Records with Subject: Information Management
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Improving Transactional Data System Based on an Edge Computing−Blockchain−Machine Learning Integrated Framework
Zeinab Shahbazi, Yung-Cheol Byun
October 14, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: blockchain, edge computing, Industrial Internet of Things, Machine Learning, smart manufacturing
The modern industry, production, and manufacturing core is developing based on smart manufacturing (SM) systems and digitalization. Smart manufacturing’s practical and meaningful design follows data, information, and operational technology through the blockchain, edge computing, and machine learning to develop and facilitate the smart manufacturing system. This process’s proposed smart manufacturing system considers the integration of blockchain, edge computing, and machine learning approaches. Edge computing makes the computational workload balanced and similarly provides a timely response for the devices. Blockchain technology utilizes the data transmission and the manufacturing system’s transactions, and the machine learning approach provides advanced data analysis for a huge manufacturing dataset. Regarding smart manufacturing systems’ computational environments, the model solves the problems using a swarm intelligence-based approach. The experimental results present the edge compu... [more]
Group Key Management Scheme for Multicast Communication Fog Computing Networks
Mai Trung Dong, Haitao Xu
April 29, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: fog computing, group key management, multicast communication
In group key management, the implementation of encryption often fails because multicast communication does not provide reliable linkage. In this paper, a new group key management scheme is proposed for multicast communication in fog computing networks. In the proposed scheme, any legal fog user belonging to a fog node will be able to decrypt a ciphertext encrypted by a secret shared key. The shared secret key is divided into key segments. In the rekeying operation process, each key segment is split into two factors with its shared production mechanism. The key updates are required to belong to the fog provider or the group management device. Fog users will have independent key segments unchanged. Then, the cost, the message of rekeying, and the dependence on credible channels will be decreased. This method can resist collusion attacks and ensure backward security and forward security, even if the number of users leaving is larger than the threshold value. Our scheme is also suitable fo... [more]
Freelancers in the Software Development Process: A Systematic Mapping Study
Varun Gupta, Jose Maria Fernandez-Crehuet, Thomas Hanne
April 26, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: crowdsourcing, freelancers, innovation, software development, systematic mapping study
[Context] Freelancers could catalyze the software development process by providing their niche skills to generate high quality outputs. They could help companies (including startups) to foster innovations by suggesting creative ideas and providing their expertise in implementing them (for instance, designing solutions, coding solutions etc.). Freelancers could effectively and efficiently work as a virtual member of the software development team. The company must make informed decisions about which task to allot to the freelancer, which freelancer to select, pricing the task, and evaluating the submitted work. On the other hand, the freelancer should make an informed decision about evaluating the monetary value of the task to be charged, trusting the requester, analyzing the skills requirement of the task (finding matches between skill requirement and skills processed), selecting the best task, and maintaining the highest level of reputation. However, the literature does not provide fre... [more]
Process of Creating an Integrated Design and Manufacturing Environment as Part of the Structure of Industry 4.0
Andrzej Paszkiewicz, Marek Bolanowski, Grzegorz Budzik, Łukasz Przeszłowski, Mariusz Oleksy
February 3, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: 3D printing, additive manufacturing, computer systems and networks, IoT, manufacturing process
This paper presents the process for creating an integrated design and manufacturing environment supporting 3D printing as part of the structure of Industry 4.0. This process is based on a developed framework for the design of modern automated and computerized infrastructure. The task of the described system is to combine all the steps included in the operating range of incremental systems based on an IT platform by integrating data from individual areas, such as IT systems supporting remote 3D printing. The proposed framework for incremental processes is a universal solution that can be defined in detail by a single organizational unit running 3D printing, as well as by a cluster of entities related to 3D printing. In the initial phase, the framework design includes a set of guidelines for IT (Information Technology) systems that facilitate the construction of individual elements and the creation of communication interfaces. In subsequent stages, the framework may already implement ele... [more]
