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Showing records 1 to 25 of 2676. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
A Novel Concept for Three-Phase Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Topologies
Md Mubashwar Hasan, A. Abu-Siada, Syed M. Islam, S. M. Muyeen
January 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: cascaded inverter, conventional three-phase inverter, device counts reduction, multilevel inverters
One of the key challenges in multilevel inverters (MLIs) design is to reduce the number of components used in the implementation while maximising the number of output voltage levels. This paper proposes a new concept that facilitates a device count reduction technique of existing cascaded MLIs. Moreover, the proposed concept can be utilised to extend existing single phase cascaded MLI topologies to three-phase structure without tripling the number of semiconductor components and input dc-supplies as per the current practice. The new generalized concept involves two stages; namely, cascaded stage and phase generator stage. The phase generator stage is a combination of a conventional three-phase two level inverter and three bi-directional switches while the cascaded stage can employ any existing cascaded topology. A laboratory prototype model is built and extensive experimental analyses are conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed cascaded MLI concept.
The Design of High Efficiency Crossflow Hydro Turbines: A Review and Extension
Ram Adhikari, David Wood
January 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: crossflow hydro-turbine, flow features, maximum efficiency, RANS simulation
Efficiency is a critical consideration in the design of hydro turbines. The crossflow turbine is the cheapest and easiest hydro turbine to manufacture and so is commonly used in remote power systems for developing countries. A longstanding problem for practical crossflow turbines is their lower maximum efficiency compared to their more advanced counterparts, such as Pelton and Francis turbines. This paper reviews the experimental and computational studies relevant to the design of high efficiency crossflow turbines. We concentrate on the studies that have contributed to designs with efficiencies in the range of 88⁻90%. Many recent studies have been conducted on turbines of low maximum efficiency, which we believe is due to misunderstanding of design principles for achieving high efficiencies. We synthesize the key results of experimental and computational fluid dynamics studies to highlight the key fundamental design principles for achieving efficiencies of about 90%, as well as future... [more]
Series-Connected High Frequency Converters in a DC Microgrid System for DC Light Rail Transit
Bor-Ren Lin
January 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: DC microgrid, half-bridge converter, light rail transit, zero-voltage switching
This paper studies and presents a series-connected high frequency DC/DC converter connected to a DC microgrid system to provide auxiliary power for lighting, control and communication in a DC light rail vehicle. Three converters with low voltage and current stresses of power devices are series-connected with single transformers to convert a high voltage input to a low voltage output for a DC light rail vehicle. Thus, Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) with a low voltage rating and a turn-on resistance are adopted in the proposed circuit topology in order to decrease power losses on power switches and copper losses on transformer windings. A duty cycle control with an asymmetric pulse-width modulation is adopted to control the output voltage at the desired voltage level. It is also adopted to reduce switching losses on MOSFETs due to the resonant behavior from a leakage inductor of an isolated transformer and output capacitor of MOSFETs at the turn-on instant.... [more]
Characterization of Storage Sizing for an Off-Grid House in the US and the Netherlands
Diego Fernando Quintero Pulido, Gerwin Hoogsteen, Marnix V. ten Kortenaar, Johann L. Hurink, Robert E. Hebner, Gerard J. M. Smit
January 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Batteries, household, islanded, off-grid, Sea-Salt battery, sizing, storage
