Records with Keyword: Energy Efficiency
Showing records 1 to 25 of 508. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Cloud Computing and Energy Efficiency: Mapping the Thematic Structure of Research
Andrzej Lis, Agata Sudolska, Ilona Pietryka, Adam Kozakiewicz
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: bibliometrics, cloud computing, co-word analysis, Energy Efficiency, keywords co-occurrence analysis, Scopus, VOSviewer
The dynamic growth in the use of cloud computing systems results in increasing energy consumption. Consequently, more and more attention is given to energy efficiency issues both in research and theory development as well as the business practice of cloud computing systems. In spite of the rapid development of research, the field has not been mapped from the bibliometric perspective yet. This study aims at publication profiling and mapping the thematic structure of the cloud computing energy efficiency research field. Detailed research objectives include: (1) profiling scientific publications in the field, (2) identifying and exploring thematic research areas, (3) identifying emerging topics and discussing their potential as future research lines. The aforementioned objectives are translated into the following study questions: (1) What are the most productive nations, institutions, source titles, and scholars contributing to research on energy efficiency in cloud computing? (2) What do... [more]
A Survey on Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access: From the Perspective of Spectral Efficiency and Energy Efficiency
Hieu V. Nguyen, Hyeon Min Kim, Gil-Mo Kang, Kha-Hung Nguyen, Van-Phuc Bui, Oh-Soon Shin
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: code domain, Energy Efficiency, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA), power domain, spare code multiple access (SCMA), spectral efficiency
Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is a promising technology for next-generation wireless networks with emerging demands on low latency, high throughput, and massive connectivity. Unlike orthogonal multiple access, NOMA allows multiple users to share the same radio resources, which significantly improves spectral efficiency (SE). To achieve green wireless communications for numerous networked devices, NOMA helps reduce energy consumption while satisfying rate fairness and quality-of-experience requirements. The goal of this paper is to introduce the innovative approaches for NOMA in terms of the SE and energy efficiency, and discuss emerging technologies involved with NOMA. Further, its challenges and future research directions are highlighted.
Analysis of Primary Energy Factors from Photovoltaic Systems for a Nearly Zero Energy Building (NZEB): A Case Study in Lithuania
Rokas Tamašauskas, Jolanta Šadauskienė, Dorota Anna Krawczyk, Violeta Medelienė
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, low energy buildings, photovoltaic system, primary energy factor, renewable energy sources
Following a new climate and energy plan, the European Union (EU) gives big attention to energy savings. The overall assessment of energy saving measures is very important. Thus, it is crucial to estimate in a proper way the primary energy factor, which is used in calculations of primary energy consumption from renewable energy (RE) sources in a Nearly Zero Energy Building (NZEB). The conduced studies of the literature and national regulations showed that different methods to determine energy from photovoltaic (PV) systems are used. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the primary energy factors of energy from photovoltaics and determine the average value. To achieve this aim, the data of 30 photovoltaic systems from Lithuania were analyzed. The results show a 35% diversification in the values of non-renewable primary energy factor, depending on the PV systems’ capacities, with the average on a level of 1.038.
