Records with Subject: Process Design
Showing records 1 to 25 of 454. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Valorization of Biomass Pyrolysis By-Products for Heat Production in the Ontario Steel Industry: A Techno-Economic Analysis
Jamie Rose, Thomas A. Adams II
November 5, 2021 (v1)
As part of efforts to reduce carbon emissions in the iron and steel industry, which are especially pertinent in Canada due to rising carbon taxes, Canadian producers have been investigating the effects of replacing coal used in pulverized coal injection with biochar. Although there has been research into the economic value and effect on net life cycle emissions of using the biochar product itself, there are no comprehensive techno-economic analyses which investigate the value and potential uses of the by-products of biomass pyrolysis. These by-products include volatile organic compounds, known collectively as tar or bio-oil, and light gases, which are mainly hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane. Since only 20-30% of the mass of pyrolyzed biomass is actually converted to char, with the rest converted to the by-products, [1] usage of these by-products is likely the key to increasing the value of biochar to a degree that makes up for the market price of biochar currently... [more]
Optimization under uncertainty of a hybrid waste tire and natural gas feedstock flexible polygeneration system using a decomposition algorithm
Avinash Subramanian, Rohit Kannan, Flemming Holtorf, Thomas A. Adams II, Truls Gundersen, Paul I. Barton
November 1, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Decomposition Algorithm, Optimization under uncertainty, Polygeneration system, Stochastic Programming, Waste Tire, Waste-to-Energy
Market uncertainties motivate the development of flexible polygeneration systems that are able to adjust operating conditions to favor production of the most profitable product portfolio. However, this operational flexibility comes at the cost of higher capital expenditure. A scenario-based two-stage stochastic nonconvex Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) approach lends itself naturally to optimizing these trade-offs. This work studies the optimal design and operation under uncertainty of a hybrid feedstock flexible polygeneration system producing electricity, methanol, dimethyl ether, olefins or liquefied (synthetic) natural gas. The recently developed GOSSIP software framework is used for modeling the optimization problem as well as its efficient solution using the Nonconvex Generalized Benders Decomposition (NGBD) algorithm. Two different cases are studied: The first uses estimates of the means and variances of the uncertain parameters from historical data, whereas the seco... [more]
Purification Methods for Captured CO2 from Petroleum Coke Oxy-Combustion Power Plants
Tia Ghantous, Ikenna J Okeke, Thomas A Adams II
October 21, 2021 (v2)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide Capture, eco-technoeconomic analysis, oxy-combustion, Petroleum Coke
We present eco-technoeconomic analyses of four processes, including two novel designs, for the purification of captured CO2 from flue gas for a petroleum coke (petcoke) oxy-combustion power plant operated with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). A base case petcoke oxy-combustion design obtained from a previous study consisting of flue gas water removal using condensation was used in this study. Other purification processes evaluated consist of a cryogenic distillation petcoke oxy-combustion with CCS, an oxygen deficient petcoke oxy-combustion with CCS and a catalytic dehydration petcoke oxy-combustion via hydrogen conversion with CCS. An eco-technoeconomic analysis considering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), thermal efficiency and CO2 product purity to meet pipe-line specifications, was conducted on all purification candidates. This revealed that base case design did not meet the CO2 pipeline specifications. The highest LCOE was attributed to... [more]
Research on Optimization of Coal Slime Fluidized Bed Boiler Desulfurization Cooperative Operation
Yangjian Xiao, Yudong Xia, Aipeng Jiang, Xiaofang Lv, Yamei Lin, Hanyu Zhang
October 14, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: boiler thermal efficiency, cooperative optimization, mechanism model, Simulation, slime fluidized bed