This work uses experimental data to estimate the size of storage needed for an isolated off-grid household in two different regions (Austin, Texas, US, and Nunspeet, NL). In our study, an off-grid house is considered to be supplied with 100% renewable energy during the summer period, in which cooling demand is neglected, and a solar photovoltaic (PV) system and batteries are the main electrical energy providers. Based on results achieved with the DEMkit simulation package we can conclude that, in both cases, using a solar PV system and a Sea-Salt battery would have been sufficient to provide the necessary electricity without showing a blackout during the summer of 2016. The Austin household needs a solar PV system of 38 kWp and storage of 452 kWh; in the case of Nunspeet, a solar PV system of 11.5 kWp and storage of 90 kWh is sufficient. Furthermore, using the DEMkit model, it is possible to determine an optimal value for the size of storage to half of the initial battery capacity (226... [more]
Simplified Analytic Approach of Pole-to-Pole Faults in MMC-HVDC for AC System Backup Protection Setting Calculation
Tongkun Lan, Yinhong Li, Xianzhong Duan, Jia Zhu
January 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: AC (alternating current) system backup protection, fault analysis, MMC-HVDC (multi-modular converter based high voltage direct current), pole-to-pole faults, setting calculation
AC (alternating current) system backup protection setting calculation is an important basis for ensuring the safe operation of power grids. With the increasing integration of modular multilevel converter based high voltage direct current (MMC-HVDC) into power grids, it has been a big challenge for the AC system backup protection setting calculation, as the MMC-HVDC lacks the fault self-clearance capability under pole-to-pole faults. This paper focused on the pole-to-pole faults analysis for the AC system backup protection setting calculation. The principles of pole-to-pole faults analysis were discussed first according to the standard of the AC system protection setting calculation. Then, the influence of fault resistance on the fault process was investigated. A simplified analytic approach of pole-to-pole faults in MMC-HVDC for the AC system backup protection setting calculation was proposed. In the proposed approach, the derived expressions of fundamental frequency current are applic... [more]
Comparative Study of Electric Energy Storages and Thermal Energy Auxiliaries for Improving Wind Power Integration in the Cogeneration System
Yanjuan Yu, Hongkun Chen, Lei Chen
January 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: cogeneration system, comprehensive comparison, electric energy storage, thermal energy auxiliary, wind power integration
In regards to the cogeneration system in Northern China, mainly supported by combined heat and power (CHP) plants, it usually offers limited operation flexibility due to the joint production of electric and thermal power. For that large-scale wind farms included in the cogeneration system, a large amount of wind energy may have to be wasted. To solve this issue, the utilization of the electric energy storages and the thermal energy auxiliaries are recommended, including pumped hydro storage (PHS), compressed air energy storage (CAES), hydrogen-based energy storage (HES), heat storage (HS), electric boilers (EB), and heat pumps (HP). This paper proposes a general evaluation method to compare the performance of these six different approaches for promoting wind power integration. In consideration of saving coal consumption, reducing CO₂ emissions, and increasing investment cost, the comprehensive benefit is defined as the evaluation index. Specifically, a wind-thermal conflicting expressi... [more]
Improving Performance for Full-Bridge Inverter of Wind Energy Conversion System Using a Fast and Efficient Control Technique
En-Chih Chang
January 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: chatter, finite-time convergent SMGL (sliding-mode guidance law), Fourier nonlinear grey Bernoulli model (FNGBM), full-bridge inverter, singularity-free
This paper proposes a fast and efficient control technique with application to a full-bridge inverter of a wind energy conversion system that is capable of yielding better performance in transience and steady state. The presented control technique is made up of a finite-time convergent SMGL (sliding-mode guidance law) and a Fourier nonlinear grey Bernoulli model (FNGBM). The finite-time convergent SMGL provides a faster convergence rate of system states, as well as a singularity-free solution. However, in case the overestimation/underestimation of the uncertain system boundary occurs, the chatter/steady-state error may exist in finite-time convergent SMGL and then causes serious harmonic distortion at the full-bridge inverter output. An efficient calculational FNGBM is integrated into the finite-time convergent SMGL, thus overcoming chatter/steady-state error problems if the estimated value of the uncertain system boundary cannot be satisfied. Simulation results indicate that the propo... [more]
