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Records with Keyword: Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Showing records 1 to 25 of 1054. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Challenges in Design for Sustainability
Gavin Towler
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Process Design, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
There is a global consensus that steps must be taken to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic climate change. The Paris Agreement on climate change has been ratified by 192 countries and the signatories have pledged to make changes to their patterns of energy and land use that achieve “carbon neutrality” or net-zero emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) by approximately mid-century. In these countries, energy ministries, energy companies and utilities are evaluating alternative fuels and power sources that can deliver the heat and power required for a modern economy with reduced GHG emissions. While technically proven low-emissions alterna-tives exist for almost every application, most of these alternatives cost substantially more than the fuels or energy sources they replace. Consequently, most countries will use a combination of regulations, taxes and subsidies to distort the energy market in favor of the lower-emissions alternatives... (ABSTRACT ABBREVIATED)
Designing Reverse Electrodialysis Process for Salinity Gradient Power Generation via Disjunctive Programming
Carolina Tristán, Marcos Fallanza, Raquel Ibáñez, Ignacio E. Grossmann, David Bernal Neira
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Life Cycle Analysis, Modelling and Simulations, Optimization, Process Design, Pyomo, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a nascent renewable technology that generates clean, baseload electricity from salinity differences between two water streams, a renewable source known as salinity gradient energy (SGE). Full-scale RED progress calls for robust techno-economic and environmental assessments. Using generalized disjunctive programming (GDP) and life cycle assessment (LCA) principles, this work proposes cost-optimal and sustainable RED process designs involving different RED stack sizes and width-over-length ratios to guide the design and operation from the demonstration to full-scale phases. Results indicate that RED units will benefit from larger aspect ratios with a relative increase in net power of over 30% with 6 m2 membrane size. Commercial RED unit sizes (0.25–3 m2) require larger aspect ratios to reach an equal relative increase in net power but exhibit higher power densities. The GDP model devises profitable RED process designs for all the assessed aspect ratios in... [more]
Opportunities for Process Intensification with Membranes to Promote Circular Economy Development for Critical Minerals
Molly Dougher, Laurianne Lair, Jonathan Aubuchon Ouimet, William A. Phillip, Thomas J. Tarka, Alexander W. Dowling
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Critical minerals are essential to the future of clean energy, especially energy storage, electric vehicles, and advanced electronics. In this paper, we argue that process systems engineering (PSE) paradigms provide essential frameworks for enhancing the sustainability and efficiency of critical mineral processing pathways. As a concrete example, we review challenges and opportunities across material-to-infrastructure scales for process intensification (PI) with membranes. Within critical mineral processing, there is a need to reduce environmental impact, especially concerning chemical reagent usage. Feed concentrations and product demand variability require flexible, intensified processes. Further, unique feedstocks require unique processes (i.e., no one-size-fits-all recycling or refining system exists). Membrane materials span a vast design space that allows significant optimization. Therefore, there is a need to rapidly identify the best opportunities for membrane implementation, t... [more]
Resilient-aware Design for Sustainable Energy Systems
Natasha J. Chrisandina, Shivam Vedant, Catherine Nkoutche, Eleftherios Iakovou, Efstratios N. Pistikopoulos, Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Systems, Multiscale Modelling, Planning & Scheduling, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Supply Chain
To mitigate the effects of catastrophic failure while maintaining resource and production efficiencies, energy systems need to be designed for resilience and sustainability. Conventional approaches such as redundancies through backup processes or inventory stockpiles demand high capital investment and resource allocation. In addition, responding to unexpected “black swan” events requires that systems have the agility to transform and adapt rapidly. To develop targeted solutions that protect the system efficiently, the supply chain network needs to be considered as an integrated multi-scale system incorporating every component from individual process units all the way to the whole network. This approach can be readily integrated with analogous multiscale approaches for sustainability, safety, and intensification. In this work, we bring together classical supply chain resilience with process systems engineering to leverage the multi-scale nature of energy systems for developing resilienc... [more]
A mathematical programming optimization framework for wind farm design considering multi-directional wake effect
Javiera Vergara-Zambrano, Styliani Avraamidou
July 9, 2024 (v1)
The placement of wind turbines is a crucial design element in wind farms, given the energy losses resulting from the wake effect. Despite numerous studies addressing the Wind Farm Layout Optimization (WFLO) problem, considering multiple directions to determine wind turbine spacing and layout remains limited. However, relying solely on one predominant direction may lead to overestimating energy production, and loss of energy generation. This work introduces a novel mathematical programming optimization framework to solve the WFLO problem, emphasizing the wind energy's nonlinear characteristics and wake effect losses. Comparisons with traditional layout approaches demonstrate the importance of optimizing wind farm layouts during the design phase. By providing valuable insights into the renewable energy sector, this research aims to guide future wind farm projects towards layouts that balance economic considerations with maximizing energy production.
