Records with Subject: Process Design
Showing records 1 to 25 of 167. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
The Flotation Process Can Go Green
George Z. Kyzas, Kostas A. Matis
July 17, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: adsorptive floatation, biosurfactants, floatation, green approach, wastewater treatment
In today’s world of environmental strain, wastewater treatment has become a, more or less, conventional application of flotation—as for instance, in the oil, food, or chemical industries, and in potable water treatment. In this paper, different flotation methods (such as ion, adsorbing colloid, and adsorptive flotation, including biosorption) and techniques will be reviewed; and, in order to explain them further, several applications of these from the laboratory (General and Inorganic Chemical Technology) at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece (AUTh) will be presented and analyzed, with the main focus on sustainability. The application of flotation as a separation process, when applied in pollution control or during water treatment, was often criticized due to the possible toxicity of the applied collectors; however, the use of biosurfactants may alleviate this concern and enhance its further acceptability.
Maximizing Our Impact: A call for the standardization of techno-economic analyses for sustainable energy systems design research
Thomas A Adams II
July 17, 2019 (v3)
Keywords: eco-Technoeconomic Analysis, Life Cycle Analysis, Standardization, Technoeconomic Analysis
This presentation makes the case for the development of a new ISO standard for conduction eco-technoeconomic analyses (eTEAs) within the field of energy systems engineering and chemical process systems engineering. The talk provides a motivating example of a recent study that showed how standardization of eTEAs made it possible to make fair comparisons between different types of power plants using carbon capture and sequestration by using eTEAs reported in the literature that have been converted to certain standards. That lead to informed decisions which were not possible without standardization methods, because it major variables are controlled such that analyses can focus on the value of the process concept itself rather than external factors like size, financing, and case-specific assumptions. Then, the talk outlines how the proposed ISO standards would work, their goals and scope, examples of standard practices, methods, and assumptions that could be used and what they might look l... [more]
Integration of Membrane Bioreactor and Nanofiltration for the Treatment Process of Real Hospital Wastewater in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Thanh Tran, Thanh Binh Nguyen, Huu Loc Ho, Duc Anh Le, Tri Duc Lam, Duy Chinh Nguyen, Anh Tuan Hoang, Trung Sy Do, Luong Hoang, Trinh Duy Nguyen, Long Giang Bach
July 5, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, hospital wastewater, membrane bioreactor, nanofiltration, nitrogen compounds, pathogen contents, total phosphorus
Hospital wastewater contains pharmaceutical residues, chemicals, and pathogens that cause coloration and nourish pathogenic microorganisms. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a medical wastewater treatment system at Military Hospital 175 (Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) that combined a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system with nanofiltration (NF). The influent of the system was the wastewater discharged from the operating rooms of the hospital. The system has a capacity of 50 L/day and operates at three organic load rates (OLR) of 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 kgCOD/m3day (COD: Chemical oxygen demand), in which each load rate operates for 40 days. The results showed that most nutritional criteria generally achieved positive results. Specifically, the average COD removal was shown to be consistently high throughout the three phases at 94%, 93.3%, and 92.7%, respectively. For removal of nitrogen, the system demonstrated efficiencies of 75%, 79%, and 83%, respectively, to three pha... [more]
