Records with Keyword: Biomass
Showing records 1 to 25 of 382. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Transitioning towards Net-Zero Emissions in Chemical and Process Industries: A Holistic Perspective
Peter Glavič, Zorka Novak Pintarič, Helena Levičnik, Vesna Dragojlović, Miloš Bogataj
January 12, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Biomass, cement, chemicals, climate, emissions, Energy, metals, net zero, process industries, waste
Given the urgency to combat climate change and ensure environmental sustainability, this review examines the transition to net-zero emissions in chemical and process industries. It addresses the core areas of carbon emissions reduction, efficient energy use, and sustainable practices. What is new, however, is that it focuses on cutting-edge technologies such as biomass utilization, biotechnology applications, and waste management strategies that are key drivers of this transition. In particular, the study addresses the unique challenges faced by industries such as cement manufacturing and highlights the need for innovative solutions to effectively reduce their carbon footprint. In particular, the role of hydrogen as a clean fuel is at the heart of revolutionizing the chemical and process sectors, pointing the way to cleaner and greener operations. In addition, the manuscript explores the immense importance of the European Green Deal and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for the... [more]
Effects of High-Intensity Ultrasound Pretreatment on the Exopolysaccharide Concentration and Biomass Increase in Cheese Whey Kefir
Ismael A. Encinas-Vazquez, Esther Carrillo-Pérez, Abraham R. Mártin-García, Carmen L. Del-Toro-Sánchez, Enrique Márquez-Ríos, Luis J. Bastarrachea, José C. Rodríguez-Figueroa
August 2, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, cheese whey, exopolysaccharide, high-intensity ultrasound, kefir beverage, kefir grains
Cheese whey (CW) is the liquid by-product of cheese and yogurt making. This potential pollutant has high-quality nutrients exploitable through fermentation processes. Using high-intensity ultrasound on dairy products has shown several technological advantages for bioprocesses. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of high-intensity ultrasound (HIUS) on kefir grains biomass increase and specific metabolites in CW kefir. Fresh CW was ultrasonicated at 9.0 ± 2.7 and 18.0 ± 3.0 W/cm2 for 30 and 180 s, inoculated with kefir grains, and fermented for 40 h. Total exopolysaccharide production, kefir grains biomass increase, titratable acidity, pH, and soluble solids were analyzed every 8 h. CW pretreated with 18.0 ± 3.0 W/cm2 for 180 s and fermented for 16 h had significantly higher (p < 0.05) total exopolysaccharide concentration than the control: 212.7 ± 0.0 and 186.6 ± 0.0 mg/L, respectively. Ultrasonicated CW at 18 W/cm2 for 30 and 180 s at 24 h fermentation time had sig... [more]
Optimizing Pressure Prediction Models for Pneumatic Conveying of Biomass: A Comprehensive Approach to Minimize Trial Tests and Enhance Accuracy
Hossein Rajabnia, Ognjen Orozovic, Kenneth Charles Williams, Aleksej Lavrinec, Dusan Ilic, Mark Glynne Jones, George Klinzing
July 7, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Biomass, dense phase, plug flow, pneumatic conveying
This study investigates pneumatic conveying of four different biomass materials, namely cottonseeds, wood pellets, wood chips, and wheat straw. The performance of a previously proposed model for predicting pressure drop is evaluated using biomass materials. Results indicate that the model can predict pressure with an error range of 30 percent. To minimize the number of trial tests required, an optimization algorithm is proposed. The findings show that with a combination of three trial tests, there is a 60 percent probability of selecting the right subset for accurately predicting pressure drop for the entire range of tests. Further investigation of different training subsets suggests that increasing the number of tests from 3 to 7 can improve the probability from 60% to 90%. Moreover, thorough analysis of all three-element subsets in the entire series of tests reveals that when considering air mass flow rate as the input, having air mass flow rates that are not only closer in value but... [more]
Investigating the Relationship between the Time Constant Ratio and Plug-Flow Behaviour in the Pneumatic Conveyance of Biomass Material
