Records with Subject: Information Management
Showing records 1 to 25 of 44. [First] Page: 1 2 Last
A Proposal for Public Health Information System-Based Health Promotion Services
Kichan Yoon, Sewon Park, Solji Choi, Munjae Lee
May 22, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: health promotion project, health promotion services, Korea, primary care, public health information system
This study aims to examine the current status and utilization of 22 health promotion projects that use the health care information system. We investigate the health promotion examination results for a counseling project held at health centers, which use information connected with the Health Insurance Corporation. First, we review the status of 22 health promotion projects, including 13 integrated health promotion projects and 9 other health promotion projects. Next, we examine the linkages between the 22 projects and other health promotion systems. Consequently, despite accumulating vast amounts of data, only 10 places could be linked to health promotion data in the health and medical information system; the Social Security Information Service was the only exception to this trend. The Public Health Information System (PHIS) had the lowest data utilization rate in the project. The study results show that it is necessary to utilize data from local health and medical institutions in order... [more]
Triangulum City Dashboard: An Interactive Data Analytic Platform for Visualizing Smart City Performance
Mina Farmanbar, Chunming Rong
April 14, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: big data analytics, big data smart city, dashboard, smart cities, smart city architectures, visualization
Cities are becoming smarter by incorporating hardware technology, software systems, and network infrastructure that provide Information Technology (IT) systems with real-time awareness of the real world. What makes a “smart city” functional is the combined use of advanced infrastructure technologies to deliver its core services to the public in a remarkably efficient manner. City dashboards have drawn increasing interest from both city operators and citizens. Dashboards can gather, visualize, analyze, and inform regional performance to support the sustainable development of smart cities. They provide useful tools for evaluating and facilitating urban infrastructure components and services. This work proposes an interactive web-based data visualization and data analytics toolkit supported by big data aggregation tools. The system proposed is a cloud-based prototype that supports visualization and real-time monitoring of city trends while processing and displaying large data sets on a st... [more]
A Cost Estimation Model for Cloud Services and Applying to PC Laboratory Platforms
KyungWoon Cho, Hyokyung Bahn
February 12, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: CLABO, cloud PC laboratory platform, IaaS cost estimation model, public cloud
IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) is a well-known computing service, which provides infrastructures over the cloud without owning real hardware resources. This is attractive as resources can be scaled up and down instantly according to the user’s computing demands. Customers of such services would like to adjust the utilization policy promptly by considering the charge of the service, but an instantaneous response is not possible as it takes several hours or even a couple of days for cloud service providers to inform the billing information. In this article, we present an instant cost estimation model for estimating the cost of public cloud resources. Specifically, our model estimates the cost of IaaS by monitoring the usage of resources on behalf of virtual machine instances. As this is performed by generating a user-side metering daemon, it is very precise and thus similar to the resource usage evaluated by the cloud service provider. To validate our model, we run PC laboratory serv... [more]
Attack Graph Implementation and Visualization for Cyber Physical Systems
Mariam Ibrahim, Qays Al-Hindawi, Ruba Elhafiz, Ahmad Alsheikh, Omar Alquq
February 2, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: attack graph, cyber physical system security, industrial control system, vehicular networks
Cyber-attacks threaten the safety of cyber physical systems (CPSs) as a result of the existence of weaknesses in the multiple structural units constituting them. In this paper, three cyber physical systems case studies of a pressurized water nuclear power plant (NPP), an industrial control system (ICS), and a vehicular network system (VNS) are examined, formally presented, and implemented utilizing Architecture Analysis and Design Language, determining system design, links, weaknesses, resources, potential attack instances, and their pre-and post-conditions. Then, the developed plant models are checked with a security property using JKind model checker embedded software. The attack graphs causing plants disruptions for the three applications are graphically visualized using a new graphical user interface (GUI) windows application.