Techno-economic and environmental analyses of a novel, sustainable process for production of liquid fuels using helium heat transfer
Leila Hoseinzade, Thomas A Adams II
June 25, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, Carbonless heat, Dimethyl Ether, Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Gasification, Methane Reforming, Negative emissions
In this paper, several new processes are proposed which co-generate electricity and liquid fuels (such as diesel, gasoline, or dimethyl ether) from biomass, natural gas and heat from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This carbonless heat provides the required energy to drive an endothermic steam methane reforming process, which yields H2-rich syngas (H2/CO > 6) with lower greenhouse gas emissions than traditional steam methane reforming processes. Since downstream Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethyl ether synthesis processes require an H2/CO ratio of around 2, biomass gasification is integrated into the process. Biomass-derived syngas is sufficiently H2-lean such that blending it with the steam methane reforming derived syngas yields a syngas of the appropriate H2/CO ratio of around 2. In a prior work, we also demonstrated that integrating carbonless heat with combined steam and CO2 reforming of methane is a promising option to produce a syngas with proper H2/CO ratio for Fisch... [more]
Comparison of the Utilization of 110 °C and 120 °C Heat Sources in a Geothermal Energy System Using Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with R245fa, R123, and Mixed-Ratio Fluids as Working Fluids
Mochamad Denny Surindra, Wahyu Caesarendra, Totok Prasetyo, Teuku Meurah Indra Mahlia, Taufik
June 18, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: binary cycle, Dieng, geothermal energy, Indonesia, mixture ratio, Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), R123, R245fa
Binary cycle experiment as one of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technologies has been known to provide an improved alternate scenario to utilize waste energy with low temperatures. As such, a binary geothermal power plant simulator was developed to demonstrate the geothermal energy potential in Dieng, Indonesia. To better understand the geothermal potential, the laboratory experiment to study the ORC heat source mechanism that can be set to operate at fixed temperatures of 110 °C and 120 °C is conducted. For further performance analysis, R245fa, R123, and mixed ratio working fluids with mass flow rate varied from 0.1 kg/s to 0.2 kg/s were introduced as key parameters in the study. Data from the simulator were measured and analyzed under steady-state condition with a 20 min interval per given mass flow rate. Results indicate that the ORC system has better thermodynamic performance when operating the heat source at 120 °C than those obtained from 110 °C. Moreover, the R123 fluid produc... [more]
Flocculation of a High-Turbidity Kaolin Suspension Using Hydrophobic Modified Quaternary Ammonium Salt Polyacrylamide
Jiangya Ma, Xue Fu, Wei Xia, Kun Fu, Yi Liao
June 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: high turbidity, hydrophobic, kaolin, polyacrylamide, quaternary ammonium salt
In this work, a novel cationic polyacrylamide (PAMD) was synthesized by acrylamide (AM) diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DMD) and dodecyl polyglucoside (DPL) under low-pressure ultraviolet (UV) initiation. The intrinsic viscosity and cationic degree of PAMD were optimized in copolymerization. The optimum synthesis conditions that affect polymerization were determined to be solid content 30%, DPL content 25%, DMD content 30%, illumination time 135 min, and pH 9. The flocculation performance of flocculant PAMD with a high cationic degree was investigated in the purification of high-turbidity water. The flocculation mechanism was correspondingly studied and summarized based on Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) analysis. Finally, the results of an experimental simulation using the response surface method show that 98.9% supernatant transmittance was achieved under dosage 4 mg/L, fast stirring time 20 min, pH 7, and stirring speed 320 rpm.
