunches were considered for the experiments. Based on the findings in this work palm leaflet samples gave the highest amount of extractives content (32.9%), followed by date palm stone specimens with 31.5%. Cellulose content values of 32.8% and 47.5% were obtained for date palm stone and palm coir samples, respectively. Overall the hemicellulose contents of all samples were relatively similar to those of typical wood or non-wood lignocellulosic materials with the two exceptions of palm coir and palm leaflets. Both palm coir and palm leaflet specimens had 12.6% and 16.1% hemicellulose content. Volatile matter values of 74.3% and 87.5% were determined for leaflets and fruit em... [more]
How Much Detail Should We Use to Compute Societal Aggregated Exergy Efficiencies?
Miguel Palma, Tânia Sousa, Zeus Guevara
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: efficiency, Energy, energy carriers, energy use, Exergy, useful exergy
The current method used for calculating societal aggregated exergy efficiencies is reviewed. Cooling is introduced as an end-use category; conversion efficiencies for heating processes are obtained for each energy carrier; and electricity shares per end-use are retrieved for each sector, improving the accuracy of the estimated values of aggregated exergy efficiencies. We show that: (1) cooling uses are a relevant end-use in Portugal and that their introduction decreased overall efficiency by 3.4% in 2009; and (2) disaggregating the heating second law efficiencies for each energy carrier has a significant effect on the aggregated efficiencies of the country, decreasing aggregated efficiency by 1.3% in 2009. We studied two other factors that showed no significant impact on aggregated exergy efficiency: a technological lag of 10 years in the efficiency of stationary mechanical drive devices and the use of a year-specific ambient temperature to compute exergy efficiencies of heating proces... [more]
Generation of Hydrogen, Lignin and Sodium Hydroxide from Pulping Black Liquor by Electrolysis
Guangzai Nong, Zongwen Zhou, Shuangfei Wang
October 22, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: black liquor, electrolysis, Energy, Hydrogen, lignin
Black liquor is generated in Kraft pulping of wood or non-wood raw material in pulp mills, and regarded as a renewable resource. The objective of this paper was to develop an effective means to remove the water pollutants by recovery of both lignin and sodium hydroxide from black liquor, based on electrolysis. The treatment of a 1000 mL of black liquor (122 g/L solid contents) consumed 345.6 kJ of electric energy, and led to the generation of 30.7 g of sodium hydroxide, 0.82 g of hydrogen gas and 52.1 g of biomass solids. Therefore, the recovery ratios of elemental sodium and biomass solids are 80.4% and 76%, respectively. Treating black liquor by electrolysis is an environmentally friendly technology that can, in particular, be an alternative process in addressing the environmental issues of pulping waste liquor to the small-scale mills without black liquor recovery.
Biofuel Impacts on World Food Supply: Use of Fossil Fuel, Land and Water Resources
David Pimentel, Alison Marklein, Megan A. Toth, Marissa Karpoff, Gillian S. Paul, Robert McCormack, Joanna Kyriazis, Tim Krueger
October 15, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: agriculture, Biofuels, Energy, food security, fossil fuels, natural resources, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The rapidly growing world population and rising consumption of biofuels are increasing demand for both food and biofuels. This exaggerates both food and fuel shortages. Using food crops such as corn grain to produce ethanol raises major nutritional and ethical concerns. Nearly 60% of humans in the world are currently malnourished, so the need for grains and other basic foods is critical. Growing crops for fuel squanders land, water and energy resources vital for the production of food for human consumption. Using corn for ethanol increases the price of U.S. beef, chicken, pork, eggs, breads, cereals, and milk more than 10% to 30%.
Energy and Exergy Analyses of Tube Banks in Waste Heat Recovery Applications
Mustafa Erguvan, David W. MacPhee
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, efficiency, Energy, entropy, Exergy, HRSG, tube banks
In this study, energy and exergy analyses have been investigated numerically for unsteady cross-flow over heated circular cylinders. Numerous simulations were conducted varying the number of inline tubes, inlet velocity, dimensionless pitch ratios and Reynolds number. Heat leakage into the domain is modeled as a source term. Numerical results compare favorably to published data in terms of Nusselt number and pressure drop. It was found that the energy efficiency varies between 72% and 98% for all cases, and viscous dissipation has a very low effect on the energy efficiency for low Reynolds number cases. The exergy efficiency ranges from 40⁻64%, and the entropy generation due to heat transfer was found to have a significant effect on exergy efficiency. The results suggest that exergy efficiency can be maximized by choosing specific pitch ratios for various Reynolds numbers. The results could be useful in designing more efficient heat recovery systems, especially for low temperature appl... [more]
Simultaneous Energy and Water Optimisation in Shale Exploration
Doris Oke, Thokozani Majozi, Rajib Mukherjee, Debalina Sengupta, Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi
July 31, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: Energy, hydraulic fracturing, membrane distillation, optimisation, Water
This work presents a mathematical model for the simultaneous optimisation of water and energy usage in hydraulic fracturing using a continuous time scheduling formulation. The recycling/reuse of fracturing water is achieved through the purification of flowback wastewater using thermally driven membrane distillation (MD). A detailed design model for this technology is incorporated within the water network superstructure in order to allow for the simultaneous optimisation of water, operation, capital cost, and energy used. The study also examines the feasibility of utilising the co-produced gas that is traditionally flared as a potential source of energy for MD. The application of the model results in a 22.42% reduction in freshwater consumption and 23.24% savings in the total cost of freshwater. The membrane thermal energy consumption is in the order of 244 × 10³ kJ/m³ of water, which is found to be less than the range of thermal consumption values reported for membrane distillation in... [more]
Minimizing the Effect of Substantial Perturbations in Military Water Systems for Increased Resilience and Efficiency
Corey M. James, Michael E. Webber, Thomas F. Edgar
July 31, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: control, Energy, military, Water
A model predictive control (MPC) framework, exploiting both feedforward and feedback control loops, is employed to minimize large disturbances that occur in military water networks. Military installations’ need for resilient and efficient water supplies is often challenged by large disturbances like fires, terrorist activity, troop training rotations, and large scale leaks. This work applies the effectiveness of MPC to provide predictive capability and compensate for vast geographical differences and varying phenomena time scales using computational software and actual system dimensions and parameters. The results show that large disturbances are rapidly minimized while maintaining chlorine concentration within legal limits at the point of demand and overall water usage is minimized. The control framework also ensures pumping is minimized during peak electricity hours, so costs are kept lower than simple proportional control. Thecontrol structure implemented in this work is able to sup... [more]
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