EGCIR: Energy-Aware Graph Clustering and Intelligent Routing Using Supervised System in Wireless Sensor Networks
Tanzila Saba, Khalid Haseeb, Ikram Ud Din, Ahmad Almogren, Ayman Altameem, Suliman Mohamed Fati
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, graph clustering, key distribution, link security, wireless sensor networks
In recent times, the field of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has attained a growing popularity in observing the environment due to its dynamic factors. Sensor data are gathered and forwarded to the base station (BS) through a wireless transmission medium. The data from the BS is further distributed to end-users using the Internet for their post analysis and operations. However, all sensors except the BS have limited constraints in terms of memory, energy and computational resources that degrade the network performance concerning the network lifetime and trustworthy routing. Therefore, improving energy efficiency with reliable and secure transmissions is a valuable debate among researchers for critical applications based on low-powered sensor nodes. In addition, security plays a significant cause to achieve responsible communications among sensors due to their unfixed and variable infrastructures. Keeping in view the above-mentioned issues, this paper presents an energy-aware graph clu... [more]
Energy Price and Energy Efficiency in China: A Linear and Nonlinear Empirical Investigation
Peng Hou, Yilin Li, Yong Tan, Yuanjie Hou
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, energy price, linear effect, nonlinear effect, panel quantile regression, panel threshold regression
The empirical conclusions regarding the relationship between energy price and energy efficiency are relatively mixed. This paper systematically examines the influence of energy price on energy efficiency in China based on data from 30 provinces between 2003 and 2017, using linear and nonlinear effect analysis. We found that the impact of energy price on energy efficiency in China was positive in general. However, there existed heterogeneous effects of energy price on energy efficiency in various regions, and the effect differed with differences in energy efficiency levels based on the panel quantile regression analysis. Finally, the nonlinear effect analysis based on the panel threshold model indicated that the effect of energy price on energy efficiency increased with the rise of the environmental regulation level and economic growth rate, while it decreased with the ascent of the degree of energy price distortion and economic development level. In particular, when the value of a regi... [more]
Energy Efficiency and Carbon Emission Impact on Competitiveness in the European Energy Intensive Industries
Andrius Zuoza, Vaida Pilinkienė
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, energy-intensive industries, industry competitiveness
Climate change and efforts to mitigate it have given rise to an interest in the relationship between industry competitiveness, energy efficiency, and carbon emissions. A better understanding of this relationship can be essential for economic and environmental decision-makers. This paper presents empirical research evaluating industry competitiveness through the factors of energy efficiency and carbon emission in Europe’s most energy-intensive industries. The designed industry competitiveness measure index consists of seven components, grouped into three equally weighted sub-indexes: export performance, energy, and environmental. The export performance of the industry is described by the industry export growth rate, the share of the industry’s export, and the effects on the industry’s competitiveness of changes in a country’s export. The energy intensity of the industry and energy prices are integrated into the energy sub-index. The environmental sub-index consists of the industry’s emi... [more]
Combining Sufficiency, Efficiency and Flexibility to Achieve Positive Energy Districts Targets
Silvia Erba, Lorenzo Pagliano
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: building thermal mass, deep energy retrofit, Energy Efficiency, energy flexibility, energy sufficiency, positive energy district, seasonal energy balance, yearly energy balance
Energy efficiency, generation from renewable sources and more recently energy flexibility are key elements of present sustainability policies. However, we are beginning to see a recognition of the need to couple technological solutions with lifestyle and behavioral changes, sometimes labeled under the term “sufficiency”. Appropriate policies and design principles are necessary to enable sufficiency options, which in turn reveal that there is a bidirectional influence between the building and the district/city level. In this context, the authors discuss how city and building re-design should be implemented combining energy efficiency, flexibility, production from renewables and sufficiency options for achieving a positive energy balance at the district level even within the constraints of dense cities. Based on a review of recent advances, the paper provides a matrix of interactions between building and district design for use by building designers and city planners. It also compares po... [more]
Energy and Exergy Efficiency Analysis of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Sinter Vertical Cooler
Zude Cheng, Haitao Wang, Junsheng Feng, Yongfang Xia, Hui Dong
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Exergy Efficiency, gas–solid heat transfer, sinter, vertical cooler
In order to fully understand the energy and exergy transfer processes in sinter vertical coolers, a simulation model of the fluid flow and heat transfer in a vertical cooler was established, and energy and exergy efficiency analyses of the gas−solid heat transfer in a vertical cooler were conducted in detail. Based on the calculation method of the whole working condition, the suitable operational parameters of the vertical cooler were obtained by setting the net exergy efficiency in the vertical cooler as the indicator function. The results show that both the quantity of sinter waste heat recovery (SWHR) and energy efficiency increased as the air flow rate (AFR) increased, and they decreased as the air inlet temperature (AIT) increased. The increase in the sinter inlet temperature (SIT) resulted in an increase in the quantity of SWHR and a decrease in energy efficiency. The air net exergy had the maximum value as the AFR increased, and it only increased monotonically as the SIT and AIT... [more]