Extraction of Oil and Minor Compounds from Oil Palm Fruit with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Huan Phan Tai, Gerd Brunner
June 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: carotenoids, Modelling, supercritical extraction, tocopherols, tocotrienols
A significant quantity of tocochromanols and carotenoids remains in the residual from palm oil production by traditional screw pressing. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction was used as alternative method with the purpose to recover better these valuable minor compounds. Total oil yield and co-extracted water were investigated in the course of extraction. Tocochromanols and carotenoids were evaluated, not only in the extraction oil, but also in the oil of residual fibre. Modelling of extraction process was also performed for a further up-scaling. The results showed that oil yield up to 90% could be observed within 120 min. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO₂) could extract tocochromanols and carotenoids with concentration in the same range of normal commercial processing palm oil, while co-extracted water remained rather low at a level of 2⁻4%. Moreover, recovery efficiencies of these minor compounds were much higher in case of extraction processed with supercritical carbon dioxide... [more]
Cogeneration Process Technical Viability for an Apartment Building: Case Study in Mexico
Hugo Valdés, Gabriel Leon
June 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: apartment building, cogeneration, technical viability
The objective of this paper is to evaluate and to simulate the cogeneration process applied to an apartment building in the Polanco area (Mexico). Considering the building’s electric, thermal demand and consumption data, the cogeneration process model was simulated using Thermoflow© software (Thermoflow Inc., Jacksonville, FL, USA), in order to cover 1.1 MW of electric demand and to supply the thermal needs of hot water, heating, air conditioning and heating pool. As a result of analyzing various schemes of cogeneration, the most efficient scheme consists of the use of a gas turbine (Siemens model SGT-100-1S), achieving a cycle with efficiency of 84.4% and a heat rate of 14,901 kJ/kWh. The economic results of this evaluation show that it is possible to implement the cogeneration in the building with a natural gas price below US$0.014/kWh. The use of financing schemes makes the economic results more attractive. Furthermore, the percentage of the turbine load effect on the turbine load n... [more]
Life Cycle Assessment and Economic Analysis of an Innovative Biogas Membrane Reformer for Hydrogen Production
Gioele Di Marcoberardino, Xun Liao, Arnaud Dauriat, Marco Binotti, Giampaolo Manzolini
June 8, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: biogas, economic analysis, fluidized bed membrane reactor, hydrogen production, life cycle assessment
This work investigates the environmental and economic performances of a membrane reactor for hydrogen production from raw biogas. Potential benefits of the innovative technology are compared against reference hydrogen production processes based on steam (or autothermal) reforming, water gas shift reactors and a pressure swing adsorption unit. Both biogas produced by landfill and anaerobic digestion are considered to evaluate the impact of biogas composition. Starting from the thermodynamic results, the environmental analysis is carried out using environmental Life cycle assessment (LCA). Results show that the adoption of the membrane reactor increases the system efficiency by more than 20 percentage points with respect to the reference cases. LCA analysis shows that the innovative BIONICO system performs better than reference systems when biogas becomes a limiting factor for hydrogen production to satisfy market demand, as a higher biogas conversion efficiency can potentially substitut... [more]
New Approaches in Modeling and Simulation of CO2 Absorption Reactor by Activated Potassium Carbonate Solution
Maria Harja, Gabriela Ciobanu, Tatjána Juzsakova, Igor Cretescu
May 16, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: activated carbonate–bicarbonate solution, CO2 absorption, gas purification, reactor modeling
The increase of CO₂ concentration in the atmosphere is in strong relation with the human-induced warming up due to industrial processes, transportation, etc. In order to reduce the CO₂ content, end of pipe post-combustion methods can be used in addition to other methods and techniques. The CO₂ capture by absorption in potassium carbonate⁻bicarbonate activated solutions remains a viable method. In this study, a mathematical model for a packed bed reactor has been developed and tested. The mathematical model is tested for an industrial reactor based on CO₂ absorption in Carsol solutions. The proposed model was validated by resolving for CO₂ and water content, carbonate⁻bicarbonate, concentrations etc. For each operational parameter the error was calculated. The error for CO₂ concentration is up to 4%. The height of the packed reactor is calculated as function of CO₂ concentration in the final gas phase. The validated model can also be used for absorbing other CO₂ streams taking into acco... [more]
