Records with Keyword: Alternative Fuels
Showing records 1 to 25 of 41. [First] Page: 1 2 Last
The Fuel Flexibility of Gas Turbines: A Review and Retrospective Outlook
Michel Molière
May 26, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, Biofuels, combustion, fossil fuels, fuel flexibility, gas turbine, Hydrogen, low emissions
Land-based gas turbines (GTs) are continuous-flow engines that run with permanent flames once started and at stationary pressure, temperature, and flows at stabilized load. Combustors operate without any moving parts and their substantial air excess enables complete combustion. These features provide significant space for designing efficient and versatile combustion systems. In particular, as heavy-duty gas turbines have moderate compression ratios and ample stall margins, they can burn not only high- and medium-BTU fuels but also low-BTU ones. As a result, these machines have gained remarkable fuel flexibility. Dry Low Emissions combustors, which were initially confined to burning standard natural gas, have been gradually adapted to an increasing number of alternative gaseous fuels. The paper first delivers essential technical considerations that underlie this important fuel portfolio. It then reviews the spectrum of alternative GT fuels which currently extends from lean gases (coal b... [more]
Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Using Methane Fuels to Supply Internal Combustion Engines
Krzysztof Biernat, Izabela Samson-Bręk, Zdzisław Chłopek, Marlena Owczuk, Anna Matuszewska
April 20, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, approval tests, biogas, biomethane, emission of pollutants, methane fuels, sensitivity of engines
This research paper studied the environmental impact of using methane fuels for supplying internal combustion engines. Methane fuel types and the methods of their use in internal combustion engines were systematized. The knowledge regarding the environmental impact of using methane fuels for supplying internal combustion engines was analyzed. The authors studied the properties of various internal combustion engines used for different applications (specialized engines of power generators—Liebherr G9512 and MAN E3262 LE212, powered by biogas, engine for road and off-road vehicles—Cummins 6C8.3, in self-ignition, original version powered by diesel fuel, and its modified version—a spark-ignition engine powered by methane fuel) under various operating conditions in approval tests. The sensitivity of the engine properties, especially pollutant emissions, to its operating states were studied. In the case of a Cummins 6C8.3 modified engine, a significant reduction in the pollutant emission owi... [more]
Combustion Thermodynamics of Ethanol, n-Heptane, and n-Butanol in a Rapid Compression Machine with a Dual Direct Injection (DDI) Supply System
Ireneusz Pielecha, Sławomir Wierzbicki, Maciej Sidorowicz, Dariusz Pietras
April 19, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, combustion, combustion engines, dual direct injection, heat release
The development of internal combustion engines involves various new solutions, one of which is the use of dual-fuel systems. The diversity of technological solutions being developed determines the efficiency of such systems, as well as the possibility of reducing the emission of carbon dioxide and exhaust components into the atmosphere. An innovative double direct injection system was used as a method for forming a mixture in the combustion chamber. The tests were carried out with the use of gasoline, ethanol, n-heptane, and n-butanol during combustion in a model test engine—the rapid compression machine (RCM). The analyzed combustion process indicators included the cylinder pressure, pressure increase rate, heat release rate, and heat release value. Optical tests of the combustion process made it possible to analyze the flame development in the observed area of the combustion chamber. The conducted research and analyses resulted in the observation that it is possible to control the ex... [more]
A Review on Recent Developments of RCCI Engines Operated with Alternative Fuels
Siva Krishna Reddy Dwarshala, Siva Subramaniam Rajakumar, Obula Reddy Kummitha, Elumalai Perumal Venkatesan, Ibham Veza, Olusegun David Samuel
April 17, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, emissions, low-temperature combustion, premixing ratio, reactivity-controlled compression ignition engine