The Application of Silica-Based Aerogel Board on the Fire Resistance and Thermal Insulation Performance Enhancement of Existing External Wall System Retrofit
Kuang-Sheng Liu, Xiao-Feng Zheng, Chia-Hsing Hsieh, Shin-Ku Lee
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: aerogel, Energy Efficiency, existing building, external wall insulation, fire resistance
Due to the need of good thermal performance, external wall insulation (EWI) is usually made of materials that are not fire resistant and sometimes flammable. That restricts its application to a particular circumstance such as limited building height. Hence, a material with good thermal insulation and fire resistance performance would allow EWI to be more widely applied. This paper introduces a novel material: a silica-based aerogel porous board, which differs itself from mainstream products available in the market because of its outstanding properties, such as low density, high surface area, low thermal conductivity and superhydrophobicity. Herein, its thermal insulation and fire-resistant performance were tested and compared with commercial products. The cone calorimeter analysis results indicated that the aerogel porous board could improve the fire resistance performance. Moreover, the evaluation of thermal insulation performance suggested that the application of an aerogel porous bo... [more]
Review on Braking Energy Management in Electric Vehicles
Valery Vodovozov, Zoja Raud, Eduard Petlenkov
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: electric vehicles, Energy Efficiency, fuzzy logic, intelligent controllers, neural network, regenerative braking
The adoption of electric vehicles promises numerous benefits for modern society. At the same time, there remain significant hurdles to their wide distribution, primarily related to battery-based energy sources. This review concerns the systematization of knowledge in one of the areas of the electric vehicle control, namely, the energy management issues when using braking controllers. The braking process optimization is summarized from two aspects. First, the advantageous solutions are presented that were identified in the field of gradual and urgent braking. Second, several findings discovered in adjacent fields of automation are debated as prospects for their possible application in braking control. Following the specific classification of braking methods, a generalized braking system composition is offered, and all publications are evaluated primarily in terms of their energy recovery abilities as a global target. Then, conventional and intelligent classes of braking controllers are... [more]
The Bright and Dark Sides of Energy Efficiency Obligation Scheme: The Case of Latvia
Andra Blumberga, Reinis Āzis, Dāvis Reinbergs, Ieva Pakere, Dagnija Blumberga
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, energy efficiency obligation scheme, energy policy analyses, energy savings, system dynamics
Evidence collected by researchers over several decades suggests that the successful implementation of the Energy Efficiency Obligation Scheme (EEOS) may deliver significant, cost-effective energy savings over many years. However, before starting EEOS in Latvia, predictions by energy efficiency policy researchers envisaged that it is at high risk of savings shortfalls. This study aims to carry out an ex-post policy evaluation of EEOS in Latvia and assess its ability to deliver significant savings in the first phase of the new EEOS. This paper questions whether the new EEOS can reach savings goals without prior experience with voluntary agreement schemes and emulation of successful EEOS from other countries. The second goal of the research is to create a web-based optimization tool as an Interactive Learning Environment to help policymakers and EEOS-obliged parties to create goal-oriented strategies. The study has found that, contrary to expectations, Latvia has reached and even overfulf... [more]
Renewable Energy Technologies for Energy Efficient Buildings: The Case of Kuwait
Bader Alshuraiaan
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, energy saving, investments, net present value, payback period, sustainable development
The purpose of this study is to identify the most relevant renewable energy technologies for buildings and to assess the effectiveness of their implementation in the long term for Kuwait. Methods of analogies and comparisons were used to determine the features of energy efficiency based on the technologies under study. The study proposes the methodological approach to assessing the effectiveness of the introduction of renewable energy technologies, determining the direction of increasing the energy efficiency of buildings and the investment efficiency of introducing these technologies. Renewable energy efficiency analysis for buildings in Kuwait confirms that solar energy systems have been the most widely available for widespread use of solar energy over the past three years. An increasing level of energy efficiency with a decrease in the notional cost of increasing energy savings is characteristic of solar collectors with booster reflectors. The proposed model for assessing the level... [more]
The Physical Optimum as an Ideal Reference Value for Balancing Thermodynamic Processes Integrating the Exergetic Evaluation by the Example of Heat Supply
Dirk Volta, Samanta A. Weber
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, energy optimization, Exergy, method comparison, PhO, physical optimum, reference process
This paper contains the basic definition and application of the physical optimum as a method for process evaluation and optimization. By means of the exemplary balance of a wood pellet-fired boiler, the conventional efficiency is compared to the PhO. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the possibility of applying the thermodynamic state variable exergy as a physical reference property of a system within the PhO method. To explain the approach, the heat generation in the wood pellet-fired boiler is compared to the supply from a heat pump, which itself is connected to a power plant. Furthermore, the process-independent PhO is explained in order to illustrate the limitations of feasible optimization. Additionally, possible research topics such as the integration of dynamic behavior in the method are approached. As a conclusion, the differences between the methods outline the advantage of the PhO in the optimization process.
