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Records with Subject: Biosystems
Showing records 1 to 25 of 137. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Curcumin Analogues with Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Activity: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Molecular Docking
Dasharath Kondhare, Sushma Deshmukh, Harshad Lade
September 13, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: aldose reductase inhibitor, antidiabetic, Claisen–Schmidt condensation, curcumin analogues, molecular docking
Curcumin, a constituent of Curcuma longa, has shown numerous biological and pharmacological activities, including antidiabetic effects. Here, a novel series of curcumin analogues were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro inhibition of aldose reductase (AR), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the polyol pathway, which plays a key role in the onset and progression of diabetic complications. Biological activity studies showed that all the curcuminoids exhibited moderate to good AR inhibitory (ARI) activities compared with that of the quercetin standard. Importantly, compounds 8d, 8h, 9c, 9e, and 10g demonstrated promising ARI activities, with the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 5.73, 5.95, 5.11, 5.78, and 5.10 µM, respectively. Four other compounds exhibited IC50 values in the range of 6.04−6.18 µM. Methyl and methoxy derivatives showed a remarkable ARI potential compared with that of other substitutions on the aromatic ring. Molecular docking experiments demonstrated t... [more]
Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent-Assisted Pectin Extraction from Pomelo Peel Using Sonoreactor: Experimental Optimization Approach
Amal A. M. Elgharbawy, Adeeb Hayyan, Maan Hayyan, Mohamed E. S. Mirghani, Hamzah Mohd. Salleh, Shahidah Nusailah Rashid, Gek Cheng Ngoh, Shan Qin Liew, Mohd Roslan Mohd Nor, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli bin Mohd Yusoff, Yatimah Alias
September 13, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: Citrus grandis, definitive screening design, Extraction, natural deep eutectic solvent, pectin, pomelo
Background: Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) can be used for extracting a wide range of biomaterials, such as pectin. This study introduces a new generation of natural solvents for pectin extraction which could replace the conventional solvents in the food industry. Methods: In this study, NADESs were used for pectin extraction from pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) peels using a sonoreactor. Definitive screening design (DSD) was used to screen the influence of time, temperature, solid/liquid ratio, and NADES/water ratio on the pectin yield and degree of esterification (DE). Results: The primary screening revealed that the best choices for the extraction were choline chloride−malonic acid (ChCl-Mal) and choline chloride−glucose−water (ChCl:Glc:W). Both co-solvents yielded 94% pectin and 52% DE after optimization at 80 °C, with 60 min of sonication, pH < 3.0, and a NADES-to-water ratio of 1:4.5 (v/v). Morphological screening showed a smooth and compact surface of the pectin fro... [more]
Fabrication of Green Superhydrophobic/Superoleophilic Wood Flour for Efficient Oil Separation from Water
Xuefei Tan, Deli Zang, Haiqun Qi, Feng Liu, Guoliang Cao, Shih-Hsin Ho
September 13, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: oil adsorption, oil-water separation, superhydrophobic, superoleophilic, sustainable material, wood flour
The removal of oil from waste water is gaining increasing attention. In this study, a novel synthesis method of green superhydrophobic/superoleophilic wood flour is proposed using the deposition of nano−zinc oxide (nZnO) aggregated on the fiber surface and the subsequent hydrophobic modification of octadecanoic acid. The as-prepared wood flour displayed great superhydrophobicity and synchronous superoleophilicity properties with the water contact angle (WCA) of 156° and oil contact angle (OCA) of 0° for diesel oil. Furthermore, the as-prepared wood flour possessed an excellent stability, probably due to the strong adhesion of nZnO, which aggregates to the fiber surface of wood flour with the action of glutinous polystyrene. The maximum adsorption capacity of as-prepared wood flour was 20.81 g/g for engine oil, which showed that the as-prepared wood flour is a potential candidate as an efficient oil adsorbent in the field of water-oil separation. Moreover, it has good chemical steadines... [more]
Spatial Variations of Bacterial Communities of an Anaerobic Lagoon-Type Biodigester Fed with Dairy Manure
Marleny García-Lozano, Inty Omar Hernández-De Lira, David H. Huber, Nagamani Balagurusamy
September 5, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: anaerobic digestion, bacterial communities, biodigester, PICRUSt, spatial variations