Novel Detection Method for Consecutive DC Commutation Failure Based on Daubechies Wavelet with 2nd-Order Vanishing Moments
Tao Lin, Ziyu Guo, Liyong Wang, Rusi Chen, Ruyu Bi
January 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: 2nd-order vanishing moments, consecutive commutation failure, Daubechies wavelet, HVDC, wavelet coefficient
Accurate detection and effective control strategy of commutation failure (CF) of high voltage direct current (HVDC) are of great significance for keeping the safe and stable operations of the hybrid power grid. At first, a novel detection method for consecutive CF is proposed. Concretely, the 2nd and higher orders’ derivative values of direct current are summarized as the core to judge CF by analyzing the physical characteristics of the direct current waveform of the converter station in CF. Then, the Daubechies wavelet coefficient that can represent the 2nd and higher order derivative values of direct current is derived. Once the wavelet coefficients of the sampling points are detected to exceed the threshold, the occurrence of CF is confirmed. Furthermore, by instantly increasing advanced firing angle β in the inverter side, an additional emergency control strategy to prevent subsequent CF is proposed. Eventually, with simulations of the benchmark model, the effectiveness and superio... [more]
Numerical Assessment of the Influences of Gas Pressure on Coal Burst Liability
Haochen Zhao, Rennie B. Kaunda
January 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: bursting energy index, coal bump, gas pressure, rockburst, seismicity
When coal mines exploit deep seams with high-gas content, risks are encountered due to the additional high likelihood of rock bursting potential problems. The bursts of coal pillars usually lead to severe fatalities, injuries, and destruction of property, including impeding access to active mine workings underground. The danger exists given that conditions in the already highly brittle coal material can be exacerbated by high stress and high gas pressure conditions. It is thus critical to develop methods that improve current understanding about bursting liability, and techniques to forecast or prevent coal bursting in underground coal mines. This study uses field data from a deep coal mine, and numerical modeling to investigate the effects of gas pressure and mechanical compressive stresses on coal bursting liability in high gas content coal seams. The bursting energy index is adopted to determine the coal bursting liability under high gas pressure conditions. The adopted methodology u... [more]
Dynamic Simulation of an Absorption Cooling System with Different Working Mixtures
Jesús Cerezo, Rosenberg J. Romero, Jonathan Ibarra, Antonio Rodríguez, Gisela Montero, Alexis Acuña
January 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: crystallization, dynamic condition, evacuated tube solar collector, solar absorption cooling
High consumption of electricity represents an economic and social problem in warm places, caused by the massive use of cooling machines. Absorption systems are a sustainable method for air conditioning applications. However, environmental conditions should be analyzed to avoid crystallization problems of the working mixture. This article presents a thermal analysis of a solar absorption cooling system in dynamic conditions using NH₃-H₂O, H₂O-LiBr, NH₃-NaSCN, NH₃-LiNO₃, and H₂O-LiCl working mixtures using Equation Engineering Solver (EES) and TRaNsient SYstem Simulation (TRNSYS) software. A solar collector area of 42.5 m² was selected to carry out the thermal analysis. The results showed that H₂O-LiCl obtained the maximum solar (0.67) and minimum heating (0.33) fraction. However, it obtained the maximum lost heat fraction (0.12), in spite of obtaining the best coefficient of performance (COP) among the other working mixtures, due mainly to a crystallization problem. The gain fraction (G... [more]
Location Planning for Dynamic Wireless Charging Systems for Electric Airport Passenger Buses
Stefan Helber, Justine Broihan, Young Jae Jang, Peter Hecker, Thomas Feuerle
January 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: airport infrastructure planning, apron buses, electric buses, inductive dynamic charging
