Records with Subject: Process Design
Showing records 1 to 25 of 83. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 Last
A Review of the Design and Control of Free-Piston Linear Generator
Xuezhen Wang, Feixue Chen, Renfeng Zhu, Guilin Yang, Chi Zhang
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: free-piston, internal combustion engine, linear electric machine, piston motion control
The Free-piston linear generator (FPLG) is a novel energy converter which can generate electrical energy and is regarded as a potential technology for solving the restriction of the short driving range of electric vehicles. Getting rid of the crank and flywheel mechanism, FPLG obtains some advantages of a variable compression ratio, compact size, and highly-efficient power generation. Linear electric machine (LEM) design and piston motion control are two key technologies of FPLG. However, they are currently the main obstacles to the favorable performance of FPLG. LEM being used to drive the piston motion or generate electric energy is an integrated design including a motor/generator. Various types of LEMs are investigated, and suitable application scenarios based on advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The FPLG’s controller is used to ensure stable operation and highly-efficient output. However, cycle-to-cycle variations of the combustion process and motor/generator switching ma... [more]
Feasibility of a 100 MW Installed Capacity Wind Farm for Different Climatic Conditions
M. Mujahid Rafique, Shafiqur Rehman, Md. Mahbub Alam, Luai M. Alhems
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: developing countries, environmental impact, payback period, Saudi Arabia, sustainable development, wind power
Wind power is the world’s fastest-growing energy source. More power can be generated from wind energy through the use of new wind machine designs and techniques. The objective of the present work is to encourage people and governments to develop wind energy-based power plants to achieve sustainable energy infrastructures, especially in developing countries. In this paper, a feasibility study of a 100 MW grid-connected wind farm is conducted for five different cities of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The results indicate that the proposed power plant is feasible both technically and economically. All sites are found to be within the profitable range with Dhahran being the most feasible site among the others for the installation of the wind farm. A sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to find out the effects of different incentives on the payback period of the project.
Multi-Objective Optimization Design and Multi-Physics Analysis a Double-Stator Permanent-Magnet Doubly Salient Machine
Yunyun Chen, Yu Ding, Jiahong Zhuang, Xiaoyong Zhu
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: double-stator permanent-magnet doubly salient machine, multi-objective optimization design, parametric sensitivity analysis, performance analysis
The double-stator permanent-magnet doubly salient (DS-PMDS) machine is an interesting candidate motor for electric vehicle (EV) applications because of its high torque output and flexible working modes. Due to the complexity of the motor structure, optimization of the DS-PMDS for EVs requires more research efforts to meet multiple specifications. Effective multi-objective optimization to increase torque output, reduce torque ripple, and improve PM material utilization and motor efficiency is implemented in this paper. In the design process, a multi-objective comprehensive function is established. By using parametric sensitivity analysis (PSA) and the sequential quadratic programming (NLPQL) method, the influence extent of each size parameter for different performance is effectively evaluated and optimal results are determined. By adopting the finite element method (FEM), the electromagnetic performances of the optimal DS-PMDS motor is investigated. Moreover, a multi-physical field anal... [more]
Controlled Mechanical Ventilation in Buildings: A Comparison between Energy Use and Primary Energy among Twenty Different Devices
Lamberto Tronchin, Kristian Fabbri, Chiara Bertolli
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, indoor air quality, mechanical ventilation, ventilation
Indoor air quality (IAQ) of buildings is a problem that affects both comfort for occupants and the energy consumption of the structure. Controlled mechanical ventilation systems (CMVs) make it possible to control the air exchange rate. When using CMV systems, it is interesting to investigate the relationship between the useful thermal energy requirements for ventilation and the energy consumption of these systems. This paper addresses whether there is a correlation between these two parameters. The methodology used in this work involves the application of equations of technical Italian regulations UNI/TS 11300 applied to a case study. The case study is represented by a 54 m³ room, which is assumed to have three CMV systems installed (extraction, insertion, insertion and extraction) for twenty different devices available on the market. Afterwards, simulations of useful thermal energy requirements QH,ve and primary energy EP,V were performed according to the electrical power of each fan... [more]