Utilization of Industry 4.0 Related Equipment in Assembly Line Balancing Procedure
Nikola Gjeldum, Bashir Salah, Amanda Aljinovic, Sajjad Khan
November 9, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: assembly line, assembly line balancing, Industry 4.0 related equipment, information and communication technology, production variety
In recent decades, production in high-volume/low-variety batches is replaced with low-volume/high-variety production type. This type of production demands excessive flows of both material and information. Recent advances in information and communication technologies (ICT), together with the concept of cyber-psychical system (CPS) enable the concept of Industry 4.0 (I4.0). In this paper, the performance of I4.0 related equipment implementation is presented in iterative assembly line balancing (ALB) process of a gearbox assembly line. Largest candidate rule method through spreadsheet simulation was used for tasks reallocations, with the objective to minimize the cycle time when the number of stations is fixed. Utilization of human analysts using snap back method for manual data gathering process still shown advantage over I4.0 equipment utilization in manual ALB. The assembly process is performed in the learning factory environment, and it is considered as very close to real industry pro... [more]
Active Control Parameters Monitoring for Freight Trains, Using Wireless Sensor Network Platform and Internet of Things
Adrian Brezulianu, Cristian Aghion, Marius Hagan, Oana Geman, Iuliana Chiuchisan, Alexandra-Ligia Balan, Doru-Gabriel Balan, Valentina Emilia Balas
August 5, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: connected train, Internet of Things (IoT), monitoring web server application, railway transport management, sensor networks
Operating in a dynamic and competitive global market, railway companies have realized many years ago that better management of their logistical operations will enhance their strategic positions on the market. The financial component of daily operations is of utmost importance these days and many companies concluded that maximizing the profit relies on the integration of logistical activities with better income management. This paper presents a system consisting of three components: Ferodata BOX, Ferodata MOBILE, and Ferodata SYS, used to transmit to a web-server the status and operating information of an electric or diesel train. Train information includes data from locomotives, wagons, train driver, route, direction, fuel or electric consumption, speed, etc. All this information is processed in real-time and can be viewed in the web-server application. Additionally, the web-server application could manage and report details that are coming from the wagons, such as valuable information... [more]
Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration in Field Programmable Gate Arrays: An Experimental Case Study
Vincenzo Conti, Leonardo Rundo, Giuseppe Dario Billeci, Carmelo Militello, Salvatore Vitabile
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: digital signal processing, dynamic partial reconfiguration, Energy Efficiency, Field Programmable Gate Array, video filtering
Both computational performances and energy efficiency are required for the development of any mobile or embedded information processing system. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the latest evolution of these systems, paving the way for advancements in ubiquitous computing. In a context in which a large amount of data is often analyzed and processed, it is mandatory to adapt node logic and processing capabilities with respect to the available energy resources. This paper investigates under which conditions a partially reconfigurable hardware accelerator can provide energy saving in complex processing tasks. The paper also presents a useful analysis of how the dynamic partial reconfiguration technique can be used to enable energy efficiency in a generic IoT node that exploits a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device. Furthermore, this work introduces a hardware infrastructure and new energy metrics tailored for the energy efficiency evaluation of the dynamic partial reconfiguration pr... [more]
Elgamal Elliptic Curve Based Secure Communication Architecture for Microgrids
Sarmadullah Khan, Rafiullah Khan
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: microgrid, secure communication, security
Microgrids play an important role in today’s power systems as the distributed generation is becoming increasingly common. They can operate in two possible modes: (i) standalone and (ii) grid-connected. The transitional state from standalone to grid-connected mode is very critical and requires the microgrid to be synchronized with the main grid. Thus, secure, reliable and trustworthy control and communication is utmost necessary to prevent out-of-sync connection which could severely damage the microgrid and/or the main grid. Existing solutions consume more resources and take long time to establish a secure connection. The objective of the proposed work is to reduce the connection establishment time by using efficient computational algorithms and save the resources. This paper proposes a secure authentication and key establishment mechanism for ensuring safe operation and control of the microgrids. The proposed approach uses the concept of Elgamal with slight modification. Private key of... [more]