The majority of the ground vehicles operating on the airside parts of commercial airports are currently powered by diesel engines. These include vehicles such as apron buses, fuel trucks, and aircraft tractors. Hence, these vehicles contribute to the overall CO 2 emissions of the aviation transport system and thus negatively influence its environmental footprint. To reduce this damaging environmental impact, these vehicles could potentially be electrified with on-board batteries as their energy sources. However, the conductive charging of such vehicles via stationary cable connections is rather time-consuming. A dynamic wireless charging system to supply public transportation passenger buses with electric energy while in motion has recently been installed on the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) campus and in the Korean city of Gumi. In this paper, we study configuration problems related to the use of this technology to make airport operations more envi... [more]
A Survey of WEC Reliability, Survival and Design Practices
Ryan G. Coe, Yi-Hsiang Yu, Jennifer van Rij
January 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: design, extreme conditions, survival, wave energy converter (WEC)
A wave energy converter must be designed to survive and function efficiently, often in highly energetic ocean environments. This represents a challenging engineering problem, comprising systematic failure mode analysis, environmental characterization, modeling, experimental testing, fatigue and extreme response analysis. While, when compared with other ocean systems such as ships and offshore platforms, there is relatively little experience in wave energy converter design, a great deal of recent work has been done within these various areas. This paper summarizes the general stages and workflow for wave energy converter design, relying on supporting articles to provide insight. By surveying published work on wave energy converter survival and design response analyses, this paper seeks to provide the reader with an understanding of the different components of this process and the range of methodologies that can be brought to bear. In this way, the reader is provided with a large set of... [more]
The Energy Saving Potential of Occupancy-Based Lighting Control Strategies in Open-Plan Offices: The Influence of Occupancy Patterns
Christel de Bakker, Tom van de Voort, Alexander Rosemann
January 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: convergence analysis, Energy Efficiency, individual occupancy, occupancy sensors, occupancy spread, office buildings, smart lighting, stochastic modeling
Occupancy-based lighting control strategies have been proven to be effective in diminishing offices’ energy consumption. These strategies have typically worked by controlling lighting at the room level but, recently, lighting systems have begun to be equipped with sensors on a more fine-grained level, enabling lighting control at the desk level. For some office cases, however, the savings gained using this strategy may not outweigh the costs and design efforts compared to room control. This is because, in some offices, individual occupancy patterns are similar, hence the difference in savings between desk and room control would be minimal. This study examined the influence of occupancy pattern variance within an office space on the relative energy savings of control strategies with different control zone sizes. We applied stochastic modeling to estimate the occupancy patterns, as this method can account for uncertainty. To validate our model, simulation results were compared to earlier... [more]
Improvement of Refrigeration Efficiency by Combining Reinforcement Learning with a Coarse Model
Dapeng Zhang, Zhiwei Gao
January 19, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: coarse model, data-driven methods, refrigeration, reinforcement learning
It is paramount to improve operational conversion efficiency in air-conditioning refrigeration. It is noticed that control efficiency for model-based methods highly relies on the accuracy of the mechanism model, and data-driven methods would face challenges using the limited collected data to identify the information beyond. In this study, a hybrid novel approach is presented, which is to integrate a data-driven method with a coarse model. Specifically, reinforcement learning is used to exploit/explore the conversion efficiency of the refrigeration, and a coarse model is utilized to evaluate the reward, by which the requirement of the model accuracy is reduced and the model information is better used. The proposed approach is implemented based on a hierarchical control strategy which is divided into a process level and a loop level. The simulation of a test bed shows the proposed approach can achieve better conversion efficiency of refrigeration than the conventional methods.