Environmental concerns over automotive exhaust emissions and consumer demand for higher fuel efficiency have led to the development of low-temperature combustion concepts. The reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engine is one among them and has the potential to reduce NOx and smoke emissions simultaneously. In this concept, a low-reactivity fuel is injected into the intake port and another high-reactivity fuel is injected into the cylinder directly. This results in reactivity stratification and provides more control over the rate of heat release. However, operating parameters such as reactivity of fuels, premixing ratio, injection strategies, exhaust gas recirculation ratio, piston bowl geometry, and compression ratio influence emissions formation. The article reviews recent developments on the effect of the above operating parameters on the performance and emission characteristics of RCCI engines operated with alternative fuels. The combustion strategies used to extend t... [more]
Seaports’ Role in Ensuring the Availability of Alternative Marine Fuels—A Multi-Faceted Analysis
Magdalena Klopott, Marzenna Popek, Ilona Urbanyi-Popiołek
April 17, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, bunkering infrastructure, decarbonisation, maritime transport, seaports
In the effort to decarbonise shipping, a number of measures can be taken, one of which is to switch from conventional to alternative fuels. However, without an active role for seaports in providing adequate bunkering infrastructure for alternative fuels, these targets may not be achieved. Hence, the aim of this article is threefold: (1) to provide an overview of some of the emerging alternative fuel technologies that are being used or tested for further use in maritime transport, (2) to analyse the bunkering infrastructure in seaports, and (3) to assess the level of advancement of Polish ports in relation to the bunkering of alternative fuels by ships and to explore the ports’ plans in this regard. To achieve these goals, several research methods were applied: a critical literature review, desk-study research, critical and comparative analyses, and semi-structured interviews with representatives of three major Polish seaports. The research showed that the level of advancement of Polish... [more]
Experimental and CFD Investigation of Fuel Mixing in an Optical-Access Direct-Injection NG Engine and Correlation with Test Rig Combustion and Performance Data
Daniela Misul, Mirko Baratta, Jiajie Xu, Alois Fuerhapter, Rene Heindl
April 17, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, Computational Fluid Dynamics, decarbonization, direct injection
The present paper is the result of a cooperation between Politecnico di Torino and AVL List Gmbh within a recent collaborative research project funded by the EC. The research work was focused on the experimental and numerical characterization of mixture formation, combustion, and emissions in direct-injection NG engines, to draw useful indication for the design of innovative, high-performance engine concepts. As a matter of fact, direct-injection IC engines running on NG are believed to be a competitive transition solution towards a sustainable mobility scenario, given their maturity, technological readiness, and flexibility with respect to the fuel quality. Moreover, gaseous-fuel engines can further decrease their carbon footprint if blending of natural gas with hydrogen is considered. Provided that mixture formation represents a key aspect for the design of direct-injection engines, the activity presented in this paper is focused on the characterization of NG injection and on the mix... [more]
Fischer−Tropsch Synthesis as the Key for Decentralized Sustainable Kerosene Production
Andreas Meurer, Jürgen Kern
April 14, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, aviation fuel, e-fuel, fischer–tropsch, power-to-liquid, power-to-x, renewable fuel, sustainable fuel, synthetic fuel, synthetic kerosene
Synthetic fuels play an important role in the defossilization of future aviation transport. To reduce the ecological impact of remote airports due to the long-range transportation of kerosene, decentralized on-site production of synthetic paraffinic kerosene is applicable, preferably as a near-drop-in fuel or, alternatively, as a blend. One possible solution for such a production of synthetic kerosene is the power-to-liquid process. We describe the basic development of a simplified plant layout addressing the specific challenges of decentralized kerosene production that differs from most of the current approaches for infrastructural well-connected regions. The decisive influence of the Fischer−Tropsch synthesis on the power-to-liquid (PtL) process is shown by means of a steady-state reactor model, which was developed in Python and serves as a basis for the further development of a modular environment able to represent entire process chains. The reactor model is based on reaction kineti... [more]