Hossein Rajabnia, Ognjen Orozovic, Kenneth Williams, Aleksej Lavrinec, Dusan Ilic, Mark Jones, George Klinzing
July 7, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: aeration, Biomass, deaeration, dense phase, fluidisation, plug flow, pneumatic conveying, time constant
This study introduces a novel methodology to evaluate the behaviour of biomass material by examining the ratio of aeration and deaeration time constants. To this end, a series of tests were conducted on four different materials, namely, cottonseed, wood chips, wood pellets, and wheat straw, in order to investigate their aeration and deaeration behaviours. The study derives the aeration and deaeration pressure drop equations, and discusses the corresponding time constant expression. Subsequently, the four materials were conveyed in 12 m long batch-fed and continuous pneumatic conveying pipelines to examine their behaviour in longer pipelines. The results indicate that the aeration and deaeration time constants increased with an increase in air superficial velocity. However, the ratio of the aeration and deaeration time constants was identified as a unique number, where a value close to 1 indicates a higher likelihood of plug flow. On the basis of the results, cottonseed, with the lowest... [more]
Renewable Energy Potential and CO2 Performance of Main Biomasses Used in Brazil
Elem Patricia Rocha Alves, Orlando Salcedo-Puerto, Jesús Nuncira, Samuel Emebu, Clara Mendoza-Martinez
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biofuels, Biomass, Carbon Dioxide, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, thermochemical conversion
This review investigates the effects of the Brazilian agriculture production and forestry sector on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Residual biomasses produced mainly in the agro-industrial and forestry sector as well as fast-growing plants were studied. Possibilities to minimize source-related emissions by sequestering part of carbon in soil and by producing biomass as a substitute for fossil fuel were extensively investigated. The lack of consistency among literature reports on residual biomass makes it difficult to compare CO2 emission reductions between studies and sectors. Data on chemical composition, heating value, proximate and ultimate analysis of the biomasses were collected. Then, the carbon sequestration potential of the biomasses as well as their usability in renewable energy practices were studied. Over 779.6 million tons of agricultural residues were generated in Brazil between 2021 and 2022. This implies a 12.1 million PJ energy potential, while 4.95 million tons of for... [more]
Comparison Study on the Water-to-Biomass Ratio in Hydrothermal Carbonization of Fresh Seaweed
Sepideh Soroush, Frederik Ronsse, Jihae Park, Philippe M. Heynderickx
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Biomass, hydrochar, moisture content, waste seaweed, water to biomass ratio
Upgrading wet biomass to char via hydrothermal carbonization is a promising method to produce valuable resources for adsorption of organic impurities. In this work, a fresh green seaweed, Ulva pertusa, was investigated to demonstrate the effects of pre-drying and pre-washing on the process and the hydrochar production. Surface moisture and bound moisture were found to affect this process. Hydrochar produced from fresh seaweed with additional water showed similar adsorption capacity to fresh seaweed without additional water and 38% higher than hydrochar from soaked dry seaweed. This was supported by FTIR spectra analysis, which showed that these hydrochars produced from fresh seaweed without additional water have the highest proportion of carboxyl functional groups.
Experimental Study of Model Refuse-Derived Fuel Pellets Swelling during Heating and Combustion
Igor Donskoy, Denis Svishchev
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, bloat, ignition, polyethylene, single particle, visualization
Composites of sawdust and crushed polyethylene were obtained by pressing at 5−10 atm. The resulting pellets with a size of about 10−20 mm were then burned in airflow in a muffle furnace at a temperature of 800 °C. The combustion process was recorded, and obtained video data were analyzed. The data obtained made it possible to estimate the change in particle size at different stages of combustion. An increase in linear dimensions during conversion was achieved of up to 2 times. Particle swelling led to a decrease in mechanical strength and destruction of particles before complete burnout.
