Records with Keyword: Modelling
Showing records 1 to 25 of 401. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Semi-Analytical Modeling of Pyrolysis Front and Ignition Temperatures of Thermally Reactive Single Solid Particles
Yousef Haseli
September 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: extremum temperature, ignition temperature, Modelling, pyrolysis, reaction-front temperature, thermally reactive solid
A semi-analytical approach is developed for predicting pyrolysis front temperature in a charring solid undergoing thermal decomposition. The pre-reaction heating stage is described using an analytical formulation and invoking the concept of thermal penetration depth. The solution for the solid conversion stage accounts for decomposition enthalpy, the convective flow of volatiles, and a reaction front characterized by a uniform temperature that progresses toward the inner layers. This method incorporates empirical relations into the analytical model. Two scenarios are considered. First, the solution of the pyrolysis model combined with the data of conversion time versus external heat flux leads to an algebraic expression that reveals the existence of a maximum pyrolysis-front temperature. Explicit relations are derived for both the extremum pyrolysis temperature and optimum applied heat flux. In the second case, an expression is derived for the ignition temperature of a solid fuel (e.g.... [more]
Model-Based Optimization of Multi-Stage Nanofiltration Using the Solution-Diffusion−Electromigration Model
Tobias Hubach, Stefan Schlüter, Christoph Held
September 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: ion permeances, lithium, magnesium, membrane separation, Modelling, Optimization, process design, solution-diffusion–electromigration
Nanofiltration is well suited to separate monovalent ions from multivalent ions, such as the separation of Li+ and Mg2+ from seawater, a potential lithium source for the production of lithium-ion batteries. To the best of our knowledge, there is no existing work on the optimization of a multi-stage membrane plant that differentiates between different ions and that is based on a validated transport model. This study presents a method for modeling predefined membrane interconnections using discretization along the membrane length and across the membrane thickness. The solution-diffusion−electromigration model was used as the transport model in a fundamental membrane flowsheet, and the model was employed to optimize a given flowsheet with a flexible objective function. The methodology was evaluated for three distinct separation tasks, and optimized operating points were found. These show that permeances and feed concentrations might cause negative rejections and positive rejections (espec... [more]
Assessment of Physical and Sensory Attributes of Date-Based Energy Drink Treated with Ultrasonication: Modelling Changes during Storage and Predicting Shelf Life
Mohammad Fikry, Yus Aniza Yusof, Alhussein M. Al-Awaadh, Syahrul Anis Hazwani Mohd Baroyi, Nashratul Shera Mohamad Ghazali, Kazunori Kadota, Shuhaimi Mustafa, Hazizi Abu Saad, Nor Nadiah Abdul Karim Shah, Saleh Al-Ghamdi
June 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: energy drink, Modelling, palm date, quality and sensory properties, ultrasonic
Sonication is a relatively new and eco-friendly method used to extend the shelf life of food products. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ultrasonication and thermal treatments on the physical and sensory properties of an energy drink made from dates during cold storage at 4 °C. The study compared the effects of ultrasonication for 20, 30, and 40 min at 50% amplitude with thermal treatment at 90 °C for 5 min, aiming to model the changes in properties of processed drinks over time and predict their shelf life by integrating quality attributes. The results showed that total soluble solids (TSS) and electrical conductivity (EC) were not affected by cold storage and did not differ significantly between sonicated, thermally processed, and untreated samples. However, significant differences in pH; L*, a*, and b* values; Chroma; and sensory attributes were detected among the sonicated, thermally processed, and untreated samples. The sensory properties of the sonicated samples for... [more]
Thermal Methane Cracking on Molten Metal: Kinetics Modeling for Pilot Reactor Design
Emma Palo, Vittoria Cosentino, Gaetano Iaquaniello, Vincenzo Piemonte, Emmanuel Busillo
June 9, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: CO2 free process, Hydrogen, methane cracking, Modelling, molten metal process
