Records with Keyword: Biomass
Showing records 1 to 25 of 278. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Dynamic Modeling of a Decarbonized District Heating System with CHP Plants in Electricity-Based Mode of Operation
Katharina Koch, Bastian Alt, Matthias Gaderer
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, combined heat and power generation (CHP), district heating, heat storage, Modelling, Simulation
The targets of global CO2 reduction outline the importance of decarbonizing the heating and cooling sector, which consume half of the final energy in the European Union (EU). Consequently, heating network operators must adapt to growing requirements for carbon neutrality. Energy system modeling allows the simulation of individual network compositions and regulations, while considering electricity market signals for a more efficient plant operation. The district heating model, programmed for this work, covers a measured heat demand with peak load boiler, biomass-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plant, and biomass heating plant supply. The CHP plant reacts to electricity prices of the European Power Exchange market and uses a long-term heat storage to decouple heat and electricity production. This paper presents the results of three annual simulation scenarios aimed at carbon neutrality for the analyzed heating network. Two scenarios achieve a climate-neutral system by replacing the p... [more]
The Use of Renewable Energy Sources in a Road Lane on the Example of the Network of National Roads and Highways in Poland
Janusz Bohatkiewicz, Marcin Dębiński, Mateusz Marciniuk, Aleksandra Cybulska
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, highway, photovoltaic cells, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, renewable energy source, road, water energy, wind energy
The deteriorating condition of the environment and the increasing emission of pollutants into the atmosphere intensify the greenhouse effect. Energy production in power plants results in emissions that affect the increase of global temperatures. According to the Research Institute for Global Climate Change in Berlin there are just over 7 years to cross the critical point, which will start chain reactions associated with irreversible changes in the climate. In order to reduce the climate changes, exhaust emissions must be reduced. One of the steps is to reduce electricity consumption. In the case of roads, electricity is most related to the technical infrastructure. First steps has been taken to reduce the demand for electricity by using lighting systems equipped in the energy saving solutions. The next step should be to use renewable energy sources. There are many solutions to generate electricity that can be used directly on roads or nearby. There are many sides in the area of the roa... [more]
Power-to-Green Methanol via CO2 Hydrogenation—A Concept Study including Oxyfuel Fluidized Bed Combustion of Biomass
Simon Pratschner, Pavel Skopec, Jan Hrdlicka, Franz Winter
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: alkaline electrolysis, Biomass, CCU, green methanol, oxyfuel, power-to-X, renewables
A revolution of the global energy industry is without an alternative to solving the climate crisis. However, renewable energy sources typically show significant seasonal and daily fluctuations. This paper provides a system concept model of a decentralized power-to-green methanol plant consisting of a biomass heating plant with a thermal input of 20 MWth. (oxyfuel or air mode), a CO2 processing unit (DeOxo reactor or MEA absorption), an alkaline electrolyzer, a methanol synthesis unit, an air separation unit and a wind park. Applying oxyfuel combustion has the potential to directly utilize O2 generated by the electrolyzer, which was analyzed by varying critical model parameters. A major objective was to determine whether applying oxyfuel combustion has a positive impact on the plant’s power-to-liquid (PtL) efficiency rate. For cases utilizing more than 70% of CO2 generated by the combustion, the oxyfuel’s O2 demand is fully covered by the electrolyzer, making oxyfuel a viable option for... [more]
Fuel Improvement Measures for Particulate Matter Emission Reduction during Corn Cob Combustion
Nataša Dragutinović, Isabel Höfer, Martin Kaltschmitt
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: additives, Biomass, combustion, corn cob, kaolin, particulate matter
