Records with Keyword: Natural Gas
Showing records 1 to 25 of 124. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Energy Saving, Energy Efficiency or Renewable Energy: Which Is Better for the Decarbonization of the Residential Sector in Italy?
Marco Noro, Filippo Busato
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, energy saving, heat pump, heat recovery, Natural Gas, renewables
The residential sector is currently responsible for approximately 30% of the final energy consumption and 12% of direct CO2 emissions in Italy, mainly due to the heating and cooling of buildings and the use of domestic hot water. Such figures show a significant potential for reducing non-renewable primary energy utilization to comply with the decarbonization constraints of the European Union. In this context, the purpose of this work is to provide a quantitative assessment of the effect of a different number of actions (eight for energy savings, four for energy efficiency and two for the installation of renewable energy plants) that could be implemented at the national level to reduce the consumption of natural gas in the residential sector. Two typical residential buildings are dynamically simulated using Trnsys®, and the savings from energy, economic and CO2 emissions points of view are evaluated in the different climatic zones of Italy. The most effective action foresees the replace... [more]
Forecasting of Day-Ahead Natural Gas Consumption Demand in Greece Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System
Konstantinos Papageorgiou, Elpiniki I. Papageorgiou, Katarzyna Poczeta, Dionysis Bochtis, George Stamoulis
April 25, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: ANFIS, energy forecasting, fuzzy cognitive maps, Natural Gas, neural networks, neuro-fuzzy, prediction, soft computing
(1) Background: Forecasting of energy consumption demand is a crucial task linked directly with the economy of every country all over the world. Accurate natural gas consumption forecasting allows policy makers to formulate natural gas supply planning and apply the right strategic policies in this direction. In order to develop a real accurate natural gas (NG) prediction model for Greece, we examine the application of neuro-fuzzy models, which have recently shown significant contribution in the energy domain. (2) Methods: The adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is a flexible and easy to use modeling method in the area of soft computing, integrating both neural networks and fuzzy logic principles. The present study aims to develop a proper ANFIS architecture for time series modeling and prediction of day-ahead natural gas demand. (3) Results: An efficient and fast ANFIS architecture is built based on neuro-fuzzy exploration performance for energy demand prediction using histor... [more]
Analysis of Changes in Natural Gas Physical Flows for Europe via Ukraine in 2020
Filip Božić, Daria Karasalihović Sedlar, Ivan Smajla, Ivana Ivančić
April 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: gas transmission system, Natural Gas, natural gas physical flows, pipelines, Ukraine
The main objective of the paper was comparative analyses of natural gas quantities delivered through the existing pipeline capacities in the last decade and new pipeline capacities for the prediction of possible future flows of gas import to Europe. Changes in physical flows have been influenced by European energy strategies that became green oriented resulting with a high amount of non-utilized transmission capacities. The research findings have shown that there is a significant decrease observed in transit of Russian gas through Ukraine in 2020 than previously. Concerning the high increase of LNG import to Europe in the same year, the start of operation of TurkStream, planned start of operation of Nord stream 2, authors project the gradual decrease of transit of Russian gas through Ukraine until the year 2025 with the total stop of transit of Russian gas until the year 2030. The change of supply routes will be also under the economic influence of low gas prices and coal and gas fuel... [more]
Hold-Up Problems in International Gas Trade: A Case Study
Guych Nuryyev, Tomasz Korol, Ilia Tetin
April 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: gas wars, hold-up problem, Natural Gas, transit country
The infrastructure required for international natural gas trade is considerable, which often leads to hold-up problems and supply disruptions. This study discusses disruptions of gas supply from Algeria, Indonesia, Russia, and Turkmenistan since the early 1980s. The novelty of this study is its focus on the issues related to transit countries, which are rarely considered in the literature. The results of the study classify supply disruptions into six types, show the evolution of supply disruptions over time, and discuss mitigation strategies. The six types of disruptions include political change, price demands, debts, technical issues, transit fees, theft of gas. The evolution of the disruptions shows that the issues related to transit countries have become more frequent in the last two decades. Mitigation strategies tailored to transit countries include using an international organisation, designing contracts with price mechanisms that might reduce the possibility of disputes and redu... [more]
Long-Term Natural Gas Consumption Forecasting Based on Analog Method and Fuzzy Decision Tree
Bartłomiej Gaweł, Andrzej Paliński
April 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: analog forecasting, fuzzy decision tree, long-term forecasting, Natural Gas