The semi-dry desulfurization of slime fluidized bed boilers (FBB) has been widely used due to its advantages of low cost and high desulfurization efficiency. In this paper, the cooperative optimization of a two-stage desulfurization processes in the slime fluidized bed boiler was studied, and a model-based optimization strategy was proposed to minimize the operational cost of the desulfurization system. Firstly, a mathematical model for the FBB with a two-stage desulfurization process was established. The influences of coal slime elements on combustion flue gas and the factors that may affect the thermal efficiency of the boiler were then analyzed. Then, on the basis of the developed model, a number of parameters affecting the SO2 concentration at the outlet of the slime fluidized bed boiler were simulated and deeply analyzed. In addition, the effects of the sulfur content of coal slime, excess air coefficient, and calcium to sulfur ratio were also discussed. Finally, according to the... [more]
Analysis and Optimization of Two Film-Coated Tablet Production Processes by Computer Simulation: A Case Study
Stefanie Hering, Nico Schäuble, Thomas M. Buck, Brigitta Loretz, Thomas Rillmann, Frank Stieneker, Claus-Michael Lehr
October 14, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: 3D simulation modeling and analysis, bottleneck analysis, model implementation, production costs, resource conservation
Increasing regulatory demands are forcing the pharmaceutical industry to invest its available resources carefully. This is especially challenging for small- and middle-sized companies. Computer simulation software like FlexSim allows one to explore variations in production processes without the need to interrupt the running process. Here, we applied a discrete-event simulation to two approved film-coated tablet production processes. The simulations were performed with FlexSim (FlexSim Deutschland—Ingenieurbüro für Simulationsdienstleistung Ralf Gruber, Kirchlengern, Germany). Process visualization was done using Cmap Tools (Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, Pensacola, FL, USA), and statistical analysis used MiniTab® (Minitab GmbH, Munich, Germany). The most critical elements identified during model building were the model logic, operating schedule, and processing times. These factors were graphically and statistically verified. To optimize the utilization of employees,... [more]
Integration of a Combined Cycle Power Plant with MED-RO Desalination Based on Conventional and Advanced Exergy, Exergoeconomic, and Exergoenvironmental Analyses
Mohammad Hasan Khoshgoftar Manesh, Reza Shojaei Ghadikolaei, Hossein Vazini Modabber, Viviani Caroline Onishi
October 11, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: advanced exergy analysis, combined cycle power plant (CCPP), desalination, exergoeconomic analysis, exergoenvironmental analysis, mathematical modelling and simulation, multi-effect distillation (MED), reverse osmosis (RO), water and power production
The ever-increasing world population, change in lifestyle, and limited natural water and energy resources have made industrial seawater desalination plants the leading contenders for cost-efficient freshwater production. In this study, the integration of a combined cycle power plant (CCPP) with multi-effect distillation (MED) and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination units is investigated through comprehensive conventional and advanced exergy, exergoeconomic, and exergoenvironmental analyses. Firstly, the thermodynamic modelling of the CCPP is performed by using a mathematical programming procedure. Then, a mathematical model is developed for the integration of the existing CCPP plant with MED and RO desalination units. Finally, conventional and advanced exergy, exergoeconomic, and exergoenvironmental analyses are carried out to assess the main performance parameters of the integrated CCPP and MED-RO desalination system, as well as to identify potential technical, economic, and environment... [more]
Modeling and Flowsheet Simulation of Vibrated Fluidized Bed Dryers
Soeren E. Lehmann, Moritz Buchholz, Alfred Jongsma, Fredrik Innings, Stefan Heinrich
October 11, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: drying kinetics, Dyssol, flowsheet simulation, fluidized bed drying, Modelling, vibrated fluidized bed
Drying in fluidized beds is an important step in the production of powdered materials. Especially in the food and pharmaceutical industry, fluidized bed dryers are often vibrated to improve the drying process. In the current work, a continuous fluidized bed drying model is implemented in the novel, open-source flowsheet simulation framework Dyssol. The new model accounts for the hydrodynamic characteristics of all Geldart groups as well as the impact of mechanical vibration on the drying process. Distributed particle properties are considered by the model. Comprehensive validation of the model was conducted for a wide range of process parameters, different materials, dryer geometries and dimensions as well as the impact of vibration. Particle properties are predicted accurately and represent the broad experimental data well. A sensitivity analysis of the model confirmed grid independence and the validity of underlying model assumptions.
