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Optimal Design of Experiments for Liquid−Liquid Equilibria Characterization via Semidefinite Programming
Belmiro P.M. Duarte, Anthony C. Atkinson, José F.O. Granjo, Nuno M.C. Oliveira
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: approximate designs, liquid–liquid equilibria, optimal design of experiments, semidefinite programming, ternary systems
Liquid−liquid equilibria (LLE) characterization is a task requiring considerable work and appreciable financial resources. Notable savings in time and effort can be achieved when the experimental plans use the methods of the optimal design of experiments that maximize the information obtained. To achieve this goal, a systematic optimization formulation based on Semidefinite Programming is proposed for finding optimal experimental designs for LLE studies carried out at constant pressure and temperature. The non-random two-liquid (NRTL) model is employed to represent species equilibria in both phases. This model, combined with mass balance relationships, provides a means of computing the sensitivities of the measurements to the parameters. To design the experiment, these sensitivities are calculated for a grid of candidate experiments in which initial mixture compositions are varied. The optimal design is found by maximizing criteria based on the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM). Three op... [more]
Experimental and Numerical Analysis of a Sustainable Farming Compartment with Evaporative Cooling System
M. Sina Mousavi, Siamak Mirfendereski, Jae Sung Park, Jongwan Eun
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: dynamic numerical simulation, evaporative cooling system, heat transport, humidity, optimized design, temperature, water recycling
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) relies on groundwater as well as desalinated water which are very expensive and energy-concentrated. Despite the lack of water resources, only 54% of wastewater was recycled in the UAE in 2016. In this study, a Sustainable Farming Compartment (SFC) with an evaporative cooling system is investigated as an alternative to reusing wastewater and the optimal design is identified experimentally and numerically. First, the applicability of the SFC was examined to reduce the ambient temperature in the system. A prototype SFC was tested in the environmentally constrained laboratory and field site considering an extreme climate condition (with high temperature and humidity) in Abu Dhabi to evaluate the temperature drop and humidity change of the SFC. The experimental results showed that the temperature of the SFC significantly decreases by 7−15 °C when the initial relative humidity is 50%. For validation, an energy modeling using dynamic numerical simulations was p... [more]
Mechanism and Kinetics of Ammonium Sulfate Roasting of Boron-Bearing Iron Tailings for Enhanced Metal Extraction
Xiaoshu Lv, Fuhui Cui, Zhiqiang Ning, Michael L. Free, Yuchun Zhai
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: ammonium sulfate roasting process, iron tailings, kinetics, reaction mechanism
The large amount of boron-bearing iron tailings in China is a resource for metals that needs to be more completely and efficiently utilized. In this evaluation, the ammonium sulfate roasting process was used to make a controllable phase transformation to facilitate the subsequent extraction of valuable metals from boron-bearing iron tailings. The effects of roasting temperature, roasting time, the molar ratio of ammonium sulfate to tailings, and the particle size on the extraction of elements were investigated. The orthogonal experimental design of experiments was used to determine the optimal processing conditions. XRD (X-Ray Diffractomer), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and simultaneous DSC−TG analyzer were used to assist in elucidating the mechanism of ammonium sulfate roasting. The experimental results showed that nearly all Fe, Al, and Mg were extracted under the following conditions: (1) the molar ratio of ammonium sulfate to iron tailings was 3:1; (2) the roasting temperatu... [more]
Additive Manufacturing for Repair and Restoration in Remanufacturing: An Overview from Object Design and Systems Perspectives
Rahito, D. A. Wahab, A. H. Azman
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: additive manufacturing, circular economy, direct energy deposition, remanufacturing, repair, restoration
Repair and restoration is an important step in remanufacturing as it ensures end-of-life products are returned to as-new condition before entering the subsequent life cycle. Currently, such processes are carried out manually by skilled workers. The advent of additive manufacturing (AM) has encouraged researchers to investigate its potential in automated repair and restoration, thus rendering it as a more effective method for remanufacturing. However, the application of this widespread technology for repair and restoration in remanufacturing is still new. This paper provides an overview of the principles and capabilities offered by the existing metal AM technology for object repair and restoration namely, direct energy deposition, powder bed fusion, and cold spray technology. Their applications in the repair and restoration of remanufacturable components are presented and discussed along with issues requiring attention from the perspectives of object design and process systems capabilit... [more]