Classic forecasting methods of natural gas consumption extrapolate trends from the past to subsequent periods of time. The paper presents a different approach that uses analogues to create long-term forecasts of the annual natural gas consumption. The energy intensity (energy consumption per dollar of Gross Domestic Product—GDP) and gas share in energy mix in some countries, usually more developed, are the starting point for forecasts of other countries in the later period. The novelty of the approach arises in the use of cluster analysis to create similar groups of countries and periods based on two indicators: energy intensity of GDP and share of natural gas consumption in the energy mix, and then the use of fuzzy decision trees for classifying countries in different years into clusters based on several other economic indicators. The final long-term forecasts are obtained with the use of fuzzy decision trees by combining the forecasts for different fuzzy sets made by the method of re... [more]
Geological Characterization of the 3D Seismic Record within the Gas Bearing Upper Miocene Sediments in the Northern Part of the Bjelovar Subdepression—Application of Amplitude Versus Offset Analysis and Artificial Neural Network
Tihana Ružić, Marko Cvetković
April 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: 3D seismic, amplitude versus offset, artificial neural networks, Croatia, Natural Gas, Pannonian Basin
As natural gas reserves are generally decreasing there is a need to successfully characterize potential research objects using geophysical data. Presented is a study of amplitude vs. offset, attribute and artificial neural network analysis on a research area of a small gas field with one well with commercial accumulations and two wells with only gas shows. The purpose of the research is to aid in future well planning and to distinguish the geophysical data in dry well areas with those from an economically viable well. The amplitude vs. offset analysis shows the lack of anomaly in the wells with only gas shows while the anomaly is present in the economically viable well. The artificial neural network analysis did not aid in the process of distinguishing the possible gas accumulation but it can point out the sedimentological and structural elements within the seismic volume.
Emission Mitigation and Energy Security Trade-Off: Role of Natural Gas in the Indian Power Sector
Nandini Das, Shyamasree Dasgupta, Joyashree Roy, Oluf Langhelle, Mohsen Assadi
April 21, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Coal, energy security, energy transition, India, Natural Gas, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
India’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) aim to increase the share of non-fossil fuel, especially renewables, in power generation. But at the same time, it mentions that coal is likely to dominate the power generation in the short and medium term to meet the increase in demand and support the intermittency of renewable energy-based power generation. Thus, additional efforts to transform the thermal power generation to a more efficient and less emitting one in the near term by increasing the use of natural gas (a fossil fuel with a lower emission factor than coal) may be planned towards achieving India’s additional mitigation commitments. The paper presents the implications of a proposed increase in the share of natural gas in thermal power generation of India by looking into the trade-off between emission mitigation and energy security. Along with a Reference Scenario, three alternative emission scenarios are proposed to understand the likely impacts of increased penetration o... [more]
Complementing Syngas with Natural Gas in Spark Ignition Engines for Power Production: Effects on Emissions and Combustion
Carlo Caligiuri, Urban Žvar Baškovič, Massimiliano Renzi, Tine Seljak, Samuel Rodman Oprešnik, Marco Baratieri, Tomaž Katrašnik
April 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: combustion, Natural Gas, renewable fuels, spark ignition engines, Syngas
Power generation units based on the bio-syngas system face two main challenges due to (i) the possible temporary shortage of primary sources and (ii) the engine power derating associated with the use of low-energy density fuels in combustion engines. In both cases, an external input fuel is provided. Hence, complementing syngas with traditional fuels, like natural gas, becomes a necessity. In this work, an experimental methodology is proposed, aiming at the quantification of the impact of the use of both natural gas and syngas in spark ignition (SI) engines on performance and emissions. The main research questions focus on investigating brake thermal efficiency (BTE), power derating, and pollutant emission (NOx, CO, THC, CO2) formation, offering quantitative findings that present the basis for engine optimization procedures. Experimental measurements were performed on a Toyota 4Y-E engine (a 4-cylinders, 4-stroke spark ignition engine) at partial load (10 kW) under different syngas ene... [more]
Prospective of Upfront Nitrogen (N2) Removal in LNG Plants: Technical Communication
Fares Almomani, Asmaa Othman, Ajinkya Pal, Easa I. Al-Musleh, Iftekhar A. Karimi
April 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: energy recovery, Natural Gas, nitrogen removal, process optimization