Fuel-related measures and modernization of small-scale combustion units has become the focus of attention in the renewable heat generation sector, as a means to promote local biomass utilization and fuel-flexibility while meeting strict environmental legislative requirements. With the aim to mitigate total particulate matter emissions and ash-associated problems characteristic of crop residue combustion, (1) corn cob pellets (with and without kaolin and binder) as well as (2) fuel blends with wood pellets were combusted in a pellet oven under full load. Results show that additivation or fuel blending (e.g., 50 wt. % wood and 50 wt. % corn cob pellets) reduce total particulate and CO-emissions by 48 to 60 wt. % and 64 to 89 wt. %, respectively, in comparison to baseline emissions from non-additivized corn cob pellets. Kaolin prevented sintering of corn cob ash. However, considerable grate ash entrainment was observed. TPM consists of a “primary network”—polyhedral and spherical particle... [more]
Steel Converter Slag as an Oxygen Carrier—Interaction with Sulfur Dioxide
Fredrik Hildor, Henrik Leion, Tobias Mattisson
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, chemical looping, LD slag, oxygen carrier, steel converter slag, sulfur chemistry
Steel converter slag, also called Linz-Donawitz (LD) slag, has been considered as an oxygen carrier for biofuel chemical looping applications due to its high availability. In addition to its content of iron which contributes to its oxygen-carrying capacity, LD slag also contains a significant amount of calcium. Calcium, however, is known to interact with sulfur, which may affect the usability of LD slag. To get a better understanding of the interaction between sulfur and LD slag, batch scale experiments have been performed using solid and gaseous fuel with or without sulfur dioxide, together with LD slag as an oxygen carrier. The reactivity and sulfur interaction were compared to the benchmark oxygen carrier ilmenite. Sulfur increases the gasification rate of biofuel char and the conversion of CO for both LD slag and ilmenite. However, no effect of sulfur could be seen on the conversion of the model tar species benzene. The increased gasification rate of char was suspected to originate... [more]
Gasification of Spruce Wood Chips in a 1.5 MWth Fluidised Bed Reactor
Fabio Montagnaro, Lucio Zaccariello
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, equivalence ratio, fluidised bed, gasification, Hydrogen, spruce wood chips, Syngas, tar
Production of syngas from the gasification of a biomass is attracting attention with an eye to the concepts of circularity, sustainability, and recent needs, triggered by socio-political events, to increase the level of self-sufficiency of energy sources for a given community. This manuscript reports on the gasification of spruce wood chips in a demonstration fluidised bed gasifier (1.5 MWth, height of 5.40 m, internal diameter of 1.2 m), with 0.2−0.4 mm olivine inventory (1000 kg). Gasification was carried out in air, at four different values of equivalence ratio (from 27% to 36%). The bed was fluidised at about 0.6 m/s, and the bed temperature resulted in the range of about 960−1030 °C as a function of the different tests. A mass flow rate of biomass in the range of about 360−480 kg/h (as a function of the different tests) was fed to the fluidised bed gasifier. Syngas lower heating value, specific mass and energetic yield, and chemical composition, were reported along with data on th... [more]
Assessment of Biomass and Biochar of Maritime Pine as a Porous Medium for Water Retention in Soils
Rodrigo V. Santos, Miguel A. A. Mendes, Carlos Alexandre, Manuela Ribeiro Carrott, Abel Rodrigues, Ana F. Ferreira
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biochar, Biomass, carbonization, porosity, soil water retention, specific surface area
Pinewood biomass in Portugal can be considered a major source of biochar for soil physical, chemical, and biological edaphic amendment. This work intended to evaluate the aptitude of lab produced biochar for upgrading soil moisture dynamics’ relationships considering mixtures of biochar with silica-based sand. The methodology used focused on the carbonization of pine biomass with inert atmosphere at 300 °C, 400 °C, 500 °C and 600 °C, followed by a chemical proximate and thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared analysis, numerical modeling, and characterization of biochar porosity by gas adsorption (Brunauer−Emmett−Teller) and mercury porosimetry. The results showed the increased amounts of soil water retention and plant available water, evaluated through pF curves, due to biochar application. The thermogravimetric analysis mass loss patterns and FTIR transmittance, reflected major structural modifications in carbonized products by comparison... [more]
Effect of Potassium Salts on Biochar Pyrolysis
Yuthapong Wongmat, David R. Wagner
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: additives, Biomass, non-isothermal, pyrolysis, thermal analysis