Availability of Biomass and Potential of Nanotechnologies for Bioenergy Production in Jordan
Ala’a K. Al-Bawwat, Antonio Cano, Mohamed R. Gomaa, Francisco Jurado
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biodiesel, bioenergy, Biofuels, biogas, Biomass, nanotechnology
Jordan’s energy situation is in a critical state of dependency, with the country relying heavily on imports to satisfy its ever-increasing energy requirements. Renewable energy is a more competitive and consistent source of energy that can supply a large proportion of a country’s energy demand. It is environmentally friendly and minimizes atmospheric pollutant emissions. Thus, bioenergy has the potential to be a crucial alternative energy source in Jordan. Biomass is the principal source of bioenergy; it accounts for approximately 13% of the primary energy demand and is anticipated to supply half of the total primary energy demand by 2050. Nanotechnology has emerged as an important scientific research area with numerous applications, including biofuels. This review summarizes the application of nanoparticles to improve the properties and processes of biofuels. It presents the availability and viability of nanotechnology-supported bioenergy production in Jordan. Jordan generates up to 5... [more]
Research on Model Predictive Control of a 130 t/h Biomass Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Combustion System Based on Subspace Identification
Heng Wei, Shanjian Liu, Jianjie He, Yinjiao Liu, Guanshuai Zhang
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, circulating fluidized bed, combustion system, dynamic simulations, Model Predictive Control, subspace identification
The structure of large biomass circulating fluidized bed (BCFB) boilers is complex, and control schemes for coal-fired boilers cannot be simply applied to biomass boilers. Multivariable coupling and operational disturbances are also common issues. In this study, a state space model of a 130 t/h BCFB boiler was established under different operating conditions. Using the 100% operating point as an example, a model predictive controller was designed and tested under output disturbance and input disturbance conditions. The results show that the predictive control system designed in this study has a fast response speed and good stability.
Sequential Hydrothermal HCl Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Saccharina japonica Biomass
Eun-Young Park, Jung-Kyu Park
April 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, enzymatic hydrolysis, hydrothermal acid pretreatment, reducing sugar yield, sequential hydrolysis
This study investigated the production of fermentable sugars from carbohydrate-rich macroalgae Saccharina japonica using sequential hydrolysis (hydrothermal acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis) to determine the maximum reducing sugar yield (RSy). The sequential hydrolysis was predicted by three independent variables (temperature, time, and HCl concentration) using response surface methodology (RSM). Enzymatic hydrolysis (8.17% v/wbiomass Celluclast® 1.5 L, 26.4 h, 42.6 °C) was performed after hydrothermal acid pretreatment under predicted conditions (143.6 °C, 22 min, and 0.108 N HCl concentration). Using this experimental procedure, the yields of hydrothermal acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and sequential hydrolysis were 115.6 ± 0.4 mg/g, 117.7 ± 0.3 mg/g, and 183.5 ± 0.6 mg/g, respectively. Our results suggested that sequential hydrolysis of hydrothermal acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis was more efficient than their single treatment.