Optimization of the Technology Transfer Process Using Gantt Charts and Critical Path Analysis Flow Diagrams: Case Study of the Korean Automobile Industry
Sangkon Lee, Olga A. Shvetsova
January 7, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: automobile industry, Critical Path Analysis, Gantt Chart method, operation network diagram’s planning, optimization and modelling, project management, technology transfer process
This research is focused on the technology transfer process in the automobile industry using project management tools. The aim of this research is the development of a technology-transfer model using Gantt charts and Critical Path Analysis flow diagrams to achieve a sustainable planning process in the global environment. To achieve this goal, the authors use Gantt charts and Critical Path Analysis flow diagrams. The hypothesis and three research questions are presented, which suggest a relationship between project management tools and the sustainable planning process of technology transfer. During the research, we use the case study of the Korean automobile industry as an excellent example of the technology-transfer process in global markets. A single project of technology transfer is discussed: the technology knowledge transfer from Korean headquarters to a Russian manufacturing subsidiary (Hyundai Motor Corporation). Quantitative data were collected through the open resources of the... [more]
In Silico Tools and Phosphoproteomic Software Exclusives
Piby Paul, Manikandan Muthu, Yojitha Chilukuri, Steve W. Haga, Sechul Chun, Jae-Wook Oh
January 2, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: bioinformatics, data analysis, databases, phosphoproteomics, proteomics, tools
Proteomics and phosphoproteomics have been emerging as new dimensions of omics. Phosphorylation has a profound impact on the biological functions and applications of proteins. It influences everything from intrinsic activity and extrinsic executions to cellular localization. This post-translational modification has been subjected to detailed study and has been an object of analytical curiosity with the advent of faster instrumentation. The major strength of phosphoproteomic research lies in the fact that it gives an overall picture of the workforce of the cell. Phosphoproteomics gives deeper insights into understanding the mechanism behind development and progression of a disease. This review for the first time consolidates the list of existing bioinformatics tools developed for phosphoproteomics. The gap between development of bioinformatics tools and their implementation in clinical research is highlighted. The challenge facing progress is ideally believed to be the interdisciplinary... [more]
Knowledge Mapping of Carbon Footprint Research in a LCA Perspective: A Visual Analysis Using CiteSpace
Shihu Zhong, Rong Chen, Fei Song, Yanmin Xu
December 16, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: a visual analysis, carbon footprint, CiteSpace, life cycle assessment
Carbon emissions are inevitably linked to lifestyle and consumption behaviours, and the concept of “carbon footprinting” is now well-recognised beyond academia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is one of the primary tools for assessing carbon footprints. The aim of this paper is to present a systematic review of literatures focusing on carbon footprint calculated with life cycle assessment. We used CiteSpace software to draw the knowledge map of related research to identify and trace the knowledge base and frontier terminology. It was found that the LCA application in respects of carbon footprint studies was completed mainly for the following aspect: beef production and dairy industry, seafood and fishery, nutrition, urban structure and energy use. The CiteSpace analysis showed the development path of the above aspects, for example, beef production and dairy industry has been a long-term topic in this kind of research, while the topic of nutrition appeared in recent years. There was also a... [more]
Analysis of the Risk Impact of Implementing Digital Innovations for Logistics Management
Agnieszka Barczak, Izabela Dembińska, Łukasz Marzantowicz
December 16, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: digital technologies, innovation, logistics management, risk
The emergence of digital technology is a paradigmatic historical change. As a process of transforming social engineering structures, digitization has had a ubiquitous impact on the organization of structures and business logic, as well as on economic principles and rules. The fertile ground for digital technology applications is logistics management, which manifests itself in the dynamic development of logistics 4.0. Increasingly, it is pointed out that digital technology has some distinct features that have fundamental implications for innovation. The aim of the present study is to determine the impact of the risk of implementing digital technologies for logistics management. The study was conducted using the standardized questionnaire interview method with representatives of the management of enterprises. The attempt was random. The sampling was made up of micro, small, medium, and large enterprises from the production and services sectors, having a logistics unit or a logistics divi... [more]
Using IEC 61850 GOOSE Service for Adaptive ANSI 67/67N Protection in Ring Main Systems with Distributed Energy Resources
Ángel Silos, Aleix Señís, Ramon Martín de Pozuelo, Agustín Zaballos
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: 67/67N, adaptive network protection, DER, distributed automation, distribution network, GOOSE, IEC 61850, smart grid
Smart Grids are electricity networks that use digital technology to co-ordinate the needs and capabilities of all generators, grid operators, end users and electricity market stakeholders in such a way that it can optimize asset utilization and operation while maintaining system reliability, resilience and stability. However, Smart Grids are increasingly proposing a much more distributed architecture with the integration of multiple Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) that demand different control and protection schemes. In that sense, the implementation of standards such as IEC 61850 and the integration with Ethernet-based communication networks provide novel tools to manage DER efficiently. This paper analyses the potential usage and benefits of ANSI 67/67N protection in combination with Generic Object Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE) communication service, from the standard 61850 of the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC), for providing adaptive network protection, spe... [more]
