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Records with Keyword: Adsorption
Improved Removal of Quinoline from Wastewater Using Coke Powder with Inorganic Ions
Lei Wang, Qieyuan Gao, Zhipeng Li, Yongtian Wang
March 25, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Adsorption, coke powder, inorganic ions, quinoline, wastewater treatment
In this paper, laboratory batch adsorption tests were performed to study the adsorption behavior of coke powder in a quinoline aqueous solution with the absence and presence of inorganic ions (K+ and Ca2+). Adsorption isotherms, thermodynamic parameters, and kinetic models were used to understand the sorption mechanism, and zeta potential measurements were performed to elucidate the effect of the inorganic ions on the adsorption. The results showed that coke powder exhibited a reasonably good adsorption performance due to its pore structure and surface characteristics, and the presence of K+ and Ca2+ could further improve the adsorption. Without inorganic ions, the adsorption capacity of coke powder for quinoline and the removal efficiency of quinoline were 1.27 mg/g and 84.90%, respectively. At the ion concentration of 15 mmol, the adsorption capacity of coke powder and quinoline removal efficiency in the presence of K+ reached 1.38 mg/g and 92.02%, respectively, whereas those in the... [more]
Removal of Agrochemicals from Waters by Adsorption: A Critical Comparison among Humic-Like Substances, Zeolites, Porous Oxides, and Magnetic Nanocomposites
Antonello Marocco, Gianfranco Dell’Agli, Filomena Sannino, Serena Esposito, Barbara Bonelli, Paolo Allia, Paola Tiberto, Gabriele Barrera, Michele Pansini
March 12, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Adsorption, agrochemicals, humic-like substances, magnetic nanocomposites, porous oxides, zeolites
The use of humic-like substances, zeolites, various porous oxides (i.e., Al, Fe, or Si oxides), and magnetic nanocomposites in the adsorption of agrochemicals from water was critically reviewed. Firstly, the adsorbents were characterized from the structural, textural, and physico-chemical points of view. Secondly, the fundamental aspects of the adsorption of various agrochemicals on the solids (dependence on pH, kinetics, and isotherm of adsorption) were studied and interpreted on the basis of the adsorbent features. Thirdly, iterative processes of agrochemical removal from water by adsorption on the reported solids were described. In particular, in some cases the residual concentration of agrochemicals in water was lower than the maximum concentration of agrochemicals that the Italian regulations allow to be released in wastewater, surface waters, or sink water.
Enhancing the Removal of Sb (III) from Water: A Fe3O4@HCO Composite Adsorbent Caged in Sodium Alginate Microbeads
Jun Zhang, Renjian Deng, Bozhi Ren, Mohammed Yaseen, Andrew Hursthouse
February 12, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Adsorption, antimony-containing wastewater, ferriferous oxide polishing sludge, microbeads, sodium alginate
To remove antimony (Sb) ions from water, a novel composite adsorbent was fabricated from ferriferous oxide and waste sludge from a chemical polishing process (Fe3O4@HCO) and encapsulated in sodium alginate (SAB). The SAB adsorbent performed well with 80%−96% removal of Sb (III) ions within a concentration range of 5−60 mg/L. The adsorption mechanism of Sb (III) was revealed to be the synergy of chemisorption (ion exchange) and physisorption (diffusion reaction). The adsorption isotherms and kinetics conformed to the Langmuir isotherm and the pesudo-second-order kinetic model. Both initial pH and temperature influenced the adsorption performance with no collapse of microbeads within solution pH range 3−7. Most importantly for practical applications, these microspheres can be separated and recovered from aqueous solution by a magnetic separation technology to facilitate large-scale treatment of antimony-containing wastewater.
