Records with Keyword: Energy Efficiency
Showing records 1 to 25 of 712. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
The Industrial Digital Energy Twin as a Tool for the Comprehensive Optimization of Industrial Processes
Alejandro Rubio-Rico, Fernando Mengod-Bautista, Andrés Lluna-Arriaga, Belén Arroyo-Torres, Vicente Fuster-Roig
September 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: digital twin, Energy, Energy Efficiency, productive flexibility, smart manufacturing
Industrial manufacturing processes have evolved and improved since the disruption of the Industry 4.0 paradigm, while energy has progressively become a strategic resource required to maintain industrial competitiveness while maximizing quality and minimizing environmental impacts. In this context of global changes leading to social and economic impact in the short term and an unprecedented climate crisis, Digital Twins for Energy Efficiency in manufacturing processes provide companies with a tool to address this complex situation. Nevertheless, already existing Digital Twins applied for energy efficiency in a manufacturing process lack a flexible structure that easily replicates the real behavior of consuming machines while integrating it in complex upper-level environments. This paper presents a combined multi-paradigm approach to industrial process modeling developed and applied during the GENERTWIN project. The tool allows users to predict energy consumption and costs and, at the sa... [more]
Plasma-Arc-Flow Technology for Sustainable Treatment of High-Impact Fluid Waste: A Graphene-Based Material for Industrial-Wastewater Purification
Carmine Mongiello, Mohammad Ghoreishi, Vinod Kumar Sharma, Liberato Verdoliva, Sabato Aprea, Paolo Venturini, Gianluca Pesce
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, graphene, Optimization, plasma arc flow, wastewater treatment
The research presented aimed to address the treatment of fluid waste with significant environmental impact by utilizing plasma technology, specifically plasma arc flow (PAF). The goal was to develop a novel purification material based on graphene for industrial applications and to optimize the treatment process. Analysis and monitoring of a submerged arc plasma reactor were the main goals of this research. This entailed a careful examination of the incoming wastewater that needed to be treated with the goal of identifying its precise composition characteristics with the relative tolerances needed for the reactions that were to follow in the reactor. The focus of the analysis was on input-parameter optimization, production of characteristic curves, and analysis of the factors affecting hydrogen evolution in syngas. Additionally, the study investigated how to determine the best viscosity for a particular input matrix by carrying out an evaluation study. The effects of this parameter were... [more]
Influence of the Adsorption Bed Composition on the Low-Pressure Fluidization
Anna Kulakowska, Anna Zylka, Jaroslaw Krzywanski, Dorian Skrobek, Karolina Grabowska, Marcin Sosnowski, Wojciech Nowak
August 2, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Adsorption, adsorption cooling and desalination systems, carbon nanotubes, Energy Efficiency, fluidization, low pressure, net-zero emission, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, silica gel
The paper presents an innovative concept of the fluidization of an adsorption bed carried out under low-pressure conditions. Additionally, different bed mixes were used to test the effects of the bed composition on fluidization. Fluidization was caused by the pressure difference and the velocity of the flowing water vapor. These features make the research presented in this article significantly different from other studies known in the literature and constitute the main novelty of the paper. Silica gel with a particle diameter of 200−250 µm (Geldart group B) with aluminum and carbon nanotube additives was fluidized under reduced pressure (10−25 mbar). The pressure difference results in the flow of water vapor and, consequently, induces fluidization. The pressure in the evaporator was approx. 10 mbar, while in the reaction chamber it was approx. 25 mbar. The pressure difference of about 10−15 mbar allows for a flow of water vapor between the evaporator and the reaction chamber. During t... [more]
The Impact of ICT Capital Services on Economic Growth and Energy Efficiency in China
Huifang E, Shuangjie Li, Liming Wang, Huidan Xue
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: economic growth decomposition framework, Energy Efficiency, ICT capital services, panel regression
This study aims to investigate the impact of ICT capital services on economic growth and energy efficiency in China at both national and industrial levels during the period 2000−2020. To achieve this aim, this study introduces a measurement method for capital services, explores ICT’s contributions to economic growth, and analyzes the impact of ICT on energy efficiency. The empirical results of this study indicate that although the ICT capital services scale is relatively small, accounting for only 8.87% of the total in 2020, its growth rate is faster than that of non-ICT capital services, and the distribution of ICT capital services varies widely among different industries. Additionally, based on the economic growth decomposition framework, this study finds that the contribution of ICT capital services to economic growth is 6.95% on average. It is significantly higher in certain industries, such as Financial industry; Information transmission, software and information technology servic... [more]
An Optimal Control Method for Greenhouse Climate Management Considering Crop Growth’s Spatial Distribution and Energy Consumption
Kangji Li, Yanhui Mi, Wen Zheng
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: crop growth, Energy Efficiency, greenhouse climate, optimal control, POD, rolling horizon