Alkali pretreatment is one of the chemical pretreatment technologies that has been examined on various types of lignocellulosic biomass. To gain a better insight into the effects of a potassium-based catalyst on pyrolysis behavior with different materials, potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) and potassium nitrate (KNO3) were used as additives in this study. The experimental parameters which included particle size, heating rate, and additive loading were investigated. The results showed that adding potassium for both KHCO3 and KNO3 to feedstocks led to increase in biochar. A model-free method, Flynn−Wall−Ozawa (FWO), was implemented in this study to determine the activation energy values for untreated and potassium-treated feedstocks. A reduction in apparent activation energy values of treated biomass was observed. This indicates that adding potassium salt to biomass influenced the structures of the main components and promoted the catalytic effect of pyrolysis. Activation energies of treated... [more]
Enzymatic Saccharification with Sequential-Substrate Feeding and Sequential-Enzymes Loading to Enhance Fermentable Sugar Production from Sago Hampas
Nurul Haziqah Alias, Suraini Abd-Aziz, Lai Yee Phang, Mohamad Faizal Ibrahim
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: amylase, Biomass, cellulase, saccharification, sago hampas, substrate feeding
Sago hampas composed of a high percentage of polysaccharides (starch, cellulose and hemicellulose) that make it a suitable substrate for fermentation. However, the saccharification of sago hampas through the batch process is always hampered by its low sugar concentration due to the limitation of the substrate that can be loaded into the system. Increased substrate concentration in the system reduces the ability of enzyme action toward the substrate due to substrate saturation, which increases viscosity and causes inefficient mixing. Therefore, sequential-substrate feeding has been attempted in this study to increase the amount of substrate in the system by feeding the substrate at the selected intervals. At the same time, sequential-enzymes loading has been also evaluated to maximize the amount of enzymes loaded into the system. Results showed that this saccharification with sequential-substrate feeding and sequential-enzymes loading has elevated the solid loading up to 20% (w/v) and r... [more]
Surface Functionalization of Biochar from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch through Hydrothermal Process
Izzudin Ibrahim, Toshiki Tsubota, Mohd Ali Hassan, Yoshito Andou
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: biochar, Biomass, hydrothermal functionalization, oil palm, wastewater treatment
The use of biochar as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment purposes has been hindered due to its lower surface area compared to activated carbon. Current research on increasing surface functional groups on biochar surfaces to improve its adsorption performance suggests using high chemical concentration and long period of modification. This study solves these problems by focusing on improving surface functionalities of biochar via the hydrothermal functionalization process. Oil palm empty fruit bunch biochar was functionalized using autoclave with nitric acid as the functionalization agent. Functionalized biochar properties such as Brunauer−Emmett−Teller (BET) surface area and surface functional groups were analyzed and compared with untreated biochar. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis shows a significant increase in absorption by oxygen functional groups and is corroborated with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The process does not result in any major cha... [more]
A Review of Bio-Oil Production through Microwave-Assisted Pyrolysis
Mauro Giorcelli, Oisik Das, Gabriel Sas, Michael Försth, Mattia Bartoli
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Biomass, microwave, pyrolysis, waste
The issue of sustainability is a growing concern and has led to many environmentally friendly chemical productions through a great intensification of the use of biomass conversion processes. Thermal conversion of biomass is one of the most attractive tools currently used, and pyrolytic treatments represent the most flexible approach to biomass conversion. In this scenario, microwave-assisted pyrolysis could be a solid choice for the production of multi-chemical mixtures known as bio-oils. Bio-oils could represent a promising new source of high-value species ranging from bioactive chemicals to green solvents. In this review, we have summarized the most recent developments regarding bio-oil production through microwave-induced pyrolytic degradation of biomasses.
