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Records with Keyword: Computational Fluid Dynamics
Numerical Study on the Gas-Water Two-Phase Flow in the Self-Priming Process of Self-Priming Centrifugal Pump
Chuan Wang, Bo Hu, Yong Zhu, Xiuli Wang, Can Luo, Li Cheng
August 7, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, gas-water two-phase flow, self-priming pump
A self-priming centrifugal pump can be used in various areas such as agricultural irrigation, urban greening, and building water-supply. In order to simulate the gas-water two-phase flow in the self-priming process of a self-priming centrifugal pump, the unsteady numerical calculation of a typical self-priming centrifugal pump was performed using the ANSYS Computational Fluid X (ANSYS CFX) software. It was found that the whole self-priming process of a self-priming pump can be divided into three stages: the initial self-priming stage, the middle self-priming stage, and the final self-priming stage. Moreover, the self-priming time of the initial and final self-priming stages accounts for a small percentage of the whole self-priming process, while the middle self-priming stage is the main stage in the self-priming process and further determines the length of the self-priming time.
Wave Characteristics of Coagulation Bath in Dry-Jet Wet-Spinning Process for Polyacrylonitrile Fiber Production Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Son Ich Ngo, Young-Il Lim, Soo-Chan Kim
July 31, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: coagulation bath, Computational Fluid Dynamics, dry-jet wet spinning process, maximum wave amplitude, polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fiber, wave resonance
In this work, a three-dimensional volume-of-fluid computational fluid dynamics (VOF-CFD) model was developed for a coagulation bath of the dry-jet wet spinning (DJWS) process for the production of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fiber under long-term operating conditions. The PAN-fiber was assumed to be a deformable porous zone with variations in moving speed, porosity, and permeability. The Froude number, interpreted as the wave-making resistance on the liquid surface, was analyzed according to the PAN-fiber wind-up speed ( v P A N ). The effect of the PAN speed on the reflection and wake flow formed by drag between a moving object and fluid is presented. A method for tracking the wave amplitude with time is proposed based on the iso-surface of the liquid volume fraction of 0.95. The wave signal for 30 min was divided into the initial and resonance states that were distinguished at 8 min. The maximum wave amplitude was less than 0.5 mm around the PAN-fiber inlet nozzle... [more]
Comparison of Riser-Simplified, Riser-Only, and Full-Loop Simulations for a Circulating Fluidized Bed
Min Wang, Yingya Wu, Xiaogang Shi, Xingying Lan, Chengxiu Wang, Jinsen Gao
July 31, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: circulating-fluidized bed, Computational Fluid Dynamics, full-loop simulation, gas–solids flow, hydrodynamics, riser
With the development of computing power, the simulation of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) has developed from riser-simplified simulation to riser-only simulation, then to full-loop simulation. This paper compared these three methods based on pilot-scale CFB experiment data to find the scope of application of each method. All these simulations, using the Eulerian−Eulerian two-fluid model with the kinetic theory of granular theory, were conducted to simulate a pilot-scale CFB. The hydrodynamics, such as pressure balance, solids holdup distribution, solids velocity distribution, and instantaneous mass flow rates in the riser or CFB system, were investigated in different simulations. By comparing the results from different methods, it was found that riser-simplified simulation is not sufficient to obtain accurate hydrodynamics, especially in higher solids circulating rates. The riser-only simulation is able to make a reasonable prediction of time-averaged behaviors of gas−solids in most p... [more]
Artificial Neural Networks Approach for a Multi-Objective Cavitation Optimization Design in a Double-Suction Centrifugal Pump
Wenjie Wang, Majeed Koranteng Osman, Ji Pei, Xingcheng Gan, Tingyun Yin
July 28, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: artificial neural network, cavitation optimization, Computational Fluid Dynamics, multi-objective optimization, NPSHr prediction
