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Records with Keyword: Modelling
Showing records 1 to 25 of 44. [First] Page: 1 2 Last
CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation: An Introduction to Published Reviews
Alfredo Iranzo
January 2, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: combustion, Computational Fluid Dynamics, energy engineering, heat transfer, Modelling, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Simulation, thermal radiation, turbulence
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been firmly established as a fundamental discipline to advancing research on energy engineering. The major progresses achieved during the last two decades both on software modelling capabilities and hardware computing power have resulted in considerable and widespread CFD interest among scientist and engineers. Numerical modelling and simulation developments are increasingly contributing to the current state of the art in many energy engineering aspects, such as power generation, combustion, wind energy, concentrated solar power, hydro power, gas and steam turbines, fuel cells, and many others. This review intends to provide an overview of the CFD applications in energy and thermal engineering, as a presentation and background for the Special Issue “CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation” published by Processes in 2020. A brief introduction to the most significant reviews that have been published on the particular topics is... [more]
Splitting Triglycerides with a Counter-Current Liquid−Liquid Spray Column: Modeling, Global Sensitivity Analysis, Parameter Estimation and Optimization
Mark Nicholas Jones, Hector Forero-Hernandez, Alexandr Zubov, Bent Sarup, Gürkan Sin
January 2, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: hydrolysis, Modelling, Optimization, parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis, spray column, vegetable oil
In this work we present the model of a counter-current spray column in which a triglyceride (tripalmitic triglyceride) is hydrolyzed by water and leads to fatty acid (palmitic acid) and glycerol. A finite volume model (FVM) of the column was developed to describe the reactive extraction process with a two-phase system and validated with an analytical model from the literature with the given data set encompassing six experimental runs. Global, variance-based (Sobol) sensitivity analysis allowed assessment of the sensitivity of the sweet water glycerol content in respect to liquid density, overall mass-transfer coefficient, reaction rate coefficient and the equilibrium ratio to rank them accordingly. Furthermore, parameter estimation with a differential evolution (DE) algorithm was performed to obtain among others the mass transfer, backmixing and reaction rate coefficients. The model was used to formulate and solve a process design problem regarding economic and sustainable performance.... [more]
Model Validation and Process Design of Continuous Single Pass Tangential Flow Filtration Focusing on Continuous Bioprocessing for High Protein Concentrations
Maximilian Johannes Huter, Christoph Jensch, Jochen Strube
December 11, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Conceptual Process Design (CPD), Continuous Bioprocessing (CBP), membrane process, Modelling, Quality by Design (QbD), Single-Pass Tangential Flow Filtration (SPTFF), ultrafiltration
In this study, the continuous Single-Pass Tangential Flow Filtration (SPTFF) concept is adapted for high protein concentrations. The work is based on the previously validated physico-chemical model for low concentrations and high viscosities. The model contains the Stagnant Film Model for concentration polarization, as well as the Boundary Layer Model for the mass transfer through the membrane. The pressure drop is calculated as a function of the Reynolds number. By performing preliminary experiments with a single ultrafiltration (UF) cassette, the model parameter are determined. The presented model is validated for a multi-step Single-Pass Tangential Flow Filtration. With subsequent simulation studies, an optimized process is found and confirmed by experiments. The outcome of this work shows the potential to optimize this multi-parameter dependent unit operation. This is reached by a model-based optimization allowing significant reduction of experimental efforts and applying the Quali... [more]
The Influence of BMSs on the Characterization and Modeling of Series and Parallel Li-Ion Packs
Sandra Castano-Solis, Daniel Serrano-Jimenez, Lucia Gauchia, Javier Sanz
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: battery management system (BMS) effect, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation, Li-ion pack, Modelling, testing
This work analyzes the effects of a BMS (battery management system) on the characterization and modeling of series and parallel connections of Li-ion cell packs. The Li-ion pack studied consists of four series modules connected in parallel. This pack has been characterized by means of charge, discharge and frequency tests. As a result of these tests, series and parallel influence on battery parameters have been determined. A model considering the effects of a BMS is established and compared with a model based on a single-cell approach. Experimental validations show that the single cell based approach gives poor results in comparison with a model that considers BMS effects.