Impact of Pretreatment on Hydrothermally Carbonized Spruce
Anna Partridge, Ekaterina Sermyagina, Esa Vakkilainen
April 26, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, energy densification, hydrothermal carbonization, lignin
Upgrading biomass waste streams can improve economics in wood industries by adding value to the process. This work considers use of a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process for the residual feedstock after lignin and hemicelluloses extraction. Batch experiments were performed at 200−240 °C temperatures and three hours residence time with an 8:1 biomass to water ratio for two feedstocks: Raw spruce and spruce after lignin extraction. The proximate analysis and heating value showed similar results for both feedstocks, indicating that the thermochemical conversion is not impacted by the removal of lignin and hemicelluloses; the pretreatment processing slightly increases the heating value of the treated feedstock, but the HTC conversion process produces a consistent upgrading trend for both the treated and untreated feedstocks. The energy yield was 9.7 percentage points higher for the treated wood on average across the range temperatures due to the higher mass yield in the treated experi... [more]
Solid Fraction of Digestate from Biogas Plant as a Material for Pellets Production
Wojciech Czekała
April 24, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Biofuels, Biomass, circular economy, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, solid biofuels, waste to energy
One of the anaerobic digestion process products in an agricultural biogas plant is digestate (digested pulp). Large quantities of digestate generated in the process of biogas production all over the world require proper management. Fertilization is the main management of this substrate, so it is essential to look for new alternatives. The work aims to determine and discuss the possibilities of using digestate solid fraction (DSF) for pellets as biofuel production. Pellets from DSF alone and pellets with sawdust, grain straw additives were analyzed. The lower heating value (LHV) based on the dry matter for all analyzed pellets ranged from 19,164 kJ∙kg−1 to 19,879 kJ∙kg−1. The ash content was similar for all four samples and ranged from 3.62% to 5.23%. This value is relatively high, which is related to the degree of fermentation in the anaerobic digestion process. The results showed that the DSF substrate after the anaerobic digestion process still has energy potential. Analyzing those r... [more]
A Review of Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass for Biofuels Production with a Special Focus on the Effect of Process Parameters, Co-Solvents, and Extraction Solvents
Ankit Mathanker, Snehlata Das, Deepak Pudasainee, Monir Khan, Amit Kumar, Rajender Gupta
April 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: bio-crude, bio-oil, Biofuels, Biomass, char, hydrothermal liquefaction, hydrothermal processing, lignocellulosic biomass
Hydrothermal liquefaction is one of the common thermochemical conversion methods adapted to convert high-water content biomass feedstocks to biofuels and many other valuable industrial chemicals. The hydrothermal process is broadly classified into carbonization, liquefaction, and gasification with hydrothermal liquefaction conducted in the intermediate temperature range of 250−374 °C and pressure of 4−25 MPa. Due to the ease of adaptability, there has been considerable research into the process on using various types of biomass feedstocks. Over the years, various solvents and co-solvents have been used as mediums of conversion, to promote easy decomposition of the lignocellulosic components in biomass. The product separation process, to obtain the final products, typically involves multiple extraction and evaporation steps, which greatly depend on the type of extractive solvents and process parameters. In general, the main aim of the hydrothermal process is to produce a primary product... [more]
Time-Dependent Climate Impact of Utilizing Residual Biomass for Biofuels—The Combined Influence of Modelling Choices and Climate Impact Metrics
Johanna Olofsson
April 21, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: bioenergy, bioethanol, Biomass, forest residues, life cycle assessment, straw residues
Understanding the influence of method choices on results in life-cycle assessments is essential to draw informed conclusions. As the climate impact of bioenergy remains a debated topic, the focus of this study is how the chosen temporal framing influences a comparison of the climate impact of utilizing residual biomass for biofuel production to that of leaving the biomass to decay. In order to compare the biofuel scenario to its corresponding reference scenario where biomass is left to decay, a variety of analytical approaches were used: using time-aggregated and time-dependent life-cycle inventories and climate-impact assessment methods, assuming biogenic carbon to be climate neutral or not, using metrics for cumulative or instantaneous climate impact, and with different time horizons. Two cases of residual biofuel feedstocks were assessed: logging residues from Norway spruce forest, and straw from wheat cultivation. Consideration of the studied method choices appears to be especially... [more]