A Proposal for Public Health Information System-Based Health Promotion Services
Kichan Yoon, Sewon Park, Solji Choi, Munjae Lee
May 22, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: health promotion project, health promotion services, Korea, primary care, public health information system
This study aims to examine the current status and utilization of 22 health promotion projects that use the health care information system. We investigate the health promotion examination results for a counseling project held at health centers, which use information connected with the Health Insurance Corporation. First, we review the status of 22 health promotion projects, including 13 integrated health promotion projects and 9 other health promotion projects. Next, we examine the linkages between the 22 projects and other health promotion systems. Consequently, despite accumulating vast amounts of data, only 10 places could be linked to health promotion data in the health and medical information system; the Social Security Information Service was the only exception to this trend. The Public Health Information System (PHIS) had the lowest data utilization rate in the project. The study results show that it is necessary to utilize data from local health and medical institutions in order... [more]
Triangulum City Dashboard: An Interactive Data Analytic Platform for Visualizing Smart City Performance
Mina Farmanbar, Chunming Rong
April 14, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: big data analytics, big data smart city, dashboard, smart cities, smart city architectures, visualization
Cities are becoming smarter by incorporating hardware technology, software systems, and network infrastructure that provide Information Technology (IT) systems with real-time awareness of the real world. What makes a “smart city” functional is the combined use of advanced infrastructure technologies to deliver its core services to the public in a remarkably efficient manner. City dashboards have drawn increasing interest from both city operators and citizens. Dashboards can gather, visualize, analyze, and inform regional performance to support the sustainable development of smart cities. They provide useful tools for evaluating and facilitating urban infrastructure components and services. This work proposes an interactive web-based data visualization and data analytics toolkit supported by big data aggregation tools. The system proposed is a cloud-based prototype that supports visualization and real-time monitoring of city trends while processing and displaying large data sets on a st... [more]
A Cost Estimation Model for Cloud Services and Applying to PC Laboratory Platforms
KyungWoon Cho, Hyokyung Bahn
February 12, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: CLABO, cloud PC laboratory platform, IaaS cost estimation model, public cloud
IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) is a well-known computing service, which provides infrastructures over the cloud without owning real hardware resources. This is attractive as resources can be scaled up and down instantly according to the user’s computing demands. Customers of such services would like to adjust the utilization policy promptly by considering the charge of the service, but an instantaneous response is not possible as it takes several hours or even a couple of days for cloud service providers to inform the billing information. In this article, we present an instant cost estimation model for estimating the cost of public cloud resources. Specifically, our model estimates the cost of IaaS by monitoring the usage of resources on behalf of virtual machine instances. As this is performed by generating a user-side metering daemon, it is very precise and thus similar to the resource usage evaluated by the cloud service provider. To validate our model, we run PC laboratory serv... [more]
Attack Graph Implementation and Visualization for Cyber Physical Systems
Mariam Ibrahim, Qays Al-Hindawi, Ruba Elhafiz, Ahmad Alsheikh, Omar Alquq
February 2, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: attack graph, cyber physical system security, industrial control system, vehicular networks
Cyber-attacks threaten the safety of cyber physical systems (CPSs) as a result of the existence of weaknesses in the multiple structural units constituting them. In this paper, three cyber physical systems case studies of a pressurized water nuclear power plant (NPP), an industrial control system (ICS), and a vehicular network system (VNS) are examined, formally presented, and implemented utilizing Architecture Analysis and Design Language, determining system design, links, weaknesses, resources, potential attack instances, and their pre-and post-conditions. Then, the developed plant models are checked with a security property using JKind model checker embedded software. The attack graphs causing plants disruptions for the three applications are graphically visualized using a new graphical user interface (GUI) windows application.