Design of a Ventilation System Coupled with a Horizontal Air-Ground Heat Exchanger (HAGHE) for a Residential Building in a Warm Climate
Cristina Baglivo, Delia D’Agostino, Paolo Maria Congedo
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: earth-to-air heat exchanger (EAHX), geothermal, thermal comfort, zero energy buildings (ZEBs)
Energy consumption in new buildings can be reduced at the design stage. This study optimizes the ventilation system design of a new residential building located in a warm climate (Southern Italy). Different system options of horizontal air-ground heat exchangers (HAGHEs), also called earth-to-air heat exchangers (EAHX), have been considered to search for the optimal configuration. The thermal behaviour of the obtained configurations has been modelled by the dynamic simulation software TRNSYS 17. The pipe numbers, the air flow rate, and the soil thermal conductivity are among the simulated building components. For each of them, different design options have been analysed to study how each parameter impacts the building thermal behaviour in winter and summer. The operative air temperature (TOP) has been evaluated inside the building prototype to investigate the indoor comfort. The paper demonstrates that HAGHEs permit to assure a suitable indoor climatization if the building envelope is... [more]
Design and Optimization of a Novel Wound Field Synchronous Machine for Torque Performance Enhancement
Wenping Chai, Thomas A. Lipo, Byung-il Kwon
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: finite-element analysis, Genetic Algorithm, PM-assisted, segment configuration, torque performance, wound field synchronous machine
This paper presents the design and optimization of a novel wound field synchronous machine topology, in which permanent magnets (PMs) are introduced into the rotor slot opening with segment configuration for high quality output torque performance. The rotor shape of the proposed PM-assisted wound field synchronous machine with segment configuration is optimized for maximizing the average output torque and decreasing torque ripple under constant PM volume and motor size. The segment configuration can be benefit to improve the reluctance torque. In addition, it is further clarified that the assisted-PM can help to increase the field torque by enlarging the magnetizing synchronous reactance (Xf), as well as increasing airgap flux density. An optimal method combining Kriging method and genetic algorithm is applied for rotor shape optimization of proposed PM-assisted wound field synchronous machine (PMa-WFSM). Then, the 2-D finite-element analysis results, with the aid of JMAG-Designer, are... [more]
Embodied Energy and Environmental Impact of Large-Power Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Irrigation Systems
Giuseppe Todde, Lelia Murgia, Isaac Carrelo, Rita Hogan, Antonio Pazzona, Luigi Ledda, Luis Narvarte
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: diesel fuel, electricity, GHG agriculture, life cycle assessment, PV water pumping, solar energy
A life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to evaluate the cumulative energy demand and the related environmental impact of three large-power stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) irrigation systems ranging from 40 kWp to 360 kWp. The novelty of this analysis is the large power of these systems as the literature up to now is restricted to modeled PV pumping systems scenarios or small power plants, where the size can be a critical factor for energy and environmental issues. The analysis shows that the yearly embodied energy per unit of PV power ranged from 1306 MJ/kWp to 1199 MJ/kWp depending of the PV generator size. Similarly, the related yearly carbon dioxide impacts ranged from 72.6 to 79.8 kg CO₂e/kWp. The production of PV modules accounted for the main portion (about 80%) of the primary energy embodied into the PV irrigation system (PVIS). The outcomes of the study also show an inverse trend of the energy and carbon payback times respect to the PV power size: In fact, energy payba... [more]
Site Selection of Hybrid Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Systems in Greece Incorporating Environmental Impact Assessment
Eva Loukogeorgaki, Dimitra G. Vagiona, Margarita Vasileiou
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: AHP, environmental impact assessment, environmental performance value, hybrid offshore wind and wave energy systems, offshore energy platforms siting
This paper presents a methodological framework for evaluating marine areas in Greece for the purpose of identifying the most adequate sites for Hybrid Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Systems (HOWiWaES), with special focus on the HOWiWaES’ environmental impact assessment evaluation. Nine evaluation criteria that reflect various environmental, economic, technical and socio-political aspects are considered, including Wind Velocity (WV), Wave Energy Potential (WEP), Water Depth (WD), Distance from Shore (DS), Connection to Local Electrical Grid (CLEG), Population Served (PS), Shipping Density (SD), Distance from Ports (DP) and Environmental Performance Value (EPV). Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is performed to hierarchically rank twelve predefined siting alternatives. Questionnaires are used to collect information on pairwise comparisons of the evaluation criteria from a group of stakeholders/experts. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are used as a metric tool for pairwise comparison... [more]