Production of Electricity and Heat from Biomass Wastes Using a Converted Aircraft Turbine AI-20
Kamil Roman, Jan Barwicki, Marek Hryniewicz, Dominika Szadkowska, Jan Szadkowski
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: ash content, Biomass, Energy, moisture, production, Py-GC/MS
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of biomass micronization on energy production using a converted aircraft turbine AI-20. The test system was constructed in such a way to ensure continuous operation for a given period of time and was equipped in a chopper, a flail mill, and a micronizer. The turbine had the ability to produce energy from solid biomass and as well conventional fuels. The most energy was obtained from absolutely dry sunflower husk (17.27 MJ/kg) and the least from Poplar (7.82 MJ/kg). Miscanthus, wheat straw, and hay (approximately 17 MJ/kg) showed high values of energy production. In addition, the thermal decomposition of wheat straw at 350 and 450 °C was studied using the Py-GC/MS technique in a helium atmosphere to determine the gaseous compounds formed during biomass gasification under anaerobic conditions. The results obtained indicate the formation of compounds classified as phenols (vanillin, hydroxymethylfurfural).
Wood Fuel Procurement to Bioenergy Facilities: Analysis of Moisture Content Variability and Optimal Sampling Strategy
Elena Leoni, Manuela Mancini, Giovanni Aminti, Gianni Picchi
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, fuel, heterogeneity, moisture content, quality, sampling
Moisture content is the most relevant quality parameter for wood fuels. Effective and fast determination of moisture of incoming feedstock is essential in the management of bioenergy facilities. The availability of fast and reliable moisture meters based on innovative technologies simplifies this task. However, in Mediterranean conditions the inherent variability of wood fuels calls for a careful sampling strategy if representative results are required while facing acceptable analytic costs. The present study is aimed at measuring the fuel heterogeneity and defining accordingly the appropriate number of samples to be analyzed in order to get reliable moisture-content results. A total of 70 truckloads (about 2270 t of woodchips) were sampled during commercial operations in two different seasons. Five samples were collected from each load and measured with standard method and magnetic resonance gauge. Results show that the variability of moisture content is influenced by mixing of specie... [more]
Gasification of Biomass in Supercritical Water, Challenges for the Process Design—Lessons Learned from the Operation Experience of the First Dedicated Pilot Plant
Nikolaos Boukis, I. Katharina Stoll
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, gasification, process design, supercritical water
Gasification of organic matter under the conditions of supercritical water (T > 374 °C, p > 221 bar) is an allothermal, continuous flow process suitable to convert materials with high moisture content (<20 wt.% dry matter) into a combustible gas. The gasification of organic matter with water as a solvent offers several benefits, particularly the omission of an energy-intensive drying process. The reactions are fast, and mean residence times inside the reactor are consequently low (less than 5 min). However, there are still various challenges to be met. The combination of high temperature and pressure and the low concentration of organic matter require a robust process design. Additionally, the low value of the feed and the product predestinate the process for decentralized applications, which is a challenge for the economics of an application. The present contribution summarizes the experience gained during more than 10 years of operation of the first dedicated pilot plant for super... [more]
Improved Sugar Recovery from Orange Peel by Statistical Optimization of Thermo-Alkaline Pretreatment
Ye Won Jang, Kang Hyun Lee, Hah Young Yoo
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: alkaline, Biomass, enzymatic hydrolysis, Optimization, pretreatment
Orange peel, which is a by-product of oranges, contains carbohydrates that can be converted into sugars and used in the fermentation process. In this study, the thermal alkaline pretreatment process was chosen because of its simplicity and lesser reaction time. In addition, the reaction factors were optimized using response surface methodology. The determined optimal conditions were as follows: 60.1 g/L orange peels loading, 3% KOH and 30 min. Under the optimal conditions, glucan content (GC) and enzymatic digestibility (ED) were found to be 32.8% and 87.8%, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed with pretreated and non-pretreated orange peels using three types of enzyme complex (cellulase, cellobiase and xylanase). The minimum concentrations of enzyme complex required to obtain maximum ED were 30 FPU (filter paper unit), 15 CBU (cellobiase unit), and 30 XNU (xylanase unit) based on 1 g-biomass. Additionally, ED of the treated group was approximately 3.7-fold higher than that... [more]