Determination of Fuel Properties of Char Obtained during the Pyrolysis of Waste Pharmaceutical Blisters
Krzysztof Pikoń, Waldemar Ścierski, Katarzyna Klejnowska, Łukasz Myćka, Anna Janoszka, Aleksander Sinek
April 14, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, circular economy, pyrolysis, WBPs
The research presented in this manuscript is focused on the pyrolysis of waste pharmaceutical blisters, which are a large and neglected group of waste, that could be possibly recovered. The studies were focused on the analysis of the chemical composition, as well as fuel properties of the char generated during the process and its possible applications. The process temperatures (400, 425, and 450 °C) were determined based on the thermogravimetric study that was performed prior to the pyrolysis tests. The selected materials included the pre- and post-consumer waste pharmaceutical blisters in order to determine the possible influence of impurities on the final products. The tests were performed on a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor. The obtained solid fractions (metal and char) were separated. Char was subjected to elemental analysis (C, H, N, Cl, S), as well as the heat of combustion and fuel-related properties (content of flammable, non-flammable, and volatile components) were determi... [more]
Conventional and Alternative Sources of Thermal Energy in the Production of Cement—An Impact on CO2 Emission
Karolina Wojtacha-Rychter, Piotr Kucharski, Adam Smolinski
April 14, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, carbon dioxide reduction, cement industry, financial benefits
The article evaluates the reduction of carbon dioxide emission due to the partial substitution of coal with alternative fuels in clinker manufacture. For this purpose, the calculations were performed for seventy waste-derived samples of alternative fuels with variable calorific value and variable share in the fuel mixture. Based on annual clinker production data of the Polish Cement Association and the laboratory analysis of fuels, it was estimated that the direct net CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion alone were 543 Mg of CO2 per hour. By contrast with the full substitution of coal with alternative fuels (including 30% of biomass), the emission ranged from 302 up to 438 Mg of CO2 per hour, depending on fuel properties. A reduction of 70% in the share of fossil fuels resulted in about a 23% decrease in net emissions. It was proved that the increased use of alternative fuels as an additive to the fuel mix is also of economic importance. It was determined that thanks to the combus... [more]
Comparison of Diesel Engine Vibroacoustic Properties Powered by Bio and Standard Fuel
Radoslaw Wrobel, Gustaw Sierzputowski, Zbigniew Sroka, Radostin Dimitrov
April 14, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, engine, vibrations, vibroacoustic
Alternative fuels appeared soon after the first internal combustion engines were designed. The history of alternative fuels is basically as long as the history of the automotive industry. Initially, fuels whose physicochemical properties allowed for a change in parameters of the combustion process in order to achieve greater efficiency and reliability were searched for. Nowadays, there are significantly more variables; in addition to the above mentioned parameters, alternative fuels are being sought that will ensure environmental protection during vehicle operation and improve the ergonomics of use. This article outlines the results of the authors’ own comparative tests of vibrations of a vibroacoustic character. Based on a popular engine model, the vibration−acoustic responses of a system powered by two types of fuel, namely, diesel and biodiesel (B10), are compared. The research consists of comparing vibrations in both time and frequency domains. In the case of the time domain, the e... [more]
Influence of the Use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Systems in Woodchippers Powered by Small Engines on Exhaust Emissions and Operating Costs
Łukasz Warguła, Mateusz Kukla, Piotr Lijewski, Michał Dobrzyński, Filip Markiewicz
April 4, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, liquefied petroleum gas LPG, small engine, toxic exhaust gases emission, woodchipper