Process Modeling and Evaluation of Plasma-Assisted Ethylene Production from Methane
Evangelos Delikonstantis, Marco Scapinello, Georgios D. Stefanidis
May 16, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: electrified process, Ethylene, non-oxidative methane coupling, non-thermal plasma, process modeling
The electrification of the petrochemical industry, imposed by the urgent need for decarbonization and driven by the incessant growth of renewable electricity share, necessitates electricity-driven technologies for efficient conversion of fossil fuels to chemicals. Non-thermal plasma reactor systems that successfully perform in lab scale are investigated for this purpose. However, the feasibility of such electrified processes at industrial scale is still questionable. In this context, two process alternatives for ethylene production via plasma-assisted non-oxidative methane coupling have conceptually been designed based on previous work of our group namely, a direct plasma-assisted methane-to-ethylene process (one-step process) and a hybrid plasma-catalytic methane-to-ethylene process (two-step process). Both processes are simulated in the Aspen Plus V10 process simulator and also consider the technical limitations of a real industrial environment. The economically favorable operating w... [more]
Model-Based Cost Optimization of Double-Effect Water-Lithium Bromide Absorption Refrigeration Systems
Sergio F. Mussati, Seyed Soheil Mansouri, Krist V. Gernaey, Tatiana Morosuk, Miguel C. Mussati
April 15, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: absorption refrigeration, cost optimization, double-effect system, H2O-LiBr working pair, nonlinear mathematical programming
This work presents optimization results obtained for a double-effect H₂O-LiBr absorption refrigeration system considering the total cost as minimization criterion, for a wide range of cooling capacity values. As a model result, the sizes of the process units and the corresponding operating conditions are obtained simultaneously. In this paper, the effectiveness factor of each proposed heat exchanger is considered as a model optimization variable which allows (if beneficial, according to the objective function to be minimized) its deletion from the optimal solution, therefore, helping us to determine the optimal configuration. Several optimization cases considering different target levels of cooling capacity are solved. Among the major results, it was observed that the total cost is considerably reduced when the solution heat exchanger operating at low temperature is deleted compared to the configuration that includes it. Also, it was found that the effect of removing this heat exchange... [more]
Application of Supergravity Technology in a TEG Dehydration Process for Offshore Platforms
Hongfang Lu, Guoguang Ma, Mohammadamin Azimi, Lingdi Fu
April 15, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Higee, natural gas dehydration, supergravity technology, TEG
In the dehydration process of offshore natural gas production, due to the site limitation of the platform, if the conventional triethylene glycol (TEG) dehydration process is employed, the size of the absorption tower is usually small. However, in the case of fluctuations in raw material gas and large gas production, it is easy to cause a large loss of TEG and a flooding event, resulting in the water dew point of natural gas not meeting the requirements. Therefore, combined with the dehydration process of TEG and supergravity technology, a new dehydration process of natural gas suitable for offshore platforms is proposed in this paper. The principle and process of the TEG dehydration process based on supergravity technology are discussed by establishing a mass transfer model. The laboratory experiment of the new process is carried out, and the effects of TEG flow rate, super-gravity packed bed rotation speed, and gas flow rate on the air dew point are obtained. By studying the dewateri... [more]
Optimization of the Melting Performance of a Thermal Energy Storage Unit with Fractal Net Fins
Jiayi Zheng, Cheng Yu, Taotao Chen, Yanshun Yu, Fang Wang
April 15, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: fin, fractal, melting, net, phase change
In this study, fractal net fins were introduced to improve the melting performance of a thermal energy storage unit. A transient model for melting heat transfer for phase change material (PCM) was presented and numerically analyzed, to study the melting performance in a thermal energy storage unit using fractal net fins. The melting phase change process was modelled using the apparent heat capacity method. The evolutions of temperature and the liquid fraction in the thermal energy storage unit were investigated and discussed. The effects of the length and width ratios of the fractal net on melting performance were analyzed to obtain the optimal fin configuration. The results indicated that the fractal net fins significantly enhanced the melting heat transfer performance of the PCM in a thermal energy storage unit. The fractal net fins configuration was optimal when the length and width ratios of the fractal net were 0.5. The temperature response at the corner points of the fractal net... [more]