Reliability Evaluation Method Considering Demand Response (DR) of Household Electrical Equipment in Distribution Networks
Hongzhong Chen, Jun Tang, Lei Sun, Jiawei Zhou, Xiaolei Wang, Yeying Mao
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: capacity constraint, demand response, household electrical equipment, incentive mechanism, real-time electricity price, reliability evaluation
The load characteristic of typical household electrical equipment is elaborately analyzed. Considering the electric vehicles’ (EVs’) charging behavior and air conditioning’s thermodynamic property, an electricity price-based demand response (DR) model and an incentive-based DR model for two kinds of typical high-power electrical equipment are proposed to obtain the load curve considering two different kinds of DR mechanisms. Afterwards, a load shedding strategy is introduced to improve the traditional reliability evaluation method for distribution networks, with the capacity constraints of tie lines taken into account. Subsequently, a reliability calculation method of distribution networks considering the shortage of power supply capacity and outages is presented. Finally, the Monte Carlo method is employed to calculate the reliability index of distribution networks with different load levels, and the impacts of different DR strategies on the reliability of distribution networks are an... [more]
Numerical and Experimental Investigation on Radiated Noise Characteristics of the Multistage Centrifugal Pump
Qiaorui Si, Biaobiao Wang, Jianping Yuan, Kaile Huang, Gang Lin, Chuan Wang
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: acoustic analogy, flow-induced noise, multistage centrifugal pump, numerical calculation
The radiated noise of the centrifugal pump acts as a disturbance in many applications. The radiated noise is closely related to the hydraulic design. The hydraulic parameters in the multistage pump are complex and the flow interaction among different stages is very strong, which in turn causes vibration and noise problems because of the strong hydraulic excitation. Hence, the mechanism of radiated noise and its relationship with hydraulics must be studied clearly. In order to find the regular pattern of the radiated noise at different operational conditions, a hybrid numerical method was proposed to obtain the flow-induced noise source based on Lighthill acoustic analogy theory, which divided the computational process into two parts: computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational acoustics (CA). The unsteady flow field was solved by detached eddy simulation using the commercial CFD code. The detailed flow information near the surface of the vane diffusers and the calculated flow-... [more]
Sustainable Design and Engineering: A Relationship Analysis between Digital Destructive and Non-Destructive Testing Process for Lightweight Concrete
Muhammad Ahmed Qurashi, Syyed Adnan Raheel Shah, Muhammad Farhan, Muhammad Taufiq, Waleed Khalid, Hunain Arshad, Muhammad Tayyab, Gullnaz Shahzadi, Muhammad Waseem
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: concrete, EPS-beads, lightweight, non-destructive testing, process, sustainable
The development of sustainable lightweight materials is a promising field solution in this era. The production of sustainable materials by replacing coarse aggregates with some lightweight alternative provides a good quality construction material. In this study, rocky coarse aggregates were replaced by an ultra-lightweight material (i.e., expanded polystyrene beads) to produce an equivalent rock-solid mass of concrete. Using an M15 grade of concrete composition, expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads were added in place of aggregates in amounts ranging from 5% to 40% at a water−cement (w/c) ratio of 0.60. The specimen size as per American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specification was 150 mm in diameter and 300 mm in length. Furthermore, statistical analysis for the relationship study for destructive testing (DT) (i.e., compressive test machine) and non-destructive testing (NDT) (i.e., rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV)) has been performed at developed specimens u... [more]
Experimental Investigation of Sludge Treatment Using a Rotor-Stator Type Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactor and an Ultrasonic Bath
Hyunsoo Kim, Xun Sun, Bonchan Koo, Joon Yong Yoon