The use of alternative fuels is a contemporary trend in science aimed at the protection of non-renewable resources, reducing the negative impact on people and reducing the negative impact on the natural environment. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is an alternative fuel within the meaning of the European Union Directive (2014/94/UE), as it is an alternative for energy sources derived from crude oil. The use of LPG fuel in low-power internal combustion engines is one of the currently developed scientific research directions. It results from the possibility of limiting air pollutant emissions compared to the commonly used gasoline and the lower cost of this fuel in many countries. By “gasoline 95” the Authors mean non-lead petrol as a flammable liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in most spark-ignited internal combustion engines, whereas 95 is an octane rating (octane number). This article presents the results of research on fuel consumption, toxic exhaust gas emission, and operating c... [more]
Prediction of Novel Humified Gas Turbine Cycle Parameters for Ammonia/Hydrogen Fuels
Milana Guteša Božo, Agustin Valera-Medina
April 4, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, ammonia/hydrogen blends, humified gas turbine, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Carbon emissions reduction via the increase of sustainable energy sources in need of storage defines chemicals such as ammonia as one of the promising solutions for reliable power decarbonisation. However, the implementation of ammonia for fuelling purposes in gas turbines for industry and energy production is challenging when compared to current gas turbines fuelled with methane. One major concern is the efficiency of such systems, as this has direct implications in the profitability of these power schemes. Previous works performed around parameters prediction of standard gas turbine cycles showed that the implementation of ammonia/hydrogen as a fuel for gas turbines presents very limited overall efficiencies. Therefore, this paper covers a new approach of parameters prediction consisting of series of analytical and numerical studies used to determine emissions and efficiencies of a redesigned Brayton cycle fuelled with humidified ammonia/hydrogen blends. The combustion analysis was d... [more]
Hydrocracking of a Heavy Vacuum Gas Oil with Fischer−Tropsch Wax
Olga Pleyer, Dan Vrtiška, Petr Straka, Aleš Vráblík, Jan Jenčík, Pavel Šimáček
April 4, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, co-processing, Fischer–Tropsch synthesis, hydrocracking
Catalytic hydrocracking represents an optimal process for both heavy petroleum fractions and Fischer−Tropsch (FT) wax upgrading because it offers high flexibility regarding the feedstock, reaction conditions and products’ quality. The hydrocracking of a heavy vacuum gas oil with FT wax was carried out in a continuous-flow catalytic unit with a fixed-bed reactor and a co-current flow of the feedstock and hydrogen at the reaction temperatures of 390, 400 and 410 °C and a pressure of 8 MPa. The increasing reaction temperature and content of the FT wax in the feedstock caused an increasing yield in the gaseous products and a decreasing yield in the liquid products. The utilisation of the higher reaction temperatures and feedstocks containing the FT wax showed a positive influence on the conversion of the fraction boiling above 400 °C to lighter fractions. Although the naphtha and middle distillate fractions obtained via atmospheric and vacuum distillations of the liquid products of hydrocr... [more]
Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines
Jorge Martins, F. P. Brito
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, Biofuels, fuels, internal combustion engine, Synthetic Fuels
The recent transport electrification trend is pushing governments to limit the future use of Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). However, the rationale for this strong limitation is frequently not sufficiently addressed or justified. The problem does not seem to lie within the engines nor with the combustion by themselves but seemingly, rather with the rise in greenhouse gases (GHG), namely CO2, rejected to the atmosphere. However, it is frequent that the distinction between fossil CO2 and renewable CO2 production is not made, or even between CO2 emissions and pollutant emissions. The present revision paper discusses and introduces different alternative fuels that can be burned in IC Engines and would eliminate, or substantially reduce the emission of fossil CO2 into the atmosphere. These may be non-carbon fuels such as hydrogen or ammonia, or biofuels such as alcohols, ethers or esters, including synthetic fuels. There are also other types of fuels that may be used, such as those base... [more]
Production of Alternative Fuels Based on Municipal Sewage Sludge and Selected Types of ELV Waste
Krzysztof Rećko
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, municipal sewage sludge, plastics, waste