The environmental factors of greenhouses affect crop growth greatly and are mutually coupled and spatially distributed. Due to the complexity of greenhouse climate modeling, the current optimal control of greenhouse crop growth rarely considers the spatial distribution issues of environmental parameters. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is a technique to reduce the order of a model by projecting it onto an orthogonal basis. In this paper, POD is used to extract environmental features from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, and a low-dimensional feature subspace is obtained by energy truncation. With multi-dimensional interpolation, fast and low-dimensional reconstruction of the dynamic variation of greenhouse climates is achieved. On this basis, a rolling-horizon optimal control scheme is proposed. For each finite horizon, the external meteorological data are updated, and the response of the greenhouse environment is quickly calculated by the POD model. With the perfo... [more]
Energy Performance and Control Strategy for Dynamic Façade with Perovskite PV Panels—Technical Analysis and Case Study
Andrzej Ożadowicz, Gabriela Walczyk
May 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: adaptive façade, building integrated photovoltaic module, dynamic façade, Energy Efficiency, microgrid, perovskite photovoltaic panel, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Effective implementation of renewable energy sources (RES) is one of the main challenges in regard to the organization of local energy microgrids with buildings. One of the solutions is the use of dynamic building façades with photovoltaic (PV) panels, in particular the innovative perovskite solar cells (PSCs). This paper describes a case study performed on a pilot installation of perovskite PV panels located in Poland, Central-Eastern Europe. Results of preliminary measurements on this installation are provided in terms of verifying its energy efficiency and the possibility of selecting settings for the façade dynamics control system. Our experiments have considered the sun-tracking mechanism and its energy consumption as well as the impact of weather conditions at different times of the year. The energy efficiency results for the PV system, with average levels below 10%, are rather low. Therefore, even small energy savings in the operation of the PV system itself are significant. Cha... [more]
Advocacy Coalitions and Paths to Policy Change for Promoting Energy Efficiency in European Industry
Fredrik von Malmborg, Peter A. Strachan
May 23, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: advocacy coalition framework, energy audits, Energy Efficiency, energy management systems, industry, policy change, policy process, process tracing
This paper applied the advocacy coalition framework to explore and explain the political processes creating policies to enhance energy efficiency of European Union (EU) industry. The paper used legislation on energy audits and energy management systems as a proxy for EU policy on energy efficiency in industry. Based on qualitative text analysis of EU policy documents, including a proposal to recast the energy efficiency directive, amendments to the proposal suggested by Member States, the Council and the European Parliament, and reports from negotiations, the paper identified four advocacy coalitions with different core beliefs, spanning from those that want few companies to implement energy audits or energy management systems, and that recommendations from audits should not be mandatory to implement, to those that advocate that many companies implement energy audits and management systems and that it should be mandatory to implement measures recommended in audits. It was further found... [more]
The Evolution of Energy Management Maturity in Organizations Subject to Mandatory Energy Audits: Findings from Italy
Annalisa Santolamazza, Vito Introna, Vittorio Cesarotti, Fabrizio Martini
May 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: energy audit, Energy Efficiency, energy efficiency directive, energy management, maturity model
Promoting energy efficiency is a key element of the strategic commitment of the European Community. Prominent among the binding measures established by the 2012 Energy Efficiency Directive to further this vision is the requirement for large companies to conduct energy audits every four years. After receiving the second cycle of energy audit reports in December 2019, a new description of the energy situation of Italian companies was made available. This presented the previously inaccessible possibility of comparing the two situations reported in 2015 and 2019 to assess the development of energy efficiency practices in organizations subject to the legislative obligation of energy audits in the country. To this end, in collaboration with the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), a project was initiated with the aim of developing the tools and methodologies necessary to assess in more detail the evolution that has occurred in the... [more]
Research on the Impact of Energy Efficiency on Green Development: A Case Study of the Yellow River Basin in China
Jianhua Liu, Yingying Zhang, Lingyu Pu, Liangchao Huang, Huiyang Wang, Muddassar Sarfraz
May 23, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, green development, green economy, sustainable development, Yellow River Basin
In order to achieve China’s carbon peaking and carbon neutrality (double carbon) targets and to advance ecological conservation and high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin, it is essential that China reduces its energy intensity and increases its energy efficiency. This research developed an evaluation index system for energy efficiency and green development in the Yellow River Basin based on panel data collected from 64 of its prefecture-level cities and covering the period from 2011 to 2020. Each city’s energy efficiency and green development level index was calculated, and was analyzed together with the characteristics of its spatial pattern progression. The STIRPAT model was then used to investigate the influence mechanism of energy efficiency on green development. The final step in the analysis was to assess the process by which technical innovation influences the rise in energy efficiency from a green development point of view. The findings of this study indicate that:... [more]