Development of Decision Support Process for Building Energy Conservation Measures and Economic Analysis
Bo-Eun Choi, Ji-Hyun Shin, Jin-Hyun Lee, Sun-Sook Kim, Young-Hum Cho
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: decision making support process, economic analysis, energy conservation measure (ECM)
As policies for energy efficiency of buildings are being actively implemented, building energy performance improvement is urgently required. However, in Korea, information on measures and technologies for building energy efficiency is dispersed and concrete methods are not established, making it difficult to apply effective measures. Therefore, it is required to apply and evaluate energy efficiency measures through database construction integrating diverse information. In this study, the energy efficiency measures in the architectural sector that satisfy domestic legal standards are built. Because of the economic evaluation is necessary for the constructed alternatives, an economic efficiency database was established. The target building was set up, and energy efficiency measures were derived. In addition, a methodology that can induce energy efficient decision making of buildings was proposed, and the energy use evaluation and the economic analysis for each of the alternatives derived... [more]
Proposal of a Learning Health System to Transform the National Health System of Spain
Rafael Carnicero, David Rojas, Ignacio Elicegui, Javier Carnicero
November 24, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Big Data applied to clinical research, Big Data applied to healthcare, Big Data applied to National Health System of Spain, data protection, learning health system, patient’s phenotyping
This article identifies the main challenges of the National Health Service of Spain and proposes its transformation into a Learning Health System. For this purpose, the main indicators and reports published by the Spanish Ministries of Health and Finance, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and World Health Organization (WHO) were reviewed. The Learning Health System proposal is based on some sections of an unpublished report, written by two of the authors under request of the Ministry of Health of Spain on Big Data for the National Health System. The main challenges identified are the rising old age dependency ratio; health expenditure pressures and the likely increase of out-of-pocket expenditure; drug expenditures, both retail and consumed in hospitals; waiting lists for surgery; potentially preventable hospital admissions; and the use of electronic health record (EHR) data to fulfil national health information and research objectives. To improve its effica... [more]
Digitalizing the Paints and Coatings Development Process
Tomaž Kern, Eva Krhač, Marjan Senegačnik, Benjamin Urh
November 5, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: coatings industry, development process, digitalization, process analysis, process simulation, technical enabler
Numerous laboratory tests are used to determine the appropriateness of new formulations in the development process in the paint and coatings industry. New formulations are most often functionally inadequate, unacceptable for environmental or health reasons, or too expensive. Formulators are obliged to repeat laboratory tests until one of the formulations fulfills the minimum requirements. This is cumbersome, slow, and expensive, and can cause ecological problems, wasting materials on tests that do not produce the desired results. The purpose of this research was to find out if there might be a better way forward to increase efficiency and free up formulators to focus on new products. In this experiment, a new paints and coatings development process was redesigned based on the potential benefits of formulation digitalization. Instead of laboratory testing, a digital platform was used that has been developed and stocked with relevant, up-to-date, and complete, usable data. This study fou... [more]
Key Points for an Ethical Evaluation of Healthcare Big Data
Pilar Leon-Sanz
September 30, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: big data and life sciences, biomedical ethics, confidentiality, consent forms, data protection, health administration and big data
Background: The article studies specific ethical issues arising from the use of big data in Life Sciences and Healthcare. Methods: Main consensus documents, other studies, and particular cases are analyzed. Results: New concepts that emerged in five key areas for the bioethical debate on big data and health are identified—the accuracy and validity of data and algorithms, questions related to transparency and confidentiality in the use of data; aspects that raise the coding or pseudonymization and the anonymization of data, and also problems derived from the possible individual or group identification; the new ways of obtaining consent for the transfer of personal data; the relationship between big data and the responsibility of professional decision; and the commitment of the Institutions and Public Administrations. Conclusions: Good practices in the management of big data related to Life Sciences and Healthcare depend on respect for the rights of individuals, the improvement that thes... [more]
Change of Data-Driven Drug Design Trends Through Patent Analysis
Jong-Hyun Kim, Yong-Gil Lee
September 30, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: D, data science, fourth industrial revolution, innovation, patent, pharmaceutical, R&, technology
The pharmaceutical industry is one of the most research and development (R&D)-intensive industries. This industry has tried many strategies to overcome the limitations of a business model that had a high return and high risk. In recent years, the fourth industrial revolution has affected many industries, causing them to update their traditional production and business strategies to a “data science-based” approach. This data science methodology, based on the largely increased size of the data environment, has actively changed the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, this study aimed to identify specific characteristics of data science innovation in the pharmaceutical industry through the analysis of patent data from the triadic patent databases from the United States, Japan, and Europe.