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: performance comparison, rotor-stator type hydrodynamic cavitation reactor, sludge treatment, ultrasonication
In the present work, the sludge treatment performance of a sludge treatment using a rotor-stator type hydrodynamic cavitation reactor (HCR) was investigated. To verify the performance, a comparison with an ultrasonic bath was conducted in four experimental cases using three assessment factors. The HCR consisted of a rotor and three covers with inserted dimples resulting in variation of the cross-sectional area in a flow. The experimental cases were established using the same energy consumption for each device. Disintegration performance was analyzed with assessment factors using particle size distribution and sludge volume index (SVI), oxidation performance using total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) reduction rate, as well as solubilization rate using soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD). As a result, the particle disintegration and oxidation performance of the HCR were generally superior to those of the ultrasonic bath. However, due to the contradic... [more]
Design, Simulation, and Experiment of an LTCC-Based Xenon Micro Flow Control Device for an Electric Propulsion System
Chang-Bin Guan, Yan Shen, Zhao-Pu Yao, Zhao-Li Wang, Mei-Jie Zhang, Ke Nan, Huan-Huan Hui
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: electric propulsion system, flow characteristic, low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC), xenon feeding system, xenon micro flow control device (XMFCD)
A xenon micro flow control device (XMFCD) is the key component of a xenon feeding system, which controls the required micro flow xenon (µg/s−mg/s) to electric thrusters. Traditional XMFCDs usually have large volume and weight in order to achieve ultra-high fluid resistance and have a long producing cycle and high processing cost. This paper proposes a miniaturized, easy-processing, and inexpensive XMFCD, which is fabricated by low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology. The design of the proposed XMFCD based on complex three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic channels is described, and its fabrication process based on LTCC is illustrated. The microfluidic channels of the fabricated single (9 mm diameter and 1.4 mm thickness) and dual (9 mm diameter and 2.4 mm thickness) XMFCDs were both checked by X-ray, which proved the LTCC method’s feasibility. A mathematical model of flow characteristics is established with the help of finite element analysis, and the model is validated by the e... [more]
Performance Improvement of a Grid-Tied Neutral-Point-Clamped 3-φ Transformerless Inverter Using Model Predictive Control
Hani Albalawi, Sherif A. Zaid
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: 3-φ transformerless inverter, boost converter, maximum power point tracking, Model Predictive Control, NPC, PV
Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems are now a common part of the modern power network. A recent development in the topology of these systems is the use of transformerless inverters. Although they are compact, cheap, and efficient, transformerless inverters suffer from chronic leakage current. Various researches have been directed toward evolving their performance and diminishing leakage current. This paper introduces the application of a model predictive control (MPC) algorithm to govern and improve the performance of a grid-tied neutral-point-clamped (NPC) 3-φ transformerless inverter powered by a PV panel. The transformerless inverter was linked to the grid via an inductor/capacitor (LC) filter. The filter elements, as well as the internal impedance of the grid, were considered in the system model. The discrete model of the proposed system was determined, and the algorithm of the MPC controller was established. Matlab’s simulations for the proposed system, controlled by the MPC... [more]
Development of an Electric Arc Furnace Simulator Based on a Comprehensive Dynamic Process Model
Thomas Hay, Thomas Echterhof, Ville-Valtteri Visuri
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: electric arc furnace, process model, Simulation, steelmaking
A simulator and an algorithm for the automatic creation of operation charts based on process conditions were developed on the basis of an existing comprehensive electric arc furnace process model. The simulator allows direct user input and real-time display of results during the simulation, making it usable for training and teaching of electric arc furnace operators. The automatic control feature offers a quick and automated evaluation of a large number of scenarios or changes in process conditions, raw materials, or equipment used. The operation chart is adjusted automatically to give comparable conditions at tapping and allows the assessment of the necessary changes in the operating strategy as well as their effect on productivity, energy, and resource consumption, along with process emissions.