Preparation of KOH and H3PO4 Modified Biochar and Its Application in Methylene Blue Removal from Aqueous Solution
Li Liu, Yang Li, Shisuo Fan
January 6, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Adsorption, corn stalk biochar, H3PO4 modification, KOH modification, Methylene blue
Improperly treated or directly discharged into the environment, wastewater containing dyes can destroy the quality of water bodies and pollute the ecological environment. The removal of dye wastewater is urgent and essential. In this study, corn stalk was pyrolyzed to pristine biochar (CSBC) in a limited oxygen atmosphere and modified using KOH and H3PO4 (KOH-CSBC, H3PO4-CSBC, respectively). The biochars were characterized by surface area and pore size, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), as well as their behavior in adsorbing methylene blue (MB). Results indicated that the pore structure of CSBC became more developed after modification by KOH. Meanwhile, H3PO4-CSBC contained more functional groups after activation treatment. The pseudo-second-order kinetic and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm represented the adsorption process well. The maximum MB adsorption capacity of CSBC, KOH-CSBC, and H3PO4-CSBC was 43.1... [more]
Modifying Nanoporous Carbon through Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidation for Removal of Metronidazole Antibiotics from Simulated Wastewater
Teguh Ariyanto, Rut Aprillia Galuh Sarwendah, Yove Maulana Novirdaus Amimmal, William Teja Laksmana, Imam Prasetyo
December 16, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Adsorption, metronidazole, porous carbon, surface modification, wastewater treatment
This study examined change in pore structure and microstructure of nanoporous carbon after surface oxidation and how it affects the adsorption performance of metronidazole antibiotics. The surface oxidation was performed by hydrogen peroxide at 60 °C. The properties of porous carbon were investigated by N2-sorption analysis (pore structure), scanning electron microscopy (surface morphology), the Boehm titration method (quantification of surface functional group), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (type of surface functional group). The results showed that the oxidation of porous carbon by hydrogen peroxide has a minor defect in the carbon pore structure. Only a slight decrease in specific surface area (8%) from its original value (973 m2g−1) was seen but more mesoporosity was introduced. The oxidation of porous carbon with hydrogen peroxide modified the amount of oxide groups i.e., phenol, carboxylic acid and lactone. Moreover, in the application the oxidized carbon exhibited... [more]
Chromium VI and Fluoride Competitive Adsorption on Different Soils and By-Products
Ana Quintáns-Fondo, Gustavo Ferreira-Coelho, Manuel Arias-Estévez, Juan Carlos Nóvoa-Muñoz, David Fernández-Calviño, Esperanza Álvarez-Rodríguez, María J. Fernández-Sanjurjo, Avelino Núñez-Delgado
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Adsorption, chromium, competition, fluoride, soil and water pollution
Chromium (as Cr(VI)) and fluoride (F−) are frequently found in effluents from different industrial activities. In cases where these effluents reach soil, it can play an important role in retaining those pollutants. Similarly, different byproducts could act as bio-adsorbents to directly treat polluted waters or to enhance the purging potential of soil. In this work, we used batch-type experiments to study competitive Cr(VI) and F− adsorption in two different soils and several kinds of byproducts. Both soils, as well as mussel shell, oak ash, and hemp waste showed higher adsorption for F−, while pyritic material, pine bark, and sawdust had a higher affinity for Cr(VI). Considering the binary competitive system, a clear competition between both elements in anionic form is shown, with decreases in adsorption of up to 90% for Cr(VI), and of up to 30% for F−. Adsorption results showed better fitting to Freundlich’s than to Langmuir’s model. None of the individual soils or byproducts were abl... [more]
Simulation and Experimental Study of a Single Fixed-Bed Model of Nitrogen Gas Generator Working by Pressure Swing Adsorption
Pham Van Chinh, Nguyen Tuan Hieu, Vu Dinh Tien, Tan-Y Nguyen, Hoang Nam Nguyen, Ngo Thi Anh, Do Van Thom
December 3, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Adsorption, carbon molecular sieve (CMS), nitrogen, nitrogen generator, pressure swing adsorption (PSA)
Nitrogen is an inert gas available in the air and is widely used in industry and food storage technology. Commonly, it is separated by air refrigerant liquefaction and fractional distillation techniques based on different boiling temperatures of components in the mixed air. Currently, selective adsorption techniques by molecular sieve materials are studied and applied to separate gases based on their molecular size. In this paper, we simulate and investigate the effect parameters in a single fixed-bed model of a nitrogen gas generator using carbon molecular sieves, following pressure swing adsorption. This study aims to identify the effect of changing parameters so as to select the optimal working conditions of a single fixed-bed model, used as a basis for equipment optimization. This equipment was designed, manufactured, and installed at the Institute of Technology, General Department of Defense Industry, Vietnam to investigate, simulate, and optimize the industrial scale-up.