Characterizing a Newly Designed Steel-Wool-Based Household Filter for Safe Drinking Water Provision: Hydraulic Conductivity and Efficiency for Pathogen Removal
Raoul Tepong-Tsindé, Arnaud Igor Ndé-Tchoupé, Chicgoua Noubactep, Achille Nassi, Hans Ruppert
January 19, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: biosand filter, household filter, pathogen removal, permeability loss, zero-valent iron
This study characterizes the decrease of the hydraulic conductivity (permeability loss) of a metallic iron-based household water filter (Fe0 filter) for a duration of 12 months. A commercial steel wool (SW) is used as Fe0 source. The Fe0 unit containing 300 g of SW was sandwiched between two conventional biological sand filters (BSFs). The working solution was slightly turbid natural well water polluted with pathogens (total coliform = 1950 UFC mL−1) and contaminated with nitrate ([NO3−] = 24.0 mg L−1). The system was monitored twice per month for pH value, removal of nitrate, coliforms, and turbidity, the iron concentration, as well as the permeability loss. Results revealed a quantitative removal of coliform (>99%), nitrate (>99%) and turbidity (>96%). The whole column effluent depicted drinking water quality. The permeability loss after one year of operation was about 40%, and the filter was still producing 200 L of drinking water per day at a flow velocity of 12.5 L h−1. A progress... [more]
Plant and Biomass Extraction and Valorisation under Hydrodynamic Cavitation
Zhilin Wu, Daniele F. Ferreira, Daniele Crudo, Valentina Bosco, Livio Stevanato, Annalisa Costale, Giancarlo Cravotto
January 19, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: biomass treatment, hydrodynamic cavitation, plant extraction, Process Intensification, rotor/stator hydrodynamic rector
Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) is a green technology that has been successfully used to intensify a number of process. The cavitation phenomenon is responsible for many effects, including improvements in mass transfer rates and effective cell-wall rupture, leading to matrix disintegration. HC is a promising strategy for extraction processes and provides the fast and efficient recovery of valuable compounds from plants and biomass with high quality. It is a simple method with high energy efficiency that shows great potential for large-scale operations. This review presents a general discussion of the mechanisms of HC, its advantages, different reactor configurations, its applications in the extraction of bioactive compounds from plants, lipids from algal biomass and delignification of lignocellulosic biomass, and a case study in which the HC extraction of basil leftovers is compared with that of other extraction methods.
An Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance of Clinical Pathogens from Historical Samples for Six Countries
Karen Li, Joanna Zheng, Thomas Deng, James Peng, Dagmar Daniel, Qian Jia, Zuyi Huang
January 19, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, clinical pathogens, data analysis, hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis
The spread of antimicrobial resistance pathogens in humans has increasingly become an issue that threatens public health. While the NCBI Pathogen Detection Isolates Browser (NPDIB) database has been collecting clinical isolate samples over time for various countries, few studies have been done to identify genes and pathogens responsible for the antimicrobial resistance in clinical settings. This study conducted the first multivariate statistical analysis of the high-dimensional historical data from the NPDIB database for six different countries from majorly inhabited landmasses, including Australia, Brazil, China, South Africa, the UK, and the US. The similarities among different countries in terms of genes and pathogens were investigated to understand the potential avenues for antimicrobial-resistance gene spreading. The genes and pathogens that were closely involved in antimicrobial resistance were further studied temporally by plotting time profiles of their frequency to evaluate th... [more]
Baicalein-Enriched Fraction Extracted from Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth. ex Kurz Leaves Exerts Antioxidant and Inhibitory Effects Against Glioblastoma Multiforme
In Nee Kang, Nik Nur Hakimah Nik Salleh, Wan Jie Chung, Chong Yew Lee, Suat Cheng Tan
January 19, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: baicalein, complementary medicine for brain cancer, glioblastoma multiforme, natural product, Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth. ex Kurz