Dynamic Semi-Quantitative Risk Research in Chemical Plants
Qiusheng Song, Peng Jiang, Song Zheng, Yaguang Kong, Ye Zhao, Gang Shen
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, chemical plants, dynamic semi-quantitative calculation, risk value
When a major accident occurs in a chemical industry park, it directly affects the personal safety of operators and neighboring residents and causes major losses; therefore, we should take measures to strengthen the management of chemical industry parks. This article proposes and analyzes a new dynamic semi-quantitative risk calculation model for chemical plants that can be applied digitally. This model provides a sustainable, standardized, and comprehensive management strategy for the safety management of chemical plants and chemical industry park managers. The model and its determined parameters were applied to the safety management of chemical companies within the chemical industry park of Quzhou, Zhejiang Province. From the point of view of the existing semi-quantitative model, the existing problems of the current model are analyzed, the current model is optimized, and a new dynamic semi-quantitative calculation model scheme is proposed. The new model uses an analytical hierarchy pr... [more]
Salp Swarm Optimization Algorithm-Based Controller for Dynamic Response and Power Quality Enhancement of an Islanded Microgrid
Touqeer Ahmed Jumani, Mohd. Wazir Mustafa, Madihah Md. Rasid, Waqas Anjum, Sara Ayub
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: dynamic response enhancement, microgrid, Optimization, power quality, salp swarm optimization algorithm, voltage and frequency regulation
The islanded mode of the microgrid (MG) operation faces more power quality challenges as compared to grid-tied mode. Unlike the grid-tied MG operation, where the voltage magnitude and frequency of the power system are regulated by the utility grid, islanded mode does not share any connection with the utility grid. Hence, a proper control architecture of islanded MG is essential to control the voltage and frequency, including the power quality and optimal transient response during different operating conditions. Therefore, this study proposes an intelligent and robust controller for islanded MG, which can accomplish the above-mentioned tasks with the optimal transient response and power quality. The proposed controller utilizes the droop control in addition to the back to back proportional plus integral (PI) regulator-based voltage and current controllers in order to accomplish the mentioned control objectives efficiently. Furthermore, the intelligence of the one of the most modern soft... [more]
Extremum Seeking Control for Discrete-Time with Quantized and Saturated Actuators
Martin Guay, Daniel J. Burns
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: constrained systems, extremum-seeking control, real-time optimization
This paper proposes an extremum-seeking controller (ESC) design for a class of discrete-time nonlinear control systems subject to input constraints or quantized inputs. The proposed method implements a proportional-integral ESC design along with a discrete-time anti-windup mechanism. The anti-windup enforces input saturation while preserving the input dither signal. The technique incorporates a mechanism for adjusting the amplitude of the extremum seeking control dither signal. This mechanism ensures that any violation of constraints due to the dither signal is removed while maintaining the probing signal active. An amplitude update routine is also proposed. The amplitude update is coupled with a saturation bias estimation algorithm that correctly accounts for the inherent bias associated with systems operated at or near saturation conditions. The amplitude update is designed to remove the dither signal when the system approaches the optimum. It also ensures that a lower bound of the a... [more]
A Review of Convex Approaches for Control, Observation and Safety of Linear Parameter Varying and Takagi-Sugeno Systems
Francisco-Ronay López-Estrada, Damiano Rotondo, Guillermo Valencia-Palomo
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: convex systems, fault diagnosis, fault tolerant control (FTC), linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), linear parameter varying (LPV) systems, Takagi-Sugeno systems