Textile Wastewater Treatment for Water Reuse: A Case Study
Hua Yin, Peiwen Qiu, Yuange Qian, Zhuwen Kong, Xiaolong Zheng, Zhihua Tang, Huafang Guo
April 15, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: ozonation, reverse osmosis, textile wastewater, ultrafiltration, water recovery rate, water reuse
The reduced natural waters and the large amount of wastewater produced by textile industry necessitate an effective water reuse treatment. In this study, a combined two-stage water reuse treatment was established to enhance the quality and recovery rate of reused water. The primary treatment incorporated a flocculation and sedimentation system, two sand filtration units, an ozonation unit, an ultrafiltration (UF) system, and a reverse osmosis (RO) system. The second treatment included an ozonation unit, a sand filtration unit, and UF and RO systems. The color removal rate increased with the increasing ozone dosage, and the relational expression between the ozone dosage and color removal rate was fitted. Ozonation greatly reduced the color by 92.59 and 97.27 times during the primary and second ozonation stages, respectively. RO had the highest removal rate. The combined processes showed good performance in water reuse treatment. The treated, reused water satisfied the reuse standard and... [more]
Building Block-Based Synthesis and Intensification of Work-Heat Exchanger Networks (WHENS)
Jianping Li, Salih Emre Demirel, M. M. Faruque Hasan
April 15, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: building blocks, MINLP, superstructure, WHENS, work and heat integration
We provide a new method to represent all potential flowsheet configurations for the superstructure-based simultaneous synthesis of work and heat exchanger networks (WHENS). The new representation is based on only two fundamental elements of abstract building blocks. The first design element is the block interior that is used to represent splitting, mixing, utility cooling, and utility heating of individual streams. The second design element is the shared boundaries between adjacent blocks that permit inter-stream heat and work transfer and integration. A semi-restricted boundary represents expansion/compression of streams connected to either common (integrated) or dedicated (utility) shafts. A completely restricted boundary with a temperature gradient across it represents inter-stream heat integration. The blocks interact with each other via mass and energy flows through the boundaries when assembled in a two-dimensional grid-like superstructure. Through observation and examples from l... [more]
New Technical Parameters and Operational Improvements of the Metal Oxide Varistors Manufacturing Process
Flaviu Mihai Frigura-Iliasa, Sorin Musuroi, Ciprian Sorandaru, Doru Vatau
April 15, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: composition, manufacturing process, Metal Oxide Varistors, sintering pressure, sintering temperature
At the beginning, this article details the manufacturing procedures for varistor materials. Starting from the initial composition of two large series of varistors (those with two additive oxides and those with five additive oxides), there is a major overview of the main stages of the technological process and the equipment used for the production, emphasizing the technological changes that were made. The article continues with the study of the influence of the sintering pressure and the sintering temperature on the electrical properties of the varistor materials made before. There were two experimental series of 7 varistors, one series based on 2 additive oxides and one based on 5 additive oxides. Each varistor of these series was sintered at another temperature, the fundamental purpose being to determine an optimal sintering temperature for each chemical composition. A second activity consisted of manufacturing two more series of varistors with the same chemical composition (2 oxides... [more]
Energy Analysis of the S-CO₂ Brayton Cycle with Improved Heat Regeneration
Muhammad Ehtisham Siddiqui, Khalid H. Almitani
April 9, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: energy analysis, heat exchanger effectiveness, improved heat regeneration, partial cooling, recompression Brayton cycle, supercritical carbon dioxide, thermal efficiency
Supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO₂) Brayton cycles (BC) are promising alternatives for power generation. Many variants of S-CO₂ BC have already been studied to make this technology economically more viable and efficient. In comparison to other BC and Rankine cycles, S-CO₂ BC is less complex and more compact, which may reduce the overall plant size, maintenance, and the cost of operation and installation. In this paper, we consider one of the configurations of S-CO₂ BC called the recompression Brayton cycle with partial cooling (RBC-PC) to which some modifications are suggested with an aim to improve the overall cycle’s thermal efficiency. The type of heat source is not considered in this study; thus, any heat source may be considered that is capable of supplying temperature to the S-CO₂ in the range from 500 °C to 850 °C, like solar heaters, or nuclear and gas turbine waste heat. The commercial software Aspen HYSYS V9 (Aspen Technology, Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) is used for simulations.... [more]