Double-suction centrifugal pumps are widely used in industrial and agricultural applications since their flow rate is twice that of single-suction pumps with the same impeller diameter. They usually run for longer, which makes them susceptible to cavitation, putting the downstream components at risk. A fast approach to predicting the Net Positive Suction Head required was applied to perform a multi-objective optimization on the double-suction centrifugal pump. An L32 (84) orthogonal array was designed to evaluate 8 geometrical parameters at 4 levels each. A two-layer feedforward neural network and genetic algorithm was applied to solve the multi-objective problem into pareto solutions. The results were validated by numerical simulation and compared to the original design. The suction performance was improved by 7.26%, 3.9%, 4.5% and 3.8% at flow conditions 0.6Qd, 0.8Qd, 1.0Qd and 1.2Qd respectively. The efficiency increased by 1.53% 1.0Qd and 1.1% at 0.8Qd. The streamline on the blade... [more]
Computational Evaluation of Mixing Performance in 3-D Swirl-Generating Passive Micromixers
Mahmut Burak Okuducu, Mustafa M. Aral
July 5, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, false diffusion, finite volume method, micromixer, numerical diffusion, swirl
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools are used to investigate fluid flow and scalar mixing in micromixers where low molecular diffusivities yield advection dominant transport. In these applications, achieving a numerical solution is challenging. Numerical procedures used to overcome these difficulties may cause misevaluation of the mixing process. Evaluation of the mixing performance of these devices without appropriate analysis of the contribution of numerical diffusion yields over estimation of mixing performance. In this study, two- and four-inlet swirl-generating micromixers are examined for different mesh density, flow and molecular diffusivity scenarios. It is shown that mesh densities need to be high enough to reveal numerical diffusion errors in scalar transport simulations. Two-inlet micromixer design was found to produce higher numerical diffusion. In both micromixer configurations, when cell Peclet numbers were around 50 and 100 for Reynolds numbers 240 and 120, the numer... [more]
Numerical Simulation of the Effects of the Helical Angle on the Decaying Swirl Flow of the Hole Cleaning Device
Jingyu Qu, Tie Yan, Xiaofeng Sun, Zijian Li, Wei Li
June 18, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, decaying swirl flow, hole cleaning device, horizontal wellbore, swirl intensity
The application of the hole cleaning device in downhole is a new technology that can improve the problem of cuttings accumulation in the annulus and improve the hole cleaning effect of the wellbore during drilling. In this paper, the Reynolds Averaged Navier⁻Stokes model, together with the Realizable k-ε turbulence model, are used to perform transient simulations. The effects of rotational speed, blade shape, and helical angle on the initial swirl intensity and its decay behavior along the flow direction are studied. The swirl number, the initial swirl intensity, the decay rate, the tangential velocity distribution, and the variation of pressure are analyzed. The results indicate that the swirl number of the swirl flow exponentially decays along the flow direction. The straight blade and V-shaped blade have different swirl flow induction mechanisms. Under specific drilling parameters, the critical helical angle is determined for both types of blades. When the selection of the helical a... [more]
Multi-Tubular Reactor for Hydrogen Production: CFD Thermal Design and Experimental Testing
Elvira Tapia, Aurelio González-Pardo, Alfredo Iranzo, Manuel Romero, José González-Aguilar, Alfonso Vidal, Mariana Martín-Betancourt, Felipe Rosa
April 15, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Computational Fluid Dynamics, hydrogen production, model, solar reactor, solar receiver, thermal energy
This study presents the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) thermal design and experimental tests results for a multi-tubular solar reactor for hydrogen production based on the ferrite thermochemical cycle in a pilot plant in the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA). The methodology followed for the solar reactor design is described, as well as the experimental tests carried out during the testing campaign and characterization of the reactor. The CFD model developed for the thermal design of the solar reactor has been validated against the experimental measurements, with a temperature error ranging from 1% to around 10% depending on the location within the reactor. The thermal balance in the reactor (cavity and tubes) has been also solved by the CFD model, showing a 7.9% thermal efficiency of the reactor. CFD results also show the percentage of reacting media inside the tubes which achieve the required temperature for the endothermic reaction process, with 90% of the ferrite pellets inside... [more]
Multi-Tubular Reactor for Hydrogen Production: CFD Thermal Design and Experimental Testing
Elvira Tapia, Aurelio González-Pardo, Alfredo Iranzo, Manuel Romero, José González-Aguilar, Alfonso Vidal, Mariana Martín-Betancourt, Felipe Rosa
April 15, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Computational Fluid Dynamics, hydrogen production, model, solar reactor, solar receiver, thermal energy