Free Cooling for Saving Energy: Technical Market Analysis of Dry, Wet, and Hybrid Cooling Based on Manufacturer Data
Paula M. Wenzel, Marc Mühlen, Peter Radgen
May 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: approach temperature, data center, descriptive statistics, dry cooling, Energy Efficiency, environmental impact, evaporative cooling, resource efficiency, thermal capacity, wet cooling
In light of energy and climate targets, free cooling unlocks a major resource-saving potential compared to refrigeration. To fill the knowledge gap in quantifying this saving potential, we aim to specify the physical and technical limits of cooling tower applications and provide comprehensive data on electricity and water consumption. For this purpose, we distinguish six types of package-type cooling towers: dry, closed wet, open wet, and three types of hybrid systems; defining one generalized system for all types enables comparability. Subsequently, we collect data from 6730 system models of 27 manufacturers, using technical information from data sheets and additional material. The analysis reveals, for example, specific ranges of electricity demand from 0.01 to 0.06 kW/kW and highlights influencing factors, including type and operating point. Refrigeration systems would consume approximately ten times more electricity per cooling capacity. Furthermore, the evaluation demonstrates the... [more]
An Energy-Efficiency Prediction Method in Crude Distillation Process Based on Long Short-Term Memory Network
Yu Zhang, Zhe Cui, Mingzhang Wang, Bin Liu, Xiaomin Fan, Wende Tian
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: crude distillation process, energy consumption prediction, Energy Efficiency, long short-term memory
The petrochemical industry is a pillar industry for the development of the national economy affecting people’s daily living standards. Crude distillation process is the core and leading unit of the petrochemical industry. Its energy consumption accounts for more than 20% of the total energy consumption of the whole plant, which is the highest energy consumption link. A model based on the long short-term memory network (LSTM) is proposed in this paper to predict and analyze energy efficiency. This model extracts the complex relationship between many process variables and predicts the energy efficiency of the crude distillation process. Firstly, the process simulation of crude distillation is carried out. By adding random disturbance, the data set in different working conditions is obtained, and the difference between the working conditions is expressed with the distance-coded heat map. Secondly, the Savitzky−Golay (SG) filter is used to smooth the data, which preserves the original char... [more]
On the Energy Performance and Energy Saving Potential of the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Study Based on the Italian Energy Audits
Giacomo Bruni, Chiara Martini, Fabrizio Martini, Marcello Salvio
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy audits (EAs), Energy Efficiency, energy management, energy performance improvement actions (EPIA), energy performance indicators (EnPI), energy transition, pharmaceutical industry, specific energy consumption (SEC)
The growing attention towards environmental sustainability in the pharmaceutical industry and increased awareness of the potential for improving energy performance are justified by the fact that the sector is energy intensive. However, the variety of the processes and the lack of data about production and energy consumption make it difficult to calculate Energy Performance Indicators (EnPIs) as much as to list Energy Performance Improvements Actions (EPIAs). This work elaborates data, such as final energy consumption and site characteristics, from 84 mandatory Italian Energy Audits (EAs) to calculate the mean and standard deviation of site-level EnPIs. Additionally, the suggested and implemented EPIAs are analyzed to describe achieved and potential savings. The results show what follows. In the typical pharmaceutical plant, around 70% of energy is used in auxiliary services, and its use is not related to production. For this reason, EnPIs calculated both with respect to mass production... [more]
Formal Verification of the European Train Control System (ETCS) for Better Energy Efficiency Using a Timed and Asynchronous Model
Andrzej Kochan, Wiktor B. Daszczuk, Waldemar Grabski, Juliusz Karolak
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: asynchronous modeling, Energy Efficiency, energy efficiency of train operation, ETCS system verification, timed integrated model of distributed systems, timed model checking
The ERTMS/ETCS is the newest automatic train protection system. This is a system that supports the driver in driving the train. It is currently being implemented throughout the European Union. This system’s latest specifications also provide additional functions to increase the energy efficiency of train driving in the form of ATO (automatic train operation). These functions of the ETCS will be valuable, provided they operate without failure. To achieve errorless configuration of the ETCS, a methodology for automatic system verification using the IMDS (Integrated Model of Distributed Systems) formalism and the temporal tool Dedan was applied. The main contribution is asynchronous and timed verification, which appropriately models the distributed nature of the ETCS and allows the designer not only to analyze time dependencies but also to define the range of train velocities in which the operational scenario is valid. Additionally, the novelties of the presented verification methodology... [more]
Energy Saving, Energy Efficiency or Renewable Energy: Which Is Better for the Decarbonization of the Residential Sector in Italy?