Energy and Exergy Analyses of Tube Banks in Waste Heat Recovery Applications
Mustafa Erguvan, David W. MacPhee
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, efficiency, Energy, entropy, Exergy, HRSG, tube banks
In this study, energy and exergy analyses have been investigated numerically for unsteady cross-flow over heated circular cylinders. Numerous simulations were conducted varying the number of inline tubes, inlet velocity, dimensionless pitch ratios and Reynolds number. Heat leakage into the domain is modeled as a source term. Numerical results compare favorably to published data in terms of Nusselt number and pressure drop. It was found that the energy efficiency varies between 72% and 98% for all cases, and viscous dissipation has a very low effect on the energy efficiency for low Reynolds number cases. The exergy efficiency ranges from 40⁻64%, and the entropy generation due to heat transfer was found to have a significant effect on exergy efficiency. The results suggest that exergy efficiency can be maximized by choosing specific pitch ratios for various Reynolds numbers. The results could be useful in designing more efficient heat recovery systems, especially for low temperature appl... [more]
Numerical Investigation of the Effects of Steam Mole Fraction and the Inlet Velocity of Reforming Reactants on an Industrial-Scale Steam Methane Reformer
Chun-Lang Yeh
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, hydrogen yield, steam methane reformer, tube surface temperature, wall shear stress
Steam methane reforming (SMR) is the most common commercial method of industrial hydrogen production. Control of the catalyst tube temperature is a fundamental demand of the reformer design because the tube temperature must be maintained within a range that the catalysts have high activity and the tube has minor damage. In this paper, the transport and chemical reaction in an industrial-scale steam methane reformer are simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Two factors influencing the reformer temperature, hydrogen yield and stress distribution are discussed: (1) the mole fraction of steam (YH2O) and (2) the inlet velocity of the reforming reactants. The purpose of this paper is to get a better understanding of the flow and thermal development in a reformer and thus, to make it possible to improve the performance and lifetime of a steam reformer. It is found that the lowest temperature at the reforming tube surface occurs when YH2O is 0.5. Hydrogen yield has the highest va... [more]
Sea-Water Desalination for Load Levelling of Gen-Sets in Small Off-Grid Islands
Alessandro Corsini, Eileen Tortora
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: desalination, diesel engine, island, Renewable Energy, water-energy nexus
This study deals with the energy/water nexus on small off-grid islands. Small islands share several characteristics that hinder the introduction of new plants, such as: Energy system balance when renewable sources are introduced; water shortages, usually addressed via shipping from the mainland; environmental and historical heritage values; and, scarce land availability. In these cases, it is mandatory to detect energy/water technology integration and management solutions respecting the peculiarities and boundaries of the sites. The present work proposes a desalination plant with a primary scope of load leveler and a secondary scope of water producer. The aim is to propose a simple and non-invasive solution for energy/water management in order to limit impacts on the local environment while improving the match between renewable energy and local generation by means of desalination. This study led to an integrated system composed of local diesel engine power plant, distributed roof-top p... [more]
Energy Retrofitting Strategies and Economic Assessments: The Case Study of a Residential Complex Using Utility Bills
Cesare Biserni, Paolo Valdiserri, Dario D’Orazio, Massimo Garai
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: building envelope, energy consumption and saving, net present value, payback time, Trnsys simulations
Promotion of retrofit actions on existing buildings is a goal in Italy, since most of them were built before the 80′s when little attention was paid to energy saving. This paper presents an integrated passive design approach to reduce the heating demand and limit the costs of a representative existing residential complex located in Bologna, in the northern part of Italy. To this purpose, we explored different scenarios upon actions taken on the building structure: (1) High efficiency windows; (2) additional insulation on the external walls; or (3) the simultaneous application of high efficiency windows and improved thermal envelope, on both external walls and roofing. The numerical optimization has been performed dynamically using TRNSYS simulation tool, to evaluate energy consumptions in different structural conditions. Then, the developed model has been calibrated by the real consumption data deduced from energy bills (years 2009⁻2015). Finally, the energy results obtained in the abo... [more]