Sustainable Green Hydrogen Transport: A Systematic Framework for the Design of the whole Supply Chain
Elvira Spatolisano, Laura A. Pellegrini
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: computer-aided process design, H2 carriers, H2 transport, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, techno-economic assessment
In view of achieving the decarbonization target, green hydrogen is commonly regarded as the alternative capable of reducing the share of fossil fuels. Despite its wide application as a chemical on industrial scale, hydrogen utilization as an energy vector still suffers from unfavorable economics, mainly due to its high cost of production, storage and transportation. To overcome the last two of these issues, different hydrogen carriers have been proposed. Hydrogen storage and transportation through these carriers involve: 1. the carrier hydrogenation, exploiting green hydrogen produced at the loading terminal, where renewable sources are easily accessible, 2. the storage and transportation of the hydrogenated species and 3. its subsequent dehydrogenation at the unloading terminal, to favour H2 release. Although there is a number of studies in literature on the economic feasibility of hydrogen transport through different H2 vectors, very few of them delve into the technical evaluation of... [more]
Process and Network Design for Sustainable Hydrogen Economy
Monzure-Khoda Kazi, Akhilesh Gandhi, M.M. Faruque Hasan
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Management, Hydrogen, Network Design, Optimization, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Supply Chain
This study presents a comprehensive approach to optimizing hydrogen supply chain network (HSCN), focusing initially on Texas, with potential scalability to national and global regions. Utilizing mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), the research decomposes into two distinct modeling stages: broad supply chain modeling and detailed hub-specific analysis. The first stage identifies optimal hydrogen hub locations, considering county-level hydrogen demand, renewable energy availability, and grid capacity. It determines the number and placement of hubs, county participation within these hubs, and the optimal sites for hydrogen production plants. The second stage delves into each selected hub, analyzing energy mixes under variable solar, wind, and grid profiles, sizing specific production and storage facilities, and scheduling to match energy availability. Iterative refinement incorporates detailed insights back into the broader model, updating costs and configurations to converge upo... [more]
Power System Design and Necessary Changes to Accommodate Future Energy Challenges
Iiro Harjunkoski, Katarina Knezovic, Alexandre Oudalov
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Electricity & Electrical Devices, Energy Conversion, Energy Systems, Power Grid, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The decarbonization of the society has a very high effect on the power grids as especially the energy generation will be almost completely shifted to CO2-neutral sources such as wind and solar. This implies significant design changes to the power grids and power systems, which lie between the electricity producers and consumers. In this paper, we discuss both the generation and consumer side, including the grid changes and required data exchange to support the transition.
Optimization of Retrofit Decarbonization in Oil Refineries
Sampriti Chattopadhyay, Rahul Gandhi, Ignacio E. Grossmann, Ana I. Torres.