Solubility Data of Potential Salts in the MgO-CaO-SO2-H2O-O2 System for Process Modeling
Barbara D. Weiß, Michael Harasek
September 22, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: hydroxides, magnesium hydroxide slurry, precipitation, SO2 absorption, solid-liquid phase equilibria, sulfates, sulfites
This review studies unwanted precipitation reactions, which can occur in SO2 absorption processes using a magnesium hydroxide slurry. Solubility data of potential salts in the MgO-CaO-SO2-H2O system are evaluated. The reviewed data can serve as a reliable basis for process modeling of this system used to support the optimization of the SO2 absorption process. This study includes the solubility data of MgSO3, MgSO4, Mg(OH)2, CaSO3, CaSO4, and Ca(OH)2 as potential salts. The solubility is strongly dependent on the state of the precipitated salts. Therefore, this review includes studies on the stability of different forms of the salts under different conditions. The solubility data in water over temperature serve as a base for modeling the precipitation in such system. Furthermore, influencing factors such as pH value, SO2 content and the co-existence of other salts are included and available data on such dependencies are reviewed. Literature data evaluated by the International Union of P... [more]
Experimental and Numerical Analysis of a Low Environmental Impact Pyro-Gasification System for the Energetic Valorization of Waste through a Biomass Steam Power Plant
Alfredo Gimelli, Massimiliano Muccillo, Raniero Sannino, Giacobbe Braccio, Vincenzo Capone, Giacinto Cornacchia, Matteo Manganiello, Carmine Mongiello, Vinod Kumar Sharma
September 22, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: biomass steam power plant, decision-making process, multi-objective optimization problem, pyro-gasification plant, thermochemical modeling
This paper addresses the study of a pyro-gasification plant designed, built, and operated to recover inert metals from different types of solid waste. Experimental tests were carried out using pulper as the solid waste. However, while a reliable composition analysis of the produced syngas was carried out, a precise composition evaluation of the pulper used during the experimental activities was not performed and the related data were characterized by unacceptable uncertainty. Therefore, with the aim of reliably characterizing the plant operation, a thermochemical model of the gasification process was setup to simulate the equilibrium operation of the plant and a vector optimization methodology was used to calibrate the numerical model. Then, a decision-making problem was solved to identify the most suitable optimal solution between those belonging to the Pareto optimal front, thus obtaining reliable composition data for the adopted pulper waste. In particular, four different identifica... [more]
An Integrated Approach to the Design of Centralized and Decentralized Biorefineries with Environmental, Safety, and Economic Objectives
Antioco López-Molina, Debalina Sengupta, Claire Shi, Eman Aldamigh, Maha Alandejani, Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi
July 29, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: biorefining, CAPEX correlation, centralized facilities, distributed manufacturing, integration, sustainable design
Biorefineries provide economic, environmental, and social benefits towards sustainable development. Because of the relatively small size of typical biorefineries compared to oil and gas processes, it is necessary to evaluate the options of decentralized (or distributed) plants that are constructed near the biomass resources and product markets versus centralized (or consolidated) facilities that collect biomass from different regions and distribute the products to the markets, benefiting from the economy of scale but suffering from the additional transportation costs. The problem is further compounded when, in addition to the economic factors, environmental and safety aspects are considered. This work presents an integrated approach to the design of biorefining facilities while considering the centralized and decentralized options and the economic, environmental, and safety objectives. A superstructure representation is constructed to embed the various options of interest. A mathematic... [more]
A Review of Process Systems Engineering (PSE) Tools for the Design of Ionic Liquids and Integrated Biorefineries
Nishanth G. Chemmangattuvalappil, Denny K. S. Ng, Lik Yin Ng, Jecksin Ooi, Jia Wen Chong, Mario R. Eden
July 29, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: integrated biorefineries, ionic liquids, molecular design, process optimization, process systems engineering