The Optimum Wood Procurement Scenario and Its Dynamic Management for Integrated Energy and Material Production in Carbon-Neutral Forest Industry
Teijo Palander, Jari Takkinen
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: carbon neutrality, dynamic linear optimization, Energy Efficiency, process management, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, renewable wood
The digitalization of the forest sector, the increased demand of energy-wood, as well as faster market changes have increased the number of challenges for wood procurement of the forest industry. The aim of the study is to optimize wood procurement (upstream of supply chain) of energy and material production in integrated situations, and to consider the effects of production changes on the management of procurement regions. Three scenarios described integrated production situations in a carbon-neutral forest industry: (1) declining export, (2) energy reform, and (3) extensive energy reform. Time-varying capital-, cost-, and energy efficiency of the dynamic wood-flow model affected the competitiveness of the procurement regions. As a novel contribution, energy efficiency was modeled using the price of emission allowance as a cost parameter. The results show the positive effects of the energy reforms, which partly compensate for the declining exports. In addition, it is possible to chang... [more]
Energy-Efficient beyond 5G Multiple Access Technique with Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer for the Factory of the Future
Zaid Albataineh, Admoon Andrawes, Nor Fadzilah Abdullah, Rosdiadee Nordin
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, factory of the future, industrial internet of things (IIoT), non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA), power splitting (PS), simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT)
In the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has emerged as a viable multiple access method due to its superior efficiency. In this paper, a new power allocation technique for NOMA-enabled IIoT devices is presented with trade-offs between increasing energy efficiency and decreasing power consumption. We present a joint optimization of transmission rate and energy harvesting in simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) NOMA-enabled IIoT devices. With the power splitting (PS) approach, we examine how to improve overall transmission rate and harvested energy, simultaneously, while fulfilling the minimum rate and harvested energy needs of each IIoT device in a SWIPT-enabled NOMA system. An objective function is established by adding transmission rates obtained from information decoding and the transformed throughput from energy harvesting. The combination of management approaches with Industry 4.0 technology provides a viable strateg... [more]
Small-Scale Combined Heat and Power Systems: The Prospects for a Distributed Micro-Generator in the ‘Net-Zero’ Transition within the UK
Geoffrey P. Hammond, Adam A. Titley
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: carbon dioxide emissions, combined heat and power (CHP), Energy Efficiency, fuel cell, internal combustion engine, micro-CHP, micro-generation, residential sector, Stirling engine
Small-scale combined heat and power (micro-CHP or mCHP) plants generate heat in the process of localised electricity production that can usefully be captured and employed for domestic space and water heating. Studies of the relative merits of three alternative network-connected mCHP plants are reviewed based respectively on an Internal Combustion engine (ICE), a Stirling engine (SE), and a Fuel Cell (FC). Each plant will, in most cases, result in lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, relative to those from the most efficient condensing boilers. In addition, they lead to operational cost savings for the consumer, depending on house type. However, their capital costs are presently more expensive than a conventional boiler, with the FC being prohibitively so. The ICE and SE variants display the greatest economic and environmental benefit. Nevertheless, the performance and costs associated with these innovative technologies have rapidly improved over the last decade or so. Comparisons are... [more]
On the Use of Quantum Reinforcement Learning in Energy-Efficiency Scenarios
Eva Andrés, Manuel Pegalajar Cuéllar, Gabriel Navarro
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, quantum neural networks, quantum reinforcement learning, variational quantum circuits
In the last few years, deep reinforcement learning has been proposed as a method to perform online learning in energy-efficiency scenarios such as HVAC control, electric car energy management, or building energy management, just to mention a few. On the other hand, quantum machine learning was born during the last decade to extend classic machine learning to a quantum level. In this work, we propose to study the benefits and limitations of quantum reinforcement learning to solve energy-efficiency scenarios. As a testbed, we use existing energy-efficiency-based reinforcement learning simulators and compare classic algorithms with the quantum proposal. Results in HVAC control, electric vehicle fuel consumption, and profit optimization of electrical charging stations applications suggest that quantum neural networks are able to solve problems in reinforcement learning scenarios with better accuracy than their classical counterpart, obtaining a better cumulative reward with fewer parameter... [more]
Is Energy Use in the EU Countries Moving toward Sustainable Development?