Optimization of the Technology Transfer Process Using Gantt Charts and Critical Path Analysis Flow Diagrams: Case Study of the Korean Automobile Industry
Sangkon Lee, Olga A. Shvetsova
January 7, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: automobile industry, Critical Path Analysis, Gantt Chart method, operation network diagram’s planning, optimization and modelling, project management, technology transfer process
This research is focused on the technology transfer process in the automobile industry using project management tools. The aim of this research is the development of a technology-transfer model using Gantt charts and Critical Path Analysis flow diagrams to achieve a sustainable planning process in the global environment. To achieve this goal, the authors use Gantt charts and Critical Path Analysis flow diagrams. The hypothesis and three research questions are presented, which suggest a relationship between project management tools and the sustainable planning process of technology transfer. During the research, we use the case study of the Korean automobile industry as an excellent example of the technology-transfer process in global markets. A single project of technology transfer is discussed: the technology knowledge transfer from Korean headquarters to a Russian manufacturing subsidiary (Hyundai Motor Corporation). Quantitative data were collected through the open resources of the... [more]
In Silico Tools and Phosphoproteomic Software Exclusives
Piby Paul, Manikandan Muthu, Yojitha Chilukuri, Steve W. Haga, Sechul Chun, Jae-Wook Oh
January 2, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: bioinformatics, data analysis, databases, phosphoproteomics, proteomics, tools
Proteomics and phosphoproteomics have been emerging as new dimensions of omics. Phosphorylation has a profound impact on the biological functions and applications of proteins. It influences everything from intrinsic activity and extrinsic executions to cellular localization. This post-translational modification has been subjected to detailed study and has been an object of analytical curiosity with the advent of faster instrumentation. The major strength of phosphoproteomic research lies in the fact that it gives an overall picture of the workforce of the cell. Phosphoproteomics gives deeper insights into understanding the mechanism behind development and progression of a disease. This review for the first time consolidates the list of existing bioinformatics tools developed for phosphoproteomics. The gap between development of bioinformatics tools and their implementation in clinical research is highlighted. The challenge facing progress is ideally believed to be the interdisciplinary... [more]
Knowledge Mapping of Carbon Footprint Research in a LCA Perspective: A Visual Analysis Using CiteSpace
Shihu Zhong, Rong Chen, Fei Song, Yanmin Xu
December 16, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: a visual analysis, carbon footprint, CiteSpace, life cycle assessment
Carbon emissions are inevitably linked to lifestyle and consumption behaviours, and the concept of “carbon footprinting” is now well-recognised beyond academia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is one of the primary tools for assessing carbon footprints. The aim of this paper is to present a systematic review of literatures focusing on carbon footprint calculated with life cycle assessment. We used CiteSpace software to draw the knowledge map of related research to identify and trace the knowledge base and frontier terminology. It was found that the LCA application in respects of carbon footprint studies was completed mainly for the following aspect: beef production and dairy industry, seafood and fishery, nutrition, urban structure and energy use. The CiteSpace analysis showed the development path of the above aspects, for example, beef production and dairy industry has been a long-term topic in this kind of research, while the topic of nutrition appeared in recent years. There was also a... [more]
Analysis of the Risk Impact of Implementing Digital Innovations for Logistics Management
Agnieszka Barczak, Izabela Dembińska, Łukasz Marzantowicz
December 16, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: digital technologies, innovation, logistics management, risk
The emergence of digital technology is a paradigmatic historical change. As a process of transforming social engineering structures, digitization has had a ubiquitous impact on the organization of structures and business logic, as well as on economic principles and rules. The fertile ground for digital technology applications is logistics management, which manifests itself in the dynamic development of logistics 4.0. Increasingly, it is pointed out that digital technology has some distinct features that have fundamental implications for innovation. The aim of the present study is to determine the impact of the risk of implementing digital technologies for logistics management. The study was conducted using the standardized questionnaire interview method with representatives of the management of enterprises. The attempt was random. The sampling was made up of micro, small, medium, and large enterprises from the production and services sectors, having a logistics unit or a logistics divi... [more]
Using IEC 61850 GOOSE Service for Adaptive ANSI 67/67N Protection in Ring Main Systems with Distributed Energy Resources
Ángel Silos, Aleix Señís, Ramon Martín de Pozuelo, Agustín Zaballos
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: 67/67N, adaptive network protection, DER, distributed automation, distribution network, GOOSE, IEC 61850, smart grid
Smart Grids are electricity networks that use digital technology to co-ordinate the needs and capabilities of all generators, grid operators, end users and electricity market stakeholders in such a way that it can optimize asset utilization and operation while maintaining system reliability, resilience and stability. However, Smart Grids are increasingly proposing a much more distributed architecture with the integration of multiple Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) that demand different control and protection schemes. In that sense, the implementation of standards such as IEC 61850 and the integration with Ethernet-based communication networks provide novel tools to manage DER efficiently. This paper analyses the potential usage and benefits of ANSI 67/67N protection in combination with Generic Object Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE) communication service, from the standard 61850 of the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC), for providing adaptive network protection, spe... [more]