In this review paper, a brief overview of the increasing applicability of Process Systems Engineering (PSE) tools in two research areas, which are the design of ionic liquids and the design of integrated biorefineries, is presented. The development and advances of novel computational tools and optimization approaches in recent years have enabled these applications with practical results. A general introduction to ionic liquids and their various applications is presented followed by the major challenges in the design of optimal ionic liquids. Significant improvements in computational efficiency have made it possible to provide more reliable data for optimal system design, minimize the production cost of ionic liquids, and reduce the environmental impact caused by such solvents. Hence, the development of novel computational tools and optimization tools that contribute to the design of ionic liquids have been reviewed in detail. A detailed review of the recent developments in PSE applicat... [more]
New Design of the Reversible Jet Fan
Miroslav H. Benišek, Đorđe S. Čantrak, Dejan B. Ilić, Novica Z. Janković
July 29, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: axial fan, design, energy characteristics, jet, reversible, thrust
This paper presents two designs of the axial reversible jet fan, with the special focus on the impeller. The intention was to develop a reversible axial jet fan which operates in the same way in both rotating directions while generating thrust as high as possible. The jet fan model with the outer diameter 499.2 ± 0.1 mm and ten adjustable blades is the same, while it is in-built in two different casings. The first construction is a cylindrical casing, while the second one is profiled as a nozzle. Thrust, volume flow rate, consumed power and ambient conditions were measured after the international standard ISO 13350. Results for both constructions are presented for three impeller blade angles: 28°, 31° and 35°, and rotation speed in the interval n = 400 to 2600 rpm. The smallest differences in thrust, depending on the fan rotation direction, as well as the highest thrust are achieved for the first design with the cylindrical casing and blade angle at the outer diameter of 35°. Therefore... [more]
Electrochemical Mineralization of Ibuprofen on BDD Electrodes in an Electrochemical Flow Reactor: Numerical Optimization Approach
Alejandro Regalado-Méndez, Martín Ruiz, José A. Hernández-Servín, Reyna Natividad, Rubi Romero, Mario E. Cordero, Carlos Estrada-Vázquez, Ever Peralta-Reyes
July 29, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: BDD electrodes, electrochemical flow reactor, mineralization of ibuprofen, numerical optimization approach, response surface methodology
Statistical analysis was applied to optimize the electrochemical mineralization of ibuprofen with two boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes in a continuous electrochemical flow reactor under recirculation batch mode. A central composite rotatable (CCR) experimental design was used to analyze the effect of initial pH (2.95−13.04), current intensity (2.66−4.34 A), and volumetric flow rate (0.16−1.84 L/min) and further optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain the maximum mineralization efficiency and the minimum specific energy consumption. A 91.6% mineralization efficiency (EM) of ibuprofen with a specific energy consumption (EC) of 4.36 KW h/g TOC within 7 h of treatment was achieved using the optimized operating parameters (pH0 = 12.29, I = 3.26 A, and Q of 1 L/min). Experimental results of RSM were fitted via a third-degree polynomial regression equation having the performance index determination coefficients (R2) of 0.8658 and 0.8468 for the EM and EC, respectively. T... [more]
Municipal Solid Waste as Secondary Resource: Selectively Separating Cu(II) from Highly Saline Fly Ash Extracts by Polymer-Assisted Ultrafiltration
Christine Hettenkofer, Stephan Fromm, Michael Schuster
July 29, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: municipal solid waste, pilot installation, polymer-assisted ultrafiltration, real fly ash extracts, selective Cu(II) separation, sustainable waste treatment, urban mining
Urban mining from fly ash resulting from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is becoming more and more important due to the increasing scarcity of supply-critical metals. Metal extraction from acid fly ash leaching has already been established. In this context selective Cu recovery is still a challenge. Therefore, our purpose was the separation of Cu(II) from MSWI fly ash extracts by polymer-assisted ultrafiltration (PAUF). We investigated three polyethyleneimines (PEIs) with regard to metal retention, Cu(II) selectivity, Cu(II) loading capacity, and the viscosity of the PEI containing solutions. A demanding challenge was the highly complex matrix of the fly ash extracts, which contain up to 16 interfering metal ions in high concentrations and a chloride content of 60 g L−1. Overcoming that, Cu(II) was selectively enriched and separated from real fly ash extract at pH 3.0. At pH 1.0, a PEI-free Cu(II) concentrate was obtained and PEIs could be regenerated for reuse in further sep... [more]