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Electricity & Electrical Devices, Optimization, Process Design, Process Operations, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The chemical industry is actively pursuing energy transition and decarbonization through renewables and other decarbonization initiatives. However, navigating this transition is challenging due to uncertainties in capital investments, electricity costs, and carbon taxes. Adapting to decarbonization standards while preserving existing valuable infrastructure presents a dilemma. Early transitions may lead to inefficiencies, while delays increase the carbon footprint. This research proposes a framework to find an optimal retrofit decarbonization strategy for existing oil refineries. We start with a generic process flowsheet representing the refinery's current configuration and operations, and consider various decarbonization alternatives. Through superstructure optimization, we identify the most cost-effective retrofit strategy over the next three decades to achieve decarbonization goals. We develop a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model, integrating simplified process equations... [more]
Towards a Sustainable and Defossilized/Decarbonized Chemical and Process Industry
Mariano Martín
July 9, 2024 (v1)
This work presents an overview of the path towards the use of renewable and nonconventional resources for a sustainable chemical and process industry. The aim is not only to lead the way to meet the sustainable development goals but also to maintain the style and quality of life achieved by the technologies and products developed within this sector. Alternative raw materials are to be used and processed differently while a new paradigm for utilities is to be established. The development of technologies and their deployment faces several barriers that we as process engineers can help overcome by providing insight into the alternatives, the thresholds to achieve to become competitive, and strategic analyses.
Sustainable Process Systems Engineering for Chemicals within Planetary Boundaries
Gonzalo Guillén-Gosálbez
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Environment, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The planetary boundaries (PBs) define ecological limits that are critical to preserve the stability of the Earth. Six of them have already been exceeded, which calls for urgent action to optimize industrial systems capable of operating within the safe operating space that they define for humanity. Here we discuss the challenges and opportunities of including PBs in a range of application domains in Process Systems Engineering, focusing on chemicals and fuels production and the use of mathematical programming coupled with life cycle assessment to support sustainable decision-making.
Northern Lights: Prospecting Efficiency in Europe’s Renewable Energy Sector
Yen-Hsing Hung, Fu-Chiang Yang
June 7, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: behavioral coefficient, Data Envelopment Analysis, Northern European, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Northern European nations are at the forefront of renewable energy adoption but face challenges in optimizing energy conversion efficiency. There is a lack of detailed understanding of how behavioral factors affect the efficiency of renewable energy conversion in these countries. This study aims to evaluate and compare the renewable energy conversion efficiency of Northern European countries, intending to inform strategic policy making and identify best practices for technology deployment in the renewable energy sector. Employing a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, the study integrates behavioral economic parameters—specifically, the aversion loss and gain significance coefficients—to assess the efficiency of renewable energy conversion, accounting for psychological factors in decision making. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis was conducted, varying the gain significance coefficient while maintaining the aversion loss coefficient at constant levels. This experiment was designed... [more]
Energy Efficiency in Heat Pumps and Solar Collectors: Case of Slovakia
Stefan Kuzevic, Marcela Tausova, Katarina Culkova, Lucia Domaracka, Danylo Shyp
June 5, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: consumption of resources, green economy, process of energy production, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, renewable resources
Sustainable energy presently represents the energy of the future, which should be based on the application respecting the importance of energy priorities, increasing regional self-sufficiency, regional control of energy, and regulation of resource use. In the area of energy supply, the use of RES has been increasingly popular, mainly due to the instability in the energy market and the political situation worldwide. Paper’s ambition is to evaluate the efficiency of the selected RES use in the specific conditions of Slovakia, with the aim to achieve the EU targets. This is important due to the increasing use of RES in Slovakia. The objective of this paper is achieved through an analysis of the energy profit of the RES system, comparing the costs of the proposed solutions. The evaluation is carried out by calculating the energy and economic efficiency of three possible buildings used in the research. Using the data obtained, the results show the most suitable alternative for each building... [more]