Modelling and Kinetic Study of Novel and Sustainable Microwave-Assisted Dehydration of Sugarcane Juice
Tayyaba Alvi, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal Khan, Abid Aslam Maan, Akmal Nazir, Muhammad Haseeb Ahmad, Muhammad Issa Khan, Muhammad Sharif, Azmat Ullah Khan, Muhammad Inam Afzal, Muhammad Umer, Shabbar Abbas, Shahnah Qureshi
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: brix, dehydration, kinetics, microwave, Modelling, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, sugarcane
Sugarcane juice is a perishable food with a good nutritional profile. Thus, there is a need to increase its shelf life by reducing water content which facilitates storage and transportation. In this study, process conditions were optimized to concentrate the sugarcane juice at various microwave powers (30, 50, 80, 100 W). A central composite design was applied to optimize the process conditions (power and time). The overall evaporation time depends on microwave powers; increase in power reduced the processing time. The results showed that at 100 W sugarcane juice was concentrated to 75° brix for 15 min which reduced the energy consumption to 1.3 times compared to other powers. Moreover, microwave processing better retained the sensory properties of concentrate and preserved its antioxidant activity. Thus, 100 W was most energy efficient in concentrating sugarcane juice. In general, microwave processing reduced the processing time and cost making it a sustainable approach to concentrate... [more]
Review and Modeling of Crystal Growth of Atropisomers from Solutions
Lotfi Derdour, Eric J. Chan, Dimitri Skliar
November 24, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: conformer, growth inhibition, habit, Modelling, step propagation
In this paper, theories on anisotropic crystal growth and crystallization of atropisomers are reviewed and a model for anisotropic crystal growth from solution containing slow inter-converting conformers is presented. The model applies to systems with growth-dominated crystallization from solutions and assumes that only one conformation participates in the solute integration step and is present in the crystal lattice. Other conformers, defined as the wrong conformers, must convert to the right conformer before they can assemble to the crystal lattice. The model presents a simple implicit method for evaluating the growth inhibition effect by the wrong conformers. The crystal growth model applies to anisotropic growth in two main directions, namely a slow-growing face and a fast-growing face and requires the knowledge of solute crystal face integration coefficients in both directions. A parameter estimation algorithm was derived to extract those coefficients from data about temporal conc... [more]
An Approach for Feedforward Model Predictive Control of Continuous Pulp Digesters
Moksadur Rahman, Anders Avelin, Konstantinos Kyprianidis
November 24, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: feedforward, Kappa number, Modelling, predictive control, pulp and paper, pulp digester
Kappa number variability at the continuous digester outlet is a major concern for pulp and paper mills. It is evident that the aforementioned variability is strongly linked to the feedstock wood properties, particularly lignin content. Online measurement of lignin content utilizing near-infrared spectroscopy at the inlet of the digester is paving the way for tighter control of the blow-line Kappa number. In this paper, an innovative approach of feedforwarding the lignin content to a model predictive controller was investigated with the help of modeling and simulation studies. For this purpose, a physics-based modeling library for continuous pulp digesters was developed and validated. Finally, model predictive control approaches with and without feedforwarding the lignin measurement were evaluated against current industrial control and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) schemes.