Marco Noro, Filippo Busato
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, energy saving, heat pump, heat recovery, Natural Gas, renewables
The residential sector is currently responsible for approximately 30% of the final energy consumption and 12% of direct CO2 emissions in Italy, mainly due to the heating and cooling of buildings and the use of domestic hot water. Such figures show a significant potential for reducing non-renewable primary energy utilization to comply with the decarbonization constraints of the European Union. In this context, the purpose of this work is to provide a quantitative assessment of the effect of a different number of actions (eight for energy savings, four for energy efficiency and two for the installation of renewable energy plants) that could be implemented at the national level to reduce the consumption of natural gas in the residential sector. Two typical residential buildings are dynamically simulated using Trnsys®, and the savings from energy, economic and CO2 emissions points of view are evaluated in the different climatic zones of Italy. The most effective action foresees the replace... [more]
The Impact of Expenditure on Research and Development on Selected Energy Factors in the European Union
Wojciech Chmielewski, Marta Postuła, Przemysław Dubel
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, energy from fossil fuels, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, research and development
Due to the fact that the European Union is striving to achieve its sustainable development goals, in particular goal No. 7, which is to provide users with low-emission, and cheap access to, energy, this article’s aim is to verify whether there is a relationship between R&D expenditure and key energy variables in the EU countries in 2010−2020. Data on R&D expenditures incurred by the EU Member States in the period 2010−2020 were used for the research and were tested using the Autoregressive Distributed Lags Model (ARDL). The study identified a strong positive relationship between total R&D expenditure and the increase in energy consumption from renewable energy sources, and a smaller impact of total R&D expenditure as well as enterprise R&D expenditure on the increase in fossil energy consumption. Also noted was a weak relationship between R&D expenditure and electricity and gas prices for both household and non-household customers. The obtained results prove that in the context of the... [more]
Infrastructure Development for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations in Cluj-Napoca Municipality—A Case Study
Horatiu Pop, Alin Grama, Alexandra Fodor, Corneliu Rusu
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: electric vehicle, Energy Efficiency, EV charge station
This paper presents the status regarding electric vehicles (EVs) and public charging stations managed by Cluj-Napoca City Hall. The types of charging stations and the quantity of the used energy were stated. The behavior of EV owners in charging their vehicles was also studied. The presented work proposes an extension of the EV charging infrastructure to support current and future EV owners. Simulations were carried out in Simulink to create an overview of the existing infrastructure. The simulation results showed the amount of greenhouse gas (CO2 emissions) reduced by using EVs. An estimated number of kilometers traveled with EVs was calculated by tracking the loads in all public charging stations.
