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Records with Keyword: Adsorption
The Effect of Two Types of Biochars on the Efficacy, Emission, Degradation, and Adsorption of the Fumigant Methyl Isothiocyanate
Wensheng Fang, Aocheng Cao, Dongdong Yan, Dawei Han, Bin Huang, Jun Li, Xiaoman Liu, Meixia Guo, Qiuxia Wang
March 15, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: Adsorption, biochar, dazomet, degradation, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC)
Biochar (BC) is increasingly applied in agriculture; however, due to its adsorption and degradation properties, biochar may also affect the efficacy of fumigant in amended soil. Our research is intended to study the effects of two types of biochars (BC-1 and BC-2) on the efficacy and emission of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) in biochar amendment soil. Both types of biochars can significantly reduce MITC emission losses, but, at the same time, decrease the concentration of MITC in the soil. The efficacy of MITC for controlling soil-borne pests (Meloidogyne spp., Fusarium spp. Phytophthora spp., Abutilon theophrasti and Digitaria sanguinalis) was reduced when the biochar (BC-1 and BC-2) was applied at a rate of higher than 1% and 0.5% (on a weight basis) (on a weight basis), respectively. However, increased doses of dazomet (DZ) were able to offset decreases in the efficacy of MITC in soils amended with biochars. Biochars with strong adsorption capacity (such as BC-1) substantially reduce... [more]
Effects of Biochar Amendment on Chloropicrin Adsorption and Degradation in Soil
Pengfei Liu, Qiuxia Wang, Dongdong Yan, Wensheng Fang, Liangang Mao, Dong Wang, Yuan Li, Canbin Ouyang, Meixia Guo, Aocheng Cao
January 31, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: Adsorption, biochar, chloropicrin, degradation, pyrolysis temperature
The characteristics of biochar vary with pyrolysis temperature. Chloropicrin (CP) is an effective fumigant for controlling soil-borne pests. This study investigated the characteristics of biochars prepared at 300, 500, and 700 °C by michelia alba (Magnolia denudata) wood and evaluated their capacity to adsorb CP. The study also determined the potential influence of biochar, which was added to sterilized and unsterilized soils at rates of 0%, 1%, 5%, and 100%, on CP degradation. The specific surface area, pore volume, and micropores increased considerably with an increase in the pyrolytic temperature. The adsorption rate of biochar for CP increased with increasing pyrolytic temperature. The maximum adsorption amounts of CP were similar for the three biochars. Next, the study examined the degradation ability of the biochar for CP. The degradation rate constant (k) of CP increased when biochar was added to the soil, and k increased with increased amendment rate and pyrolysis temperature.... [more]
Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin-Based Carbons for CO₂ Separation at Sub-Atmospheric Pressures
Noelia Álvarez-Gutiérrez, María Victoria Gil, María Martínez, Fernando Rubiera, Covadonga Pevida
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: activated carbons, Adsorption, CO2 separation, phenolic-resin
The challenge of developing effective separation and purification technologies that leave much smaller energy footprints is greater for carbon dioxide (CO₂) than for other gases. In addition to its involvement in climate change, CO₂ is present as an impurity in biogas and bio-hydrogen (biological production by dark fermentation), in post-combustion processes (flue gas, CO₂-N₂) and many other gas streams. Selected phenol-formaldehyde resin-based activated carbons prepared in our laboratory have been evaluated under static conditions (adsorption isotherms) as potential adsorbents for CO₂ separation at sub-atmospheric pressures, i.e., in post-combustion processes or from biogas and bio-hydrogen streams. CO₂, H₂, N₂, and CH₄ adsorption isotherms at 25 °C and up to 100 kPa were obtained using a volumetric equipment and were correlated by applying the Sips model. Adsorption equilibrium was then predicted for multicomponent gas mixtures by extending the multicomponent Sips model and the Ideal... [more]
Technology for the Remediation of Water Pollution: A Review on the Fabrication of Metal Organic Frameworks
Yongning Bian, Nana Xiong, Guocheng Zhu
August 28, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Adsorption, metal organic frameworks, remediation, water pollution
The ineffective control of the release of pollutants into water has led to serious water pollution. Compared with conditions in the past, the polluting components in aquatic environments have become increasingly complex. Some emerging substances have led to a new threat to the safety of water. Therefore, developing cost-effective technologies for the remediation of water pollution is urgently needed. Adsorption has been considered the most effective operational unit in water treatment processes and thus adsorption materials have gained wide attention. Among them, metal organic frameworks (denoted as MOFs) have been rapidly developed in recent years due to their unique physicochemical performance. They are characterized by larger porosity and larger specific surface area, easier pore structure designing, and comfortable structural modification. In many fields such as adsorption, separation, storage, and transportation, MOFs show a better performance than conventional adsorption material... [more]
A Facile Synthesis of Hexagonal Spinel λ-MnO₂ Ion-Sieves for Highly Selective Li⁺ Adsorption
Fan Yang, Sichong Chen, Chentao Shi, Feng Xue, Xiaoxian Zhang, Shengui Ju, Weihong Xing
July 31, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Adsorption, hydrothermal reaction, ion-sieve, LiMn2O4, λ-MnO2
Ion-sieves are a class of green adsorbent for extraction Li+ from salt lakes. Here, we propose a facile synthesis of hexagonal spinel LiMn₂O₄ (LMO) precursor under mild condition which was first prepared via a modified one-pot reduction hydrothermal method using KMnO₄ and ethanol. Subsequently, the stable spinel structured λ-MnO₂ (HMO) were prepared by acidification of LMO. The as-prepared HMO shows a unique hexagonal shape and can be used for rapid adsorption-desorption process for Li+adsorption. It was found that Li⁺ adsorption capacity of HMO was 24.7 mg·g^−1 in Li+ solution and the HMO also has a stable structure with manganese dissolution loss ratio of 3.9% during desorption process. Moreover, the lithium selectivity (α Li/Mg) reaches to 1.35 × 10³ in brine and the distribution coefficients (Kd) of Li+ is much greater than that of Mg2+. The results implied that HMO can be used in extract lithium from brine or seawater containing high ratio of magnesium and lithium.
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