Workflow for Data Analysis in Experimental and Computational Systems Biology: Using Python as ‘Glue’
Melinda Badenhorst, Christopher J. Barry, Christiaan J. Swanepoel, Charles Theo van Staden, Julian Wissing, Johann M. Rohwer
September 23, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: enzyme kinetics, Jupyter notebook, kinetic modelling, Matplotlib, NMR spectroscopy, optimisation, parametrisation, PySCeS, SciPy, validation
Bottom-up systems biology entails the construction of kinetic models of cellular pathways by collecting kinetic information on the pathway components (e.g., enzymes) and collating this into a kinetic model, based for example on ordinary differential equations. This requires integration and data transfer between a variety of tools, ranging from data acquisition in kinetics experiments, to fitting and parameter estimation, to model construction, evaluation and validation. Here, we present a workflow that uses the Python programming language, specifically the modules from the SciPy stack, to facilitate this task. Starting from raw kinetics data, acquired either from spectrophotometric assays with microtitre plates or from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy time-courses, we demonstrate the fitting and construction of a kinetic model using scientific Python tools. The analysis takes place in a Jupyter notebook, which keeps all information related to a particular experiment togeth... [more]
How to Improve the Quality and Speed of Green New Product Development?
Shi Yin, Baizhou Li, Xiaoyan Zhang, Meili Zhang
September 23, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: green NPD quality, green NPD speed, green supply chain integration, knowledge spiral, top management’s environmental awareness
With the deep integration of supply chain with Internet and Internet of things, it is an important way for enterprises to win market competition and seek sustainable development to develop green new products through external green supply chain integration (GSCI). This study established a unified research framework of external GSCI, knowledge spiral (KS), green new product development (NPD), and top management’s environmental awareness (TMEA). Structural equation modeling and analytic hierarchy process are used to explore the mechanism of the established research framework. The research results of this paper are as follows: (i) Green supplier integration (SI) and green consumer integration (CI) have significant positive effects on green NPD speed (GS), green NPD quality (GQ), and KS, and KS has a significant positive effect on GS and GS, respectively. Compared with green CI, green SI has a greater impact on KS, GS, and GQ. In addition, compared with GS, KS has a greater impact on GQ; (i... [more]
Standardizing Innovation Management: An Opportunity for SMEs in the Aerospace Industry
Alberto Cerezo-Narváez, Daniel García-Jurado, María Carmen González-Cruz, Andrés Pastor-Fernández, Manuel Otero-Mateo, Pablo Ballesteros-Pérez
July 31, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: aerospace industry, development and innovation (R+D+i), industrial processes, Industry 4.0, innovation, management system, metrology, research, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)
In a globalized marketplace, the competition in the aerospace industry has increased significantly. Producers can choose between many suppliers. These suppliers have to comply with more requirements and technical specifications, as well as take on greater responsibilities that originally fell on producers. In this context, business opportunities for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are limited, but still suppliers must try to leverage the maximum strategic advantage of the few that present. Adopting research, development and innovation (R+D+i) practices has proven to bring great benefits to companies and allows them to gain significant competitive advantages. However, the process of designing, implementing and testing R+D+i-related processes is not straightforward, nor it has been addressed in the recent research on SMEs. In this paper, a case study of a Spanish innovative small company providing industrial metrology and quality services is analyzed. Thanks to an internal deci... [more]