Conventional natural gas (NG) liquefaction processes remove N2 near the tail of the plant, which limits production capacity and decreases energy efficiency and profit. Engineering calculations suggest that upfront N2 removal could have substantial economic benefits on large-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) processes. This article provides an overview of the most promising technologies that can be employed for upfront N2 removal in the LNG process, focusing on the process selection and design considerations of all currently available upfront N2 removal technologies. The literature review revealed that although adsorption has proven to be a huge success in gas separation processes (efficiency ≥ 90%), most of the available adsorbents are CH4-selective at typical NG conditions. It would be more encouraging to find N2-selective adsorbents to apply in upfront N2 removal technology. Membrane gas separation has shown growing performance due to its flexible operation, small footprint, and redu... [more]
Comparative Study on Chemical Kinetics Mechanisms for Methane-Based Fuel Mixtures under Engine-Relevant Conditions
Amin Paykani
April 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: engine-relevant condition, ignition delay time, laminar flame speed, mechanisms, Natural Gas
The use of natural gas in pure or in a blended form with hydrogen and syngas in spark ignition (SI) engines has received much attention in recent years. They have higher diffusion coefficient and laminar flame speed, a small quenching distance and wider flammability limit which compensate the demerits of the lean-burn natural gas combustion. Therefore, a careful examination of the chemical kinetics of combustion of gaseous fuel blends is of great importance. In this paper, performance of the various chemical kinetics mechanisms is compared against experimental data, accumulated for methane-based fuel blends under engine-relevant conditions to find the most appropriate mechanism in engine simulations. Pure methane, methane/syngas, and methane/propane blends are mainly studied at various temperatures, pressures, and equivalence ratios. The ignition delay time and laminar flame speed are used as quantitative metrics to compare the simulation results with the data from experiments. The mec... [more]
Valuation of Energy Security for Natural Gas—European Example
Piotr Kosowski, Katarzyna Kosowska
April 19, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Energy, energy security, Europe, Natural Gas, UGS, underground gas storage, valuation
Recently there has been an ongoing discussion about energy security. This has been caused by tensions affecting international relations, and the emergence of new geopolitical threats. As one of the main sources of primary energy, natural gas is an obvious subject of interest in this discussion. In Europe, the natural gas market is rapidly evolving, which has resulted in a lack of clarity regarding who is responsible for the security of the gas supply. It is not clear now how to measure the security of the gas supply in economic estimates and by whom that security should be financed. In this paper, the authors present an approach which can be used for valuation of energy security concerning the security of natural gas storage using stochastic modelling based on the mathematical model of the “Newsvendor problem”. The valuation is made from the point of view of countries and considers their individual attitudes to the risk of disruption of deliveries, which is a novel approach to the prob... [more]
Non-Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Hydrocarbon Gases to Syngas and Hydrogen: A Systematic Review
Iren A. Makaryan, Eugene A. Salgansky, Vladimir S. Arutyunov, Igor V. Sedov
April 18, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: conversion, Hydrogen, methane, Modelling, Natural Gas, non-catalytic partial oxidation, reactor, synthesis gas
The review contains a comparative analysis of studies on the production of hydrogen and syngas based on the processes of partial oxidation of natural gas and other types of gas feedstock. The results presented in the literature show the high potential of non-catalytic autothermal processes of partial oxidation of hydrocarbons for the development of gas chemistry and energetics. The partial oxidation of hydrocarbons makes it possible to overcome such serious shortcomings of traditional syngas production technologies as technological complexity and high energy and capital intensity. The features of non-catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbon gases, the obtained experimental results and the results of kinetic modeling of various options for the implementation of the process, which confirm the adequacy of the kinetic mechanisms used for the analysis, are considered in detail. Examples of industrial implementation of processes based on partial oxidation and proposed alternative options f... [more]
Design of a Device and System to Study the Liquid−Solid-Phase Equilibrium Experiment of CO2 in PLNG
Jianlu Zhu, Zihe Li, Yuxing Li
April 17, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, liquid–solid-phase equilibrium, low-temperature and high-pressure apparatus, Natural Gas