Up to 80% of hydrogen production is currently carried out through CO2 emission-intensive natural gas reforming and coal gasification. Water-splitting electrolysis using renewable energy (green H2) is the only process that does not emit greenhouses gases, but it is a quite energy-demanding process. To significantly contribute to the clean energy transition, it is critical that low-carbon hydrogen production routes that can replace current production methods and can expand production capacity to meet new demands are developed. A new path, alternative to steam reforming coupled with CCS (blue H2) that is based on methane cracking, in which H2 production is associated with solid carbon instead of CO2 (turquoise H2), has received increasing attention recent years. The reaction takes place inside the liquid bath, a molten metal reactor. The aim of this article is to model the main kinetic mechanisms involved in the methane cracking reaction with molten metals. The model developed was validat... [more]
Hybrid (Gas and Geothermal) Greenhouse Simulations Aimed at Optimizing Investment and Operative Costs: A Case Study in NW Italy
Jessica Maria Chicco, Leonardo Fonte, Giuseppe Mandrone, Andrea Tartaglino, Damiano Vacha
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: cost optimization, greenhouse, Modelling, shallow geothermal plant
Generally, greenhouses are high energy-consuming, sometimes accounting for 50% of the cost of greenhouse production. Geothermal energy plays a very important role in maintaining the desired temperature and reducing energy consumption. This work deals with a project of a hybrid heating plant (97% geothermal energy and 3% gas-condensing boiler) for the innovative Plant Phenotyping Greenhouse at the University Campus in Grugliasco (few km West of the city of Turin). The aim of the study is to testify to the energy efficiency of this kind of hybrid plant as well as its economic sustainability. Numerical simulations of a GRT were used to calibrate the system and verify that the software reasonably modeled the real case. They helped to correctly size the geothermal plant, also providing data about the thermal energy storage and production during on and off plant cycles. The results show a thermal power of 50.92 kW over 120 days of plant operation, in line with the expected energy needs to me... [more]
Long-Term Self-Discharge Measurements and Modelling for Various Cell Types and Cell Potentials
Mohamed Azzam, Moritz Ehrensberger, Reinhard Scheuer, Christian Endisch, Meinert Lewerenz
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: 18650, anode overhang, filtering, float current analysis, graphite, LFP, Modelling, NCA, NMC, potentiostatic hold, self-discharge rate
Self-discharge of lithium-ion cells leads to voltage decay over time. In this work, the self-discharge was measured at 30 ∘C for three cell types at various voltage levels for about 150 days in a constant voltage mode determining the current at a high precision (float current). All cells exhibit a transient part leading to a steady-state, which is no longer influenced by reversible effects. To study the effect of the check-ups on the steady-state float current, the cells, interrupted and not interrupted by check-ups, were compared. The results indicate that both the transient processes and steady-state currents are highly reproducible. In the first period of the float current, the polarization dominates the measured current, followed by the anode overhang effect dominating the process for a period of 5−30 days. After the decline of both processes, a mostly constant steady-state in the order of μA is observed. The check-up interruption generally shows no apparent effect on the reached s... [more]
MOF-801/Graphene Adsorbent Material for Greenhouse Climate Control System—Numerical Investigation
Andrew N. Aziz, Raya Al-Dadah, Saad Mahmoud, Mohamed A. Ismail, Mohammed K. Almesfer, Marwa F. El-Kady, Hassan Shokry
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Adsorption, COMSOL, Matlab, Modelling, MOF-801/Graphene, Simulation
Greenhouses with efficient controlled environment offer a promising solution for food security against the impacts of increasing global temperatures and growing water scarcity. However, current technologies used to achieve this controlled environment consume a significant amount of energy, which impacts on operational costs and CO2 emissions. Using advanced metal organic framework materials (MOFs) with superior water adsorption characteristics, this work investigates the development of a new technology for a greenhouse-controlled environment. The system consists of MOF coated heat exchanger, air to air heat exchanger, and evaporative cooler. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed using COMSOL software and experimentally validated for the MOF-801/Graphene coated heat exchanger (DCHE) to determine the best cycle time and power input. It was found that using desorption time of 16 min and power input of 1.26 W, the maximum water removal rate was obtained... [more]
Thermodynamic and Experimental Substantiation of the Possibility of Formation and Extraction of Organometallic Compounds as Indicators of Deep Naphthogenesis
Tatiana Aleksandrova, Nadezhda Nikolaeva, Valentin Kuznetsov