Mitigation of Renewable Energy Source Production Variability in Residential Stock through Small-Scale Gas−Liquid Energy Storage Technology Application
Andrea Vallati, Miriam Di Matteo, Laura Pompei, Fabio Nardecchia, Costanza Vittoria Fiorini
June 5, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: building energy, CAES, Energy Efficiency, Energy Storage, experimental campaign, Power-to-Power, prototype, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, self-consumption, thermodynamic model
Despite renewable energy source integration being a well-established requirement in international policies, energy systems still face some unresolved issues, including the intermittence of production. To tackle this problem, a viable solution could comprise the off-peak storage of electricity production excess, to be consumed later during peak-load hours. The transition from the diffuse pattern of centralized generation to the distributed model, involving energy communities, suggests an additional aspect to manage: the spatial constraints of systems for domestic applications. Compressed-air energy storage represents a promising Power-to-Power technology for small-scale energy integration. This study proposes the application of a gas−liquid energy storage system (GLES) in a residential building, using renewable energy excess from a photovoltaic (PV) array. The performance of the proposed system, whose operation involves the compression of the gaseous mass through a piston operated by mi... [more]
Water-Energy-Environment Nexus Analysis Tools: Case Study for Canary Islands
David Borge-Diez, Francisco José García-Moya, Enrique Rosales-Asensio
February 10, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: analysis tool, greenhouse gases, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, sustainable development goals, Water-Energy-Environment nexus
Despite that previous research exists, there is a need for further research on the quantitative aspects of this Nexus. Existing Water-Energy-Environment Nexus management tools and frameworks are based on indicators aiming to model the whole system, analyze the involved resources, and test potential management strategies. The environmental, social, and economic consequences of actions already taken and ongoing projects require important focus because of the strong relationship between water and energy supply, and that both are key issues for society’s development and sustainability. The present research focuses on the indicators that the Water-Energy-Environment Nexus tools and frameworks use to analyze the whole problem. Existing tools often require large amounts of data, becoming a time-consuming process that lowers the capacity to evaluate the political problems of high pollutants. With the aim of accelerating time evaluation, this research builds an indicator to rapidly evaluate the... [more]
Integration of Renewable-Energy-Based Green Hydrogen into the Energy Future
Ismail Marouani, Tawfik Guesmi, Badr M. Alshammari, Khalid Alqunun, Ahmed Alzamil, Mansoor Alturki, Hsan Hadj Abdallah
January 12, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: efficiency improvement, electrolysis, green hydrogen production, leading countries in this field, net-zero gas emissions, optimization techniques, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, technologies used
There is a growing interest in green hydrogen, with researchers, institutions, and countries focusing on its development, efficiency improvement, and cost reduction. This paper explores the concept of green hydrogen and its production process using renewable energy sources in several leading countries, including Australia, the European Union, India, Canada, China, Russia, the United States, South Korea, South Africa, Japan, and other nations in North Africa. These regions possess significant potential for “green” hydrogen production, supporting the transition from fossil fuels to clean energy and promoting environmental sustainability through the electrolysis process, a common method of production. The paper also examines the benefits of green hydrogen as a future alternative to fossil fuels, highlighting its superior environmental properties with zero net greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, it explores the potential advantages of green hydrogen utilization across various industrial, c... [more]
Economic Dispatch of AC/DC Power System Considering Thermal Dynamics
Xiping Ma, Chen Liang, Xiaoyang Dong, Yaxin Li
November 30, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: AC/DC power system, district heating system, economic dispatch, partial differential equation, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Advance in renewable penetration has promoted the interaction between the AC and DC power system and multi-energy sources. However, the disparate nature of different energy utilization technologies presents strong challenges for the economic dispatch of such a complex system. This paper proposes a comprehensive characterization of the AC/DC power system considering multi-energy and renewable integration. Detailed models are elaborated for the AC/DC power grid, the district heating system (DHS), coupling units, and renewables to describe their inner interactions accurately. On this basis, an economic dispatch method is developed to minimize the operation cost and renewable’s abandonment. Simulations indicate that the interaction between the AC/DC power systems and multi-energy sources can enhance voltage levels and improve operational economy.