Energy Efficiency in Electromagnetic and Electro-Permanent Lifting Systems
Francesca Oliva, Roberto Sebastiano Faranda
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: control system, electro-permanent, electromagnet, Energy Efficiency, lifting, magnetic applications
In industrial settings, mechanical systems for clamping workpieces onto machine tools or for lifting and handling ferrous material are often replaced by magnetic clamping systems. For large lifting applications, the most suitable magnetic clamping systems are electromagnetic (EM) and electro-permanent (EP) approaches. Their configurations, direct and induced poles or direct poles only, need to be discussed in order to choose the most appropriate and economical setup for the specific application. In addition, an evaluation of the difference in the energy efficiency between EM and EP systems, which is often not simple, is presented. To achieve this, a hybrid control system for EM or EP systems was developed and, with the help of this prototype, an analysis of these two magnetic systems was carried out to highlight the main differences. The hybrid control system consists of a single control unit that can be used by both systems, and can be achieved by simply changing the type of lifting m... [more]
The Interplay between Parameters of Light Pollution and Energy Efficiency for Outdoor Amenity Lighting
Krzysztof Skarżyński, Anna Rutkowska
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, light pollution, lighting design, lighting technology, normalized power density, outdoor lighting, upward flux ratio, upward light ratio
This paper is related to light pollution and the energy efficiency of outdoor amenity lighting. It concerns the standard design assessment parameters of light pollution, the Upward Light Ratio (ULR) and Upward Flux Ratio (UFR), and the classic energy efficiency parameter—Normalized Power Density (NPD). The motivation for this research was the observation of certain inaccuracies related to the applicability and interpretation of these parameters in practice and the lack of connection between parameters of light pollution and energy efficiency. The multi-variant computer simulations of the exemplary large-area parking lot lighting system were conducted. Over four hundred cases were carefully analyzed. Individual cases differ in the shape of the task area, luminaire arrangements, mounting height, luminous intensity distribution, aiming, and maintenance factor. The results confirmed that the criteria values of ULR and UFR are often overestimated for modern luminaires, which emit luminous f... [more]
Computational Analysis of the Automation Strategies of Temperatures of Supplied Air, Chilled and Condensation Water in Commercial Buildings
Javier Diaz-Valdivia, Flávio A. S. Fiorelli
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: commercial building air conditioning, control optimization, Energy Efficiency, integrated strategies
The automation strategies currently used in HVAC systems do not control the system temperature variables (supplied air, chilled, and condensation water temperatures) in an optimized way. Normally, these temperatures are fixed in design conditions, or vary according to the weather conditions. However, studies demonstrate that adequate control of these three temperatures can provide significant reductions in the energy consumption of the air conditioner system. Therefore, this work analyzes the benefits of individualized and integrated automation of these three variable temperatures in different tropical and subtropical weather conditions through computer simulation for a typical commercial building. The results of integrated automation show savings in consumption between 5.03% and 19.68% compared to a fixed control, and between 3.22% and 8.21% compared to a weather-based control alone, showing that the integrated strategies are better than both models adopted as market benchmarks.
High-Fidelity Modeling and Investigation on Blade Shape and Twist Angle Effects on the Efficiency of Small-Scale Wind Turbines
Widad Yossri, Samah Ben Ayed, Abdessattar Abdelkefi
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: blade geometry, Energy Efficiency, flow visualization, high-fidelity simulations, small-scale horizontal axis wind turbines, twist angle
A high-fidelity analysis is carried out in order to evaluate the effects of blade shape, airfoil cross-section. as well as twist angle distribution on the yielded torque and generated power of a horizontal axis Small-Scale Wind Turbine (SSWT). A computational modeling and an effective design for a small turbine with a blade length of 25 cm subject to a 4 m/s freestream velocity are presented, in which a segregated RANS solver is utilized. Four airfoil profiles are assessed, namely NACA0012, NACA0015, NACA4412, and NACA4415, and two blade shape configurations, rectangular and tapered, are evaluated. The flow around the rotating turbines is investigated along with blade stresses and performance output for each configuration. Subsequently, the impact of various linear and nonlinear twist distributions on SSWT efficiency is also examined. Results show that for the studied operating conditions corresponding to low-speed flows, the rectangular blade configuration outperforms the tapered blad... [more]
A Review on Composite Materials for Energy Harvesting in Electric Vehicles
Nithesh Naik, P. Suresh, Sanjay Yadav, M. P. Nisha, José Luis Arias-Gonzáles, Juan Carlos Cotrina-Aliaga, Ritesh Bhat, Manohara D. Jalageri, Yashaarth Kaushik, Aakif Budnar Kunjibettu
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: composite materials, electric vehicles, Energy Efficiency, energy harvesting