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: cavitation-extraction technology, crude oil, metalloporphyrins, microelements, Modelling, naphthogenesis, thermodynamics
In this article, typomorphic associations of microelements in carbonaceous caustobioliths and oils are defined as indicators of naphthogenesis based on the analytical survey of the literature and our own research. Various approaches to the studying of crude oil genesis from the position of abiotic and complex approaches (polygenesis) are considered. Such approaches are relevant to the prospect and development of offshore oil deposits, localized at ultra-deep levels. For deep deposits, the most prominent hypothesis of oil origin is the abiogenious theory. In the foundation of that approach lays the assumption that hydrocarbons are formed mainly due to reactions of the formed mantle gases and the host rock. Key factors for these reactions to proceed are specific conditions concerning temperature, pressure, and specific catalysts. The article presents the results of thermodynamic and quantum-chemical modeling of the possibility of the organic and organometallic compound formation using th... [more]
On the Thermal Stability of a Counter-Current Fixed-Bed Gasifier
Marco Mancini, Andreas Schwabauer
May 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: gasification, Modelling, stability, updraft
In recent years, gasification gained attention again, both as an industrial application and as a research topic. This trend has led to the necessity to understand the process and optimize reactors for various materials and configurations. In this article, the thermal structure of a counter-current reactor is investigated to demonstrate that constraints on the temperature mainly determine the oxidation and the pyrolysis region. A non-dimensional set of equations is written and numerically solved using the method of lines (MOL) with spatial discretization based on a spectral algorithm. The results show that four thermal structures can be identified, two of which are the most common ones found in reactors of practical applications. Two stationary operation positions have been determined, one in the upper and one in the lower part of the reactor. Existence and stability conditions have been discussed based on non-dimensional parameters. The knowledge derived from this analysis was applied... [more]
Estimating the Performance Loss Rate of Photovoltaic Systems Using Time Series Change Point Analysis
Andreas Livera, Georgios Tziolis, Marios Theristis, Joshua S. Stein, George E. Georghiou
May 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: change point techniques, Modelling, nonlinear degradation, performance loss rate, photovoltaics
The accurate quantification of the performance loss rate of photovoltaic systems is critical for project economics. Following the current research activities in the photovoltaic performance and reliability field, this work presents a comparative assessment between common change point methods for performance loss rate estimation of fielded photovoltaic installations. An extensive testing campaign was thus performed to evaluate time series analysis approaches for performance loss rate evaluation of photovoltaic systems. Historical electrical data from eleven photovoltaic systems installed in Nicosia, Cyprus, and the locations’ meteorological measurements over a period of 8 years were used for this investigation. The application of change point detection algorithms on the constructed monthly photovoltaic performance ratio series revealed that the obtained trend might not always be linear. Specifically, thin film photovoltaic systems showed nonlinear behavior, while nonlinearities were als... [more]
Mathematical Modeling of Microbial Electrolysis Cells for Enhanced Urban Wastewater Treatment and Hydrogen Generation
Narges Rahimi, Ursula Eicker
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Hydrogen, microbial electrolysis cell, Modelling, Wastewater
Conventional wastewater treatment plants (CWTPs) are intensive energy consumers. New technologies are emerging for wastewater treatment such as microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) that can simultaneously treat wastewater and generate hydrogen as a renewable energy source. Mathematical modeling of single and dual-chamber microbial electrolysis cells (SMEC and DMEC) has been developed based on microbial population growth in this study. The model outputs were validated successfully with previous works, and are then used for comparisons between the SMEC and DMEC regarding the hydrogen production rate (HPR). The results reveal that the daily HPR in DMEC is higher than in SMEC, with about 0.86 l H2 and 0.52 l H2, respectively, per 1 L of wastewater. Moreover, the results have been used to compare the HPR in water electrolysis (WE) processes and MECs. WE consume 51 kWh to generate 1 kg of hydrogen, while SMEC and DMEC require only 30 kWh and 24.5 kWh, respectively.