Cross-Sectorial Semantic Model for Support of Data Analytics in Process Industries
Martin Sarnovsky, Peter Bednar, Miroslav Smatana
July 30, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: data analytics, process industry, semantic annotation, semantic model
The process industries rely on various software systems and use a wide range of technologies. Predictive modeling techniques are often applied to data obtained from these systems to build the predictive functions used to optimize the production processes. Therefore, there is a need to provide a proper representation of knowledge and data and to improve the communication between the data scientists who develop the predictive functions and domain experts who possess the expert knowledge of the domain. This can be achieved by developing a semantic model that focuses on cross-sectorial aspects rather than concepts for specific industries, and that specifies the meta-classes for the formal description of these specific concepts. This model should cover the most important areas including modeling the production processes, data analysis methods, and evaluation using the performance indicators. In this paper, our primary objective was to introduce the specifications of the Cross-sectorial doma... [more]
Multiscale and Multi-Granularity Process Analytics: A Review
Marco S. Reis
May 16, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: data aggregation, industrial big data, multi-granularity methods, multiscale methods
As Industry 4.0 makes its course into the Chemical Processing Industry (CPI), new challenges emerge that require an adaptation of the Process Analytics toolkit. In particular, two recurring classes of problems arise, motivated by the growing complexity of systems on one hand, and increasing data throughput (i.e., the product of two well-known “V’s„ from Big Data: Volume × Velocity) on the other. More specifically, as enabling IT technologies (IoT, smart sensors, etc.) enlarge the focus of analysis from the unit level to the entire plant or even to the supply chain level, the existence of relevant dynamics at multiple scales becomes a common pattern; therefore, multiscale methods are called for and must be applied in order to avoid biased analysis towards a certain scale, compromising the benefits from the balanced exploitation of the information content at all scales. Also, these same enabling technologies currently collect large volumes of data at high-sampling rates, creating a flood... [more]
Analysis of the Primary Constraint Conditions of an Efficient Photovoltaic-Thermoelectric Hybrid System
Guiqiang Li, Xiao Chen, Yi Jin
March 15, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: cold side temperature, electrical efficiency, geometric size, PV-TEG
Electrical efficiency can be increased by combining photovoltaic (PV) and the thermoelectric (TE) systems. However, a simple and cursory combination is unsuitable because the negative impact of temperature on PV may be greater than its positive impact on TE. This study analyzed the primary constraint conditions based on the hybrid system model consisting of a PV and a TE generator (TEG), which includes TE material with temperature-dependent properties. The influences of the geometric size, solar irradiation and cold side temperature on the hybrid system performance is discussed based on the simulation. Furthermore, the effective range of parameters is demonstrated using the image area method, and the change trend of the area with different parameters illustrates the constraint conditions of an efficient PV-TE hybrid system. These results provide a benchmark for efficient PV-TEG design.