Biochemical Composition and Phycoerythrin Extraction from Red Microalgae: A Comparative Study Using Green Extraction Technologies
Paula Ardiles, Pedro Cerezal-Mezquita, Francisca Salinas-Fuentes, Daniel Órdenes, Gabriel Renato, Mari Carmen Ruiz-Domínguez
July 26, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: fatty acids, macronutrients, microwave, phycoerythrin, Porphyridium sp., ultrasound
Porphyridium spp. is a debated family that produces phycoerythrin (PE) for use in multiple industrial applications. We compared the differences in the biochemical composition and phycoerythrin yield of P. cruentum and P. purpureum by conventional and green extraction technologies. The protein content in P. cruentum was 42.90 ±1.84% w/w. The omega-3 fatty acid (FA) was highlighted by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, ω-3, ~9.74 ± 0.27% FA) and arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4, ω-6, ~18.02 ± 0.81% FA) represented the major omega-6 fatty acid. Conversely, P. purpureum demonstrated a higher lipid content (17.34 ± 1.35% w/w) and an FA profile more saturated in palmitic (C16:0, 29.01 ± 0.94% FA) and stearic acids (C18:0, 50.02 ± 1.72% FA). Maceration and freeze/thaw were the conventional methods, whereas microwave (MW) and ultrasound (US) served as green procedures for PE extraction under the factorial-design methodology. Aqueous solvents, extraction-time and power were the main factors in the... [more]
Multi-Aspect Comparison of Ethyl Acetate Production Pathways: Reactive Distillation Process Integration and Intensification via Mechanical and Chemical Approach
Branislav Šulgan, Juraj Labovský, Zuzana Labovská
July 19, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: auxiliary reaction, energy-economy-safety aspects, ethyl acetate, ethylene oxide, process integration and intensification, Reactive Distillation
This paper provides a multi-aspect comparison of selected methods of ethyl acetate production and shows the possibility of further reactive distillation process integration and sophisticated intensification including process stream regeneration. The production pathways were selected with respect to their practical applicability and sufficient experimental and feasibility studies already published. A total of four case studies were designed and compared: conventional process set-up (ethyl acetate is produced in a chemical reactor) is designed as a base case study; reactive distillation with a separation unit is derived from the conventional process set-up. The mechanical and chemical approach to reactive distillation process intensification and integration were assumed: reactive distillation column with a stripper and reactive distillation column with an auxiliary chemical reaction (ethylene oxide hydration). Process models were compiled in the Aspen Plus software. Complex process flows... [more]
Economic Analysis of a New Business for Liposome Manufacturing Using a High-Pressure System
Paolo Trucillo, Roberta Campardelli, Silvia Iuorio, Paolo De Stefanis, Ernesto Reverchon
July 19, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: economic indexes, liposomes, market analysis, processes, supercritical fluids
Supercritical assisted Liposome formation (SuperLip) is a lab-scale process for the production of liposomes. SuperLip was recognized as being a versatile supercritical assisted technique for the encapsulation of molecules for different industrial applications, such as pharmaceutic, cosmetic, textile, and nutraceutic purposes. The aim of this work was to perform an economic analysis to assess the profitability of the SuperLip process. The liposomes market was analyzed and the SuperLip process was compared to other techniques in terms of manufacturing advantages using the Canvas and Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Treats (S.W.O.T.) models. SuperLip Plant Capital Expenditures (CAPEX) were estimated, and plant Operating Expenditures (OPEX) were also evaluated and integrated with personnel cost and other plant goods and services. A profit and loss statement was generated, together with a cash flow analysis. According to the market average selling price, liposome price is 1.8 €/mL;... [more]
Special Issue on “Chemical Process Design, Simulation and Optimization”
Jean-Pierre Corriou, Jean-Claude Assaf
July 12, 2021 (v1)
Since humanity has been able to transform materials, such as raw minerals, and produce food or beverages, a central question was the type of operation and how and where it should be performed [...]