Torrefaction and Thermochemical Properties of Agriculture Residues
Javaid Akhtar, Muhammad Imran, Arshid Mahmood Ali, Zeeshan Nawaz, Ayyaz Muhammad, Rehan Khalid Butt, Maria Shahid Jillani, Hafiz Amir Naeem
April 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: agriculture residue, Biomass, biowaste to fuel, thermochemical properties, thermogravimetric analysis, torrefaction
In this study, the densification of three agriculture waste biomasses (corn cobs, cotton stalks, and sunflower) is investigated using the torrefaction technique. The samples were pyrolyzed under mild temperature conditions (200−320 °C) and at different residence times (10 min−60 min). The thermal properties of the obtained bio-char samples were analyzed via thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Compositional analysis of the torrefied samples was also carried out to determine the presence of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin contents. According to the results of this study, optimum temperature conditions were found to be 260 °C−300 °C along with a residence time of 20 min−30 min. Based on the composition analysis, it was found that biochar contains more lignin and celluloses and lower hemicellulose contents than do the original samples. The removal of volatile hemicelluloses broke the interlocking of biomass building blocks, rendering biochar brittle, grindable, and less reactive. The r... [more]
Energy Parameters of Miscanthus Biomass Pellets Supplemented with Copra Meal in Terms of Energy Consumption during the Pressure Agglomeration Process
Joanna Szyszlak-Bargłowicz, Tomasz Słowik, Grzegorz Zając, Agata Blicharz-Kania, Beata Zdybel, Dariusz Andrejko, Sławomir Obidziński
April 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, energy consumption, miscanthus, pelleting
The process of pelleting miscanthus biomass often encounters issues related to the low durability of the obtained pellets and high energy inputs. To solve these issues, the use of copra meal as a supplement is proposed. This paper presents the results of research on energy parameters of miscanthus biomass pellets supplemented with copra meal in terms of energy consumption in the pressure agglomeration process. As part of this research, the energy parameters of miscanthus biomass, copra meal biomass, and their blends were characterized. Next, the raw materials were used for the production of pellets in the pressure agglomeration process. The investigations included proximate and ultimate analysis and estimation of heating values. Moreover, the total fat content, mechanical durability, kinetic strength, and bulk density were determined, and the energy consumption in the pelleting process was assessed. The results indicate that the energy consumption in the miscanthus biomass pelleting pr... [more]
Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) as Microalgal Bioproducts: A Review of Factors Affecting EPS Synthesis and Application in Flocculation Processes
Wioleta Babiak, Izabela Krzemińska
April 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, extracellular polymeric substances, flocculation, harvesting, microalgae cultivation
Microalgae are natural resources of intracellular compounds with a wide spectrum of applications in, e.g., the food industry, pharmacy, and biofuel production. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) released by microalgal cells are a valuable bioproduct. Polysaccharides, protein, lipids, and DNA are the main constituents of EPS. This review presents the recent advances in the field of the determinants of the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances by microalgal cells and the EPS structure. Physical and chemical culture conditions have been analyzed to achieve useful insights into the development of a strategy optimizing EPS production by microalgal cells. The application of microalgal EPS for flocculation and mechanisms involved in this process are also discussed in terms of biomass harvesting. Additionally, the ability of EPS to remove toxic heavy metals has been analyzed. With their flocculation and sorption properties, microalgal EPS are a promising bioproduct that can... [more]
Demonstration of a Top-Lit Updraft Based Pyrolytic Burner with Low Emission Operation and Automatic Process Control
Dennis Krüger, Özge Çepelioğullar Mutlu
April 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: automatic process control, Biomass, combustion, emissions, particulate matter, pellet burner, TLUD