Modeling and Operating Time Optimization of Layer Melt Crystallization and Sweating Processes
Yunhe Bai, Luguang Qi, Ying Sun, Zhenxing Zhu, Chuang Xie
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: layer growth rate, layer melt crystallization, Modelling, Optimization, sweating
Improving the separation efficiency of the layer melt crystallization process is a key but difficult task. Herein, a comprehensive model involving both crystallization and sweating was proposed and used to optimize the operating time of crystallization and sweating processes. The crystallization process was modeled based on the relationship between differential and integral distribution coefficients under a constant layer growth rate. For the sweating process, an empirical sweating equation was employed to govern the sweating model, the parameters of which were determined experimentally using P-xylene as the model substance. The separation efficiency was then optimized by minimizing the operating time at a given product purity and yield. A sensitivity analysis showed that the crystallization and sweating times nonlinearly increase with increasing yield. After the yield exceeds 0.65, an increasing crystallization time is the dominant factor in improving the separation efficiency, while... [more]
Modeling Strategies for Crude Oil-Induced Fouling in Heat Exchangers: A Review
Obaid ur Rehman, Marappa Gounder Ramasamy, Nor Erniza Mohammad Rozali, Shuhaimi Mahadzir, Ali Shaan Manzoor Ghumman, Abdul Hannan Qureshi
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, crude oil, fouling, heat exchanger, Modelling, thermal-hydraulic
Semi-empirical fouling models have proven more effective in predicting the fouling behavior of crude oils in heat exchangers. These models have aided refineries in optimizing operating conditions to minimize or eliminate fouling in preheat exchangers. Despite their complexity, the models continue to improve in approximating real behavior by taking into account previously neglected aspects. This paper summarizes these findings from various studies along with highlighting different factors which were considered to enhance the predictability of the models. A critical analysis is presented to emphasize that activation energy in the deposition term varies depending on the physical processes involved and may not conform to the precise definition of activation energy. Two primary modeling approaches for crude oil fouling have emerged, i.e., deterministic and threshold models. Threshold models have gained more attention due to their fewer adjustable parameters. The stability or compatibility o... [more]
Methodology for an Audit of Institutional Projects in the Energy Sector
Elena Fedchenko, Lyubov Gusarova, Timur Timkin, Natalie Gryzunova, Michał Bilczak, Svetlana Frumina
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: climate policy, Energy, institutional projects, Modelling, state audit
Auditing activity, in the last decade, is one of the most dynamically changing types of economic activity, on the one hand, due to an increase in the number of state projects implemented by many countries, and on the other hand, due to technological innovations and digitalization. Russian auditing practices are also being actively reformed. For example, the Ministry of Energy is updating their audit methodology. The subject of this study is to ensure the efficiency of spending public funds for the implementation of strategic projects. The object of this study is the methodology of a state audit. An analysis of the currently used Russian and international standards for public audits shows that there are many opportunities to improve the methodology for conducting financial, strategic and performance audits. First of all, there is a need to solve methodological problems in monitoring the efficiency of investment developments, since partnerships between private investors and government bo... [more]
A Review of Research on Advanced Control Methods for Underground Coal Gasification Processes
Ján Kačur, Marek Laciak, Milan Durdán, Patrik Flegner, Rebecca Frančáková
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: advanced control, automation, control algorithm, control methods, Modelling, Optimization, review, UCG
Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a clean coal mining technology without significant environmental impacts. This technology can also be used in deep, hard-to-reach seams or deposits affected by tectonic disturbances, where conventional mining is impossible. Several techniques and methods have been investigated worldwide to support the process control of UCG. Global research focuses on the control of UCG operating parameters to stabilize or to optimize the performance of the underground reactor during energy conversion. This paper studies recent research in the field of UCG control and compares individual control techniques and possibilities for practical application. The paper focuses on advanced control methods that can be implemented in an in situ control system (e.g., adaptive control, extremum seeking control, and robust control). The study investigates control methods that ensure desired syngas calorific value or maximization. The review showed that robust control techniques... [more]
Determination of Heat and Mass Transport Correlations for Hollow Membrane Distillation Modules
Peter M. Hylle, Jeppe T. Falden, Jeppe L. Rauff, Philip Rasmussen, Mads Moltzen-Juul, Maja L. Trudslev, Cejna Anna Quist-Jensen, Aamer Ali
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: membrane distillation, Modelling, Nusselt number, thermal conductivity, tortuosity factor
Development and optimization of the membrane distillation (MD) process are strongly associated with better understanding of heat and mass transport across the membrane. The current state-of-the-art on heat and mass transport in MD greatly relies upon the use of various empirical correlations for the Nusselt number (Nu), tortuosity factor (τ), and thermal conductivity (κm) of the membrane. However, the current literature lacks investigations about finding the most representative combination of these three parameters for modeling transport phenomena in MD. In this study, we investigated 189 combinations of Nu, κm, and τ to assess their capability to predict the experimental flux and outlet temperatures of feed and permeate streams for hollow fiber MD modules. It was concluded that 31 out of 189 tested combinations could predict the experimental flux with reasonable accuracy (R2 > 0.95). Most of the combinations capable of predicting the flux reasonably well could predict the feed outlet... [more]