From Cardoon Lignocellulosic Biomass to Bio-1,4 Butanediol: An Integrated Biorefinery Model
Isabella De Bari, Aristide Giuliano, Maria Teresa Petrone, Giovanni Stoppiello, Vittoria Fatta, Cecilia Giardi, Francesco Razza, Alessandra Novelli
June 29, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: 2G sugars, BDO, bioeconomy, integrated biorefinery, lignocellulosic biomass
Biorefineries are novel, productive models that are aimed at producing biobased alternatives to many fossil-based products. Biomass supply and overall energy consumptions are important issues determining the overall biorefinery sustainability. Low-profit lands appear to be a potential option for the sustainable production of raw materials without competition with the food chain. Cardoon particularly matches these characteristics, thanks to the rapid growth and the economy of the cultivation and harvesting steps. An integrated biorefinery processing 60 kton/y cardoon lignocellulosic biomass for the production of 1,4-butanediol (bio-BDO) is presented and discussed in this work. After designing the biorefinery flowsheet, the mass and energy balances were calculated. The results indicated that the energy recovery system has been designed to almost completely cover the entire energy requirement of the BDO production process. Despite the lower supply of electricity, the energy recovery syste... [more]
Volatile Fatty Acids and Biomethane Recovery from Thickened Waste Activated Sludge: Hydrothermal Pretreatment’s Retention Time Impact
Farokh laqa Kakar, Ahmed El Sayed, Neha Purohit, Elsayed Elbeshbishy
June 29, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biomethane, hydrothermal pretreatment, thickened waste activated sludge, volatile fatty acids
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the hydrothermal pretreatment’s retention time influence on the volatile fatty acids and biomethane production from thickened waste activated sludge under mesophilic conditions. Six different retention times of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min were investigated while the hydrothermal pretreatment temperature was kept at 170 °C. The results showed that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization increased by increasing the hydrothermal pretreatment retention time up to 30 min and stabilized afterwards. The highest COD solubilization of 48% was observed for the sample pretreated at 170 °C for 30 min. Similarly, the sample pretreated at 170 °C for 30 min demonstrated the highest volatile fatty acids yield of 14.5 g COD/Lsubstrate added and a methane yield of 225 mL CH4/g TCODadded compared to 4.3 g COD/Lsubstrate added and 163 mL CH4/g TCODadded for the raw sample, respectively. The outcome of this study revealed that the optimum conditio... [more]
Responsible Design for Sustainable Innovation: Towards an Extended Design Process
Ricardo J. Hernandez, Julian Goñi
June 29, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: design process, innovation, responsible design, sustainable design, sustainable innovation
Design as a discipline has changed a lot during the last 50 years. The boundaries have been expanded partially to address the complexity of the problems we are facing nowadays. Areas like sustainable design, inclusive design, codesign, and social design among many more have emerged in response to the failures of the production and consumption system in place. In this context, social, environmental, and cultural trends have affected the way artefacts are designed, but the design process itself remains almost unchanged. In some sense, more criteria beyond economic concerns are now taken into consideration when social and environmental objectives are pursued in the design process, but the process to reach those objectives responds to the same stages and logic as in traditional approaches motivated only by economic aims. We propose in this paper an alternative way to understand and represent the design process, especially oriented to develop innovations that are aligned with the social, en... [more]
Design of a Separation Process for Natural 2-Phenylethanol with Economic and Safety Considerations
Luis E. Puga-Córdova, Zahira A. Pérez-Sánchez, Antíoco López-Molina, Laura Conde-Báez, Arturo Jiménez-Gutiérrez, Carolina Conde-Mejía
June 29, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: bioprocess stream index, natural 2-phenylethanol, safety assessment, separation process design, whey fermentation