The Removal of Silicate(IV) by Adsorption onto Hydrocalumite from the Sodium Hydroxide Leaching Solution of Black Dross
Thi Thuy Nhi Nguyen, Man Seung Lee
November 24, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Adsorption, alumina, black dross, hydrocalumite, silicate
Alkaline leaching of mechanically activated black dross resulted in an aluminate(III) solution with a small amount of silicate(IV). To obtain pure aluminate(III) solution, the removal of silicate(IV) from the alkaline leaching solution was investigated by adsorption with hydrocalumite (Ca2Al(OH)6Cl·2H2O). The hydrocalumite was synthesized by the coprecipitation method. The characterization of the synthesized hydrocalumite was analyzed via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In our experimental conditions, silicate(IV) was selectively adsorbed onto hydrocalumite over aluminate(III). The reaction time greatly affected the removal percentage of aluminate(III) owing to mass action effect. When the reaction time was longer than 2 h, no aluminate(III) was adsorbed onto hydrocalumite and thus it was possible to selectively remove silicate(IV). When the dosage of hydrocalumite was in excess, the removal percenta... [more]
Adsorption of Arsenic and Lead onto Stone Powder and Chitosan-Coated Stone Powder
Kyungho Jung, Sanghwa Oh, Hun Bak, Gun-Ho Song, Hong-Tae Kim
November 24, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Adsorption, arsenic, chitosan-coated stone powder, lead, stone powder
Stone powder (SP) produced from masonry mills has been treated as a specific waste and rarely used for environmental purposes. In this study, we tested its potential as an adsorbent to remove arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) from water. The single-solute sorption isotherms for As(V) and Pb(II) onto SP and chitosan-coated SP (CSP) were investigated. Several sorption models, such as the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin−Radushkevich (DR) models, were used to analyze the adsorption features. The results demonstrated that As and Pb were successfully adsorbed onto SP and CSP, indicating that SP and CSP had potential as adsorbents of As and Pb. The maximum adsorption capacities of SP and CSP for Pb were 22.8 and 54.5 times higher than those for As, respectively. Chitosan coating increased the adsorption potential in Pb adsorption by 5% but decreased it in As adsorption. The adsorption potential also depended on the pH and temperature. The adsorption amount of As increased with pH but that of Pb de... [more]
A Sugarcane-Bagasse-Based Adsorbent Employed for Mitigating Eutrophication Threats and Producing Biodiesel Simultaneously
Wan Nurain Farahah Wan Basri, Hanita Daud, Man Kee Lam, Chin Kui Cheng, Wen Da Oh, Wen Nee Tan, Maizatul Shima Shaharun, Yin Fong Yeong, Ujang Paman, Katsuki Kusakabe, Evizal Abdul Kadir, Pau Loke Show, Jun Wei Lim
November 24, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: Adsorption, biodiesel, eutrophication, harvest, reusability, sugarcane bagasse
Eutrophication is an inevitable phenomenon, and it has recently become an unabated threat. As a positive, the thriving microalgal biomass in eutrophic water is conventionally perceived to be loaded with myriad valuable biochemical compounds. Therefore, a sugarcane-bagasse-based adsorbent was proposed in this study to harvest the microalgal biomass for producing biodiesel. By activating the sugarcane-bagasse-based adsorbent with 1.5 M of H2SO4, a highest adsorption capacity of 108.9 ± 0.3 mg/g was attained. This was fundamentally due to the surface potential of the 1.5 M H2SO4 acid-modified sugarcane-bagasse-based adsorbent possessing the lowest surface positivity value as calculated from its point of zero charge. The adsorption capacity was then improved to 192.9 ± 0.1 mg/g by stepwise optimizing the adsorbent size to 6.7−8.0 mm, adsorption medium pH to 2−4, and adsorbent dosage to 0.4 g per 100 mL of adsorption medium. This resulted in 91.5% microalgae removal efficiency. Excellent-qu... [more]
Technoeconomic Evaluation of a Process Capturing CO2 Directly from Air
Romesh Pramodya Wijesiri, Gregory Paul Knowles, Hasina Yeasmin, Andrew Forbes Alexander Hoadley, Alan Loyd Chaffee
October 26, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Adsorption, Carbon Capture, cost, direct air capture, economic, model, polyethyleneimine, steam, temperature vacuum swing