In this study, a small-scale (4.7 kWfuel) biomass burner based on “top-lit updraft” (TLUD) technology with automatic process control was developed for process heat generation. The combustion experiments were performed using wood pellets to gain more insights on the process, its repeatability and the behaviors of the emitted gaseous and particulate emissions under different combustion phases. The emission values were compared with similar small-scale combustion technologies as well as the emission limits defined in official regulations. The results showed that the average emissions (based on standardized 13 vol. % O2 content in the dry flue gas (STP)) over the entire process from start-up to switch-off were 29.4 mg/m3 for CO, 80 mg/m3 for NOx, and 3.6 mg/m3 for total particle matter (TPM) measured within the hot gas. These results were below the official limits for wood-fueled small-scale systems. The developed process control approach resulted in very low residual O2 content in the flu... [more]
Economic, Environmental and Energetic Analysis of a Distributed Generation System Composed by Waste Gasification and Photovoltaic Panels
Alvaro Quiles Garcia, Naoya Nishiumi, Atsushi Saito, Eriko Matsumura, Jiro Senda
April 21, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Biomass, distributed generation system, gasification, photovoltaic panels
Fossil fuel dependency in developed countries is worrisome due to the lack of energy security that traditional energy generation provides. In order to prevent future energy problems and to maintain a sustainable society, some countries are starting to develop renewable energy sources. In this research, biomass energy is introduced as a solution not only to reduce fossil fuel dependency, but also to improve municipal solid waste management. The purpose of this report is to construct a distributed power generation system combining the superheated steam gasification of solid waste and photovoltaic panels, and to verify the feasibility of generating power at the consumption site. It also focuses on optimizing the current waste superheated steam gasification system and compares the superheated steam gasification technology with other waste to energy technologies, such as downdraft air gasification and solid waste direct combustion. Finally, the report analyzes the economic, environmental an... [more]
Global-Local Heat Demand Development for the Energy Transition Time Frame Up to 2050
Dominik Keiner, Larissa D.S.N.S. Barbosa, Dmitrii Bogdanov, Arman Aghahosseini, Ashish Gulagi, Solomon Oyewo, Michael Child, Siavash Khalili, Christian Breyer
April 21, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Biomass, domestic hot water, energy demand, energy system modeling, energy transition, heat, industrial process heat, profiles, space heating
Globally, the heat sector has a major share in energy consumption and carbon emission footprint. To provide reliable mitigation options for space heating, domestic hot water, industrial process heat and biomass for cooking for the energy transition time frame up to the year 2050, energy system modeling relies on a comprehensive and detailed heat demand database in high spatial resolution, which is not available. This study overcomes this hurdle and provides a global heat demand database for the mentioned heat demand types and in a resolution of 145 mesoscale regions up to the year 2050 based on the current heat demand and detailed elaboration of parameters influencing the future heat demand. Additionally, heat demand profiles for 145 mesoscale regions are provided. This research finds the total global heat demand will increase from about 45,400 TWhth in 2012 up to about 56,600 TWhth in 2050. The efficiency measures in buildings lead to a peak of space heating demand in around 2035, str... [more]
Study of the Thermochemical Properties of Lignocellulosic Biomass from Energy Crops
José Antonio Soriano, Reyes García-Contreras, Antonio José Carpio de Los Pinos
April 21, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Biomass, energy crops, Populus, short rotation crops
The cultivation of short rotation coppice (SRC) is a sustainable and ecological alternative for the production of energy vectors today. For its use, it is necessary to know the thermochemical properties of the biomass produced, as well as the differences between genotypes and varieties. In this work, the thermochemical properties of five different Populus clones grow up in Mediterranean basin, with two different age categories, are analyzed. The moisture content, wood density, heating value, ash content, energy density, composition and the volatile matter were measured, separating wood and crust fractions. The mean crust content for all clones was near to 10% but it is observed that the youngest clones have higher content of crust and humidity. The 3 year-old clones generally show lower humidity and ash content and higher density of wood and fixed carbon, consequently showing a higher heating value. In addition, 3 year-old clones are encouraged since they have a lower content of majori... [more]
Economic Considerations on Nutrient Utilization in Wastewater Management
Josef Maroušek, Anna Maroušková
April 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: algae biomass, biofuel, Biomass, Spirulina platensis, Wastewater, wastewater treatment