Distinct and Quantitative Validation Method for Predictive Process Modelling in Preparative Chromatography of Synthetic and Bio-Based Feed Mixtures Following a Quality-by-Design (QbD) Approach
Steffen Zobel-Roos, Mourad Mouellef, Reinhard Ditz, Jochen Strube
November 24, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: biologics, continuous bioprocessing, manufacturing, Modelling, modular plants, Process Intensification, regulated industry
Process development, especially in regulated industries, where quality-by-design approaches have become a prerequisite, is cost intensive and time consuming. A main factor is the large number of experiments needed. Process modelling can reduce this number significantly by replacing experiments with simulations. However, this requires a validated model. In this paper, a process and model development workflow is presented, which focuses on implementing, parameterizing, and validating the model in four steps. The presented methods are laid out to gain, create, or generate the maximum information and process knowledge needed for successful process development. This includes design of experiments and statistical evaluations showing process robustness, sensitivity of target values to process parameters, and correlations between process and target values. Two case studies are presented. An ion exchange capture step for monoclonal antibodies focusing on high accuracy and low feed consumption;... [more]
Special Issue: Modeling and Simulation of Energy Systems
Thomas A. Adams
October 26, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Energy, energy systems, Modelling, operations, Optimization, process design, process systems engineering, Simulation
This editorial provides a brief overview of the Special Issue “Modeling and Simulation of Energy Systems.” This Special Issue contains 21 research articles describing some of the latest advances in energy systems engineering that use modeling and simulation as a key part of the problem-solving methodology. Although the specific computer tools and software chosen for the job are quite variable, the overall objectives are the same—mathematical models of energy systems are used to describe real phenomena and answer important questions that, due to the hugeness or complexity of the systems of interest, cannot be answered experimentally on the lab bench. The topics explored relate to the conceptual process design of new energy systems and energy networks, the design and operation of controllers for improved energy systems performance or safety, and finding optimal operating strategies for complex systems given highly variable and dynamic environments. Application areas include electric powe... [more]
Development of a Numerical Model for a Compact Intensified Heat-Exchanger/Reactor
Menglin He, Zetao Li, Xue Han, Michel Cabassud, Boutaib Dahhou
September 23, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: exothermal reaction, heat transfer, heat-exchanger/reactor, Modelling
A heat-exchanger/reactor (HEX reactor) is a kind of plug-flow chemical reactor which combines high heat transfer ability and chemical performance. It is a compact reactor designed under the popular trend of process intensification in chemical engineering. Previous studies have investigated its characteristics experimentally. This paper aimed to develop a general numerical model of the HEX reactor for further control and diagnostic use. To achieve this, physical structure and hydrodynamic and thermal performance were studied. A typical exothermic reaction, which was used in experiments, is modeled in detail. Some of the experimental data without reaction were used for estimating the heat transfer coefficient by genetic algorithm. Finally, a non-linear numerical model of 255 calculating modules was developed on the Matlab/Simulink platform. Simulations of this model were done under conditions with and without chemical reactions. Results were compared with reserved experimental data to sh... [more]
PEM Fuel Cell Voltage Neural Control Based on Hydrogen Pressure Regulation
Andrés Morán-Durán, Albino Martínez-Sibaja, José Pastor Rodríguez-Jarquin, Rubén Posada-Gómez, Oscar Sandoval González
September 23, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: control, feature selection, Modelling, neural network, PEM fuel cell, principal component analysis, system identification
Fuel cells are promising devices to transform chemical energy into electricity; their behavior is described by principles of electrochemistry and thermodynamics, which are often difficult to model mathematically. One alternative to overcome this issue is the use of modeling methods based on artificial intelligence techniques. In this paper is proposed a hybrid scheme to model and control fuel cell systems using neural networks. Several feature selection algorithms were tested for dimensionality reduction, aiming to eliminate non-significant variables with respect to the control objective. Principal component analysis (PCA) obtained better results than other algorithms. Based on these variables, an inverse neural network model was developed to emulate and control the fuel cell output voltage under transient conditions. The results showed that fuel cell performance does not only depend on the supply of the reactants. A single neuro-proportional−integral−derivative (neuro-PID) controller... [more]
Modeling of the Free Radical Copolymerization Kinetics of n-Butyl Acrylate, Methyl Methacrylate and 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate Using PREDICI®
Javier A. Gómez-Reguera, Eduardo Vivaldo-Lima, Vida A. Gabriel, Marc A. Dubé
September 5, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, Modelling, n-butyl acrylate, polymerization kinetics
Kinetic modeling of the bulk free radical copolymerizations of n-butyl acrylate (BA) and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA); methyl methacrylate (MMA) and EHA; as well as BA, MMA and EHA was performed using the software PREDICI®. Predicted results of conversion versus time, composition versus conversion, and molecular weight development are compared against experimental data at different feed compositions. Diffusion-controlled effects and backbiting for BA were incorporated into the model as they proved to be significant in these polymerizations. The set of estimated global parameters allows one to assess the performance of these copolymerization systems over a wide range of monomer compositions.