Capturing CO2 directly from air is one of the options for mitigating the effects global climate change, and therefore determining its cost is of great interest. A process model was proposed and validated using laboratory results for adsorption/desorption of CO2, with a branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) loaded mesocellular foam (MCF) silica sorbent. The model was subjected to a Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO) to evaluate the technoeconomic feasibility of the process and to identify the operating conditions which yielded the lowest cost. The objectives of the MOO were to minimize the cost of CO2 capture based on a discounted cash flow analysis, while simultaneously maximizing the quantity of CO2 captured. This optimization identified the minimum cost of capture as 612 USD tonne−1 for dry air entering the process at 25 °C, and 657 USD tonne−1 for air at 22 °C and 39% relative humidity. The latter represents more realistic conditions which can be expected for subtropical climates. The co... [more]
Overview of Alternative Ethanol Removal Techniques for Enhancing Bioethanol Recovery from Fermentation Broth
Hamid Zentou, Zurina Zainal Abidin, Robiah Yunus, Dayang Radiah Awang Biak, Danil Korelskiy
September 23, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Adsorption, bioethanol, Extraction, pervaporation, separation, stripping, unconventional, vacuum
This study aims at reviewing the alternative techniques for bioethanol recovery, highlighting its advantages and disadvantages, and to investigate the technical challenges facing these alternatives to be widely used. The findings showed that the integration of these techniques with the fermentation process did not meet a large acceptance in the industrial sector. The majority of conducted studies were mainly focusing on ethanol recovery from aqueous standard solution rather than the investigation of these techniques performance in fermentation-separation coupled system. In this context, pervaporation has received more attention as a promising alternative to distillation. However, some challenges are facing the integration of these techniques in the industrial scale as the fouling problem in pervaporation, the toxicity of solvent in liquid extraction, energy consumption in vacuum fermentation. It was also found that there is a lack of the technical economic analysis for these techniques... [more]
Enhancement Effect of Ordered Hierarchical Pore Configuration on SO2 Adsorption and Desorption Process
Yuwen Zhu, Yanfang Miao, Haoyu Li
July 25, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Adsorption, hierarchical pore structure, ordered mesopores, regeneration, SO2
Carbonaceous adsorbents with both high sulfur capacity and easy regeneration are required for flue gas desulfurization. A hierarchical structure is desirable for SO2 removal, since the micropores are beneficial for SO2 adsorption, while the mesopore networks facilitate gas diffusion and end-product H2SO4 storage. Herein, an ordered hierarchical porous carbon was synthesized via a soft-template method and subsequent activation, used in SO2 removal, and compared with coal-based activated carbon, which also had a hierarchical pore configuration. The more detailed, abundant micropores created in CO2 activation, especially the ultramicropores (d < 0.7 nm), are essential in enhancing the SO2 adsorption and the reserves rather than the pore patterns. While O2 and H2O participate in the reaction, the hierarchical porous carbon with ordered mesopores greatly improves SO2 removal dynamics and sulfur capacity, as this interconnecting pore pattern facilitates H2SO4 transport from micropores to... [more]
Synthesis of Porous Fe/C Bio-Char Adsorbent for Rhodamine B from Waste Wood: Characterization, Kinetics and Thermodynamics
Yao Zhang, Zhichao Lou, Chaochao Wang, Weikai Wang, Jiabin Cai
July 25, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: Adsorption, bio-char, Fe3C, kinetics, magnetic
In the past decades, dyes waste waters produced from industries have become a major source of environmental pollution causing the destruction of aquatic communities in the ecosystem and greatly threatened human health. Herein, a novel magnetic adsorbent was synthesized by carbonizing iron (III) 2,4-pentanedionate (Fe(acac)3) pre-enriched forestry waste wood at a pyrolysis temperature of 1000 °C. The characterization of the adsorbent conducted via SEM, EDS, VSM, XRD, XPS, and FT-IR spectroscopy. The adsorption trend followed the pseudo-second order kinetics model. The corresponding adsorption performance was efficient with an equilibrium time of only 1 min. Affect factors on the adsorption performance, such as adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature, were investigated. The magnetic bio-char showed a high adsorption capacity and an efficient adsorption toward RhB, implying great potential application in the treatment of colored wastewaters.