The construction of new wastewater treatment plants and the modernization of existing ones lead to the expansion of sewage networks, resulting in a sharp increase in the volume of municipal sewage sludge, which translates into a global problem of sludge management. The solution to this problem could be the recovery of energy from sewage sludge in the cement industry to exploit its energy potential. The aim of the present study was to examine the results of laboratory research on the production of alternative fuels based on municipal sewage sludge, plastic waste from end-of-life vehicles, and wood waste (sawdust) from carpentry enterprises. The tests were carried out for waste mixtures designated as PAZO I, PAZO II, PAZO III, and PAZO IV fuels, differing in the percentage of waste used and the type of plastic waste. The following parameters were evaluated in fuels: water content, ash content, sulfur content, and calorific value. Water content of the obtained fuels ranged from 17.1% to 1... [more]
Selected Fuel Properties of Alcohol and Rapeseed Oil Blends
Carolin Nuortila, Riikka Help, Katriina Sirviö, Helena Suopanki, Sonja Heikkilä, Seppo Niemi
March 28, 2023 (v1)
The alcohols ethanol and 1-butanol are interesting options as blending components for renewable fuels. We studied whether it is possible to mix these alcohols with a little refined material, rapeseed oil, to obtain stable fuel samples. At room temperature, the stable samples consisted of rapeseed oil blended with butanol at 5 vol-%, 10 vol-%, 20 vol-%, 30 vol-% and one sample of rapeseed oil with 5 vol-% of ethanol. The samples’ fuel properties analysed were kinematic viscosity (at 40 °C), density (at 15 °C) and surface tension. Cold filter plugging point was measured for rapeseed oil with 20 vol-% and 30 vol-% of butanol. Stability of butanol or ethanol and rapeseed oil blends can be achieved at the studied volumes. The density of neat rapeseed oil and all the alcohol−rapeseed oil blends met the requirements set for residual marine fuels. The 30 vol-% butanol−rapeseed oil blend met the requirements for distillate marine oil for density, and almost for kinematic viscosity. The blends a... [more]
Reduction in Operating Costs and Environmental Impact Consisting in the Modernization of the Low-Power Cylindrical Wood Chipper Power Unit by Using Alternative Fuel
Łukasz Warguła, Mateusz Kukla, Piotr Krawiec, Bartosz Wieczorek
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, fuel consumption, LPG, mass flow rate, non-road small engine, volumetric flow rate, wood chipper
Alternative fuel within the meaning of Directive 2014/94/EU is, among others, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), characterized by a lower purchase cost and lower emissions of toxic exhaust compounds in comparison to the combustion of classic gasoline. In wood chippers, intended for chopping branches, with low-power internal combustion engines that meet the emission standards in force in 2019 in the European Union, in accordance with Regulation 2016/1628/EU, carburetor fuel supply systems are commonly used. Innovative trends in the development of these drives are: electronic fuel injection, systems supporting the adaptation of the working elements to the conditions of use and the use of alternative fuels. The first two solutions significantly affect the cost of purchasing a power unit or modernizing it. The authors of this article indicate, as a beneficial alternative, a cheap (EUR 105) possibility of modernizing the carburetor fuel supply system. It is based on a modification that will all... [more]
Research and Prospects for the Development of Alternative Fuels in the Transport Sector in Poland: A Review
Dorota Burchart-Korol, Magdalena Gazda-Grzywacz, Katarzyna Zarębska
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, development of alternative fuels in Poland, electromobility, transport sector
The aim of this publication is to review the current state and possibilities of developing electromobility and alternative fuels in Poland. It was found that the current market for alternative fuels in Poland is insufficiently developed. At the end of 2019 in Poland, liquefied petroleum gas-powered cars accounted for approximately 3.3 million pieces, which amounts to 14.3% all passenger vehicles up to 3.5 tonnes of gross vehicle weight. There were over 9000 electric cars on the road, the share of which accounted for 0.04% of domestic passenger transport. The lack of a sufficient number of charging points, inhibiting the development of electromobility, was also noted. There were approximately 4000 (0.02%) passenger cars powered by compressed natural gas. Liquefied gas-powered vehicles were exclusively public transport vehicles or trucks. The share of biofuels in the Polish transport sector stands at 4%, while European Union requirements are at a level of 10%. Although there is huge pote... [more]
Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of the Turbine Engine Fueled with HEFA Blends from Different Feedstocks
Bartosz Gawron, Tomasz Białecki, Anna Janicka, Tomasz Suchocki
March 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, emissions, HEFA process, synthetic blending component, turbine engine
In the next decade, due to the desire for significant reduction in the carbon footprint left by the aviation sector and the development of a sustainable alternatives to petroleum, fuel from renewable sources will play an increasing role as a propellant for turbine aircraft engines. Currently, apart from five types of jet fuel containing synthesized hydrocarbons that are certified by the ASTM D7566 standard, there is yet another synthetic blending component that is at the stage of testing and certification. Hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids enable the production of a synthetic component for jet fuel from any form of native fat or oil. Used feedstock affects the final synthetic blending component composition and consequently the properties of the blend for jet fuel and, as a result, the operation of turbine engines. A specialized laboratory test rig with a miniature turbojet engine was used for research, which is an interesting alternative to complex and expensive tests with full sca... [more]
Combustion Studies of a Non-Road Diesel Engine with Several Alternative Liquid Fuels
Michaela Hissa, Seppo Niemi, Katriina Sirviö, Antti Niemi, Teemu Ovaska
March 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, CI engines, combustion duration, heat release rate, in-cylinder combustion
Sustainable liquid fuels will be needed for decades to fulfil the world’s growing energy demands. Combustion systems must be able to operate with a variety of renewable and sustainable fuels. This study focused on how the use of various alternative fuels affects combustion, especially in-cylinder combustion. The study investigated light fuel oil (LFO) and six alternative liquid fuels in a high-speed, compression-ignition (CI) engine to understand their combustion properties. The fuels were LFO (baseline), marine gas oil (MGO), kerosene, rapeseed methyl ester (RME), renewable diesel (HVO), renewable wood-based naphtha and its blend with LFO. The heat release rate (HRR), mass fraction burned (MFB) and combustion duration (CD) were determined at an intermediate speed at three loads. The combustion parameters seemed to be very similar with all studied fuels. The HRR curve was slightly delayed with RME at the highest load. The combustion duration of neat naphtha decreased compared to LFO as... [more]
Assessing the Impacts of Electric Vehicle Recharging Infrastructure Deployment Efforts in the European Union
Christian Thiel, Andreea Julea, Beatriz Acosta Iborra, Nerea De Miguel Echevarria, Emanuela Peduzzi, Enrico Pisoni, Jonatan J. Gómez Vilchez, Jette Krause
March 21, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: air pollutants, Alternative Fuels, electric vehicles, electro-mobility, employment effects, greenhouse gas emissions, recharging and refuelling infrastructure, transport
Electric vehicles (EVs) can play an important role in improving the European Union’s (EU)’s energy supply security, reducing the environmental impact of transport, and increasing EU competitiveness. The EU aims at fostering the synchronised deployment of EVs and necessary recharging infrastructure. There is currently a lack of studies in the literature for analysing the societal impacts of EV and infrastructure deployment at continental scale. In our paper, we analyse the likely impact of related plans of the EU member states (MSs). With the help of qualitative and quantitative analyses, we study the impact of plans on recharging infrastructure deployment, contributions to the EU climate and energy goals, air quality objectives, and reinforcement of the EU’s competitiveness and job creation. We soft-link a fleet impact model with a simplified source receptor relationship model, and propose a new model to calculate job impacts. The results overall show modest impacts by 2020, as most me... [more]
Energy Scenario Analysis for the Nordic Transport Sector: A Critical Review
Raffaele Salvucci, Stefan Petrović, Kenneth Karlsson, Markus Wråke, Tanu Priya Uteng, Olexandr Balyk
March 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, decarbonization, energy system modelling, low-carbon transition, NETP 2016, sustainable mobility, transport behavior