Development of Decision Support Process for Building Energy Conservation Measures and Economic Analysis
Bo-Eun Choi, Ji-Hyun Shin, Jin-Hyun Lee, Sun-Sook Kim, Young-Hum Cho
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: decision making support process, economic analysis, energy conservation measure (ECM)
As policies for energy efficiency of buildings are being actively implemented, building energy performance improvement is urgently required. However, in Korea, information on measures and technologies for building energy efficiency is dispersed and concrete methods are not established, making it difficult to apply effective measures. Therefore, it is required to apply and evaluate energy efficiency measures through database construction integrating diverse information. In this study, the energy efficiency measures in the architectural sector that satisfy domestic legal standards are built. Because of the economic evaluation is necessary for the constructed alternatives, an economic efficiency database was established. The target building was set up, and energy efficiency measures were derived. In addition, a methodology that can induce energy efficient decision making of buildings was proposed, and the energy use evaluation and the economic analysis for each of the alternatives derived... [more]
Proposal of a Learning Health System to Transform the National Health System of Spain
Rafael Carnicero, David Rojas, Ignacio Elicegui, Javier Carnicero
November 24, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Big Data applied to clinical research, Big Data applied to healthcare, Big Data applied to National Health System of Spain, data protection, learning health system, patient’s phenotyping
This article identifies the main challenges of the National Health Service of Spain and proposes its transformation into a Learning Health System. For this purpose, the main indicators and reports published by the Spanish Ministries of Health and Finance, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and World Health Organization (WHO) were reviewed. The Learning Health System proposal is based on some sections of an unpublished report, written by two of the authors under request of the Ministry of Health of Spain on Big Data for the National Health System. The main challenges identified are the rising old age dependency ratio; health expenditure pressures and the likely increase of out-of-pocket expenditure; drug expenditures, both retail and consumed in hospitals; waiting lists for surgery; potentially preventable hospital admissions; and the use of electronic health record (EHR) data to fulfil national health information and research objectives. To improve its effica... [more]
Digitalizing the Paints and Coatings Development Process
Tomaž Kern, Eva Krhač, Marjan Senegačnik, Benjamin Urh
November 5, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: coatings industry, development process, digitalization, process analysis, process simulation, technical enabler
Numerous laboratory tests are used to determine the appropriateness of new formulations in the development process in the paint and coatings industry. New formulations are most often functionally inadequate, unacceptable for environmental or health reasons, or too expensive. Formulators are obliged to repeat laboratory tests until one of the formulations fulfills the minimum requirements. This is cumbersome, slow, and expensive, and can cause ecological problems, wasting materials on tests that do not produce the desired results. The purpose of this research was to find out if there might be a better way forward to increase efficiency and free up formulators to focus on new products. In this experiment, a new paints and coatings development process was redesigned based on the potential benefits of formulation digitalization. Instead of laboratory testing, a digital platform was used that has been developed and stocked with relevant, up-to-date, and complete, usable data. This study fou... [more]
Key Points for an Ethical Evaluation of Healthcare Big Data
Pilar Leon-Sanz
September 30, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: big data and life sciences, biomedical ethics, confidentiality, consent forms, data protection, health administration and big data
Background: The article studies specific ethical issues arising from the use of big data in Life Sciences and Healthcare. Methods: Main consensus documents, other studies, and particular cases are analyzed. Results: New concepts that emerged in five key areas for the bioethical debate on big data and health are identified—the accuracy and validity of data and algorithms, questions related to transparency and confidentiality in the use of data; aspects that raise the coding or pseudonymization and the anonymization of data, and also problems derived from the possible individual or group identification; the new ways of obtaining consent for the transfer of personal data; the relationship between big data and the responsibility of professional decision; and the commitment of the Institutions and Public Administrations. Conclusions: Good practices in the management of big data related to Life Sciences and Healthcare depend on respect for the rights of individuals, the improvement that thes... [more]
Change of Data-Driven Drug Design Trends Through Patent Analysis
Jong-Hyun Kim, Yong-Gil Lee
September 30, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: D, data science, fourth industrial revolution, innovation, patent, pharmaceutical, R&, technology
The pharmaceutical industry is one of the most research and development (R&D)-intensive industries. This industry has tried many strategies to overcome the limitations of a business model that had a high return and high risk. In recent years, the fourth industrial revolution has affected many industries, causing them to update their traditional production and business strategies to a “data science-based” approach. This data science methodology, based on the largely increased size of the data environment, has actively changed the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, this study aimed to identify specific characteristics of data science innovation in the pharmaceutical industry through the analysis of patent data from the triadic patent databases from the United States, Japan, and Europe.