Integration of Process Modeling, Design, and Optimization with an Experimental Study of a Solar-Driven Humidification and Dehumidification Desalination System
Mohammed Alghamdi, Faissal Abdel-Hady, A. K. Mazher, Abdulrahim Alzahrani
April 8, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: dehumidification, desalination, design, experimental, humidification
Solar energy is becoming a promising source of heat and power for electrical generation and desalination plants. In this work, an integrated study of modeling, optimization, and experimental work is undertaken for a parabolic trough concentrator combined with a humidification and dehumidification desalination unit. The objective is to study the design performance and economic feasibility of a solar-driven desalination system. The design involves the circulation of a closed loop of synthetic blend motor oil in the concentrators and the desalination unit heat input section. The air circulation in the humidification and dehumidification unit operates in a closed loop, where the circulating water runs during the daytime and requires only makeup feed water to maintain the humidifier water level. Energy losses are reduced by minimizing the waste of treated streams. The process is environmentally friendly, since no significant chemical treatment is required. Design, construction, and operatio... [more]
Systematic and Model-Assisted Process Design for the Extraction and Purification of Artemisinin from Artemisia annua L.—Part I: Conceptual Process Design and Cost Estimation
Maximilian Sixt, Axel Schmidt, Fabian Mestmäcker, Maximilian Johannes Huter, Lukas Uhlenbrock, Jochen Strube
April 8, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: artemisinin, cost estimation, miniplant, piloting, process design
The article summarizes a systematic process design for the extraction and purification of artemisinin from annual mugwort (Artemisia annua L.). Artemisinin serves as an anti-malaria drug, therefore, resource-efficient and economic processes for its production are needed. The process design was based on lab-scale experiments and afterwards piloted on miniplant-scale at the institute. In this part of the article, a detailed economic feasibility studies including a reference process as a benchmark the lab-scale process and the pilot-scale process is given. Relevant differences between the different scales are discussed. The details of the respective unit operations (solid-liquid extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, chromatography and crystallization) are presented in dedicated articles. The study showed that even miniaturized lab-scale experiments are able to deliver data detailed enough for scale-up calculations on a theoretical basis. To our knowledge, a comparable systematic process d... [more]
Effect of the Length-to-Width Aspect Ratio of a Cuboid Packed-Bed Device on Efficiency of Chromatographic Separation
Guoqiang Chen, Raja Ghosh
April 8, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: bioseparation, chromatography, chromatography box, cuboid packed-bed, protein, separation efficiency
In recent papers we have discussed the use of cuboid packed-bed devices as alternative to columns for chromatographic separations. These devices address some of the major flow distribution challenges faced by preparative columns used for process-scale purification of biologicals. Our previous studies showed that significant improvements in separation metrics such as the number of theoretical plates, peak shape, and peak resolution in multi-protein separation could be achieved. However, the length-to-width aspect ratio of a cuboid packed-bed device could potentially affect its performance. A systematic comparison of six cuboid packed-bed devices having different length-to-width aspect ratios showed that it had a significant effect on separation performance. The number of theoretical plates per meter in the best-performing cuboid packed-bed device was about 4.5 times higher than that in its equivalent commercial column. On the other hand, the corresponding number in the worst-performing... [more]
Energy and Exergy Analysis of the S-CO₂ Brayton Cycle Coupled with Bottoming Cycles
Muhammad Ehtisham Siddiqui, Aqeel Ahmad Taimoor, Khalid H. Almitani
April 8, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: combined cycle, efficiency, exergy loss, organic Rankine cycle, recompression cycle, second law efficiency, supercritical carbon dioxide
Supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO₂) Brayton cycles (BC) are soon to be a competitive and environment friendly power generation technology. Progressive technological developments in turbo-machineries and heat exchangers have boosted the idea of using S-CO₂ in a closed-loop BC. This paper describes and discusses energy and exergy analysis of S-CO₂ BC in cascade arrangement with a secondary cycle using CO₂, R134a, ammonia, or argon as working fluids. Pressure drop in the cycle is considered, and its effect on the overall performance is investigated. No specific heat source is considered, thus any heat source capable of providing temperature in the range from 500 °C to 850 °C can be utilized, such as solar energy, gas turbine exhaust, nuclear waste heat, etc. The commercial software ‘Aspen HYSYS version 9’ (Aspen Technology, Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) is used for simulations. Comparisons with the literature and simulation results are discussed first for the standalone S-CO₂ BC. Energy analys... [more]
Valorization of Shale Gas Condensate to Liquid Hydrocarbons through Catalytic Dehydrogenation and Oligomerization
Taufik Ridha, Yiru Li, Emre Gençer, Jeffrey J. Siirola, Jeffrey T. Miller, Fabio H. Ribeiro, Rakesh Agrawal
April 8, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: process synthesis and design, shale gas condensate, shale gas condensate-to-heavier liquids, Technoeconomic Analysis
The recent shale gas boom has transformed the energy landscape of the United States. Compared to natural gas, shale resources contain a substantial amount of condensate and natural gas liquids (NGLs). Many shale basin regions located in remote areas are lacking the infrastructure to distribute the extracted NGLs to other regions—particularly the Gulf Coast, a major gas processing region. Here we present a shale gas transformation process that converts NGLs in shale resources into liquid hydrocarbons, which are easier to transport from these remote basins than NGL or its constituents. This process involves catalytic dehydrogenation followed by catalytic oligomerization. Thermodynamic process analysis shows that this process has the potential to be more energy efficient than existing NGL-to-liquid fuel (NTL) technologies. In addition, our estimated payback period for this process is within the average lifetime of shale gas wells. The proposed process holds the promise to be an energy eff... [more]
Finding the Signal in the Noise: Determining North America’s best path forward for sustainable energy
Thomas A Adams II
March 31, 2019 (v2)
Keywords: Calcium Looping, Carbon Dioxide Capture, Chemical Looping, Life Cycle Analysis, Meta-Study, Oxyfuels, Postcombustion Capture, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Technoeconomic Analysis
One of the largest engineering challenges of our time is finding technical solutions that permit the use of our energy resources in a sustainable way. In order to achieve meaningful and positive change, new energy systems must adhere to the triple bottom line of sustainability. This means that new technical solutions must be economically, socio-politically, and environmentally sustainable, such that they can be rapidly adopted and accepted. The engineering literature is full of a great many technical proposals for new energy systems, but it turns out to be quite hard to objectively look at them all, see through the hype, and decide which are the best and most promising technologies in which to invest our research and development dollars. In this talk, I will present a case study with the results of our recent meta-study covering over 100 candidate electricity generation systems with carbon dioxide capture, in order to determine which are the most promising classes of technologies. I wi... [more]
Thermo-Economic Comparison and Parametric Optimizations among Two Compressed Air Energy Storage System Based on Kalina Cycle and ORC
Ruixiong Li, Huanran Wang, Erren Yao, Shuyu Zhang
March 15, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: CAES, integrated energy storage system, Kalina cycle, ORC, thermo-economic
The compressed air energy storage (CAES) system, considered as one method for peaking shaving and load-levelling of the electricity system, has excellent characteristics of energy storage and utilization. However, due to the waste heat existing in compressed air during the charge stage and exhaust gas during the discharge stage, the efficient operation of the conventional CAES system has been greatly restricted. The Kalina cycle (KC) and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) have been proven to be two worthwhile technologies to fulfill the different residual heat recovery for energy systems. To capture and reuse the waste heat from the CAES system, two systems (the CAES system combined with KC and ORC, respectively) are proposed in this paper. The sensitivity analysis shows the effect of the compression ratio and the temperature of the exhaust on the system performance: the KC-CAES system can achieve more efficient operation than the ORC-CAES system under the same temperature of exhaust gas; mea... [more]
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