The “INNOVARE” Project: Innovative Plants for Distributed Poly-Generation by Residual Biomass
M. Costa, A. Buono, C. Caputo, A. Carotenuto, D. Cirillo, M. A. Costagliola, G. Di Blasio, M. La Villetta, A. Macaluso, G. Martoriello, N. Massarotti, A. Mauro, M. Migliaccio, V. Mulone, F. Murena, D. Piazzullo, M. V. Prati, V. Rocco, A. Stasi, L. Vanoli, A. Cinocca, D. Di Battista, A. De Vita
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, combined heat and power generation (CHP), Syngas
The valorization of residual biomass plays today a decisive role in the concept of “circular economy”, according to which each waste material must be reused to its maximum extent. The collection and energy valorization at the local level of biomass from forest management practices and wildfire prevention cutting can be settled in protected areas to contribute to local decarbonization, by removing power generation from fossil fuels. Despite the evident advantages of bioenergy systems, several problems still hinder their diffusion, such as the need to assure their reliability by extending the operating range with materials of different origin. The Italian project “INNOVARE—Innovative plants for distributed poly-generation by residual biomass”, funded by the Italian Ministry of Economic Development (MISE), has the main scope of improving micro-cogeneration technologies fueled by biomass. A micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) unit was chosen as a case study to discuss pros and cons of bio... [more]
Prototypical Biomass-Fired Micro-Cogeneration Systems—Energy and Ecological Analysis
Krzysztof Sornek
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, cogeneration, Rankine cycle, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, thermoelectric generator
Combined heat and power systems dedicated to micro-scale applications are currently increasing in popularity. The use of such systems is beneficial from the standpoint of increasing the usage of renewable energy, increasing energy efficiency and reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. This paper shows two examples of prototypical micro-cogeneration systems powered by biomass. In the first, smaller one, electricity is generated in thermoelectric generators using heat from the wood-fired stove. The second one is equipped with a 100 kWt batch boiler and operates according to a modified Rankine cycle. The energy and ecological analysis were conducted and discussed, including selected aspects of heat and power generation and gaseous pollutant emission. Measurements were performed using a dedicated control and measurement station with a PLC controller. As was shown, thermoelectric generators operated respectively with the power of 22.5 We in the case of the air-cooled unit and 31.2 We in... [more]
Fluidised Bed Gasification of Diverse Biomass Feedstocks and Blends—An Overall Performance Study
Sylvie Valin, Serge Ravel, Philippe Pons de Vincent, Sébastien Thiery, Hélène Miller, Françoise Defoort, Maguelone Grateau
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: agglomeration, Biomass, blend, defluidisation, gasification
The aim of this work is to investigate the fluidised bed gasification of several pure and blended feedstock prepared in the form of pellets: oak bark, two bark/wheat straw blends (85/15 and 50/50 wt%) and lignin residue remaining from bioethanol production. Gasification conditions were defined to be representative of dual fluidised bed ones (steam gasification at 850 °C, followed by air combustion of the char). The cold gas efficiency (77−81%), gas composition and tar content (0.9−2.3 g/kgdaf) are close for the gasification of bark and the two bark/wheat straw blends. For lignin residue, the cold gas efficiency is lower (71%), and the tar content is 9.1 g/kgdaf. The agglomeration propensity is much higher for lignin residue than for the other feedstock. This was put into evidence with in-bed temperature measurements at different levels, and confirmed with post-test size screening of the bed material particles. The 50/50 wt% bark/wheat straw blend seems to undergo defluidisation in comb... [more]
Economics of Distributed Power Generation via Gasification of Biomass and Municipal Solid Waste