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant subtype of primary brain cancer. To date, standard clinical treatment for GBM is limited in effectiveness and could impose additional side effects. Recently, numerous bioactive compounds isolated from natural plants appear to have beneficial anti-cancer properties. Here, the GBM inhibitory effect of baicalein, a bioactive flavonoid extracted from Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth. ex Kurz, was evaluated. Firstly, three solvents were used to extract the baicalein. We found that the binary extraction system, using a combination of petroleum ether and methanol (PM), yielded the highest amount of baicalein (15%) compared to the mono extraction system using methanol (13%) or aqueous (0.04%) only. In order to further enhance the baicalein yield in PM crude extract, it was subjected to an enrichment fractionation procedure, which successfully increased the baicalein by nearly two-fold from the initial crude extract (15%) to the enriched fraction 5... [more]
Multi-Time-Scale Rolling Optimal Dispatch for Grid-Connected AC/DC Hybrid Microgrids
Zhao Luo, Zhendong Zhu, Zhiyuan Zhang, Jinghui Qin, Hao Wang, Zeyong Gao, Zhichao Yang
January 19, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: AC/DC hybrid, energy management, microgrids, multi-time-scale, rolling optimization
In order to reduce the impact of the randomness and volatility of renewable energy on the economic operation of AC/DC hybrid microgrids, a multi-time-scale rolling optimization strategy is proposed for the grid-connected AC/DC hybrid microgrids. It considers the source-load uncertainty declined with time scale reduction, and the scheduling cooperation problem of different units on different time scales. In this paper, we propose a three-time-scale optimal strategy of the day-ahead, intraday and real-time dispatching stage and a two-level rolling optimal strategy of the intraday and real-time stage, aiming at minimizing the operating cost. We added the power penalty cost in the rolling optimization model to limit the energy state of the energy storage system in the constraint, and improve the power correction and tracking effect of the rolling optimization. A typical-structure AC/DC hybrid microgrid is analyzed in this paper and the simulation results are shown to demonstrate the feasib... [more]
Process Modeling, Optimization, and Heat Integration of Ethanol Reforming Process for Syngas Production with High H2/CO Ratio
Dong Xiang, Peng Li, Xiaoyou Yuan
January 19, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: ethanol reforming, heat integration, hydrogen production, system optimization
The process modeling, parameter optimization, and heat integration of reforming ethanol to hydrogen is conducted in this paper. Modeling results show that the optimum reaction pressure for ethanol steam reforming is 1 bar. When the 7.4:1 is selected as a moderate water/ethanol ratio, the optimum reaction temperature is about 755 °C. As for heat integration, the composite curve and optimum heat-exchange network are given out by pinch technology, of which adding a heat exchanger can reduce 10,833 kW of heating duty and 10,833 kW of cooling duty and make the energy saving reach about 57.4%. Another two heat-integration plans are proposed for the ethanol steam-reforming process, to further decrease the high-level heat duty. Finally, similar heat integration was also carried out for the oxidative steam reforming, and the system is autothermal when the oxygen/ethanol is about 0.5:1 on the basis of above steam-reforming process, while the hydrogen molar purity is decreased from 69% to 66%.
Investigating the In-Flow Characteristics of Multi-Operation Conditions of Cross-Flow Fan in Air Conditioning Systems
Weijie Zhang, Jianping Yuan, Qiaorui Si, Yanxia Fu
January 19, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: cross-flow fan, internal flow, multi-operating condition, pressure fluctuation, the aerodynamic noise
Cross-flow fans are widely used in numerous applications such as low-pressure ventilation, household appliances, laser instruments, and air-conditioning equipment. Cross-flow fans have superior characteristics, including simple structure, small size, stable airflow, high dynamic pressure coefficient, and low noise. In the present study, numerical simulation and experimental research were carried out to study the unique secondary flow and eccentric vortex flow characteristics of the internal flow field in multi-operating conditions. To this end the vorticity and the circumferential pressure distribution in the air duct are obtained based on the performed experiments and the correlation between spectral characteristics of multiple operating conditions and the inflow state is established. The obtained results show that when the area of the airflow passage decreases while the area of the eccentric vortex area gradually increases, then the airflow of the cross-flow fan decreases, the outlet... [more]
Data Augmentation Applied to Machine Learning-Based Monitoring of a Pulp and Paper Process
Andréa Pereira Parente, Maurício Bezerra de Souza Jr., Andrea Valdman, Rossana Odette Mattos Folly
January 19, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: data-driven, FDD, Machine Learning, Monte Carlo technique, neural networks, pulp and paper industry, study case