This study presents the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) thermal design and experimental tests results for a multi-tubular solar reactor for hydrogen production based on the ferrite thermochemical cycle in a pilot plant in the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA). The methodology followed for the solar reactor design is described, as well as the experimental tests carried out during the testing campaign and characterization of the reactor. The CFD model developed for the thermal design of the solar reactor has been validated against the experimental measurements, with a temperature error ranging from 1% to around 10% depending on the location within the reactor. The thermal balance in the reactor (cavity and tubes) has been also solved by the CFD model, showing a 7.9% thermal efficiency of the reactor. CFD results also show the percentage of reacting media inside the tubes which achieve the required temperature for the endothermic reaction process, with 90% of the ferrite pellets inside... [more]
Formation Mechanism of Trailing Oil in Product Oil Pipeline
Enbin Liu, Wensheng Li, Hongjun Cai, Shanbi Peng
April 9, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, contamination, dead-leg, pipeline, trailing oil, transportation
Trailing oil is the tail section of contamination in oil pipelines. It is generated in batch transportation, for which one fluid, such as diesel oil follows another fluid, such as gasoline, and it has an effect on the quality of oil. This paper describes our analysis of the formation mechanism of trailing oil in pipelines and our study of the influence of dead-legs on the formation of trailing oil. We found that the oil replacement rate in a dead-leg is exponentially related to the flow speed, and the length of the dead-leg is exponentially related to the replacement time of the oil. To reduce the amount of mixed oil, the main flow speed should be kept at about 1.6 m/s, and the length of the dead-leg should be less than five times the diameter of the main pipe. In our work, the Reynolds time-averaged method is used to simulate turbulence. To obtain contamination-related experimental data, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is used to simulate different flow rates and bypass le... [more]
Development of Correlations for Windage Power Losses Modeling in an Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine with Geometrical Features of the Magnets
Alireza Rasekh, Peter Sergeant, Jan Vierendeels
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: AFPMSM, Computational Fluid Dynamics, magnet parameters, windage losses
In this paper, a set of correlations for the windage power losses in a 4 kW axial flux permanent magnet synchronous machine (AFPMSM) is presented. In order to have an efficient machine, it is necessary to optimize the total electromagnetic and mechanical losses. Therefore, fast equations are needed to estimate the windage power losses of the machine. The geometry consists of an open rotor⁻stator with sixteen magnets at the periphery of the rotor with an annular opening in the entire disk. Air can flow in a channel being formed between the magnets and in a small gap region between the magnets and the stator surface. To construct the correlations, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations through the frozen rotor (FR) method are performed at the practical ranges of the geometrical parameters, namely the gap size distance, the rotational speed of the rotor, the magnet thickness and the magnet angle. Thereafter, two categories of formulations are defined to make the windage losses dim... [more]
Energy Converter with Inside Two, Three, and Five Connected H₂/Air Swirling Combustor Chambers: Solar and Combustion Mode Investigations
Angelo Minotti
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, detailed chemistry, fluid-structure interaction, hydrogen-air combustion, meso-combustor, whirl flow
This work reports the performance of an energy converter characterized by an emitting parallelepiped element with inside two, three, or five swirling connected combustion chambers. In particular, the idea is to adopt the heat released by H₂/air combustion, occurring in the connected swirling chambers, to heat up the emitting surfaces of the thermally-conductive emitting parallelepiped brick. The final goal consists in obtaining the highest emitting surface temperature and the highest power delivered to the ambient environment, with the simultaneous fulfillment of four design constraints: dimension of the emitting surface fixed to 30 × 30 mm², solar mode thermal efficiency greater than 20%, emitting surface peak temperature T > 1000 K, and its relative ∆T < 100 K in the combustion mode operation. The connected swirling meso-combustion chambers, inside the converter, differ only in their diameters. Combustion simulations are carried out adopting 500 W of injected chemical power, stoichio... [more]