Iwona Bąk, Małgorzata Tarczyńska-Łuniewska, Anna Barwińska-Małajowicz, Paweł Hydzik, Dariusz Kusz
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, energy use, SDG7, sustainable development, vector measurement
The increase in energy demand requires urgent investments in sustainable energy. It is vital to the success of the 2030 Agenda, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly. The article aimed to assess the situation of the European Union countries with regard to energy use. Indicators related to the implementation of SDG7 and environmental and resource productivity of the economy were adopted for the study. The research presented in this article fits into contemporary debates on the effectiveness of implementing one of the SDG7: ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all. The analysis included 26 countries that have been in the European Union since 2010. The study’s originality lies in the use of primary data obtained from the Eurostat database for three research periods: 2010, 2015, and 2020, which will allow for assessing the situation of the surveyed EU countries in the area of energy use. In order to achieve the research objective, selected me... [more]
A Review of Using IoT for Energy Efficient Buildings and Cities: A Built Environment Perspective
Karam M. Al-Obaidi, Mohataz Hossain, Nayef A. M. Alduais, Husam S. Al-Duais, Hossein Omrany, Amirhosein Ghaffarianhoseini
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: built environment, Energy Efficiency, Internet of Things, smart buildings, smart cities
Applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) are rapidly utilized in smart buildings and smart cities to reduce energy consumption. This advancement has caused a knowledge gap in applying IoT effectively by experts in the built environment to achieve energy efficiency. The study aims to provide an extensive review of IoT applications for energy savings in buildings and cities. This study contributes to the field of IoT by guiding and supporting built environment experts to utilize IoT technologies. This paper performed a thorough study using a systematic review that covered an overview of IoT concepts, models, applications, trends and challenges that can be encountered in the built environment. The findings indicated limitations in developing IoT strategies in buildings and cities by professionals in this field due to insufficient comprehension of technologies and their applied methods. Additionally, the study found an indefinite implementation and constraints on using IoT when integra... [more]
Thermal Performance Analysis of Materials and Configurations for Cylindrical Sidewalls of Charcoal Kilns
Antão Rodrigo Valentim, Jhon Ramírez Behainne, Aldo Braghini Junior
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: carbonization kilns, charcoal, Energy Efficiency, numerical simulation, thermal analysis
Most of the charcoal in the world comes from small and medium-sized producers, using rudimentary carbonization kilns that require significant time or energy during the heating and cooling stages of the process. Despite advances in improving the performance, the influence of materials used in the sidewalls of these kilns has been scarcely studied. Therefore, based on numerical simulations, the present study analyses the thermal performance of cylindrical sidewalls composed of combinations of metallic materials, ceramic materials, and insulating blankets grouped in three configurations: configuration I (sidewall with just one material), configuration II (sidewall with two materials assembled in series), and configuration III (pivoting sidewall). Results were encouraging, especially when comparing kiln configuration I with the novel configuration III. Simulations suggested that the proposed configuration III could reduce the heating time by 62%, the cooling time by 91%, the heat supplied... [more]
Jevons Paradox: Sustainable Development Goals and Energy Rebound in Complex Economic Systems
Louise Ellegaard Fich, Silvia Viola, Niclas Scott Bentsen
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, energy rebound, Jevons Paradox, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, SDGs
Jevons Paradox has fundamental implications on sustainable development and the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The paradox states that technological improvements aiming to increase the energy efficiency risk causing a rebound effect, and an increase in demand, production, and resource exploitation. Third world countries undergoing early-stage technological development may be particularly vulnerable, but it is also relevant in complex economic systems, where policymaking on climate and energy building on insufficient knowledge and attention to rebound effects can impair the desired outcome in terms of climate change mitigation, resource use and sustainable development.