Workflow for Data Analysis in Experimental and Computational Systems Biology: Using Python as ‘Glue’
Melinda Badenhorst, Christopher J. Barry, Christiaan J. Swanepoel, Charles Theo van Staden, Julian Wissing, Johann M. Rohwer
September 23, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: enzyme kinetics, Jupyter notebook, kinetic modelling, Matplotlib, NMR spectroscopy, optimisation, parametrisation, PySCeS, SciPy, validation
Bottom-up systems biology entails the construction of kinetic models of cellular pathways by collecting kinetic information on the pathway components (e.g., enzymes) and collating this into a kinetic model, based for example on ordinary differential equations. This requires integration and data transfer between a variety of tools, ranging from data acquisition in kinetics experiments, to fitting and parameter estimation, to model construction, evaluation and validation. Here, we present a workflow that uses the Python programming language, specifically the modules from the SciPy stack, to facilitate this task. Starting from raw kinetics data, acquired either from spectrophotometric assays with microtitre plates or from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy time-courses, we demonstrate the fitting and construction of a kinetic model using scientific Python tools. The analysis takes place in a Jupyter notebook, which keeps all information related to a particular experiment togeth... [more]
How to Improve the Quality and Speed of Green New Product Development?
Shi Yin, Baizhou Li, Xiaoyan Zhang, Meili Zhang
September 23, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: green NPD quality, green NPD speed, green supply chain integration, knowledge spiral, top management’s environmental awareness
With the deep integration of supply chain with Internet and Internet of things, it is an important way for enterprises to win market competition and seek sustainable development to develop green new products through external green supply chain integration (GSCI). This study established a unified research framework of external GSCI, knowledge spiral (KS), green new product development (NPD), and top management’s environmental awareness (TMEA). Structural equation modeling and analytic hierarchy process are used to explore the mechanism of the established research framework. The research results of this paper are as follows: (i) Green supplier integration (SI) and green consumer integration (CI) have significant positive effects on green NPD speed (GS), green NPD quality (GQ), and KS, and KS has a significant positive effect on GS and GS, respectively. Compared with green CI, green SI has a greater impact on KS, GS, and GQ. In addition, compared with GS, KS has a greater impact on GQ; (i... [more]
Standardizing Innovation Management: An Opportunity for SMEs in the Aerospace Industry
Alberto Cerezo-Narváez, Daniel García-Jurado, María Carmen González-Cruz, Andrés Pastor-Fernández, Manuel Otero-Mateo, Pablo Ballesteros-Pérez
July 31, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: aerospace industry, development and innovation (R+D+i), industrial processes, Industry 4.0, innovation, management system, metrology, research, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)
In a globalized marketplace, the competition in the aerospace industry has increased significantly. Producers can choose between many suppliers. These suppliers have to comply with more requirements and technical specifications, as well as take on greater responsibilities that originally fell on producers. In this context, business opportunities for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are limited, but still suppliers must try to leverage the maximum strategic advantage of the few that present. Adopting research, development and innovation (R+D+i) practices has proven to bring great benefits to companies and allows them to gain significant competitive advantages. However, the process of designing, implementing and testing R+D+i-related processes is not straightforward, nor it has been addressed in the recent research on SMEs. In this paper, a case study of a Spanish innovative small company providing industrial metrology and quality services is analyzed. Thanks to an internal deci... [more]
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