Investigation of a High Head Francis Turbine at Runaway Operating Conditions
Chirag Trivedi, Michel J. Cervantes, B. K. Gandhi
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Francis turbine, pressure pulsation, runaway, runner, transient
Hydraulic turbines exhibit total load rejection during operation because of high fluctuations in the grid parameters. The generator reaches no-load instantly. Consequently, the turbine runner accelerates to high speed, runaway speed, in seconds. Under common conditions, stable runaway is only reached if after a load rejection, the control and protection mechanisms both fail and the guide vanes cannot be closed. The runner life is affected by the high amplitude pressure loading at the runaway speed. A model Francis turbine was used to investigate the consequences at the runaway condition. Measurements and simulations were performed at three operating points. The numerical simulations were performed using standard k-ε, k-ω shear stress transport (SST) and scale-adaptive simulation (SAS) models. A total of 12.8 million hexahedral mesh elements were created in the complete turbine, from the spiral casing inlet to the draft tube outlet. The experimental and numerical analysis showed that th... [more]
Investigation of the Optimal Omni-Direction-Guide-Vane Design for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines Based on Unsteady Flow CFD Simulation
Behzad Shahizare, Nik Nazri Bin Nik Ghazali, Wen Tong Chong, Seyed Saeed Tabatabaeikia, Nima Izadyar
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, guide vane, shape ratio, turbulence model, vertical axis wind turbine
With soaring energy demands, the desire to explore alternate and renewable energy resources has become the focal point of various active research fronts. Therefore, the scientific community is revisiting the notion to tap wind resources in more rigorous and novel ways. In this study, a two-dimensional computational investigation of the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) with omni-direction-guide-vane (ODGV) is proposed to determine the effects of this guide vane. In addition, the mesh and time step (dt) size dependency test, as well as the effect of the different turbulence models on results accuracy are investigated. Eight different shape ratios (R) of the omni-direction-guide-vane were also examined in this study. Further, the CFD model is validated by comparing the numerical results with the experimental data. Validation results show a good agreement in terms of shape and trend in CFD simulation. Based on these results, all the shape ratios, except two ratios including 0.3 and 0.4 at... [more]
Energy and Exergy Analyses of Tube Banks in Waste Heat Recovery Applications
Mustafa Erguvan, David W. MacPhee
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, efficiency, Energy, entropy, Exergy, HRSG, tube banks
In this study, energy and exergy analyses have been investigated numerically for unsteady cross-flow over heated circular cylinders. Numerous simulations were conducted varying the number of inline tubes, inlet velocity, dimensionless pitch ratios and Reynolds number. Heat leakage into the domain is modeled as a source term. Numerical results compare favorably to published data in terms of Nusselt number and pressure drop. It was found that the energy efficiency varies between 72% and 98% for all cases, and viscous dissipation has a very low effect on the energy efficiency for low Reynolds number cases. The exergy efficiency ranges from 40⁻64%, and the entropy generation due to heat transfer was found to have a significant effect on exergy efficiency. The results suggest that exergy efficiency can be maximized by choosing specific pitch ratios for various Reynolds numbers. The results could be useful in designing more efficient heat recovery systems, especially for low temperature appl... [more]
Partial Redesign of an Accelerator Driven System Target for Optimizing the Heat Removal and Minimizing the Pressure Drops
Guglielmo Lomonaco, Giacomo Alessandroni, Walter Borreani
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: ADS, ANSYS-FLUENT, bayonet tube heat exchanger, Computational Fluid Dynamics, target
Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) seem to be a good solution for safe nuclear waste transmutation. One of the most important challenges for this kind of machine is the target design, particularly for what concerning the target cooling system. In order to optimize this component a CFD-based approach has been chosen. After the definition of a reference design (Be target cooled by He), some parameters have been varied in order to optimize the thermal-fluid-dynamic features. The final optimized target design has an increased security margin for what regarding Be melting and reduces the maximum coolant velocity (and consequently even more the pressure drops).