Development of Model-Based PEM Water Electrolysis HILS (Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation) System for State Evaluation and Fault Detection
Taehyung Koo, Rockkil Ko, Dongwoo Ha, Jaeyoung Han
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: dynamic response, hardware-in-the-loop simulation, Hydrogen, Modelling, PEMWE, real time, system simulation
Hydrogen is attracting attention as a good energy-storage medium for renewable energy. Among hydrogen production technologies using renewable energy, water electrolysis is drawing attention as a key technology for green hydrogen production using renewable energy. In particular, polymeric electrolyte membrane water electrolysis systems have several advantages compared to other types of water electrolysis technologies, such as small size and mass, high efficiency, low operating temperature, and low power consumption. However, until now, proton-exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis systems have not been reliable. In this study, system failure diagnosis techniques were presented among the various methods for improving reliability. We developed PEM water electrolysis stack models and system models to predict the performance of the system and analyze the dynamic properties using MATLAB/Simulink® 2018a, which have been validated under various conditions. The developed dynamic characteris... [more]
Modelling Carbon Corrosion during a PEMFC Startup: Simulation of Mitigation Strategies
Bolahaga Randrianarizafy, Pascal Schott, Mathias Gerard, Yann Bultel
April 25, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: carbon corrosion, mitigation strategies, Modelling, multiphysics simulations, PEM fuel cell
This paper presents a study of the carbon support corrosion and mitigation strategies through the use of a pseudo-3D model. This model consists in coupling a 2D model along the channel with another model perpendicular to the flow at the rib/channel scale. Simulations offer a deeper understanding of the corrosion through the analysis of the local conditions. Rib/channel heterogeneities show the higher degradation in the zones facing the anodic rib. These results are validated qualitatively on literature data by analysis of SEM images and carbon dioxide concentration at the cathode outlet. Three mitigation strategies are studied using the model. The first one consists in speeding up the hydrogen filling of the cell. The second strategy involves an external electrical resistance to create a current leak during the startup. Third, a design study of the rib/channel is performed to minimize the cathode degradation. Whatever the mitigation strategy, it consists in reducing either the duration... [more]
Adaptive Machine Learning for Automated Modeling of Residential Prosumer Agents
David Toquica, Kodjo Agbossou, Roland Malhamé, Nilson Henao, Sousso Kelouwani, Alben Cardenas
April 25, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: adaptation, concept drift, data streaming, forecast, Modelling, prosumer, regressor, supervised machine learning
An efficient participation of prosumers in power system management depends on the quality of information they can obtain. Prosumers actions can be performed by automated agents that are operating in time-changing environments. Therefore, it is essential for them to deal with data stream problems in order to make reliable decisions based on the most accurate information. This paper provides an in-depth investigation of data and concept drift issues in accordance with residential prosumer agents. Additionally, the adaptation techniques, forgetting mechanisms, and learning strategies employed to handle these issues are explored. Accordingly, an approach is proposed to adapt the prosumer agent models to overcome the gradual and sudden concept drift concurrently. The suggested method is based on triggered adaptation techniques and performance-based forgetting mechanism. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that the proposed approach is capable of constructing efficient prosumer ag... [more]
Sampling Rate and Performance of DC/AC Inverters with Digital PID Control—A Case Study
Marian Blachuta, Robert Bieda, Rafal Grygiel
April 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: carrier frequency, Modelling, performance evaluation, PID control, PWM, Simulation, THD, variable structure, VSI
The huge influence of the sampling rate on the performance of the digital PID control of a voltage source inverter (VSI) is revealed. It is shown that an appropriately chosen continuous-time model of a digital controller with the PWM power converter behaves like the actual discrete-time system, which allows for a simple controller analysis and design. The variable structure nature of the inverter with both the RC rectifier and an abruptly changing resistive load with two modes of operation within the sampling period is directly taken into account. Two simulation models, a discrete-time PWM and a continuous-time, of an inverter are presented, which are used to tune the PID controller and to evaluate the control performance. The behavior of the system in both modes is explained on the basis of the root loci and frequency characteristics. The results obtained for three sampling rates: 12.8, 25.6, and 51.2 kHz, are presented and compared with an actual VSI experiment. A comparison with oth... [more]
Modeling and Measurements of Properties of Coupled Inductors
Kalina Detka, Krzysztof Górecki, Piotr Grzejszczak, Roman Barlik
April 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: coupled inductors, ferromagnetic core, inductors, Modelling
This paper proposes a model of a coupled inductor which takes into account the influence of frequency, temperature, and a constant component, IDC, of currents in the windings on the parameters of the considered element. A description of the model and methods of measuring parameters of the inductor using an impedance analyzer and a chamber for thermal measurements is given. The obtained results of measurements are compared with the results of calculations proving a satisfactory match.