Optimal Component Sizing for Peak Shaving in Battery Energy Storage System for Industrial Applications
Rodrigo Martins, Holger C. Hesse, Johanna Jungbauer, Thomas Vorbuchner, Petr Musilek
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Storage, linear programming, battery aging modelling, lithium-ion battery, peak-shaving, Technoeconomic Analysis
Recent attention to industrial peak shaving applications sparked an increased interest in battery energy storage. Batteries provide a fast and high power capability, making them an ideal solution for this task. This work proposes a general framework for sizing of battery energy storage system (BESS) in peak shaving applications. A cost-optimal sizing of the battery and power electronics is derived using linear programming based on local demand and billing scheme. A case study conducted with real-world industrial profiles shows the applicability of the approach as well as the return on investment dependence on the load profile. At the same time, the power flow optimization reveals the best storage operation patterns considering a trade-off between energy purchase, peak-power tariff, and battery aging. This underlines the need for a general mathematical optimization approach to efficiently tackle the challenge of peak shaving using an energy storage system. The case study also compares t... [more]
A Framework for Green Remodeling Enabling Energy Efficiency and Healthy Living for the Elderly
Sung Jun Park, Mi Jeong Kim
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: elderly’s housing, Energy Efficiency, healthy living, home remodeling, sustainability
This study proposes a framework for green remodeling for the elderly that emphasizes the role of designers and the notion of aging in place. Energy efficiency is critical for older persons because many of them spend more time at home and are less likely to heat and cool their homes appropriately. Improving the energy performance of the elderly’s housing by green remodeling could promote energy efficiency and healthy living for the elderly. Based on remodeling components derived from related work, key factors to be considered regarding the remodeling for the elderly were investigated. A framework for green remodeling enabling energy efficiency was developed for home upgrades for the elderly. Identifying the area of application and critical components for energy efficiency helps improve the energy performance for the elderly. This study is significant because it considers the elderly’s characteristics and experiences in the development of a sustainable remodeling process rather than new-... [more]
Energy Efficient Design of Massive MIMO Based on Closely Spaced Antennas: Mutual Coupling Effect
Peerapong Uthansakul, Arfat Ahmad Khan, Monthippa Uthansakul, Pumin Duangmanee
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, massive MIMO, mutual coupling, power, power consumption, time division duplex
Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output MIMO technology is a promising candidate for the next generation of communication applications, which essentially group hundreds of transmitting antennas together at the base station and provides the higher energy and spectral efficiency. In this article, the transmitting antennas are assumed to be closely spaced at the base station, which in turn results into a mutual coupling effect between the antenna terminals. The optimal system parameters and the energy efficiency are computed by considering the mutual coupling effect between the antenna terminals. Mutual coupling effect is deeply investigated on the energy efficiency and the other optimal parameters. We propose the domain splitter algorithm for the optimization of energy efficiency and the computation of different optimal system parameters in this article. The computational complexity of the proposed domain splitter algorithm is not dependent on the number of transceiver chains, and the det... [more]
Robust Design of a Low-Cost Permanent Magnet Motor with Soft Magnetic Composite Cores Considering the Manufacturing Process and Tolerances
Chengcheng Liu, Gang Lei, Bo Ma, Youguang Guo, Jianguo Zhu
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: manufacturing tolerances, permanent magnet motor, soft magnetic composite, Taguchi method
This paper uses the Taguchi method to optimize the manufacturing process and robust design of a low-cost permanent magnet motor with soft magnetic composite (SMC) cores. For the manufacturing process, SMC cores are produced by using the molding technology without any wire cutting costs. To maximize the relative permeability and minimize the core loss, the Taguchi method is employed to identify the best control factor values for the heat treatment of SMC cores based on a series of experimental results. Due to the manufacturing tolerances, there are significant uncertainties in the core densities and motor dimensions, which will result in big performance variations for the SMC motors in the batch production. To obtain a robust design less sensitive to these tolerances, the conventional Taguchi parameter design method and a sequential Taguchi optimization method are presented to maximize the average torque and minimize the core loss of a low-cost PM motor. Through comparison, it is found... [more]