Anaerobic digestion technology is being widely employed for sustainable management of organic wastes generated in animal farms, industries, etc. Nevertheless, biodigester microbiome is still considered a “black box” because it is regulated by different physico-chemical and operational factors. In this study, the bacterial diversity and composition in different sites of a full-scale lagoon type biodigester (23,000 m3) fed with dairy manure, viz., the influent, beginning, middle, final and effluent were analyzed. The biodigester registered a total of 1445 OTUs, which demonstrated the complex microbial ecosystem in it. Of them, only six OTUs were shared among all the different sampling points. The most abundant phyla belonged to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Latescibacteria and Thermotogae. The Simpson and Shannon index showed that the highest microbial diversity was observed in the beginning point of the biodigester, meanwhile, the lowest diversity was recorded in the middle. Based on the... [more]
Enhanced Anaerobic Mixed Culture Fermentation with Anion-Exchange Resin for Caproate Production
Jiangnan Yu, Jialin Liao, Zhenxing Huang, Peng Wu, Mingxing Zhao, Chunmei Liu, Wenquan Ruan
September 5, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: adsorption process, anaerobic mixed culture, caproate fermentation, enhanced performance
The bioproduction of caproate from organic waste by anaerobic mixed culture is a very attractive technology for upgrading low-grade biomass to a high-value resource. However, the caproate production process is markedly restricted by the feedback inhibition of caproate. In this study, four types of anion-exchange resin were investigated for their enhancing capability in caproate fermentation of anaerobic mixed culture. The strong base anion-exchange resin D201 showed the highest adsorption capacity (62 mg/g), selectivity (7.50), and desorption efficiency (88.2%) for caproate among the test resins. Subsequently, the optimal desorption temperature and NaOH concentration of eluent for D201 were determined. The adsorption and desorption efficiency of D201 remained stable during eight rounds of the adsorption−desorption cycle, indicating a satisfactory reusability of D201. Finally, performances of caproate fermentation with and without resin adsorption for carboxylate were evaluated. The res... [more]
Biological Pretreatment of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch by Schizophyllum commune ENN1 without Washing and Nutrient Addition
Enis Natasha Noor Arbaain, Ezyana Kamal Bahrin, Mohamad Faizal Ibrahim, Yoshito Ando, Suraini Abd-Aziz
September 5, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: biological pretreatment, fermentable sugar, lignin, OPEFB, Schizophyllum commune
Washing and drying are common steps for oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) preparation prior to pretreatment. However, the mass balance of OPEFB preparation proved a major loss of OPEFB during the washing and drying steps. An indigenous fungus, Schizophyllum commune ENN1 was used for delignification of unwashed OPEFB in biological pretreatment without nutrient addition. S. commune ENN1 achieved a maximum lignin removal of 53.8% after 14 days of biological pretreatment of unwashed OPEFB. S. commune ENN1 was able to grow on unwashed OPEFB during biological pretreatment at 55% of moisture content and 5% of oil residue. The highest amount of reducing sugars obtained from OPEFB pretreated by S. commune ENN1 was 230.4 ± 0.19 mg/g with 54% of hydrolysis yield at 96 h. In comparison, the sugar yield of OPEFB pretreated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was 101.2 ± 0.04 mg/g. This study showed that S. commune ENN1 was feasible to remove lignin of OPEFB through biological pretreatment for enzymatic... [more]
Theoretical Study of the Adsorption Process of Antimalarial Drugs into Acrylamide-Base Hydrogel Model Using DFT Methods: The First Approach to the Rational Design of a Controlled Drug Delivery System
Eliceo Cortes, Edgar Márquez, José R. Mora, Esneyder Puello, Norma Rangel, Aldemar De Moya, Jorge Trilleras
September 5, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: binding energy, computational modeling, drug-delivery system, hydrogel, hydrogen bond, Plasmodium falciparum
The interaction between three widely used antimalarial drugs chloroquine, primaquine and amodiaquine with acrylamide dimer and trimer as a hydrogel model, were studied by means of density functional theory calculation in both vacuum and water environments, using the functional wb97xd with 6-31++G(d,p) basis set and polarizable continuum model (C-PCM) of solvent. According to binding energy, around −3.15 to −11.91 kJ/mol, the interaction between antimalarial compounds and hydrogel model are exothermic in nature. The extent of interaction found is primaquine > amodiaquine > chloroquine. The natural bond orbital (NBO) calculation and application of second-order perturbation theory show strong charge transfer between the antimalarial and hydrogel model. In addition, the results suggest these interactions are polar in nature, where hydrogen bonds play a principal role in stabilization of the complex. Comparing with the gas-phase, the complexes in the water environment are also stable, with... [more]