Natarianto Indrawan, Betty Simkins, Ajay Kumar, Raymond L. Huhnke
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, economic analysis, gasification, municipal solid waste, power generation
More than one billion people worldwide still lack access to electricity. Rural electrification via gasification has the potential to satisfy electricity access and demand. This study conducts an economic evaluation of rural electrification through gasification of biomass and municipal solid waste (MSW) using a 60 kW downdraft gasifier, developed at Oklahoma State University. The effects of feedstock cost, electricity selling price, feed-in-tariff, tipping fee, tax rate, and the output power are evaluated using major financial parameters: the net present value, internal rate of return, modified internal rate of return, simple payback period, and discounted payback period, and sensitivity analysis. Results show that the downdraft gasification power system offers a payback period of 7.7 years, while generating an internal rate of return, modified internal rate of return, and net present value of 10.9%, 7.7%, and $84,550, respectively. Results from a sensitivity analysis indicate that the... [more]
Experimental and Model Study on Raw Biomass Gasification Syngas Conditioning in a Molten NaOH-Na2CO3 Mixture
Xiaobo Wang, Anqi Liu, Zengli Zhao, Haibin Li
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, conditioning, model, molten salts, Syngas
Raw syngas conditioning using molten salts was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of the reaction conditions, including temperature, gas velocity, bubble diameter, molten salt static liquid heights, and inlet gas composition, on the composition of the syngas product and the properties of the spent molten salts were investigated. The molten salt absorbed CO2 in all of the experiments (at temperatures from 350 °C to 500 °C) and decreased its concentration down to 1%. The H2/CO increased from 0.94 to a maximum of 11.0, which may meet most of the synthetic process’ requirements. The temperature, gas velocity, and molten salt static liquid heights had significant effects on the H2 and CO concentrations in the gas product. Molten salt raw syngas conditioning can be a suitable follow-up procedure for gasification and pyrolysis.
Performance Assessment of Front-Mounted Beet Topper Machine for Biomass Harvesting
Volodymyr Bulgakov, Simone Pascuzzi, Semjons Ivanovs, Francesco Santoro, Alexandros Sotirios Anifantis, Ievhen Ihnatiev
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: beet top cutting, Biomass, sugar beet, tractor–harvester aggregate
Sugar beet is an extensive crop of great agronomic value with significant productive and economic returns and Ukraine’s sugar beet accounts for about 5.1% of the overall world production. Sugar beets and the by-products resulting from its manufacturing transformation are a significant renewable energy resource. A new high-quality performance prototype of a sugar beet top harvester, front mounted on a tractor, was built by the authors in Ukraine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the main performance parameters related to the operation of this new machine. Field tests were carried out linking the prototype to a wheel tractor, whilst suitable sensors measured the significant kinematic and dynamic parameters, allowing experimental data collection to assess the machine’s performance parameters. The entire technological process of harvesting and transporting the beet tops to the beet top storage unit required power ranging from 6.42 to 17.65 kW. At the topmost tested forward speed, the r... [more]
Unraveling the Properties of Biomass-Derived Hard Carbons upon Thermal Treatment for a Practical Application in Na-Ion Batteries
Carolina del Mar Saavedra Rios, Loïc Simonin, Arnaud de Geyer, Camelia Matei Ghimbeu, Capucine Dupont
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, hard carbon, sodium-ion batteries, valorization
Biomass is gaining increased attention as a sustainable and low-cost hard carbon (HC) precursor. However, biomass properties are often unexplored and unrelated to HC performance. Herein, we used pine, beechwood, miscanthus, and wheat straw precursors to synthesize HCs at 1000 °C, 1200 °C and 1400 °C by a two-steps pyrolysis treatment. The final physicochemical and electrochemical properties of the HC evidenced dissimilar trends, mainly influenced by the precursor’s inorganic content, and less by the thermal treatment. Pine and beechwood HCs delivered the highest reversible capacity and coulombic efficiency (CE) at 1400 °C of about 300 mAh·g−1 and 80%, respectively. This performance can be attributed to the structure derived from the high carbon purity precursors. Miscanthus and wheat straw HC performance was strongly affected by the silicon, potassium, and calcium content in the biomasses, which promoted simultaneous detrimental phenomena of intrinsic activation, formation of a silicon... [more]