Modeling the Temperature Field in the Ground with an Installed Slinky-Coil Heat Exchanger
Monika Gwadera, Krzysztof Kupiec
April 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: ground heat exchanger, heat transfer, Modelling
In order to find the temperature field in the ground with a heat exchanger, it is necessary to determine temperature responses of the ground caused by heat sources and the influence of the environment. To determine the latter, a new model of heat transfer in the ground under natural conditions was developed. The heat flux of the evaporation of moisture from the ground was described by the relationship taking into account the annual amount of rainfall. The analytical solution for the equations of this model is presented. Under the conditions for which the calculations were performed, the following data were obtained: the average ground surface temperature Tsm = 10.67 °C, the ground surface temperature amplitude As = 13.88 K, and the phase angle Ps = 0.202 rad. This method makes it possible to easily determine the undisturbed ground temperature at any depth and at any time. This solution was used to find the temperature field in the ground with an installed slinky-coil heat exchanger tha... [more]
Optimal Coupler Topology for Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicle
Karim Kadem, Mohamed Bensetti, Yann Le Bihan, Eric Labouré, Mustapha Debbou
April 21, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: coupling factor, dynamic wireless charging, electric vehicle, FEM, inductive power transfer, magnetic coupler topology, Modelling
Recently, the number of electric vehicles (EVs) is increasing due to the decline of oil resources and the rising of greenhouse gas emissions. However, EVs have not received full acceptance by consumers due to the limitations of the stored energy and charging problems. The dynamic or in-motion charging solution has become a suitable choice to solve the battery-related issues. Many researchers and vehicle manufacturers are working to develop an efficient charging system for EVs. In order to improve the efficiency of the dynamic wireless power transfer (DWPT), the electromagnetic coupling coefficient between the two parts of the coupler must be maximized. This paper was dedicated to find the optimal topology of a magnetic coupler with the best coupling factor while taking in consideration the displacement and the misalignment of the EV. The article is introduced by developing a methodology for characterizing the electrical parameters of couplers, followed by a comparative study of differe... [more]
Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics-Based Convective Drying Model Applied to Oblate Spheroidal Porous Bodies: A Finite-Volume Analysis
João C. S. Melo, João M. P. Q. Delgado, Wilton P. Silva, Antonio Gilson B. Lima, Ricardo S. Gomez, Josivanda P. Gomes, Rossana M. F. Figueirêdo, Alexandre J. M. Queiroz, Ivonete B. Santos, Maria C. N. Machado, Wanderson M. P. B. Lima, João E. F. Carmo
April 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: drying, lentil grain, Modelling, numerical simulation, oblate spheroid
Commonly based on the liquid diffusion theory, drying theoretical studies in porous materials has been directed to plate, cylinder, and sphere, and few works are applied to non-conventional geometries. In this sense, this work aims to study, theoretically, the drying of solids with oblate spheroidal geometry based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Mathematical modeling is proposed to describe, simultaneously, the heat and mass transfer (liquid and vapor) during the drying process, considering the variability of the transport coefficients and the convective boundary conditions on the solid surface, with particular reference to convective drying of lentil grains at low temperature and moderate air relative humidity. All the governing equations were written in the oblate spheroidal coordinates system and solved numerically using the finite-volume technique and the iterative Gauss−Seidel method. Numerical results of moisture content, temperature, liquid, vapor, and heat flux... [more]
Current Trends for State-of-Charge (SoC) Estimation in Lithium-Ion Battery Electric Vehicles
Ingvild B. Espedal, Asanthi Jinasena, Odne S. Burheim, Jacob J. Lamb
April 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: battery management systems, lithium-ion battery, Modelling, state-of-charge
Energy storage systems (ESSs) are critically important for the future of electric vehicles. Despite this, the safety and management of ESSs require improvement. Battery management systems (BMSs) are vital components in ESS systems for Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). One parameter that is included in the BMS is the state-of-charge (SoC) of the battery. SoC has become an active research area in recent years for battery electric vehicle (BEV) LIBs, yet there are some challenges: the LIB configuration is nonlinear, making it hard to model correctly; it is difficult to assess internal environments of a LIB (and this can be different in laboratory conditions compared to real-world conditions); and these discrepancies can lead to raising the instability of the LIB. Therefore, further advancement is required in order to have higher accuracy in SoC estimation in BEV LIBs. SoC estimation is a key BMS feature, and precise modeling and state estimation will improve stable operation. This review disc... [more]
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