Pressurized liquefied natural gas (PLNG) is a new natural gas liquefaction solution proposed in recent years for reducing the construction and operating costs of floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG). For natural gas, the liquefaction temperature is strongly influenced by the pressure; when the pressure increases, the liquefaction temperature of natural gas increases accordingly. The increase in the liquefaction temperature of natural gas leads to a higher solubility of impurities such as carbon dioxide, which means that the pretreatment standards for liquefied natural gas can be reduced. Therefore, the use of PLNG technology can simplify pretreatment plants and significantly reduce construction and operating costs. In order to better apply PLNG technology to FLNG, it is necessary to understand the solubility of carbon dioxide in pressurized LNG and the phase change during liquefaction. To achieve this, experimental setups are needed to simulate the temperature and pressure environment... [more]
The Equivalent Effect of Initial Condition Coupling on the Laminar Burning Velocity of Natural Gas Diluted by CO2
Xueshun Wu, Peng Wang, Zhennan Zhu, Yunshou Qian, Wenbin Yu, Zhiqiang Han
April 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: equivalent effect, influence weight, laminar burning velocity, Natural Gas
Initial temperature has a promoting effect on laminar burning velocity, while initial pressure and dilution rate have an inhibitory effect on laminar burning velocity. Equal laminar burning velocities can be obtained by initial condition coupling with different temperatures, pressures and dilution rates. This paper analysed the equivalent distribution pattern of laminar burning velocity and the variation pattern of an equal weight curve using the coupling effect of the initial pressure (0.1−0.3 MPa), initial temperature (323−423 K) and dilution rate (0−16%). The results show that, as the initial temperature increases, the initial pressure decreases and the dilution rate decreases, the rate of change in laminar burning velocity increases. The equivalent effect of initial condition coupling can obtain equal laminar burning velocity with an dilution rate increase (or decrease) of 2% and an initial temperature increase (or decrease) of 29 K. Moreover, the increase in equivalence ratio lead... [more]
Emissions Effects of Energy Storage for Frequency Regulation: Comparing Battery and Flywheel Storage to Natural Gas
Eric Pareis, Eric Hittinger
April 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: battery, emissions, flywheel, frequency regulation, Natural Gas
With an increase in renewable energy generation in the United States, there is a growing need for more frequency regulation to ensure the stability of the electric grid. Fast ramping natural gas plants are often used for frequency regulation, but this creates emissions associated with the burning of fossil fuels. Energy storage systems (ESSs), such as batteries and flywheels, provide an alternative frequency regulation service. However, the efficiency losses of charging and discharging a storage system cause additional electrical generation requirements and associated emissions. There is not a good understanding of these indirect emissions from charging and discharging ESSs in the literature, with most sources stating that ESSs for frequency regulation have lower emissions, without quantification of these emissions. We created a model to estimate three types of emissions (CO2, NOX, and SO2) from ESSs providing frequency regulation, and compare them to emissions from a natural gas plant... [more]
A Review on CO2 Capture Technologies with Focus on CO2-Enhanced Methane Recovery from Hydrates
Salvatore F. Cannone, Andrea Lanzini, Massimo Santarelli
April 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: carbon capture and storage (CCS), Carbon Dioxide Capture, CO2 replacement, CO2 storage, CO2 transportation, economic analysis, gas hydrate, membrane technology, Natural Gas, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Natural gas is considered a helpful transition fuel in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of other conventional power plants burning coal or liquid fossil fuels. Natural Gas Hydrates (NGHs) constitute the largest reservoir of natural gas in the world. Methane contained within the crystalline structure can be replaced by carbon dioxide to enhance gas recovery from hydrates. This technical review presents a techno-economic analysis of the full pathway, which begins with the capture of CO2 from power and process industries and ends with its transportation to a geological sequestration site consisting of clathrate hydrates. Since extracted methane is still rich in CO2, on-site separation is required. Focus is thus placed on membrane-based gas separation technologies widely used for gas purification and CO2 removal from raw natural gas and exhaust gas. Nevertheless, the other carbon capture processes (i.e., oxy-fuel combustion, pre-combustion and post-combustion) are briefly discu... [more]
The North Caucasus Region as a Blind Spot in the “European Green Deal”: Energy Supply Security and Energy Superpower Russia
José Antonio Peña-Ramos, Philipp Bagus, Dmitri Amirov-Belova
April 12, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: clean energies, energy markets, energy studies, global economics and cross-cultural management, Natural Gas, North Caucasus, oil, post-soviet conflicts, renewable energies, Russia
The “European Green Deal” has ambitious aims, such as net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. While the European Union aims to make its energies greener, Russia pursues power-goals based on its status as a geo-energy superpower. A successful “European Green Deal” would have the up-to-now underestimated geopolitical advantage of making the European Union less dependent on Russian hydrocarbons. In this article, we illustrate Russian power-politics and its geopolitical implications by analyzing the illustrative case of the North Caucasus, which has been traditionally a strategic region for Russia. The present article describes and analyses the impact of Russian intervention in the North Caucasian secessionist conflict since 1991 and its importance in terms of natural resources, especially hydrocarbons. The geopolitical power secured by Russia in the North Caucasian conflict has important implications for European Union’s energy supply security and could be regarded as a strong argument... [more]