Adsorption of Organic Constituents from Reverse Osmosis Concentrate in Coal Chemical Industry by Coking Coal
Hongxiang Xu, Qizheng Qin, Changfeng Zhang, Kejia Ning, Rong Zhao, Penghui Wang, Jiushuai Deng, Gen Huang
April 15, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Adsorption, adsorption mechanism, aromatic structure, kinetics
To solve the unwieldy problem of coal chemical wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC), a novel treatment method in which coking coal was used to adsorb the organic from ROC and the adsorption mechanism involved was investigated. The results showed that the organic components in the ROC of coal chemical industry can be effectively absorbed by the coking coal and the total organic carbon, UV254 and chromaticity of treated ROC reduced by 70.18%, 70.15% and 59.55%, respectively, at the coking coal dosage of 80 g/L. The isothermal adsorption data were fitted to the Langmuir model well. The kinetics were expressed well by the quasi-second-order kinetic model. The intragranular diffusion model and the BET (Acronym for three scientists: Brunauer⁻Emmett⁻Teller) test showed that the adsorption occurred mainly on the surface of the coking coal and its macropores and mesopores. When the pollutants further diffused to the mesopores and micropores, the adsorption rate decreased. The result of... [more]
Influence of Organic Ligands on the Colloidal Stability and Removal of ZnO Nanoparticles from Synthetic Waters by Coagulation
Rizwan Khan, Muhammad Ali Inam, Du Ri Park, Saba Zam Zam, Sookyo Shin, Sarfaraz Khan, Muhammad Akram, Ick Tae Yeom
April 8, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Adsorption, coagulation, organic ligands, stability, water treatment, ZnO NPs
The large-scale production and usage of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) may lead to their post-release into the aquatic environment. In this study, the effect of hydrophobic/hydrophilic organic ligands on sorption and sedimentation of ZnO NPs has been systematically investigated. In addition, the coagulation efficiency of ZnO NPs, Zn2+, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV254 with varying ferric chloride (FC) dosages in synthetic waters were also evaluated. The results showed that the higher concentration of organic ligands, i.e., humic acid (HA), salicylic acid (SA), and L-cysteine (L-cys) reduced the ζ-potential and hydrodynamic diameter (HDD) of particles, which enhanced the NPs stability. The adsorption of organic ligands onto ZnO NPs was fitted with the Langmuir model, with maximum adsorption capacities of 143, 40.47, and 66.05 mg/g for HA, SA and L-cys respectively. Removal of up to 95% of ZnO NPs and Zn2+ was achieved in studied waters at the effective coagulation zone (ECR... [more]
Adsorptive Properties of Poly(1-methylpyrrol-2-ylsquaraine) Particles for the Removal of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals from Aqueous Solutions: Batch and Fixed-Bed Column Studies
Augustine O. Ifelebuegu, Habibath T. Salauh, Yihuai Zhang, Daniel E. Lynch
April 8, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Adsorption, breakthrough, EDCs, fixed-bed column, PMPS particles
The adsorptive properties of poly(1-methylpyrrol-2-ylsquaraine) (PMPS) particles were investigated in batch and column adsorption experiments as alternative adsorbent for the treatment of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in water. The PMPS particles were synthesised by condensing 3,4-dihydroxycyclobut-3-ene-1,2-dione (squaric acid) with 1-methylpyrrole in butanol. The results demonstrated that PMPS particles are effective in the removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in water with adsorption being more favourable at an acidic pH, and a superior sorption capacity being achieved at pH 4. The results also showed that the removal of EDCs by the PMPS particles was a complex process involving multiple rate-limiting steps and physicochemical interactions between the EDCs and the particles. Gibbs free energy of −8.32 kJ/mole and −6.6 kJ/mol, and enthalpies of 68 kJ/mol and 43 kJ/mol, were achieved for the adsorption E2 and EE2 respectively The removal efficiencies of the EDCs by PMPS p... [more]
Diffusion in Nanoporous Materials: Novel Insights by Combining MAS and PFG NMR
Jörg Kärger, Dieter Freude, Jürgen Haase
April 8, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Adsorption, diffusion, hierarchical host materials, MAS, NMR, PFG