Technological Solutions for Recycling Ash Slag from the Cao Ngan Coal Power Plant in Vietnam
Thriveni Thenepalli, Nguyen Thi Minh Ngoc, Lai Quang Tuan, Trinh Hai Son, Ho Huu Hieu, Dang Tran Nhu Thuy, Nguyen Thi Thanh Thao, Duong Thi Thanh Tam, Doan Thi Ngoc Huyen, Tran Tan Van, Ramakrishna Chilakala, Ji Whan Ahn
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: carbon mineralization technology, CO2 utilization, coal power plants, pre-feasibility, Vietnam
Annually, coal-fired power plants in Vietnam discharge hundreds of thousand tons of coal ash. Most of this ash goes into the environment without treatment or any plan for the efficient reuse of this precious resource. There are many reasons for this, such as poor quality of the ash, no suitable and feasible ash treatment technology, a lack of awareness about environmental pollution and resource saving, and inappropriate sanctions and policies. This study analyzed and summarized information and data pertaining to the current status of the production, discharge, and utilization of coal ash from the Cao Ngan Power Plant (CNPP) in Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam. In addition, the potential for applying advanced emission reduction technologies in order to recycle coal ash for cement production, as well as geographical, socio-economic, and market factors were assessed. This paper reveals the results of a preliminary assessment of carbon-mineralization technologies which seek to achieve the fol... [more]
Development and Optimization of a Building Energy Simulation Model to Study the Effect of Greenhouse Design Parameters
Adnan Rasheed, Jong Won Lee, Hyun Woo Lee
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: cooling load, energy conservation, heating load, structural modeling
Energy management of the greenhouse is considered to be one of the most important challenges of greenhouse farming. Energy saving measures need considered, besides applying energy supplying techniques. To address this issue, a model was developed to simulate the thermal environment of a greenhouse using a Transient Systems Simulation Program (TRNSYS 17) as a building energy simulation (BES) platform. The model was calibrated by modifying the input parameters to minimize the uncertainties obtained from the results. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients of 0.958 and 0.983 showed good agreement between the computed and experimental results. The proposed model was used to evaluate the effects of greenhouse design parameters, including roof shape, orientation, double-glazing, natural ventilation, coverings and their thickness, on its energy conservation capacity. It was found that the most suitable design for a greenhouse located in Daegu (latitude 35.53° N, longitude 128.36° E) South Kore... [more]
Complex Heat Pump Operational Mode Identification and Comparison for Use in Electric Vehicles
James Jeffs, Andrew McGordon, Alessandro Picarelli, Simon Robinson, Yashraj Tripathy, Widanalage Dhammika Widanage
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: electric vehicles, energy flow, Energy Storage, heat, heat pumps
Previous research has focused on the use of heat pumps in electric vehicles, with the focus on recuperating heat from, normally, ambient and one thermal source on the vehicle. Here 5 potential thermal sources on a vehicle have been identified and thorough testing on the benefit of each source has been performed. The results presented suggest the motor, a thermal storage device, and cabin exhaust extraction should be used >80% of the time according to the scenarios tested, while battery heating and transmission heat extraction should be used subject to conditions on the ambient temperature and drive cycle.
Design, Construction, and Testing of a Gasifier-Specific Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System
Alvaro Fernandes, Joerg Brabandt, Oliver Posdziech, Ali Saadabadi, Mayra Recalde, Liyuan Fan, Eva O. Promes, Ming Liu, Theo Woudstra, Purushothaman Vellayan Aravind
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Exergy, Simulation, SOFC, Syngas, validation
This paper describes the steps involved in the design, construction, and testing of a gasifier-specific solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. The design choices are based on reported thermodynamic simulation results for the entire gasifier- gas cleanup-SOFC system. The constructed SOFC system is tested and the measured parameters are compared with those given by a system simulation. Furthermore, a detailed exergy analysis is performed to determine the components responsible for poor efficiency. It is concluded that the SOFC system demonstrates reasonable agreement with the simulated results. Furthermore, based on the exergy results, the components causing major irreversible performance losses are identified.