Hoard or Exploit? Intergenerational Allocation of Exhaustible Natural Resources
Hala Abu-Kalla, Ruslana Rachel Palatnik, Ofira Ayalon, Mordechai Shechter
April 12, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: economic welfare, Energy, exhaustible resource, general equilibrium model, Natural Gas, sovereign wealth fund (SWF)
In this paper, a “general equilibrium” (GE) model was developed for the allocation of exhaustible natural resources to examine the impact of different extraction scenarios on intergenerational economic welfare. A stylized GE model was applied to Israel’s natural gas (NG) market to evaluate economic indicators resulting from NG-extraction scenarios: a baseline scenario based on current policy in the NG sector, a conservative scenario based on a lower extraction rate, and an intensive scenario based on a faster extraction rate. The impact of various resource income-allocation strategies on intergenerational economic welfare was examined through the mechanism of a “sovereign wealth fund” (SWF). The results indicate that a higher NG-extraction rate combined with an appropriate investment strategy for NG profits is preferable from an economic perspective compared to a conservative rate. Investment of the government take from the NG market in research and development (R&D) of renewable elect... [more]
Energy Prices and COVID-Immunity: The Case of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices in the US and Japan
Honorata Nyga-Łukaszewska, Kentaka Aruga
April 11, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: ARDL, COVID-19, crude oil, energy shock, Natural Gas
The COVID-19 pandemic storm has struck the world economies and energy markets with extreme strength. The goal of our study is to assess how the pandemic has influenced oil and gas prices, using energy market reactions in the United States and Japan. To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 cases on the crude oil and natural gas markets, we applied the Auto-Regressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) approach to the number of the US and Japanese COVID-19 cases and energy prices. Our study period is from 21 January 2020 to 2 June 2020, and uses the latest data available at the time of model calibration and captures the so-called “first pandemic wave”. In the US, the COVID-19 pandemic had a statistically negative impact on the crude oil price while it positively affected the gas price. In Japan, this negative impact was only apparent in the crude oil market with a two-day lag. Possible explanations of the results may include differences in pandemic development in the US and Japan, and the diverse... [more]
The Liberalization of the Internal Energy Market in the European Union: Evidence of Its Influence on Reducing Environmental Pollution
Pablo Ponce, Cristiana Oliveira, Viviana Álvarez, María de la Cruz del Río-Rama
April 4, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: CO2 emissions, electricity, liberalization, Natural Gas, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
From an empirical point of view, the liberalization of the internal energy market reduces carbon dioxide emissions, promoting a wider range of renewable energy sources. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of the liberalization of the internal energy market on CO2 emissions, which was implemented in the European Union in 2011. The research data cover 27 countries of the European Union during the period 2004−2017 and was processed by estimating a two-way effects econometric model. The results suggest that the liberalization of the internal energy market is negatively related to CO2 emissions; the policy was effective in reducing CO2 emissions and, therefore, slowing down climate change. This result is significant at the level of the European Union, and in high-income countries since the year the policy was implemented, being different in the upper-middle-income countries, which begins to be effective after two years, which is due to the economic characteristics of the countrie... [more]
Cooperation and Security: Examining the Political Discourse on Natural Gas Transit in Ukraine and Slovakia
Kateryna Yakovenko, Matúš Mišík
April 4, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: decarbonisation, discourse, European Union, Natural Gas, Slovakia, transit, Ukraine
The COVID-19 pandemic appeared in the midst of developing the European Green Deal, the most ambitious project to decarbonise the EU’s economy to date. Among other issues, the project highlighted the challenges connected to the long-term role of natural gas as a fossil fuel in the European economy. Moreover, the changes to the gas architecture caused by the development of new import infrastructure (especially Nord Stream and its extension, which is currently under construction) put additional pressure on the transit countries, mainly of which are linked to the Brotherhood pipeline. These have been strong supporters of natural gas utilisation and harsh critics of new pipelines that circumvent their territories, as they consider energy transit to be an important part of their energy sectors. This research examines the political discourse on gas transit in Slovakia and Ukraine in order to identify the main arguments connected to these positions. The paper examines a total of 233 textual un... [more]