Pulsed field gradient (PFG) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) allows recording of molecular diffusion paths (notably, the probability distribution of molecular displacements over typically micrometers, covered during an observation time of typically milliseconds) and has thus proven to serve as a most versatile means for the in-depth study of mass transfer in complex materials. This is particularly true with nanoporous host materials, where PFG NMR enabled the first direct measurement of intracrystalline diffusivities of guest molecules. Spatial resolution, i.e., the minimum diffusion path length experimentally observable, is limited by the time interval over which the pulsed field gradients may be applied. In “conventional„ PFG NMR measurements, this time interval is determined by a characteristic quantity of the host-guest system under study, the so-called transverse nuclear magnetic relaxation time. This leads, notably when considering systems with low molecular mobilities, to severe... [more]
Facile Fabrication of Recyclable, Superhydrophobic, and Oleophilic Sorbent from Waste Cigarette Filters for the Sequestration of Oil Pollutants from an Aqueous Environment
Augustine O. Ifelebuegu, Egetadobobari E. Lale, Fredrick U. Mbanaso, Stephen C. Theophilus
April 8, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Adsorption, cigarette filters, hydrophobicity, oil/water separation, recyclability
The oil industry is plagued with regular incidences of spills into the environment, causing environmental damage to flora and fauna, especially in marine environments where spills easily travel long distances from their sources. This study was carried out to investigate a simple two-step process for the conversion of waste cigarette filters into a superhydrophobic and oleophilic sorbent for application in oil/water separation and spill clean-up. Ultrasonically cleaned filters were surface modified by chemical vapour deposition using methyltrichlorosilane. The results show that the functionalised waste filters achieved superhydrophobic properties with a water contact angle of 154 ± 3.5°, adsorbing 16 to 26 times their weights in various oils, which is a better oil sorption performance than those of commercially available non-woven polypropylene adsorbents. Also, the sorption capacity did not significantly deteriorate after 20 cycles of reuse, with up to 75% sorption capacity retained. T... [more]
The Effect of Two Types of Biochars on the Efficacy, Emission, Degradation, and Adsorption of the Fumigant Methyl Isothiocyanate
Wensheng Fang, Aocheng Cao, Dongdong Yan, Dawei Han, Bin Huang, Jun Li, Xiaoman Liu, Meixia Guo, Qiuxia Wang
March 15, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: Adsorption, biochar, dazomet, degradation, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC)
Biochar (BC) is increasingly applied in agriculture; however, due to its adsorption and degradation properties, biochar may also affect the efficacy of fumigant in amended soil. Our research is intended to study the effects of two types of biochars (BC-1 and BC-2) on the efficacy and emission of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) in biochar amendment soil. Both types of biochars can significantly reduce MITC emission losses, but, at the same time, decrease the concentration of MITC in the soil. The efficacy of MITC for controlling soil-borne pests (Meloidogyne spp., Fusarium spp. Phytophthora spp., Abutilon theophrasti and Digitaria sanguinalis) was reduced when the biochar (BC-1 and BC-2) was applied at a rate of higher than 1% and 0.5% (on a weight basis) (on a weight basis), respectively. However, increased doses of dazomet (DZ) were able to offset decreases in the efficacy of MITC in soils amended with biochars. Biochars with strong adsorption capacity (such as BC-1) substantially reduce... [more]
Effects of Biochar Amendment on Chloropicrin Adsorption and Degradation in Soil
Pengfei Liu, Qiuxia Wang, Dongdong Yan, Wensheng Fang, Liangang Mao, Dong Wang, Yuan Li, Canbin Ouyang, Meixia Guo, Aocheng Cao
January 31, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: Adsorption, biochar, chloropicrin, degradation, pyrolysis temperature