Distinct and Quantitative Validation Method for Predictive Process Modeling with Examples of Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes of Complex Feed Mixtures
Axel Schmidt, Jochen Strube
July 31, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: atpe, biologics, design-of-experiments, liquid-liquid extraction, Modelling, monte-carlo, quality-by-design, Simulation, validation, verification
As of today, industrial process development for liquid-liquid extraction and scale-up of extraction columns is based on an experimental procedure that requires tests in pilot-scale. This methodology consumes large amounts of material and time and the utilized scale-up equations are crude estimates including considerable safety margins. This approach is practical for well-known systems or low-value products coupled with high production scale, where such a scale-up methodology has less impact on the overall profitability. However, for new high-value products in biologics manufacturing, a process development based on process understanding and the use of validated process models is imperative. Therefore, a distinct and quantitative validation workflow for liquid-liquid extraction modeling is presented on the example of two complex feed mixtures. Monte-Carlo simulations based on the presented model parameter determination concept result for both examples in prediction accuracy comparable to... [more]
Poster: Graphical User Interfaces as Chemical Engineering Educational Tools in University and Informal Learning Environments
Ashlee N. Ford Versypt
July 30, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Education
Keywords: Computational science, Curriculum, Education, Graphical user interface, Modelling, STEM Outreach
This presentation discusses the development and use of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) as cyber-assisted educational tools for instructing and engaging undergraduate chemical engineering students, training graduate students for computational research in science and engineering, and introducing lay audiences to chemical engineering concepts in informal learning environments outside of the classroom. A GUI encapsulates computational software within a visual environment where users can provide interactive input through brief text or point-and-click controls and display query or simulation results through an automated process without needing to learn a programming language or specific commands. MATLAB and Python are two popular software environments for science and engineering used in many university chemical engineering programs worldwide. Both provide excellent user support for rapid development of professional-quality GUIs by engineering educators, academic researchers, and science and... [more]
Graphical User Interfaces as Chemical Engineering Educational Tools in University and Informal Learning Environments
Ashlee N. Ford Versypt
July 30, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Education
Keywords: Computational science, Curriculum, Education, Graphical user interface, Modelling, STEM Outreach
This presentation discusses the development and use of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) as cyber-assisted educational tools for instructing and engaging undergraduate chemical engineering students, training graduate students for computational research in science and engineering, and introducing lay audiences to chemical engineering concepts in informal learning environments outside of the classroom. A GUI encapsulates computational software within a visual environment where users can provide interactive input through brief text or point-and-click controls and display query or simulation results through an automated process without needing to learn a programming language or specific commands. MATLAB and Python are two popular software environments for science and engineering used in many university chemical engineering programs worldwide. Both provide excellent user support for rapid development of professional-quality GUIs by engineering educators, academic researchers, and science and... [more]
Experimental Analysis and Full Prediction Model of a 5-DOF Motorized Spindle
Weiyu Zhang, Huangqiu Zhu, Hengkun Yang, Tao Chen
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: experimental analysis, magnetic bearing, Modelling, prediction model, suspension force
The cost and power consumption of DC power amplifiers are much greater than that of AC power converters. Compared to a motorized spindle supported with DC magnetic bearings, a motorized spindle supported with AC magnetic bearings is inexpensive and more efficient. This paper studies a five-degrees-of-freedom (5-DOF) motorized spindle supported with AC hybrid magnetic bearings (HMBs). Most models of suspension forces, except a “switching model”, are quite accurate, but only in a particular operating area and not in regional coverage. If a “switching model” is applied to a 5-DOF motorized spindle, the real-time performance of the control system can be significantly decreased due to the large amount of data processing for both displacement and current. In order to solve this defect, experiments based on the “switching model” are performed, and the resulting data are analyzed. Using the data analysis results, a “full prediction model” based on the operating state is proposed to improve rea... [more]
Accelerating Biologics Manufacturing by Upstream Process Modelling
Martin Kornecki, Jochen Strube
July 25, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: biologics, manufacturing, Modelling, Monod kinetics, Process Intensification, upstream processing