Design and Transient Analysis of a Natural Gas-Assisted Solar LCPV/T Trigeneration System
Yang Liu, Han Yue, Na Wang, Heng Zhang, Haiping Chen
April 4, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: LCPV/T system, Natural Gas, trigeneration system, TRNSYS
This paper proposes a natural gas assisted solar low-concentrating photovoltaic/thermal trigeneration (NG-LCPV/T-TG) system. This novel system simultaneously provides electrical, thermal and cooling energy to the user. The design and dynamic simulation performance of the NG-LCPV/T-TG system is completed using Transient System Simulation (TRNSYS) software. The results show that the system can satisfy the requirements of the cooling and heating load. The proposed system maintains the experimental room temperature at about 25 °C under the cooling mode, at about 20 °C under the heating mode. The electrical and thermal energy produced by the low-concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (LCPV/T) system are 3819 kWh and 18,374 kWh. Meanwhile, the maximum coefficient of performance (COP) of the low temperature heat pump (LHP), high temperature heat pump (HHP) and chiller are 5, 2.2 and 0.6, respectively. This proposed system realizes the coupling of natural gas and solar energy in a building. In sum... [more]
Energy Saving through Efficient BOG Prediction and Impact of Static Boil-off-Rate in Full Containment-Type LNG Storage Tank
Mohd Shariq Khan, Muhammad Abdul Qyyum, Wahid Ali, Aref Wazwaz, Khursheed B. Ansari, Moonyong Lee
April 4, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: BOG, BOR, liquefaction, LNG storage tank, Natural Gas, regasification
Boil-off gas (BOG) from a liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tank depends on the amount of heat leakage however, its assessment often relies on the static value of the boil-off rate (BOR) suggested by the LNG tank vendors that over/under predicts BOG generation. Thus, the impact of static BOR on BOG predictions is investigated and the results suggest that BOR is a strong function of liquid level in a tank. Total heat leakage in a tank practically remains constant, nonetheless the unequal distribution of heat in vapor and liquid gives variation in BOR. Assigning the total tank heat leak to the liquid is inappropriate since a part of heat increases vapor temperature. At the lower liquid level, BOG is under-predicted and at a higher level, it is over-predicted using static BOR. Simulation results show that BOR varies from 0.012 wt% per day for an 80% tank fill to 0.12 wt% per day at 10% tank fill.
Gini and Entropy-Based Spread Indexes for Primary Energy Consumption Efficiency and CO2 Emission
Hellinton H. Takada, Celma O. Ribeiro, Oswaldo L. V. Costa, Julio M. Stern
April 3, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: carbon emissions, Coal, energy consumption, fossil fuels, generalized entropy index, Gini index, Natural Gas, non-fossil fuels, Petroleum, technology efficiency
Primary energy consumption is one of the key drivers of global CO2 emissions that, in turn, heavily depends on the efficiency of involved technologies. Either improvement in technology efficiency or the expansion of non-fossil fuel consumption requires large investments. The planning and financing of such investments by global policy makers or global energy firms require, in turn, reliable measures of associated global spread and their evolution in time, at least from the point of view of the principles for responsible investment (PRI). In this paper, our main contribution is the introduction of index measures for accessing global spread (that is, measures of inequality or inhomogeneity in the statistical distribution of a related quantity of interest) of technology efficiency and CO2 emission in primary energy consumption. These indexes are based on the Gini index, as used in economical sciences, and generalized entropy measures. Regarding primary energy sources, we consider petroleum... [more]
Swing Suppliers and International Natural Gas Market Integration
Sang-Hyun Kim, Yeon-Yi Lim, Dae-Wook Kim, Man-Keun Kim
April 3, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Engle–Granger error correction, market integration, Natural Gas, Qatar, swing supplier
This study explores the international natural gas market integration using the Engle−Granger cointegration and error correction model. Previous studies have suggested that liquefied natural gas (LNG) and oil-linked pricing with a long-term contract have played key roles in gas market integration, especially between European and Asian markets. There is, however, little discussion of the role of the emergence of a swing supplier. A swing supplier, e.g., Qatar or Russia, is flexible to unexpected changes in supply and demand in both European and Asian markets and adapts the gas production/exports swiftly to meet the changes in the markets. Qatar has been a swing supplier since 2005 in the global natural gas market. In 2009, Qatar’s global LNG export share reached above 30% and has remained around 25% since then. Empirical results indirectly support that the emergence of a swing supplier may tighten market integration between Europe and Asia. The swing supplier may have accelerated the deg... [more]
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