The characteristics of biochar vary with pyrolysis temperature. Chloropicrin (CP) is an effective fumigant for controlling soil-borne pests. This study investigated the characteristics of biochars prepared at 300, 500, and 700 °C by michelia alba (Magnolia denudata) wood and evaluated their capacity to adsorb CP. The study also determined the potential influence of biochar, which was added to sterilized and unsterilized soils at rates of 0%, 1%, 5%, and 100%, on CP degradation. The specific surface area, pore volume, and micropores increased considerably with an increase in the pyrolytic temperature. The adsorption rate of biochar for CP increased with increasing pyrolytic temperature. The maximum adsorption amounts of CP were similar for the three biochars. Next, the study examined the degradation ability of the biochar for CP. The degradation rate constant (k) of CP increased when biochar was added to the soil, and k increased with increased amendment rate and pyrolysis temperature.... [more]
Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin-Based Carbons for CO₂ Separation at Sub-Atmospheric Pressures
Noelia Álvarez-Gutiérrez, María Victoria Gil, María Martínez, Fernando Rubiera, Covadonga Pevida
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: activated carbons, Adsorption, CO2 separation, phenolic-resin
The challenge of developing effective separation and purification technologies that leave much smaller energy footprints is greater for carbon dioxide (CO₂) than for other gases. In addition to its involvement in climate change, CO₂ is present as an impurity in biogas and bio-hydrogen (biological production by dark fermentation), in post-combustion processes (flue gas, CO₂-N₂) and many other gas streams. Selected phenol-formaldehyde resin-based activated carbons prepared in our laboratory have been evaluated under static conditions (adsorption isotherms) as potential adsorbents for CO₂ separation at sub-atmospheric pressures, i.e., in post-combustion processes or from biogas and bio-hydrogen streams. CO₂, H₂, N₂, and CH₄ adsorption isotherms at 25 °C and up to 100 kPa were obtained using a volumetric equipment and were correlated by applying the Sips model. Adsorption equilibrium was then predicted for multicomponent gas mixtures by extending the multicomponent Sips model and the Ideal... [more]
Technology for the Remediation of Water Pollution: A Review on the Fabrication of Metal Organic Frameworks
Yongning Bian, Nana Xiong, Guocheng Zhu
August 28, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Adsorption, metal organic frameworks, remediation, water pollution
The ineffective control of the release of pollutants into water has led to serious water pollution. Compared with conditions in the past, the polluting components in aquatic environments have become increasingly complex. Some emerging substances have led to a new threat to the safety of water. Therefore, developing cost-effective technologies for the remediation of water pollution is urgently needed. Adsorption has been considered the most effective operational unit in water treatment processes and thus adsorption materials have gained wide attention. Among them, metal organic frameworks (denoted as MOFs) have been rapidly developed in recent years due to their unique physicochemical performance. They are characterized by larger porosity and larger specific surface area, easier pore structure designing, and comfortable structural modification. In many fields such as adsorption, separation, storage, and transportation, MOFs show a better performance than conventional adsorption material... [more]
A Facile Synthesis of Hexagonal Spinel λ-MnO₂ Ion-Sieves for Highly Selective Li⁺ Adsorption
Fan Yang, Sichong Chen, Chentao Shi, Feng Xue, Xiaoxian Zhang, Shengui Ju, Weihong Xing
July 31, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Adsorption, hydrothermal reaction, ion-sieve, LiMn2O4, λ-MnO2
Ion-sieves are a class of green adsorbent for extraction Li+ from salt lakes. Here, we propose a facile synthesis of hexagonal spinel LiMn₂O₄ (LMO) precursor under mild condition which was first prepared via a modified one-pot reduction hydrothermal method using KMnO₄ and ethanol. Subsequently, the stable spinel structured λ-MnO₂ (HMO) were prepared by acidification of LMO. The as-prepared HMO shows a unique hexagonal shape and can be used for rapid adsorption-desorption process for Li+adsorption. It was found that Li⁺ adsorption capacity of HMO was 24.7 mg·g^−1 in Li+ solution and the HMO also has a stable structure with manganese dissolution loss ratio of 3.9% during desorption process. Moreover, the lithium selectivity (α Li/Mg) reaches to 1.35 × 10³ in brine and the distribution coefficients (Kd) of Li+ is much greater than that of Mg2+. The results implied that HMO can be used in extract lithium from brine or seawater containing high ratio of magnesium and lithium.
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