This paper provides a review about the concept of convex systems based on Takagi-Sugeno, linear parameter varying (LPV) and quasi-LPV modeling. These paradigms are capable of hiding the nonlinearities by means of an equivalent description which uses a set of linear models interpolated by appropriately defined weighing functions. Convex systems have become very popular since they allow applying extended linear techniques based on linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) to complex nonlinear systems. This survey aims at providing the reader with a significant overview of the existing LMI-based techniques for convex systems in the fields of control, observation and safety. Firstly, a detailed review of stability, feedback, tracking and model predictive control (MPC) convex controllers is considered. Secondly, the problem of state estimation is addressed through the design of proportional, proportional-integral, unknown input and descriptor observers. Finally, safety of convex systems is discusse... [more]
Adaptive Control of Biomass Specific Growth Rate in Fed-Batch Biotechnological Processes. A Comparative Study
Vytautas Galvanauskas, Rimvydas Simutis, Vygandas Vaitkus
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: adaptive control, biotechnological processes, fed-batch process, gain scheduling technique, model-free adaptive control, specific growth rate control
This article presents a comparative study on the development and application of two distinct adaptive control algorithms for biomass specific growth rate control in fed-batch biotechnological processes. A typical fed-batch process using Escherichia coli for recombinant protein production was selected for this research. Numerical simulation results show that both developed controllers, an adaptive PI controller based on the gain scheduling technique and a model-free adaptive controller based on the artificial neural network, delivered a comparable control performance and are suitable for application when using the substrate limitation approach and substrate feeding rate manipulation. The controller performance was tested within the realistic ranges of the feedback signal sampling intervals and measurement noise intensities. Considering the efforts for controller design and tuning, including development of the adaptation/learning algorithms, the model-free adaptive control algorithm prov... [more]
Natural Frequency Sensitivity Analysis of Fire-Fighting Jet System with Adaptive Gun Head
Xiaoming Yuan, Xuan Zhu, Chu Wang, Lijie Zhang, Yong Zhu
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: adaptive gun head, flow control, jet system, mode shape, natural frequency, sensitivity analysis
The gun head is the end effector of the fire-fighting jet system. Compared with a traditional fixed gun head, an adaptive gun head has the advantages of having an adjustable nozzle opening, a wide applicable flow range, and a high fire-extinguishing efficiency. Thus, the adaptive gun head can extinguish large fires quickly and efficiently. The fire-fighting jet system with an adaptive gun head has fluid-structure interaction and discrete-continuous coupling characteristics, and the influence of key design parameters on its natural frequencies needs to be determined by a sensitivity analysis. In this paper, the dynamic model and equations of the jet system were established based on the lumped parameter method, and the sensitivity calculation formulas of the natural frequency of the jet system to typical design parameters were derived. Natural frequencies and mode shapes of the jet system were determined based on a mode analysis. The variation law of the sensitivity of the natural freque... [more]
Research on the Vertical Vibration Characteristics of Hydraulic Screw Down System of Rolling Mill under Nonlinear Friction
Yongshun Zhang, Wanlu Jiang, Yong Zhu, Zhenbao Li
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: flow control, friction-induced vibration, hydraulic screw down system, LuGre model, PID controller, rolling mill, vertical vibration
The rolling mill with hydraulic system is widely used in the production of strip steel. For the problem of vertical vibration of the rolling mill, the effects of different equivalent damping coefficient, leakage coefficient, and proportional coefficient of the controller on the hydraulic screw down system of the rolling mill are studied, respectively. First, a vertical vibration model of a hydraulic screw down system was established, considering the nonlinear friction and parameter uncertainty of the press cylinder. Second, the correlation between different equivalent damping coefficient, internal leakage coefficient, proportional coefficient, vertical vibration was analyzed. The simulation results show that, in the closed-loop state, when Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller parameters are fixed, due to the change of the equivalent damping coefficient and internal leakage coefficient, the system will have parameter uncertainty, which may lead to the failure of the PID con... [more]