Intensified and accelerated development processes are being demanded by the market, as innovative biopharmaceuticals such as virus-like particles, exosomes, cell and gene therapy, as well as recombinant proteins and peptides will possess no available platform approach. Therefore, methods that are able to accelerate this development are preferred. Especially, physicochemical rigorous process models, based on all relevant effects of fluid dynamics, phase equilibrium, and mass transfer, can be predictive, if the model is verified and distinctly quantitatively validated. In this approach, a macroscopic kinetic model based on Monod kinetics for mammalian cell cultivation is developed and verified according to a general valid model validation workflow. The macroscopic model is verified and validated on the basis of four decision criteria (plausibility, sensitivity, accuracy and precision as well as equality). The process model workflow is subjected to a case study, comprising a Chinese hamst... [more]
Modernizing the Undergraduate Process Design Curriculum
Thomas Alan Adams II
July 20, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Education
Keywords: Curriculum, Education, Modelling, Process Design, Process Synthesis, Simulation
In this talk, I give an overview of the chemical engineering curriculum at McMaster University as it relates to the 1.5 year process design sequence. The courses outside the design sequence were recently restructured and redesigned to create an environment with more modelling and algorithmic thinking/algorithmic problem solving. This includes a statistics course and a big data / machine learning course. The end result is that the design sequence is able to focus on state of the art tools and methods for process design because students receive many fundamental principles before the design sequence begins.
Extraction of Oil and Minor Compounds from Oil Palm Fruit with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Huan Phan Tai, Gerd Brunner
June 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: carotenoids, Modelling, supercritical extraction, tocopherols, tocotrienols
A significant quantity of tocochromanols and carotenoids remains in the residual from palm oil production by traditional screw pressing. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction was used as alternative method with the purpose to recover better these valuable minor compounds. Total oil yield and co-extracted water were investigated in the course of extraction. Tocochromanols and carotenoids were evaluated, not only in the extraction oil, but also in the oil of residual fibre. Modelling of extraction process was also performed for a further up-scaling. The results showed that oil yield up to 90% could be observed within 120 min. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO₂) could extract tocochromanols and carotenoids with concentration in the same range of normal commercial processing palm oil, while co-extracted water remained rather low at a level of 2⁻4%. Moreover, recovery efficiencies of these minor compounds were much higher in case of extraction processed with supercritical carbon dioxide... [more]
Accelerating Biologics Manufacturing by Modeling or: Is Approval under the QbD and PAT Approaches Demanded by Authorities Acceptable without a Digital-Twin?
Steffen Zobel-Roos, Axel Schmidt, Fabian Mestmäcker, Mourad Mouellef, Maximilian Huter, Lukas Uhlenbrock, Martin Kornecki, Lara Lohmann, Reinhard Ditz, Jochen Strube
June 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: biologics, continuous bioprocessing, manufacturing, Modelling, modular plants, Process Intensification, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Innovative biologics, including cell therapeutics, virus-like particles, exosomes, recombinant proteins, and peptides, seem likely to substitute monoclonal antibodies as the main therapeutic entities in manufacturing over the next decades. This molecular variety causes a growing need for a general change of methods as well as mindset in the process development stage, as there are no platform processes available such as those for monoclonal antibodies. Moreover, market competitiveness demands hyper-intensified processes, including accelerated decisions toward batch or continuous operation of dedicated modular plant concepts. This indicates gaps in process comprehension, when operation windows need to be run at the edges of optimization. In this editorial, the authors review and assess potential methods and begin discussing possible solutions throughout the workflow, from process development through piloting to manufacturing operation from their point of view and experience. Especially,... [more]
Advances in Mathematical Modeling of Gas-Phase Olefin Polymerization
Mohd Farid Atan, Mohd Azlan Hussain, Mohammad Reza Abbasi, Mohammad Jakir Hossain Khan, Muhamad Fazly Abdul Patah
May 16, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: gas phase, kinetics, Modelling, olefin
Mathematical modeling of olefin polymerization processes has advanced significantly, driven by factors such as the need for higher-quality end products and more environmentally-friendly processes. The modeling studies have had a wide scope, from reactant and catalyst characterization and polymer synthesis to model validation with plant data. This article reviews mathematical models developed for olefin polymerization processes. Coordination and free-radical mechanisms occurring in different types of reactors, such as fluidized bed reactor (FBR), horizontal-stirred-bed reactor (HSBR), vertical-stirred-bed reactor (VSBR), and tubular reactor are reviewed. A guideline for the development of mathematical models of gas-phase olefin polymerization processes is presented.