Direct Observation of Growth Rate Dispersion in the Enzymatic Reactive Crystallization of Ampicillin
Matthew A. McDonald, Andreas S. Bommarius, Martha A. Grover, Ronald W. Rousseau
August 15, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: growth rate dispersion, penicillin G acylase, β-lactam antibiotics
Prediction and control of crystal size distributions, a prerequisite for production of consistent crystalline material in the pharmaceutical industry, requires knowledge of potential non-idealities of crystal growth. Ampicillin is one such medicine consumed in crystal form (ampicillin trihydrate). Typically it is assumed that all crystals of the same chemical and geometric type grow at the same rate, however a distribution of growth rates is often observed experimentally. In this study, ampicillin produced enzymatically is crystallized and a distribution of growth rates is observed as individual crystals are monitored by microscopy. Most studies of growth rate dispersion use complex flow apparatuses to maintain a constant supersaturation or imprecise measurements of size distributions to reconstruct growth rate dispersions. In this study, the controllable enzyme reaction enables the same information to be gathered from fewer, less complicated experiments. The growth rates of individual... [more]
Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Fat and Caffeine with Theobromine Retention in the Cocoa Shell
Fanny Adabel González-Alejo, Juan Barajas-Fernández, María de los Ángeles Olán-Acosta, Laura Mercedes Lagunes-Gálvez, Pedro García-Alamilla
August 15, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: caffeine, cocoa shell, extraction of fat, supercritical extraction, theobromine
The cocoa shell is a residue of low commercial value, which represents an alternative for obtaining substances of added value for the food and pharmaceutical industry. Substances of interest in the shell include fat and methylxanthines (theobromine and caffeine). In order to obtain the extraction behavior with supercritical CO2, a 23 factorial design was proposed with six central points, taking dynamic extraction into consideration. The following factors were involved: pressure (2,000−6,000 psi), temperature (313−333 K), and time (30−90 min). The obtained yield was between 3.66% and 15.30%. Fat was the substance that was extracted most effectively (94.73%). Caffeine demonstrated variability in the residue, with at least six treatments that exceeded a removal rate of more than 90%, while it was practically impossible to extract theobromine. The difference with regard to the extraction of theobromine may be attributed to its low solubility. Characterization using FT−IR showed the modific... [more]
Analysis of the Trends in Biochemical Research Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA)
Hee Jay Kang, Changhee Kim, Kyungtae Kang
August 15, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: biochemistry, LDA, research trend, topic modeling
Biochemistry has been broadly defined as “chemistry of molecules included or related to living systems”, but is becoming increasingly hard to be distinguished from other related fields. Targets of its studies evolve rapidly; some newly emerge, disappear, combine, or resurface themselves with a fresh viewpoint. Methodologies for biochemistry have been extremely diversified, thanks particularly to those adopted from molecular biology, synthetic chemistry, and biophysics. Therefore, this paper adopts topic modeling, a text mining technique, to identify the research topics in the field of biochemistry over the past twenty years and quantitatively analyze the changes in its trends. The results of the topic modeling analysis obtained through this study will provide a helpful tool for researchers, journal editors, publishers, and funding agencies to understand the connections among the diverse sub-fields in biochemical research and even see how the research topics branch out and integrate wit... [more]
Lipid Isolation Process and Study on Some Molecular Species of Polar Lipid Isolated from Seed of Madhuca ellitica
Doan Lan Phuong, Tran Quoc Toan, Ly P. T. Dang, Andrey B. Imbs, Pham Quoc Long, Tran Dinh Thang, Bertrand Matthaeus, Long Giang Bach, Le Minh Bui
August 14, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: lipid molecular species, Madhuca ellitica, phospholipids, seeds, sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry
This study attempted the lipid extraction process from the seeds of Madhuca ellitica, a lipid-rich plant, and conducted a lipidomic analysis on molecular species of the obtained product. Total lipids of the crude seeds were found to contain 11.2% of polar lipids. The major fatty acids (FAs) of the polar lipids were palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1n-9), and linoleic (18:2n-6) acids, which amounted to 28.5, 12.5, 44.8, and 13.2% of total FAs, respectively. The content and chemical structures of individual molecular species of phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidic acid (PA), and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) were determined by HPLC with a tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The major molecular species were 18:1/18:2 PE, 16:0/18:1 PC, 18:1/18:2 PC, 16:0/18:2 PG, 16:0/18:1 PG, 16:1/18:1 PI, 16:0/18:1 PI, 18:0/18:2 PI, 16:0/18:1 PA, 18:1/18:2 PA, 16:0/18:1 SQDG, and 18:0/18:1... [more]
The Impact of Erythrocytes Injury on Blood Flow in Bionic Arteriole with Stenosis Segment
Donghai Li, Guiling Li, Yuanyuan Chen, Jia Man, Qingyu Wu, Mingkui Zhang, Haosheng Chen, Yu Zhang
August 14, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: bionic microfluidic device, erythrocyte injury, flow pattern, thrombosis
Ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation is an effective treatment for patients with end-stage heart failure. However, patients who undergo long-term application of VADs experience a series of VAD-related adverse effects including pump thrombosis, which is induced by rotate impeller-caused blood cell injury and hemolysis. Blood cell trauma-related flow patterns are the key mechanism for understanding thrombus formation. In this study, we established a new method to evaluate the blood cell damage and investigate the real-time characteristics of blood flow patterns in vitro using rheometer and bionic microfluidic devices. The variation of plasma free hemoglobin (PFH) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in the rheometer test showed that high shear stress was the main factor causing erythrocyte membrane injury, while the long-term exposure of high shear stress further aggravated this trauma. Following this rheometer test, the damaged erythrocytes were collected and injected into a bionic mi... [more]
Evaluation of the Methane Production Potential of Catfish Processing Wastewater Using Various Anaerobic Digestion Strategies
Mark E. Zappi, Dhan Lord Fortela, Wayne Sharp, Rakesh Bajpai, Daniel Gang, William Holmes, Rafael Hernandez, Emmanuel D. Revellame
August 14, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: biogas, HCl pretreatment, NaOH pretreatment, nutrient amendment, ozonation
The U.S. catfish industry is a major industry that has been declining over the years due to imports competition and growing operational costs. Catfish processing wastewater management and high energy requirement put a large financial burden on catfish processing facilities. Recovered protein-based solids have provided some value-added co-products, however, more co-products are needed to offset processing costs. Anaerobic digestion is a proven waste treatment method that produces methane, which is an energetic co-product that can be used within the processing facilities. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of anaerobic digestion as an alternative to the currently used aerobic biotreatment of catfish processing wastewater. Initial assessments indicated the recalcitrance of the full-strength wastewater to anaerobic digestion, yielding only ~4 m3 per ton (U.S.) of input chemical oxygen demand (CODinput). Thus, several strategies were evaluated to improve the methane yield fr... [more]
Degradation Kinetics of Anthocyanins in Sour Cherry Cloudy Juices at Different Storage Temperature
Aneta Wojdyło, Paulina Nowicka, Mirosława Teleszko
August 8, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: anthocyanins, cloudy juices, color, half-life periods, LC-PDA-ESI-MS QTof, Prunus cerasus L., stability
The aim of this study was to characterize in detail 25 sour cherry cultivars and provide data on their industrial processing into high-quality sour cherry cloudy juices (ScCJ). Anthocyanin composition was identified and quantified by LC-PDA-ESI-MS QTof, UPLC-PDA. Kinetic degradation (k × 103, t1/2, D value) and color (CIE La*b*) were measured before and after 190 days of storage at 4 °C and 30 °C. A total of five anthocyanins, four cyanidins (-3-O-sophoroside, -3-O-glucosyl-rutinoside, -3-O-glucoside, and -3-O-rutinoside) and one peonidin-3-O-rutinoside were detected across all investigated juices. Total anthocyanin content ranged from ~590 to ~1160 mg/L of juice, with the highest levels in Skierka, Nagy Erdigymulscu, Wilena, Wiblek, and Safir cvs., and the lowest in Dradem and Nanaones. During 190 days of storage a significant change was observed in the content of anthocyanins. Their degradation depended rather on the storage conditions (time and temperature) than on the type of antho... [more]
Yield, Phytochemical Constituents, and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils from the Leaves/Twigs, Branches, Branch Wood, and Branch Bark of Sour Orange (Citrus aurantium L.)