Titanium Distribution Ratio Model of Ladle Furnace Slags for Tire Cord Steel Production Based on the Ion−Molecule Coexistence Theory at 1853 K
Jialiu Lei, Dongnan Zhao, Wei Feng, Zhengliang Xue
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: ion–molecule coexistence theory, LF refining slags, thermodynamic model, titanium distribution ratio
High-strength tire cord steel is mainly used in radial ply tires, but the presence of brittle Ti inclusions can cause failure of the wires and jeopardize their performance in production. In order to control the titanium content during steel production, a thermodynamic model for predicting the titanium distribution ratio between CaO−SiO2−Al2O3−MgO−FeO−MnO−TiO2 slags during the ladle furnace (LF) refining process at 1853 K has been established based on the ion−molecule coexistence theory (IMCT), combined with industrial measurements, and the effect of basicity on the titanium distribution ratio was discussed. The results showed that the titanium distribution ratio predicted by the developed IMCT exhibited a dependable agreement with the measurements, and the optical basicity is suggested to reflect the correlation between basicity and the titanium distribution ratio. Furthermore, quantitative titanium distribution ratios of TiO2, CaO·TiO2, MgO·TiO2, FeO·TiO2, and MnO·TiO2 were acquired b... [more]
A PSO-Based Recurrent Closed-Loop Optimization Method for Multiple Controller Single-Output Thermal Engineering Systems
Xingjian Liu, Lei Pan
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: identification, Optimization, PID, PSO, thermal engineering process
For solving the problems of closed-loop optimization on controller parameters of multiple-controller single-output thermal engineering system, this paper proposes a recurrent optimization method that is based on the particle swarm computing and closed-loop simulation (PSO-RCO). It consists of a set of closed-loop identification, simulation, and optimization functions that are organized in a recurrent working flow. The working flow makes one controller tuned at a time whilst others keep their values. It ends after several rounds of overall optimizations. Such a recurrently alternative tuning can greatly speed up the convergence of controller parameters to reasonable values. Verifications on practical data from a superheated steam temperature control system show that the optimized control system performance is greatly improved by reasonable controller parameters and practicable control action. With the advantage of not interfering system operation and the potential supporting on big data... [more]
Fault Classification Decision Fusion System Based on Combination Weights and an Improved Voting Method
Fanliang Zeng, Zuxin Li, Zhe Zhou, Shuxin Du
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, decision fusion, ensemble method, entropy weight method, fault classification
It is difficult to correctly classify all faults by using only one classifier, and the performance of most classifiers varies under different conditions. In view of this, a new decision fusion system is proposed to solve the problem of fault classification. The proposed decision fusion system is innovative in two aspects: the use of combined weights and a new improved voting method. The combined weights integrate the subjective and objective weights, where the analytic hierarchy process and entropy weight-technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution are used to determine the subjective and objective weights of different base classifiers under multiple performance evaluation indicators. Moreover, a new improved voting method based on the concept of classifier validity is proposed to increase the accuracy of the decision system. Finally, the method is validated by the Tennessee Eastman benchmark process, and the classification accuracy of the new method is shown to be... [more]
Density Functional Theory Analysis of the Adsorption Interactions of Carbon Impurities in Coal-associated Kaolinite
Fangqin Lu, Lingyun Liu, Fanfei Min, Jun Chen, Mingxu Zhang
December 11, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: adsorption mechanism, carbon impurity, coal-associated kaolinite, density functional theory
Kaolinite is a difficult-to-float clay existing in coal slurries which negatively impacts coal flotation. A better understanding of its adsorption behavior would improve coal-slurry processing. Carbon impurities in the kaolinite can affect this behavior. The appearance and elemental surface composition of the carbon impurities precipitated by kaolinite oxidative treatment were microscopically analyzed, and their chemical speciation and relative C and O contents were probed. The mechanisms of adsorption on the main kaolinite cleavage planes ((001) and (001) surfaces) for two carbon-impurity structural models, a phenolic hydroxyl unit (Ph−OH) and carbon hydroxyl unit (C−OH), were considered using density functional theory methods. The carbon impurities consisted mainly of C and O, with C present mostly as C−C, C−H, and C−O species, and O existing mainly in −OH and C−O structures. Both Ph−OH and C−OH units adsorbed stably on the kaolinite (001) and (001) surfaces through hydrogen bonding... [more]