Reduction of Fuel Consumption and Pollution Emissions in Inland Water Transport by Application of Hybrid Powertrain
Andrzej Łebkowski
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: air pollution, electric barge, electric powertrain, energy saving, hybrid systems, inland ship
The article presents the analysis of application of hybrid propulsion systems combining conventional diesel with electric drive for units used in inland transport. The answer is given to the question: to what extent will the use of different configurations of hybrid systems, affect the reduction of fuel consumption and reduce poisonous gases to the atmosphere? Various configurations of propulsion systems have been proposed: liquefied natural gas (LNG)-Diesel, LNG-Diesel-Electric, LNG-Diesel-Battery-Electric, against the background of the current state of inland waterway transport in central Europe. The announced plans to expand the network of existing international water routes in this region of Europe (E30, E40, E70), prompts a reflection on the simultaneous possibility of building modern low-emission and energy-efficient inland transport vessels. As an example of a modern drive system design, LNG-Diesel-Battery-Electric was proposed for which simulations were carried out using Modeli... [more]
Design, Operation, Modeling and Grid Integration of Power-to-Gas Bioelectrochemical Systems
Raúl Santiago Muñoz-Aguilar, Daniele Molognoni, Pau Bosch-Jimenez, Eduard Borràs, Mónica Della Pirriera, Álvaro Luna
September 20, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: electromethanogenesis, methanation, microbial electrosynthesis, power to gas, system modeling
This paper deals with the design, operation, modeling, and grid integration of bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for power-to-gas application, through an electromethanogenesis process. The paper objective is to show that BES-based power-to-gas energy storage is feasible on a large scale, showing a first approximation that goes from the BES design and operation to the electrical grid integration. It is the first study attempting to cover all aspects of a BES-based power-to-gas technology, on authors’ knowledge. Designed BES reactors were based on a modular architecture, suitable for a future scaling-up. They were operated in steady state for eight months, and continuously monitored in terms of power consumption, water treatment, and biomethane production, in order to obtain data for the following modeling activity. A black box linear model of the BES was computed by using least-square methods, and validated through comparison with collected experimental data. Afterwards, a BES stack was... [more]
Combining Petroleum Coke and Natural Gas for Efficient Liquid Fuels Production
Ikenna J Okeke, Thomas A Adams II
August 28, 2018 (v1)
This work explores the technical feasibility and economic profitability of converting petroleum coke (petcoke) and natural gas to liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Different petcoke conversion strategies were examined to determine the conversion pathway which can be competitive with current market prices with little or no adverse environmental impacts. Three main design approaches were considered: petcoke gasification only, combined petcoke gasification and natural gas reforming through traditional processing steps, and combined petcoke gasification and natural gas reforming by directly integrating the gasifier’s radiant cooler with the gas reformer. The designs investigated included scenarios with and without carbon capture and sequestration, and with and without CO2 emission tax penalties. The performance metrics considered included net present value, life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, and the cost of CO2 avoided. The design configuration that integrated natural gas refor... [more]
Comparison of a Novel Miniaturized Screening Device with Büchi B290 Mini Spray-Dryer for the Development of Spray-Dried Solid Dispersions (SDSDs)
Aymeric Ousset, Joke Meeus, Florent Robin, Martin Alexander Schubert, Pascal Somville, Kalliopi Dodou
August 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: amorphous solid dispersions, downscaling, miniaturization, miscibility, Polymers, screening, spray-dryer
Spray-drying is an increasingly popular technology for the production of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) in the pharmaceutical industry that is used in the early evaluation and industrial production of formulations. Efficient screening of ASD in the earliest phase of drug development is therefore critical. A novel miniaturized atomization equipment for screening spray-dried solid dispersions (SDSDs) in early formulation and process development was developed. An in-depth comparison between the equipment/process parameters and performance of our novel screening device and a laboratory Büchi B290 mini spray-dryer was performed. Equipment qualification was conducted by comparing the particle/powder attributes, i.e., miscibility/solid state, residual solvent, and morphological properties of binary SDSDs of itraconazole prepared at both screening and laboratory scales. The operating mode of the miniaturized device was able to reproduce similar process conditions/parameters (e.g., outlet t... [more]
A New Concept of Stirred Multiphase Reactor Using a Stationary Catalytic Foam
Nassima Benamara, Didier Assoua, Louis Jaffeux, Laurent Vanoye, Florica Simescu-Lazar, Marie-Line Zanota, Frédéric Bornette, Valérie Meille, Isabelle Pitault
August 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: basket reactor, foam, mass transfer, structured reactors
Developing new stirred gas⁻liquid⁻solid reactors with high mass transfer capabilities is still a challenge. In this publication, we present a new concept of multiphase reactor using a stationary catalytic foam and a gas-inducing impeller. The gas⁻liquid (GL) and liquid⁻solid (LS) mass transfer rates in this reactor were compared to a stirred reactor with basket filled with beads. Batch absorption of hydrogen and measurement of α-methylstyrene hydrogenation rate on Pd/Al2O3 catalyst were used to evaluate kGLaGL coefficients and kLS coefficients, respectively. With similar LS transfer rates to the basket-reactor and much higher GL transfer rates, the new reactor reveals a very promising tool for intrinsic kinetics investigations.
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