Mohammad K. Okla, Saud A. Alamri, Mohamed Z.M. Salem, Hayssam M. Ali, Said I. Behiry, Ramadan A. Nasser, Ibrahim A. Alaraidh, Salem M. Al-Ghtani, Walid Soufan
August 8, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: antibacterial activity, Citrus aurantium, clevenger, essential oils, GC–MS, hydrodistillation, phytochemical
In the present work, essential oils (EOs) extracted from different parts of sour orange Citrus aurantium (green leaves/twigs, small branches, wooden branches, and branch bark) were studied through gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Furthermore, the EOs in the amounts of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 µL were studied for their antibacterial activity against three pathogenic bacteria, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Dickeya solani, and Erwinia amylovora. The main EO compounds in the leaves/twigs were 4-terpineol (22.59%), D-limonene (16.67%), 4-carvomenthenol (12.84%), and linalool (7.82%). In small green branches, they were D-limonene (71.57%), dodecane (4.80%), oleic acid (2.72%), and trans-palmitoleic acid (2.62%), while in branch bark were D-limonene (54.61%), γ-terpinene (6.68%), dodecane (5.73%), and dimethyl anthranilate (3.13%), and in branch wood were D-limonene (38.13%), dimethyl anthranilate (8.13%), (-)-β-fenchol (6.83%), and dodecane (5.31%). At 25 µL, the EO from... [more]
Effects of Dark Brown Sugar Replacing Sucrose and Calcium Carbonate, Chitosan, and Chitooligosaccharide Addition on Acrylamide and 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Mitigation in Brown Sugar Cookies
Yung-Shin Shyu, Hsin-I Hsiao, Jui-Yu Fang, Wen-Chieh Sung
August 8, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, acrylamide, brown sugar cookie, chitooligosaccharide, dark brown sugar
The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of dark brown sugar on acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) levels in brown sugar cookies. Dark brown sugar was used as a raw material instead of sucrose, and chitosan, chitooligosaccharides, or calcium carbonate were added to investigate their effect on acrylamide and HMF mitigation. The results demonstrated that the higher the content of acrylamide in the dark brown sugar, the higher the amount of acrylamide produced in baked brown sugar cookies. The addition of dark brown sugar significantly increased the diameter and decreased the thickness of cookies, which induced more acrylamide formation. Therefore, the sucrose control cookies were harder and thicker than dark brown sugar cookies. The addition of 1% chitosan, chitooligosaccharide, or calcium carbonate did not reduce the acrylamide formation of the brown sugar cookies. The content of acrylamide and HMF in the sucrose control group was lower than that in dark brown sugar... [more]
Purification of Amygdalin from the Concentrated Debitterizing-Water of Apricot Kernelsusing XDA-1 Resin
Qing-An Zhang, Dong-Dong Wu, Chen-Xi Wei
August 8, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: amygdalin, apricot kernels, debitterizing water, macroporous resins, macroporous resins, separation
In this study, six macroporous resins were screened on their adsorption and de-adsorption characteristics for the amygdalin in the debitterizing wastewater concentrate (DWC). The results indicate that the XDA-1 resin exerts good adsorption and de-adsorption capacities on the amygdalin. In order to further confirm its feasibility, the factors affecting the capacity of adsorption and de-adsorption, and its adsorption mechanisms were also investigated. The results suggest that the optimum purification conditions were as follows: loading concentration of samples with 78.05 mg/mL, flow rate of 2 mL/min, and de-adsorption with 80% ethanol solution. The recovery rate was 88.75% and the relative content achieved 61.58% after purification by XDA-1 resin. The Freundlich model can be used to describe the entirety of the exothermic and physical adsorption processes. In summary, the conclusion which can be made from this research is that the wastewater generated from the debitterizing of apricot ke... [more]
Molecular Recognition and Cell Surface Biochemical Response of Bacillus thuringiensis on Triphenyltin
Hongling Zhang, Jinshao Ye, Huaming Qin, Xujun Liang, Yan Long
August 8, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: biodegradation, biosorption, mechanical properties, molecular recognition, Triphenyltin