Model Validation and Process Design of Continuous Single Pass Tangential Flow Filtration Focusing on Continuous Bioprocessing for High Protein Concentrations
Maximilian Johannes Huter, Christoph Jensch, Jochen Strube
December 11, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Conceptual Process Design (CPD), Continuous Bioprocessing (CBP), membrane process, Modelling, Quality by Design (QbD), Single-Pass Tangential Flow Filtration (SPTFF), ultrafiltration
In this study, the continuous Single-Pass Tangential Flow Filtration (SPTFF) concept is adapted for high protein concentrations. The work is based on the previously validated physico-chemical model for low concentrations and high viscosities. The model contains the Stagnant Film Model for concentration polarization, as well as the Boundary Layer Model for the mass transfer through the membrane. The pressure drop is calculated as a function of the Reynolds number. By performing preliminary experiments with a single ultrafiltration (UF) cassette, the model parameter are determined. The presented model is validated for a multi-step Single-Pass Tangential Flow Filtration. With subsequent simulation studies, an optimized process is found and confirmed by experiments. The outcome of this work shows the potential to optimize this multi-parameter dependent unit operation. This is reached by a model-based optimization allowing significant reduction of experimental efforts and applying the Quali... [more]
Evaluating Production Process Efficiency of Provincial Greenhouse Vegetables in China Using Data Envelopment Analysis: A Green and Sustainable Perspective
Yuhu Liang, Xu Jing, Yanan Wang, Yan Shi, Junhu Ruan
December 11, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: data envelopment analysis, efficiency evaluation, greenhouse vegetables, production process, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The evaluation of vegetable production process efficiency is of great significance for energy saving and waste reduction in production processes. However, few studies have considered the effect of greenhouse vegetable production process efficiency on energy saving and waste reduction. In this paper, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to analyze the production process efficiency and the effective use of input elements of greenhouse vegetables at the provincial level in China. The results reveal that many chemical fertilizers, farmyard manure, and pesticides in China are inefficient. On the other hand, the pure technical efficiency of greenhouse tomatoes and cucumbers is low in most areas of China. Meanwhile, the scale efficiency of greenhouse eggplants and greenhouse peppers is low in most areas of China. In order to save energy and develop green sustainable agriculture, we put forward some suggestions to improve the production efficiency of greenhouse vegetables in different provi... [more]
Taste Masking of Nizatidine Using Ion-Exchange Resins
Pattaraporn Panraksa, Kasidech Boonsermsukcharoen, Kyu-Mok Hwang, Eun-Seok Park, Pensak Jantrawut
December 11, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Amberlite, Dowex, electronic tongue, ion-exchange resins, nizatidine
The purpose of this study was to mask the bitter taste of nizatidine (NZD) using cation-exchange resins. Amberlite IRP-69 and Dowex-50 containing cross-linked polystyrene backbones were used. The drug resin complexes were prepared by batch process using drug: resin ratios of 1:1, 1:3, and 1:5. The optimum drug: resin ratio and the time required for maximum percentage drug loading into the complexes were determined. The selected drug-resin complexes were evaluated for morphology, drug release, and taste. The NZD-Dowex complex was obtained at a drug: resin ratio of 1:5 using a stirring time of 1 h in order to get 100% loading of NZD. The NZD-Dowex complex had a spherical shape and smooth texture similar to Dowex resin. The NZD-Dowex complex with a ratio of 1:5 showed that in vitro drug release of 4.27% at 5 min in simulated salivary fluid of pH 6.8 and 99.67% at 1 h in simulated gastric fluid of pH 1.2. NZD’s bitter taste was effectively masked when it formed a complex with Dowex at a ra... [more]
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