The field of energy harvesting is expanding to power various devices, including electric vehicles, with energy derived from their surrounding environments. The unique mechanical and electrical qualities of composite materials make them ideal for energy harvesting applications, and they have shown tremendous promise in this area. Yet additional studies are needed to fully grasp the promise of composite materials for energy harvesting in electric vehicles. This article reviews composite materials used for energy harvesting in electric vehicles, discussing mechanical characteristics, electrical conductivity, thermal stability, and cost-effectiveness. As a bonus, it delves into using composites in piezoelectric, electromagnetic, and thermoelectric energy harvesters. The high strength-to-weight ratio provided by composite materials is a major benefit for energy harvesting. Especially important in electric vehicles, where saving weight means saving money at the pump and driving farther betwe... [more]
Practical Aspects of the Energy Efficiency Evaluation of a Water Distribution Network Using Hydrodynamic Modeling—A Case Study
Dariusz Andraka, Wojciech Kruszyński, Jacek Tyniec, Joanna Gwoździej-Mazur, Bartosz Kaźmierczak
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, hydraulic modelling, water distribution systems, water loss
Water and energy are the main natural resources, and their rational use is the basis for sustainable development. Therefore, the energy efficiency of water supply networks is one of the priorities for the management system of water utilities. Many methods and indicators can be used to assess the energy efficiency of water distribution networks (WDNs), and their choice should be adapted to the characteristics of a WDN. This paper presents an energy audit of WDNs that are supplied from five reservoirs located above the supply area, to which water is supplied from four underground and surface water intakes. In the analysis of the system operation, a hydrodynamic computer model of the water distribution network was used to estimate the operating parameters that are necessary to determine the energy efficiency indicators. A new method for calibrating the emitter coefficient used for water loss modeling is also proposed. The conducted audit showed that more than 70% of the energy supplied to... [more]
Does Price Distortion Affect Energy Efficiency? Evidence from Dynamic Spatial Analytics of China
Chong Peng, Jingjing Zhang, Zhenyu Xu
April 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, energy price distortion, spatial panel models
Despite market-oriented reforms, China’s energy sector is subject to energy price distortions, which are believed to be a crucial determinants of energy efficiency in China. This paper investigates the impact of energy price distortions on energy efficiency in China from the perspective of spatial correlation. Using the nonradial directional distance function approach, we first estimate the provincial-level energy efficiency in China. Paying attention to spatial correlation among the provinces of China, in stage two, we identify the determinants of energy efficiency. Our empirical results suggest that price distortions have a significant impact on energy efficiency in China. This impact holds when the cross-region effect is considered, i.e., besides its own energy price distortion, a region’s energy efficiency is also correlated to the adjacent provinces’ energy price distortions. Furthermore, we found that the levels of energy efficiencies in adjacent provinces are highly correlated.... [more]
Creating a Competitive Advantage for Micro and Small Enterprises Based on Eco-Innovation as a Determinant of the Energy Efficiency of the Economy
Aleksandra Gąsior, Jakub Grabowski, Jarosław Ropęga, Anna Walecka
April 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: competitive advantage, eco-innovations, Energy Efficiency, SMEs
The aim of this analysis is to identify the possibility of treating eco-innovation in micro and small enterprises as a factor influencing the energy efficiency of the economy. In order to obtain an answer to such a research question, quantitative research was carried out among Polish enterprises from the SME sector (N = 400). Accordingly, the CATI technique was applied. The selection of enterprises was random and took place in the non-returnable drawing process. The criterion for selecting the sample was the size of enterprises, but in order to ensure the possibility of drawing conclusions based on a sufficiently large research sample, its structure (300 micro and 100 small enterprises) assumed the study of small enterprises in a proportion greater than their actual share in the population of enterprises. As a result of this research, the existence of a relationship between the improvement of the company’s competitive position and its activity in the field of eco-innovation implementat... [more]
Preliminary Study of Various Cross-Sectional Metal Sheet Shapes in Adiabatic Evaporative Cooling Pads
Aleksejs Prozuments, Arturs Brahmanis, Armands Mucenieks, Vladislavs Jacnevs, Deniss Zajecs
April 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: adiabatic cooling, cooling energy, cooling pad technology, direct evaporative cooling, Energy Efficiency
As the cooling requirement and the energy prices are increasing rapidly across the world, the need to develop highly efficient cooling equipment is rising as well. Adiabatic cooling employs evaporation to pre-cool the air flowing through a closed-loop coil. This study examines various adiabatic evaporative cooling pads in terms of their pre-cooling potential and advantages over currently available technological solutions through isolating three cross-sectional metal cooling pad shapes (W, Z and Z1). The results of the study suggest that the correlation between Δt↓ and RH↑ is somewhat close in all three cases; however, a slightly higher temperature drop is observed when using a W-shaped metal sheet. Pressure drop variability was negligible under current cooling pad configurations and experimental boundary conditions. Further studies focusing on measurement continuity, longevity and boundary conditions’ variability are recommended.
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