A Novel Algorithm for Efficient Downlink Packet Scheduling for Multiple-Component-Carrier Cellular Systems
Yao-Liang Chung
February 5, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: 4G/5G cellular systems, efficiency, multiple component carriers, proportional fair
The simultaneous aggregation of multiple component carriers (CCs) for use by a base station constitutes one of the more promising strategies for providing substantially enhanced bandwidths for packet transmissions in 4th and 5th generation cellular systems. To the best of our knowledge, however, few previous studies have undertaken a thorough investigation of various performance aspects of the use of a simple yet effective packet scheduling algorithm in which multiple CCs are aggregated for transmission in such systems. Consequently, the present study presents an efficient packet scheduling algorithm designed on the basis of the proportional fair criterion for use in multiple-CC systems for downlink transmission. The proposed algorithm includes a focus on providing simultaneous transmission support for both real-time (RT) and non-RT traffic. This algorithm can, when applied with sufficiently efficient designs, provide adequate utilization of spectrum resources for the purposes of trans... [more]
Auto-Mapping and Configuration Method of IEC 61850 Information Model Based on OPC UA
In-Jae Shin, Byung-Kwen Song, Doo-Seop Eom
January 31, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: abstract communication service interface (ACSI), IEC 61850, open-platform communication (OPC) unified architecture (UA), smart grid, system configuration description language (SCL)
The open-platform communication (OPC) unified architecture (UA) (IEC62541) is introduced as a key technology for realizing a variety of smart grid (SG) use cases enabling relevant automation and control tasks. The OPC UA can expand interoperability between power systems. The top-level SG management platform needs independent middleware to transparently manage the power information technology (IT) systems, including the IEC 61850. To expand interoperability between the power system for a large number of stakeholders and various standards, this paper focuses on the IEC 61850 for the digital substation. In this paper, we propose the interconnection method to integrate communication with OPC UA and convert OPC UA AddressSpace using system configuration description language (SCL) of IEC 61850. We implemented the mapping process for the verification of the interconnection method. The interconnection method in this paper can expand interoperability between power systems for OPC UA integration... [more]
Communication Channel Reconstruction for Transmission Line Differential Protection: System Arrangement and Routing Protocol
Xu Chen, Xianggen Yin, Bin Yu, Zhe Zhang
January 31, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: communication channel, differential protection, routing protocol, wireless sensor network (WSN)
Natural disasters may be of significant impact on overhead transmission lines and cause communication outage related to pilot protection. This paper aims at reconstructing communication channels and maintaining functions of pilot-wire differential protections after the main channel fails. With the development of smart grids as well as new communication technologies, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been potential means for realizing reconstructed communication channels (RCCs) without further installation. For a reliable design, system arrangement and the communication structure were presented. Theoretical planning of sensor nodes was formulated, which enjoys advantages such as high reliability, cost optimization, and capacity of satisfying the connectivity of the communication network. To meet the need of time delay, a novel routing protocol for WSNs was proposed with three stages including route establishment, route discovery and route maintenance, which ensured the directional pr... [more]
Smart Monitoring Embedded Service for Energy-Efficient and Sustainable Management in Data Centers
Diego Marcos-Jorquera, Virgilio Gilart-Iglesias, Francisco José Mora-Gimeno, Juan Antonio Gil-Martínez-Abarca
January 7, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: embedded systems, energy-efficient networks, monitoring energy-consumption, service oriented architecture, sustainable network
Information technologies (IT) currently represent 2% of CO₂ emissions. In recent years, a wide variety of IT solutions have been proposed, focused on increasing the energy efficiency of network data centers. Monitoring is one of the fundamental pillars of these systems, providing the information necessary for adequate decision making. However, today’s monitoring systems (MSs) are partial, specific and highly coupled solutions. This study proposes a model for monitoring data centers that serves as a basis for energy saving systems, offered as a value-added service embedded in a device with low cost and power consumption. The proposal is general in nature, comprehensive, scalable and focused on heterogeneous environments, and it allows quick adaptation to the needs of changing and dynamic environments. Further, a prototype of the system has been implemented in several devices, which has allowed validation of the proposal in addition to identification of the minimum hardware profile requi... [more]
Lifetime-Aware Cloud Data Centers: Models and Performance Evaluation
Luca Chiaraviglio, Antonio Cianfrani, Marco Listanti, William Liu, Marco Polverini
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: data-centers (DCs), energy and lifetime trade-off, failure models, server lifetime models
We present a model to evaluate the server lifetime in cloud data centers (DCs). In particular, when the server power level is decreased, the failure rate tends to be reduced as a consequence of the limited number of components powered on. However, the variation between the different power states triggers a failure rate increase. We therefore consider these two effects in a server lifetime model, subject to an energy-aware management policy. We then evaluate our model in a realistic case study. Our results show that the impact on the server lifetime is far from negligible. As a consequence, we argue that a lifetime-aware approach should be pursued to decide how and when to apply a power state change to a server.
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