The present work aimed to design a separation process for 2-phenylethanol (2-PEA) produced by whey fermentation and to evaluate its economic potential. The separation sequence consisted of a liquid−liquid extraction column followed by two distillation columns for 2-PEA purification and solvent recovery. In addition, the use of ethyl acetate as a solvent for the extraction process was analyzed. The results, aided by the Aspen Plus v.10 process simulator, showed that 2-PEA can be separated with a purity of 96% by weight. The operating cost of the process, estimated at USD 22.70 per kilogram, shows that the separation alternative developed in this work has a high economic potential. The use of ethyl acetate as a solvent was found to efficiently remove 2-PEA from the fermentation mixture. From a process safety analysis point of view, the use of a bioprocess safety index developed in this work identified the separation process sections that could require special attention as part of the saf... [more]
Syngas Derived from Lignocellulosic Biomass Gasification as an Alternative Resource for Innovative Bioprocesses
Cosetta Ciliberti, Antonino Biundo, Roberto Albergo, Gennaro Agrimi, Giacobbe Braccio, Isabella de Bari, Isabella Pisano
June 21, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: biorefinery, gasification, lignocellulosic biomass, syngas fermentation, Wood–Ljungdahl pathway
A hybrid system based on lignocellulosic biomass gasification and syngas fermentation represents a second-generation biorefinery approach that is currently in the development phase. Lignocellulosic biomass can be gasified to produce syngas, which is a gas mixture consisting mainly of H2, CO, and CO2. The major challenge of biomass gasification is the syngas’s final quality. Consequently, the development of effective syngas clean-up technologies has gained increased interest in recent years. Furthermore, the bioconversion of syngas components has been intensively studied using acetogenic bacteria and their Wood−Ljungdahl pathway to produce, among others, acetate, ethanol, butyrate, butanol, caproate, hexanol, 2,3-butanediol, and lactate. Nowadays, syngas fermentation appears to be a promising alternative for producing commodity chemicals in comparison to fossil-based processes. Research studies on syngas fermentation have been focused on process design and optimization, investigating th... [more]
The Effect of Deinking Process on Bioethanol Production from Waste Banknote Paper
Omid Yazdani Aghmashhadi, Ghasem Asadpour, Esmaeil Rasooly Garmaroody, Majid Zabihzadeh, Lisandra Rocha-Meneses, Timo Kikas
June 21, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: biorefinery, enzymatic hydrolysis, Fermentation, lignocellulose, pretreatment, zero-waste
The aim of this paper is to study the effect of reinking and pretreatment of waste banknote paper on its usability in the bioethanol production process. To this end, the tensile strength of worn banknote paper was first studied at different pH values. The sample with the lowest tensile strength was considered for the next sections. In the deinking process, NaOH at different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%) and in combination with ultrasonic treatment was applied. After deinking the pulp, two acidic and alkaline chemical pretreatments with concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% were used independently and in combination with ultrasonic. Enzymatic hydrolysis, following fermentation with Scheffersomyces stipitis, and crystallinity measurements were used to confirm the efficiency of the pretreatments. RSM Design Expert software was used to determine the optimal values by considering the three variables—enzyme loading, ultrasonic loading, and contact time for waste paper deinked (WPD) and... [more]
Product Concentration, Yield and Productivity in Anaerobic Digestion to Produce Short Chain Organic Acids: A Critical Analysis of Literature Data
Serena Simonetti, Agus Saptoro, Claudia Fernández Martín, Davide Dionisi
June 21, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: anaerobic digestion, critical literature review, organic waste, SCOAs
In order to make anaerobic digestion-based processes for short chain organic acid (SCOA) production attractive, the key performance variables, i.e., concentration, yield, and productivity of the produced SCOAs need to be maximised. This study analysed recent literature, looking for the effect of process operating parameters (feed concentration, pH, temperature, and residence time) on the performance variables. Data from 551 experiments were analysed. Mean values of the SCOA concentration, yield, and productivity were 10 g l−1, 32% (chemical oxygen demand (COD) COD−1), and 1.9 g l−1 day−1, respectively. Feed concentration and residence time had the most important effect. Higher feed concentration corresponded to higher product concentration and productivity, but to lower yield. The mean feed concentration was 109 gCOD l−1 and 19 gCOD l−1 in the experiments with the highest product concentrations and in the experiments with the highest yields, respectively. Shorter residence times corres... [more]
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