Biomass Availability in Europe as an Alternative Fuel for Full Conversion of Lignite Power Plants: A Critical Review
Vasiliki Tzelepi, Myrto Zeneli, Dimitrios-Sotirios Kourkoumpas, Emmanouil Karampinis, Antonios Gypakis, Nikos Nikolopoulos, Panagiotis Grammelis
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, biomass conversion technologies, coal phase-out, cost, GHG emissions, RED II, stranded assets, SWOT analysis, the European Green Deal
Biomass has been demonstrated as a capable source of energy to fulfill the increasing demand for clean energy sources which could last a long time. Replacing fossil fuels with biomass-based ones can potentially lead to a reduction of carbon emissions, which is the main target of the EU climate strategy. Based on RED II (revised Renewable Energy Directive 2018/2001/EU) and the European Green Deal, biomass is a promising energy source for achieving carbon neutrality in the future. However, the sustainable potential of biomass resources in the forthcoming decades is still a matter of question. This review aims at estimating the availability of biomass for energy reasons in the EU, and to evaluate its potential to meet the coal power plant capacity of the main lignite-producer countries, including Germany, Poland and Greece. Plants in line with the sustainability criteria of RED II have been selected for the preliminary estimations concerning their full conversion to the biomass power conc... [more]
Techno-Economic Assessment of a Combined Heat and Power Plant Integrated with Carbon Dioxide Removal Technology: A Case Study for Central Poland
Paweł Gładysz, Anna Sowiżdżał, Maciej Miecznik, Maciej Hacaga, Leszek Pająk
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, Carbon Dioxide Capture, CO2 enhanced geothermal systems, combined heat and power, negative emission technologies, supercritical CO2 power cycles, utilization and storage
The objective of this study is to assess the techno-economic potential of the proposed novel energy system, which allows for negative emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). The analyzed system comprises four main subsystems: a biomass-fired combined heat and power plant integrated with a CO2 capture and compression unit, a CO2 transport pipeline, a CO2-enhanced geothermal system, and a supercritical CO2 Brayton power cycle. For the purpose of the comprehensive techno-economic assessment, the results for the reference biomass-fired combined heat and power plant without CO2 capture are also presented. Based on the proposed framework for energy and economic assessment, the energy efficiencies, the specific primary energy consumption of CO2 avoidance, the cost of CO2 avoidance, and negative CO2 emissions are evaluated based on the results of process simulations. In addition, an overview of the relevant elements of the whole system is provided, taking into account technological progress and tec... [more]
Combining Biomass Gasification and Solid Oxid Fuel Cell for Heat and Power Generation: An Early-Stage Life Cycle Assessment
Christian Moretti, Blanca Corona, Viola Rühlin, Thomas Götz, Martin Junginger, Thomas Brunner, Ingwald Obernberger, Li Shen
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: allocation, Biomass, CHP, gasification, LCA, multifunctionality, SOFC
Biomass-fueled combined heat and power systems (CHPs) can potentially offer environmental benefits compared to conventional separate production technologies. This study presents the first environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of a novel high-efficiency bio-based power (HBP) technology, which combines biomass gasification with a 199 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to produce heat and electricity. The aim is to identify the main sources of environmental impacts and to assess the potential environmental performance compared to benchmark technologies. The use of various biomass fuels and alternative allocation methods were scrutinized. The LCA results reveal that most of the environmental impacts of the energy supplied with the HBP technology are caused by the production of the biomass fuel. This contribution is higher for pelletized than for chipped biomass. Overall, HBP technology shows better environmental performance than heat from natural gas and electricity from the German/Europe... [more]
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