Numerical Investigation of the Effects of Steam Mole Fraction and the Inlet Velocity of Reforming Reactants on an Industrial-Scale Steam Methane Reformer
Chun-Lang Yeh
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, hydrogen yield, steam methane reformer, tube surface temperature, wall shear stress
Steam methane reforming (SMR) is the most common commercial method of industrial hydrogen production. Control of the catalyst tube temperature is a fundamental demand of the reformer design because the tube temperature must be maintained within a range that the catalysts have high activity and the tube has minor damage. In this paper, the transport and chemical reaction in an industrial-scale steam methane reformer are simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Two factors influencing the reformer temperature, hydrogen yield and stress distribution are discussed: (1) the mole fraction of steam (YH2O) and (2) the inlet velocity of the reforming reactants. The purpose of this paper is to get a better understanding of the flow and thermal development in a reformer and thus, to make it possible to improve the performance and lifetime of a steam reformer. It is found that the lowest temperature at the reforming tube surface occurs when YH2O is 0.5. Hydrogen yield has the highest va... [more]
Production of Hydrogen by Methane Steam Reforming Coupled with Catalytic Combustion in Integrated Microchannel Reactors
Junjie Chen, Baofang Liu, Xuhui Gao, Deguang Xu
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: catalytic combustion, Computational Fluid Dynamics, hydrogen production, Process Intensification, process optimization, Steam Reforming, thermal management, thermally integrated microchannel reactors
This paper addresses the issues related to the rapid production of hydrogen from methane steam reforming by means of process intensification. Methane steam reforming coupled with catalytic combustion in thermally integrated microchannel reactors for the production of hydrogen was investigated numerically. The effect of the catalyst, flow arrangement, and reactor dimension was assessed to optimize the design of the system. The thermal interaction between reforming and combustion was investigated for the purpose of the rapid production of hydrogen. The importance of thermal management was discussed in detail, and a theoretical analysis was made on the transport phenomena during each of the reforming and combustion processes. The results indicated that the design of a thermally integrated system operated at millisecond contact times is feasible. The design benefits from the miniaturization of the reactors, but the improvement in catalyst performance is also required to ensure the rapid pr... [more]
Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of the Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Methane in Microchannel Reactors for Synthesis Gas Production
Junjie Chen, Wenya Song, Deguang Xu
July 31, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: catalytic microreactors, Computational Fluid Dynamics, hydrogen production, microchannel reactors, partial oxidation, reaction pathway, reactor design, synthesis gas production
This paper addresses the issues related to the favorable operating conditions for the small-scale production of synthesis gas from the catalytic partial oxidation of methane over rhodium. Numerical simulations were performed by means of computational fluid dynamics to explore the key factors influencing the yield of synthesis gas. The effect of mixture composition, pressure, preheating temperature, and reactor dimension was evaluated to identify conditions that favor a high yield of synthesis gas. The relative importance of heterogeneous and homogenous reaction pathways in determining the distribution of reaction products was investigated. The results indicated that there is competition between the partial and total oxidation reactions occurring in the system, which is responsible for the distribution of reaction products. The contribution of heterogeneous and homogeneous reaction pathways depends upon process conditions. The temperature and pressure play an important role in determini... [more]
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modelling and Application for Sterilization of Foods: A Review
Hyeon Woo Park, Won Byong Yoon
July 31, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Computational Fluid Dynamics, computer simulation, sterilization, thermal processing
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a powerful tool to model fluid flow motions for momentum, mass and energy transfer. CFD has been widely used to simulate the flow pattern and temperature distribution during the thermal processing of foods. This paper discusses the background of the thermal processing of food, and the fundamentals in developing CFD models. The constitution of simulation models is provided to enable the design of effective and efficient CFD modeling. An overview of the current CFD modeling studies of thermal processing in solid, liquid, and liquid-solid mixtures is also provided. Some limitations and unrealistic assumptions faced by CFD modelers are also discussed.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modelling and Application for Sterilization of Foods: A Review
Hyeon Woo Park, Won Byong Yoon
July 31, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Computational Fluid Dynamics, computer simulation, sterilization, thermal processing
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a powerful tool to model fluid flow motions for momentum, mass and energy transfer. CFD has been widely used to simulate the flow pattern and temperature distribution during the thermal processing of foods. This paper discusses the background of the thermal processing of food, and the fundamentals in developing CFD models. The constitution of simulation models is provided to enable the design of effective and efficient CFD modeling. An overview of the current CFD modeling studies of thermal processing in solid, liquid, and liquid-solid mixtures is also provided. Some limitations and unrealistic assumptions faced by CFD modelers are also discussed.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-Based Droplet Size Estimates in Emulsification Equipment
Jo Janssen, Roy Mayer
July 30, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, droplet size, emulsification modelling, population balance
While academic literature shows steady progress in combining multi-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and population balance modelling (PBM) of emulsification processes, the computational burden of this approach is still too large for routine use in industry. The challenge, thus, is to link a sufficiently detailed flow analysis to the droplet behavior in a way that is both physically relevant and computationally manageable. In this research article we propose the use of single-phase CFD to map out the local maximum stable droplet diameter within a given device, based on well-known academic droplet break-up studies in quasi-steady 2D linear flows. The results of the latter are represented by analytical correlations for the critical capillary number, which are valid across a wide viscosity ratio range. Additionally, we suggest a parameter to assess how good the assumption of quasi-steady 2D flow is locally. The approach is demonstrated for a common lab-scale rotor-stator device (Ul... [more]
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