Assessing Sustainable Impacts of Green Energy Projects for the Development of Renewable Energy Technologies: A Triple Bottom Line Approach
Zhaoguang Liao
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: APEC, green energy projects, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, sustainable development, triple bottom
The escalating global concern for sustainable development necessitates an in-depth understanding of the role of renewable energy projects. Evaluating their impact on economic, environmental, and social sustainability is of significant importance. In this study, the impact of green energy projects on economic, environmental, and social sustainability across APEC countries from 2010 to 2021 is comprehensively assessed using machine learning models. The employed machine learning models revealed associations between key variables and sustainability implications of green energy projects. Renewable energy consumption emerged as a significant contributor to economic performance, scoring a compelling importance score of 0.34. Concurrently, fossil fuel energy consumption and urban population were identified as key influencers on environmental outcomes and social impacts, respectively, with importance scores of 0.36 and 0.42. The empirical evidence presented in this research underscores the pivo... [more]
Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Different Types of Catalysts
Ayse Hilal Ulukardesler
August 3, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biodiesel, catalysts, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, transesterification, waste cooking oil
The global energy demand is increasing day by day. Fossil fuels such as crude oil, coal and gas are the main source of energy worldwide. However, fossil fuels, which cause acid rain, the greenhouse effect and other such environmental problems, will eventually be depleted, and renewable energy seems to be the most reasonable solution in this regard. Renewable biofuels have significant potential and can meet the world’s current energy demand. One of the important biofuels is biodiesel, and in the future it can replace petroleum. Waste cooking oil was used as a raw material in biodiesel production in order to reduce the production cost of the offered additive. In this study, the aim was to optimize the process parameters for biodiesel production within the acceptable limit values in the literature. Therefore, the molar ratio of methanol to waste cooking oil (9:1−15:1), catalyst concentration (1−5% by weight) and reaction time (60−120 min) were studied for two catalyst types, potassium hyd... [more]
Novel Copper Oxide Phyto-Nanocatalyst Utilized for the Synthesis of Sustainable Biodiesel from Citrullus colocynthis Seed Oil
Aqsa Aziz, Mushtaq Ahmad, Muhammad Zafar, Abdel-Rhman Z. Gaafar, Mohamed S. Hodhod, Shazia Sultana, Mohammad Athar, Fethi Ahmet Ozdemir, Trobjon Makhkamov, Akramjon Yuldashev, Oybek Mamarakhimov, Maxsuda Nizomova, Salman Majeed, Bisha Chaudhay
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biocatalyst, colocynth, green fuel, non-edible feedstock, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The green chemistry method for nanocatalyst synthesis along with environmentally feasible non-edible sources are promising alternatives to fossil fuels. The current study focuses on the synthesis of copper oxide phyto-nanocatalyst and the identification of a new renewable feedstock, Citrullus colocynthis, to reduce environmental pollution. The highest biodiesel yield (95%) was obtained under optimum conditions of a 1:8 oil-to-methanol ratio and reaction temperature of 85 °C for 120 min with a 0.365 wt% catalyst concentration. The phyto-nanocatalyst was synthesized using seed oil cake after extracting oil with the salt of copper (copper oxide). The catalyst was then subjected to various analyses, namely, EDX, FT-IR, SEM, and XRD. The catalyst was proved to be efficient and effective after being reused five times and still there was a very small difference in biodiesel yield. All the analyses also show sustainable and stable results. Thus, copper oxide phyto-nanocatalyst with non-edible... [more]
Enhancing Power Generation Stability in Oscillating-Water-Column Wave Energy Converters through Deep-Learning-Based Time Delay Compensation
Chan Roh
July 7, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, deep learning algorithm, maximum power point tracking, optimal control, oscillating-water-column wave energy converter, output power performance, rated power control, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, time delay
Oscillating-water-column wave energy converters (OWC-WECs) are gaining attention for their high energy potential and environmental friendliness. However, their irregular input energy characteristics pose challenges to achieving stable power generation, particularly due to high peak power compared to average power. This study focuses on stable rating control to enable continuous power generation in the presence of irregular wave energy. It is difficult to precisely configure the existing rated power controllers due to physical time delays; this impacts system stability and utilization. To address this, we propose a rated power controller that compensates for system time delays using a deep learning algorithm. By predicting the valve control angle in advance and analyzing the input data for angle estimation, we successfully compensate for the physical time delay. The performance of the proposed rated power controller, incorporating the deep learning algorithm, is evaluated by analyzing t... [more]