Triphenyltin (TPT) has severely polluted the environment, and it often coexists with metal ions, such as Cu2+. This paper describes the cell’s molecular recognition of TPT, the interaction between TPT recognition and Cu2+ biosorption, and their effect on cell permeability. We studied the recognition of TPT by Bacillus thuringiensis cells and the effect of TPT recognition on Cu2+ biosorption by using atomic force microscopy to observe changes in cell surface mechanical properties and cellular morphology and by using flow cytometry to determine the cell growth status and cell permeability. The results show that B. thuringiensis can quickly recognize different media. The adhesion force of cells in contact with Tween 80 was significantly reduced to levels that were much lower than that of cells in contact with PBS. Conversely, the cell surface adhesion force increased as TPT became more degraded. B. thuringiensis cells maintained their original morphology after 48 h of TPT treatment. The a... [more]
Single-Cell Receptor Quantification of an In Vitro Coculture Angiogenesis Model Reveals VEGFR, NRP1, Tie2, and PDGFR Regulation and Endothelial Heterogeneity
Si Chen, P. I. Imoukhuede
August 8, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: angiogenesis, coculture, endothelial tube formation, fibroblast, NRP, PDGFR, qFlow cytometry, Tie2, tyrosine kinase receptor, VEGFR
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is essential for both normal development and numerous pathologies. Systems biology has offered a unique approach to study angiogenesis by profiling tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs) that regulate angiogenic processes and computationally modeling RTK signaling pathways. Historically, this systems biology approach has been applied on ex vivo angiogenesis assays, however, these assays are difficult to quantify and limited in their potential of temporal analysis. In this study, we adopted a simple two-dimensional angiogenesis assay comprised of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and examined temporal dynamics of a panel of six RTKs and cell heterogeneity up to 17 days. We observed ~2700 VEGFR1 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1) per cell on 24-h-old cocultured HDF plasma membranes, which do not express VEGFR when cultured alone. We observed 4000−8100 VEGFR2 p... [more]
Advantages of Utilizing Population Balance Modeling of Crystallization Processes for Particle Size Distribution Prediction of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient
Tamar Rosenbaum, Li Tan, Joshua Engstrom
August 8, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: active pharmaceutical ingredient, crystallization, particle size control, population balance modeling
Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particle size distribution is important for both downstream processing operations and in vivo performance. Crystallization process parameters and reactor configuration are important in controlling API particle size distribution (PSD). Given the large number of parameters and the scale-dependence of many parameters, it can be difficult to design a scalable crystallization process that delivers a target PSD. Population balance modeling is a useful tool for understanding crystallization kinetics, which are primarily scale-independent, predicting PSD, and studying the impact of process parameters on PSD. Although population balance modeling (PBM) does have certain limitations, such as scale dependency of secondary nucleation, and is currently limited in commercial software packages to one particle dimension, which has difficulty in predicting PSD for high aspect ratio morphologies, there is still much to be gained from applying PBM in API crystallizat... [more]
Enhanced Anaerobic Performances of Kitchen Wastes in a Semi-Continuous Reactor by EDTA Improving the Water-Soluble Fraction of Fe
Yali Liu, Xiaorong Kang, Han Cheng
August 8, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: EDTA, Fe, kitchen wastes, methane, semi-continuous reactor
The addition of Fe2+ is considered an effective method for increasing methane production, but the added Fe2+ may not be absorbed by anaerobic microorganisms due to complex chemical reactions. In this study, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used as a ligand of Fe2+ (EDTA-Fe) to promote the dissolution of Fe, and the anaerobic performances of kitchen wastes (KWs) in a semi-continuous reactor were studied. The results indicated that the biogas yields and methane contents were enhanced to 594−613 mL·g−1VSadd·d−1 and 63.6−64.4% at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.5 gVSadd·L−1·d−1 due to EDTA-Fe addition. Simultaneously, the EDTA-Fe was more effective than Fe2+ in preventing the acidification of KWs with a high OLR (5.0 gVSadd·L−1·d−1). In addition, the sequential extraction results showed that the water-soluble fraction of Fe in the R3 (EDTA-Fe addition) was 1.49-fold of that in the R2 with Fe2+ addition. The contents of coenzymes F420 and F430 were also improved 1.09 and 1.11 t... [more]
Uncovering Novel Pathways for Enhancing Hyaluronan Synthesis in Recombinant Lactococcus lactis: Genome-Scale Metabolic Modeling and Experimental Validation
Abinaya Badri, Karthik Raman, Guhan Jayaraman