Industrial archived process data represent a convenient source of information for data-driven models, such as artificial neural network (ANN), that can be used for safety and efficiency improvement like early or even predictive fault detection and diagnosis (FDD). Nonetheless, most of the data used for model generation are representative of the process nominal states and therefore are not enough for classification problems intended to determine abnormal process conditions. This work proposes the use of techniques to augment the original real data standards, dismissing the need for experiments that could jeopardize process safety. It uses the Monte Carlo technique to artificially increase the number of model inputs coupled to the nearest neighbor search (NNS) by geometric distances to consistently classify the generated patterns in normal or faulty statuses. Finally, a radial basis function neural network is trained with the augmented data. The methodology was validated by a study case... [more]
Numerical Study of Periodic Magnetic Field Effect on 3D Natural Convection of MWCNT-Water/Nanofluid with Consideration of Aggregation
Lioua Kolsi, Hakan F. Oztop, Kaouther Ghachem, Mohammed A. Almeshaal, Hussein A. Mohammed, Houman Babazadeh, Nidal Abu-Hamdeh
January 19, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: 3D natural convection, aggregation, MWCNT-nanofluid, periodic magnetic field
In this paper, a numerical study is performed to investigate the effect of a periodic magnetic field on three-dimensional free convection of MWCNT (Mutli-Walled Carbone Nanotubes)-water/nanofluid. Time-dependent governing equations are solved using the finite volume method under unsteady magnetic field oriented in the x-direction for various Hartmann numbers, oscillation periods, and nanoparticle volume fractions. The aggregation effect is considered in the evaluation of the MWCNT-water/nanofluid thermophysical properties. It is found that oscillation period, the magnitude of the magnetic field, and adding nanoparticles have an important effect on heat transfer, temperature field, and flow structure.
Exploitation of Wheat Straw Biorefinery Side Streams as Sustainable Substrates for Microorganisms: A Feasibility Study
Stefan Beisl, Julian Quehenberger, Donya Kamravamanesh, Oliver Spadiut, Anton Friedl
January 19, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: acetic acid, biorefinery, carbohydrates, lignocellulose, lipids, liquid hot water, polyhydroxybutyrate, side streams, tetraether
Lignocellulosic agricultural side products, like wheat straw, are widely seen as an important contribution to a future sustainable economy. However, optimization of biorefinery processes and exploitation of all side streams are crucial for an economically viable biorefinery. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic raw material, which is necessary for further processing steps, can generate low-value side streams. In this feasibility study, side streams from a liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of wheat straw were utilized for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and highly valuable tetraether lipids (TELs). Additional value created by these products can benefit the biorefinery’s economic operation. The utilized wheat straw was pretreated at 120 °C and 170 °C for up to two hours in laboratory and lab scale. The resulting side stream consists mainly of carbohydrates from hemicelluloses and fermentation inhibitors such as acetic acid. In order to achieve a successful production of both pro... [more]
Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Generation Based on Improved Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II
Wei Liu, Fengming Luo, Yuanhong Liu, Wei Ding
January 19, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: distributed generation (DG), INSGA-II, multi-objective optimization, potential crowding distance, static and dynamic planning
With the development of distributed generation technology, the problem of distributed generation (DG) planning become one of the important subjects. This paper proposes an Improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (INSGA-II) for solving the optimal siting and sizing of DG units. Firstly, the multi-objective optimization model is established by considering the energy-saving benefit, line loss, and voltage deviation values. In addition, relay protection constraints are introduced on the basis of node voltage, branch current, and capacity constraints. Secondly, the violation constrained index and improved mutation operator are proposed to increase the population diversity of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II), and the uniformity of the solution set of the potential crowding distance improvement algorithm is introduced. In order to verify the performance of the proposed INSGA-II algorithm, NSGA-II and multiple objective particle swarm optimization algorithms are... [more]
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