Side Fins Performance in Biomimetic Unmanned Underwater Vehicle
Paweł Piskur
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: artificial fish, Biomimetic Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (BUUV), Energy Efficiency, fluid–structure interaction (FSI), particle image velocimetry (PIV), underwater robotics, undulating propulsion system
This paper presents the experimental research conducted for the Biomimetic Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (BUUV). The study’s major goal is to create a single, flexible side fin with adequate proportions and stiffness for an energy-efficient propulsion system. The experiments were carried out in a laboratory water tunnel equipped with a sensor for direct thrust measurement for various fin dimensions. Further, the particle image velocimetry (PIV) approach was used for a more in-depth examination of fluid−structure interaction (FSI) phenomena. The given experiments indicate the region of superior propulsion system performance and explain the main aspects that have influenced thrust generation using image processing and the PIV approach.
Contribution of Driving Efficiency and Vehicle-to-Grid to Eco-Design
David Borge-Diez, Pedro Miguel Ortega-Cabezas, Antonio Colmenar-Santos, Jorge-Juan Blanes-Peiró
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: eco-charging, eco-design, eco-driving, eco-routing, Energy Efficiency, renewable energies
Designing eco-friendly products involves energy efficiency improvements. Eco-friendly products must consider not only raw materials and manufacturing processes to improve energy efficiency but also energy needed when designing them. This research shows how eco-routing (ER), eco-charging (EC), eco-driving (EDR), vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and electric vehicles (EVs) can contribute to the reduction of energy consumption during product design. To do this, a group of 44 engineers assigned to the project was chosen to assess the total energy available for V2G when driving EVs from their homes to the design center by using ER, ED and EC by running an application coded by the authors. The energy stored in EVs was used to quantify the reduction in energy consumption of the buildings present in the design center. The results show that the energy saving ranges from 2.89% to 6.9% per day—in other words, 93 kWh per day during the design process. In addition, the fact of making the design process greene... [more]
Adaptive Energy Management in 5G Network Slicing: Requirements, Architecture, and Strategies
Christian Tipantuña, Xavier Hesselbach
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, energy management, network slicing, NFV, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, SDN, workload scheduling
Energy consumption is a critical issue for the communications network operators, impacting deeply the cost of the services, as well as the ecological footprint. Network slicing architecture for 5G mobile communications enables multiple independent virtual networks to be created on top of a common shared physical infrastructure. Each network slice needs different types of resources, including energy, to fulfill the demands requested by each application, operator, or vertical market. The existing literature on network slicing is mainly targeted at the partition of network resources; however, the corresponding management of energy consumption is an unconsidered critical concern. This paper analyzes the requirements for an energy-aware 5G network slicing provisioning according to the 3GPP specifications, proposes an architecture, and studies the strategies to provide efficient energy consumption in terms of renewable and non-renewable sources. NFV and SDN technologies are the essential ena... [more]
Energy Intensity and Long- and Short-Term Efficiency in US Manufacturing Industry
Oleg Badunenko, Subal C. Kumbhakar
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, energy intensity, energy paradox, persistent efficiency, stochastic frontier, transient efficiency, US manufacturing
We analyze energy use efficiency of manufacturing industries in US manufacturing over five decades from 1960 to 2011. We apply a 4-component stochastic frontier model, which allows disentangling efficiency into a short- and long-term efficiency as well as accounting for industry heterogeneity. The data come from NBER-CES Manufacturing Industry Database. We find that relative to decade-specific frontiers, the overall efficiency of manufacturing industries, which is a product of transient and persistent efficiencies has deteriorated greatly in the 1970s and rebounded only in the 2000s. The industries are very efficient in the short-term and this has not changed over five decades. The high level of overall inefficiency is almost completely due to the structural inefficiency which can be explained by what is referred to as the “energy paradox”. Finally, higher energy-intensive industries perform worse in terms of energy use efficiency than their low energy-intensity counterparts.
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