There is wide consensus that Spirulina can serve as a tool for wastewater management and simultaneously provide feedstock for biorefining. However, the economic aspects associated with its use remain a significant challenge. Spirulina cultivated in wastewater decreased the concentrations of both ammonia and nitrate and also served as a biodiesel source. The oil obtained in the feedstock was subjected to transesterification and turned into biodiesel. The biodiesel was subsequently analyzed in a test motor (water-cooled, four-stroke, single-cylinder compression ignition with injection). The tests were conducted at a constant 1500 rpm, and the output power was 3.7 kW. Mixtures of diesel and biodiesel were also enriched with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The amount of CNTs added to the diesel was 30 mg L−1. The algae and de-oiled biomass were characterized using XRD analysis, and an ultrasonicator was used to mix the CNTs with diesel and spirulina blends. A series of tests were conducted at dif... [more]
Valorization of Prosopis juliflora Woody Biomass in Northeast Brazilian through Dry Torrefaction
José Airton de Mattos Carneiro-Junior, Giulyane Felix de Oliveira, Carine Tondo Alves, Heloysa Martins Carvalho Andrade, Silvio Alexandre Beisl Vieira de Melo, Ednildo Andrade Torres
April 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biofuel, Biomass, kinetics, pyrolysis, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, thermal treatment, torrefaction
Torrefaction has been investigated to improve the desirable properties of biomass as solid biofuel, usually used in natura as firewood in several countries. This paper has the main objective to present a broad characterization of the biomass Prosopis juliflora (P. juliflora), investigating its potential as a solid biofuel after its torrefaction process. The methodology was based on different procedures. The experimental runs were carried out at 230, 270, and 310 °C for 30 min, using a bench-scale torrefaction apparatus, with an inert atmosphere. In order to investigate the effect of temperature in constant time, torrefaction parameters were calculated, such as mass yield, energy yield, calorific value, base-to-acid ratio (B/A), and the alkaline index (AI). The physicochemical properties of the torrefied samples were determined and thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the kinetic parameters at four different heating rates of 5, 10, 20, and 30 °C/min. Pyrolysis kinetics was i... [more]
Particulate Matter Reduction in Residual Biomass Combustion
Maulana G. Nugraha, Harwin Saptoadi, Muslikhin Hidayat, Bengt Andersson, Ronnie Andersson
April 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, CFD simulation, combustion, grate furnace, kinetic study, on-line measurement, particulate matter reduction, PM
Counteracting emissions of particulate matter (PM) is an increasingly important goal in sustainable biomass combustion. This work includes a novel approach to investigate the PM emissions, originating from residual biomass combustion, at different combustion conditions in a lab-scale grate-fired furnace and includes in situ PM measurements by using on-line sensors. The interior furnace design allows installation of baffles to suppress the emissions by controlling the residence time. Moreover, the two-thermocouple method is used to measure the true gas temperature, and an on-line spatially resolved PM measurement method is developed to study the evolution of the PM concentration throughout the furnace for different experimental conditions thereby allowing accurate in-situ measurement of the PM reactivity. Experimental results and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses are utilized in the current work to develop a kinetic model for reduction of particulate matter emissions in biomas... [more]
Prospective Life Cycle Assessment: Effect of Electricity Decarbonization in Building Sector
Leslie Ayagapin, Jean Philippe Praene, Doorgeshwaree Jaggeshar, Dinesh Surroop
April 20, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Biomass, building sector, decarbonization, electricity scenario, island, LCA, prospective, waste energy
The building sector is responsible for 43% of France’s final energy consumption and is strongly associated with a high environmental impact due to its high consumption of energy and natural resources. These impacts are significant in isolated islands. Due to its geographical isolation and an area of 2512 km2, Reunion Island has a heavily carbon-based economy with a high import rate of raw materials for the building sector. This study aimed to investigate the effect of electricity mix decarbonization on residential house environmental impact. The methodology consists of three parts: (i) evaluating environmental impacts of Single-Family Houses (SFH) using life cyce assessment(LCA), (ii) defining SFH typologies using the K-means clustering algorithm, and (iii) implementing energy scenario in LCA of SFH to assess decarbonization effect. The environmental results were particularly sensitive in the operational phase, with a decrease of 83% between 2020 to 2040 of the global warming potential... [more]
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