August 7, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: genome-scale metabolic network model, hyaluronic acid, inosine supplementation, Lactococcus lactis, metabolic engineering
Hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan with important medical applications, is commercially produced from pathogenic microbial sources. The metabolism of HA-producing recombinant generally regarded as safe (GRAS) systems needs to be more strategically engineered to achieve yields higher than native producers. Here, we use a genome-scale model (GEM) to account for the entire metabolic network of the cell while predicting strategies to improve HA production. We analyze the metabolic network of Lactococcus lactis adapted to produce HA and identify non-conventional strategies to enhance HA flux. We also show experimental verification of one of the predicted strategies. We thus identified an alternate route for enhancement of HA synthesis, originating from the nucleoside inosine, that can function in parallel with the traditionally known route from glucose. Adopting this strategy resulted in a 2.8-fold increase in HA yield. The strategies identified and the experimental results show that the... [more]
Advancements in Canadian Biomaterials Research in Neurotraumatic Diagnosis and Therapies
Suzan Chen, Angela M. Auriat, Tongda Li, Taisa R. Stumpf, Ryan Wylie, Xiongbiao Chen, Stephanie M. Willerth, Maria DeRosa, Maryam Tarizian, Xudong Cao, Eve C. Tsai
August 7, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: 3D printing, biomaterials, imaging, nerve regeneration, neurotrauma, tissue engineering scaffold
Development of biomaterials for the diagnosis and treatment of neurotraumatic ailments has been significantly advanced with our deepened knowledge of the pathophysiology of neurotrauma. Canadian research in the fields of biomaterial-based contrast agents, non-invasive axonal tracing, non-invasive scaffold imaging, scaffold patterning, 3D printed scaffolds, and drug delivery are conquering barriers to patient diagnosis and treatment for traumatic injuries to the nervous system. This review highlights some of the highly interdisciplinary Canadian research in biomaterials with a focus on neurotrauma applications.
Development of Hydrophilic Drug Encapsulation and Controlled Release Using a Modified Nanoprecipitation Method
Jiang Xu, Yuyan Chen, Xizhi Jiang, Zhongzheng Gui, Lei Zhang
August 7, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: diblock copolymers, drug delivery systems, nanoparticles, nanoprecipitation, self-assembly
The improvement of the loading content of hydrophilic drugs by polymer nanoparticles (NPs) recently has received increased attention from the field of controlled release. We developed a novel, simply modified, drop-wise nanoprecipitation method which separated hydrophilic drugs and polymers into aqueous phase (continuous phase) and organic phase (dispersed phase), both individually and involving a mixing process. Using this method, we produced ciprofloxacin-loaded NPs by Poly (d,l-lactic acid)-Dextran (PLA-DEX) and Poly lactic acid-co-glycolic acid-Polyethylene glycol (PLGA-PEG) successfully, with a considerable drug-loading ability up to 27.2 wt% and an in vitro sustained release for up to six days. Drug content with NPs can be precisely tuned by changing the initial drug feed concentration of ciprofloxacin. These studies suggest that this modified nanoprecipitation method is a rapid, facile, and reproducible technique for making nano-scale drug delivery carriers with high drug-loadin... [more]
Enhanced Production of Anti-PD1 Antibody in CHO Cells through Transient Co-Transfection with Anti-Apoptotic Gene Bcl-xL Combined with Rapamycin
Yunxia Li, Xinyu Zhang, Lei Wang, Huifang Zong, Yuan Yuan, Lei Han, Xi Li, Chenxiao Xu, Jingyi Zhang, Jianwei Zhu, Baohong Zhang
August 7, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: anti-apoptotic gene, Bcl-xL, Chinese Hamster Ovary, rapamycin, transient gene expression technology
CHO cells are often used to produce monoclonal antibodies in mammalian cell expression systems. In the process of large-scale cell culture, apoptosis is related to cell survival and product quality. Over-expressing an anti-apoptotic gene to delay apoptosis and improve cell growth is one of the strategies for improving productivity of monoclonal antibodies. Autophagy inducer rapamycin can extend the culture duration of CHO cells and affect the yield of antibodies. A method was developed for transient co-transfection of anti-apoptotic genes and genes of interest combined with rapamycin to increase the transient expression of the anti-PD1 antibody. Under the optimal transfection conditions, the combination of Bcl-xL and rapamycin can significantly delay cell apoptosis, inhibit cell proliferation, and prolong cell life-time. As a result, anti-PD1 monoclonal antibody expression levels are increased by more than 2 times.
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