Experiencing the highest growth in emissions since 1990 and relying mainly on oil, transport is considered the most complicated sector to decarbonize. Lately, the Nordic countries have shown remarkable success in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially in the power and heat sector. However, when it comes to transportation, the greatest source of Nordic GHG emissions, stronger measures are needed. Relying on a rich and diversified portfolio of renewable sources and expertise, the Nordic countries could benefit from a common mitigation strategy by encompassing a larger variety of solutions and potential synergies. This article reviews studies addressing integrated energy and transport scenario analysis for the Nordic region as a whole. The studies targeted are those applying energy system models, given their extensive adoption in supporting scenario analysis. Most notable of these studies is the “Nordic Energy Technology Perspectives 2016” to which a special focus is dedicate... [more]
Definition of the Thermodynamic Cycle of a Biomass-Fueled Internal Combustion Engine
Gonzalo Suanes, David Bolonio, Antonio Cantero
March 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, Biomass, combustion engine, thermodynamic cycle
Climate change and the depletion of fossil fuels make it urgent to find an alternative to oil-based fuels, especially in machines powered by internal combustion engines. Biomass is currently a poorly used source of energy and meets the necessary conditions to replace a large part of oil-based fuels. However, current engines cannot burn solid biomass and a specific engine needs to be developed. This work proposes the thermodynamic cycle of a biomass-fueled internal combustion engine. The cycle is significantly different from the Otto cycle, since compression and heat absorption occur simultaneously, in a single stage. Since it is not possible to find a function that relates pressure to volume at this stage, an approximate method is proposed to solve the cycle without resorting to numerical methods. The results show that the maximum pressure and temperature of a biomass-fueled engine cycle are somewhat higher than those of the equivalent Otto cycle. However, more significantly, the cycle... [more]
Influence of RDF Composition on Mercury Release during Thermal Pretreatment
Marcelina Bury, Tadeusz Dziok, Karel Borovec, Piotr Burmistrz
March 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, mercury, mercury removal, RDF, thermal pretreatment, waste
The growing world population is contributing to the increasing amounts of waste and a significant increase in energy demand. Therefore, coal will increasingly be replaced by refuse-derived fuel (RDF), which is produced from municipal solid waste. The use of such fuel poses many difficulties because of its heterogeneity and high mercury emission. One method to stabilize the properties of RDF and reduce the mercury content is thermal pretreatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the release of mercury from RDF samples following thermal pretreatment. The study was carried out in the temperature range of 100−350 °C. Statistical analysis was performed on the correlation between the composition of the RDF samples and the release of mercury. The RDF samples showed a very high variation in the mercury content, ranging from 45 to 849 µg Hg/kg (1.7 to 35.3 µg Hg/MJ). Thermal pretreatment removed a significant amount of mercury at 250 °C (94−99%). Paper content positively affected me... [more]
Thermodynamic Analysis of CNG Fast Filling Process of Composite Cylinder Type IV
Adam Saferna, Piotr Saferna, Szymon Kuczyński, Mariusz Łaciak, Adam Szurlej, Tomasz Włodek
March 10, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, CNG tank, composite cylinder fast filling, composite tank (type IV), energy storage, Compressed Natural Gas
Due to ecological and economic advantages, natural gas is used as an alternative fuel in the transportation sector in the form of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Development of infrastructure is necessary to popularize vehicles that use alternative fuels. Selected positive factors from EU countries supporting the development of the CNG market were discussed. The process of natural gas vehicle (NGV) fast filling is related to thermodynamic phenomena occurring in a tank. In this study, the first law of thermodynamics and continuity equations were applied to develop a theoretical model to investigate the effects of natural gas composition on the filling process and the final in-cylinder conditions of NGV on-board composite cylinder (type IV). Peng−Robinson equation of state (P-R EOS) was applied, and a lightweight composite tank (type IV) was considered as an adiabatic system. The authors have devised a model to determine the influence of natural gas composit... [more]
Showing records 1 to 25 of 41. [First] Page: 1 2 Last
[Show All Keywords]