FFANN Optimization by ABC for Controlling a 2nd Order SISO System’s Output with a Desired Settling Time
Aydın Mühürcü
April 9, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: ABC, buck converter, control, FFANN, Modelling, Optimization, settling time
In this study, a control strategy is aimed to ensure the settling time of a 2nd order system’s output value while its input reference value is changed. Here, Feed Forward Artificial Neural Network (FFANN) nonlinear structure has been chosen as a control algorithm. In order to implement the intended control strategy, FFANN’s normalization coefficient (K), learning coefficients (ŋ), momentum coefficients (μ) and the sampling time (Ts) were optimized by Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) but FFANN’s values of weights were chosen arbitrary on start time of control system. After optimization phase, the FFANN behaves as an adaptive optimal discrete time non-linear controller that forces the system output to take the same value with the input reference for a desired settling time (ts). The success of the optimization algorithm was proved with close loop feedback control simulations on Matlab’s Simulink platform based on 2nd order transfer functions. Also, the success was proved with a 2nd order phys... [more]
Mathematical Modeling of RBC Count Dynamics after Blood Loss
Manuel Tetschke, Patrick Lilienthal, Torben Pottgiesser, Thomas Fischer, Enrico Schalk, Sebastian Sager
April 8, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: erythropoiesis, Modelling, numerical simulation, parameter estimation, phlebotomy
The regeneration of red blood cells (RBCs) after blood loss is an individual complex process. We present a novel simple compartment model which is able to capture the most important features and can be personalized using parameter estimation. We compare predictions of the proposed and personalized model to a more sophisticated state-of-the-art model for erythropoiesis, and to clinical data from healthy subjects. We discuss the choice of model parameters with respect to identifiability. We give an outlook on how extensions of this novel mathematical model could have an important impact for personalized clinical decision support in the case of polycythemia vera (PV). PV is a slow-growing type of blood cancer, where especially the production of RBCs is increased. The principal treatment targeting the symptoms of PV is bloodletting (phlebotomy), at regular intervals that are based on personal experiences of the physicians. Model-based decision support might help to identify optimal and ind... [more]
Finding better limit cycles of semicontinuous distillation
Pranav Bhaswanth Madabhushi, Thomas Adams II
March 22, 2019 (v1)
There are three different ways of operating the distillation process based on production requirements and operational flexibility. Semicontinuous distillation of multicomponent mixtures is a cost-effective technology in the intermediate production range when compared with traditional batch and continuous distillation processes. The process, which has both continuous and discrete dynamics, operates in a limit cycle (an isolated periodic orbit). Design of this process entails finding the system’s time-invariant parameters, for example, equipment design parameters, reflux rate etc., to operate in a limit cycle having acceptable performance. In semicontinuous distillation studies, the performance metric chosen is the separation cost, which is defined as the total annualized cost-per-production. The state-of-the-art design procedure involves determining an initial state for estimating the limit cycle through the dynamic simulation of the process and is found to be effective. However, it lac... [more]
Modeling of a Field-Modulated Permanent-Magnet Machine
Xianglin Li, K. T. Chau, Yubin Wang
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: d-q frame, field-modulated permanent magnet (FMPM) machine, finite element analysis (FEA), Modelling
In this work, an effective field-modulated permanent-magnet (FMPM) machine was investigated, in which the spoke-magnet outer rotor and open-slot stator were employed. The objective of this paper is to provide the mathematical modeling analysis that was performed for the purpose of control research on this type of FMPM machine. The simulation results by means of finite element analysis (FEA) are given to verify the theoretical analysis and the validity of mathematical model. A prototype machine was also fabricated for experimentation. Both the analytical model and the FEA results are validated by experimental tests on the prototype machine.
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