Blockchain-Based Decentralized Power Dispatching Model for Power Grids Integrated with Renewable Energy and Flexible Load
Lei Xu, Dong Yu, Jinyu Zhou, Chaowu Jin
July 4, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: blockchain, decentralized power dispatching model, flexible load, improved consensus algorithm, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, smart contract
To cope with the energy crisis and environmental pollution, the future development of the power system has to change towards a clean, low-carbon, flexible, and diversified direction. This paper proposes a decentralized power dispatching model based on blockchain technology to address the problems of uncertainty, privacy, security, and reliability in power dispatching systems containing renewable energy and flexible loads. Considering the uncertainty of wind, photovoltaic, and flexible load integration into the power grid, the total generation costs of the system are established, and the smart contracts of the decentralized power dispatching are proposed. The proof of work (PoW) consensus mechanism is improved in this paper. The hash operation that must be repeated in the PoW algorithm is replaced by an optimized computation process using a blockchain-based genetic algorithm (BD-GA). The proof of work-load-genetic algorithm-based (PoW-GAD) consensus algorithm is proposed. The decentrali... [more]
Exploring Relationships among Crude Oil, Bitcoin, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Quantile Mediation Analysis
Tzu-Kuang Hsu, Wan-Chu Lien, Yao-Hsien Lee
June 9, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Brent crude (BRT), CO2 emissions, cryptocurrency, nonlinear inverted U-shaped curve, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Crude oil, Bitcoin, and carbon dioxide emissions are major issues that are significantly impacting the global economy and environment. These three issues are complexly interlinked, with profound economic and environmental implications. In this study, we explore the correlation among these three issues and attempt to understand the influence of crude oil and Bitcoin on carbon dioxide emissions. We created a novel approach, named quantile mediation analysis, which blends mediation regression with quantile regression, enabling us to explore the influence of Brent crude oil on carbon dioxide emissions by considering the mediating impact of Bitcoin. According to the findings from using our new approach, the impact of Brent crude oil on carbon dioxide emissions is partly mediated by Bitcoin, and the association between Brent crude oil and carbon dioxide emissions involves both direct and indirect effects. Since the carbon dioxide generated by the extraction of crude oil and Bitcoin has a gre... [more]
Fostering a Sustainable Energy Future to Combat Climate Change: EESG Impacts of Green Economy Transitions
Dicao Tang, Yasir Ahmed Solangi
June 9, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: climate change, Delphi method, fuzzy AHP, green economy, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, sustainable development
The transition to a green economy for any country is crucial for the sustainability development of the economy, environment, society, and governance (EESG). A green economy is a sustainable approach to combating climate change and promoting sustainable development through the adoption of sustainable energy. This research utilizes the Delphi and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) methodologies to assess and rank the EESG criteria and policy options for transitions to a green economy. The factors and policy choices are identified using the Delphi approach for further analysis. These factors and policy alternatives for switching to a green economy for sustainable development are determined using the fuzzy AHP technique. According to the fuzzy AHP approach, environmental, social, and economic factors are best suited for green economy transitions. The findings also show that the most crucial policy options for the switch to a green economy are research and development, carbon pricing,... [more]
Federated Learning and Blockchain-Enabled Intelligent Manufacturing for Sustainable Energy Production in Industry 4.0
Fanglei Sun, Zhifeng Diao
June 7, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: blockchain, federated learning, intelligent manufacturing, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Intelligent manufacturing under Industry 4.0 assimilates sophisticated technologies and artificial intelligence for sustainable production and outcomes. Blockchain paradigms are coined with Industry 4.0 for concurrent and well-monitored flawless production. This article introduces Sustainable Production concerned with External Demands (SP-ED). This method is more specific about energy production and the distribution for flawless and outage-less supply. First, the energy demand is identified for internal and external users based on which sustainability is planned. Secondly, Ethereum blockchain monitoring for a similar production and demand satisfaction is coupled with the production system. From two perspectives, the monitoring and condition satisfaction processes are validated using federated learning (FL). The perspectives include demand distribution and production sustainability. In the demand distribution, the condition of meeting the actual requirement is validated. Contrarily, the... [more]
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