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Records with Keyword: Carbon Dioxide
Showing records 1 to 25 of 186. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Deciphering the Policy-Technology Nexus: Enabling Effective and Transparent Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage Supply Chains
Manar Y. Oqbi, Dhabia M. Al-Mohannadi
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Blockchain, Carbon Capture, Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage CCUS, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration, Carbon Reduction Policies, Carbon Tax, digitalization, Optimization, Supply Chain
In response to the global imperative to address climate change, this research focuses on enhancing the transparency and efficiency of the Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage (CCUS) supply chain under carbon tax. We propose a decision-making framework that integrates the CCUS supply chain's optimization model, emphasizing carbon tax policies, with a blockchain network. Smart contracts play a pivotal role in automating the exchange and utilization of carbon emissions, enhancing the digitalization of the CCUS supply chain from source to sink. This automation facilitates seamless matching of carbon sources with sinks, efficient transfer of emissions and funds besides record-keeping of transactions. Consequently, it improves the monitoring, reporting, and verification processes within the CCUS framework, thereby simplifying compliance with regulatory mandates for net emission reductions and carbon taxation policies. By eliminating reliance on third-party verifiers, our blockchain-based C... [more]
Resource Integration Across Processing Clusters: Designing a Cluster of Clusters
Mohammad Lameh, Dhabia Al-Mohannadi, Patrick Linke
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Achieving worldwide sustainable development is a practical challenge that demands an efficient management of resources across their entire value chains. This practical task requires the optimal selection of pathways for extracting, processing, and transporting resources to meet the demands in different geographic regions at minimal economic cost and environmental impact. This work addresses the challenge by proposing a systematic framework for designing resource-processing networks that can be applied to resource management problems. The framework considers the integration and resource exchange within and across multiple processing clusters. It allows for the life cycle assessment of the environmental and economic impacts of the defined value chains, and design accordingly the different processing and transport systems from extraction to final use. The proposed representation and optimization model are demonstrated in a case study to assess the impact of energy transition under decarbo... [more]
Design and Optimization of Methanol Production using PyBOUND
Prapatsorn Borisut, Bianca Williams, Aroonsri Nuchitprasittichai, Selen Cremaschi
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, Methanol, Optimization, Process Design, Process Synthesis, pyBOUND, Simulation
In this paper, we study the design optimization of methanol production with the goal of minimizing methanol production cost. One challenge of methanol production via carbon dioxide (CO2) hydrogenation is the reduction of operating costs. The simulation of methanol production is implemented within the Aspen HYSYS simulator. The feeds are pure hydrogen and captured CO2. The process simulation involves a single reactor and incorporates recycling at a ratio of 0.995. The methanol production cost is determined using an economic analysis. The cost includes capital and operating costs, which are determined through the equations and data from the capital equipment-costing program. The decision variables are the pressure and temperature of the reactor contents. The optimization problem is solved using a derivative-free algorithm, pyBOUND, a Python-based black-box model optimization algorithm that uses random forests (RFs) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS). The predicted minimu... [more]
Biogas Valorization from a Process Synthesis Perspective: Heat and Work Integration to Maximize CO2 Conversion
Baraka C. Sempuga, Selusiwe Ncube
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, Energy, Entropy Analysis, Methane Reforming, Minimizing CO2 Emissions, Optimization, Process Synthesis, Target Material Balance, Work Analysis
Biogas is often considered as a source of renewable energy, for heat and power production. However, biogas has greater promise as a source of concentrated CO2 in addition to methane, making it a rich supply of carbon and hydrogen for the generation of fuel and chemicals. In this work, we use the concept of attainable region in the enthalpy-Gibbs free energy space to identify opportunities for effective biogas valorization that maximizes the conversion of CO2. The AR concept allows us to study a chemical process without knowing the exact reaction mechanism that the species in the process use. Deriving Material Balance equations that relate a reactive process's output species to its input species is sufficient to identify process limits and explore opportunities to optimize its performance in terms of material, energy, and work. The conversion of biogas to valuable products is currently done in two steps; the high temperature and endothermic reformer step, followed by the low temperature... [more]
Role of Hydrogen as Fuel in Decarbonizing US Clinker Manufacturing for Cement Production: Costs and CO2 Emissions Reduction Potentials
Ikenna J. Okeke, Sachin U. Nimbalkar, Kiran Thirumaran, Joe Cresko
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, Cement, Clinker, Decarbonization, Hydrogen
As a low-carbon fuel, feedstock, and energy source, hydrogen is expected to play a vital role in the decarbonization of high-temperature process heat during the pyroprocessing steps of clinker production in cement manufacturing. However, to accurately assess its potential for reducing CO2 emissions and the associated costs in clinker production applications, a techno-economic analysis and a study of facility-level CO2 emissions are necessary. Assuming that up to 20% hydrogen can be blended in clinker fuel mix without significant changes in equipment configuration, this study evaluates the potential reduction in CO2 emissions (scopes 1 and 2) and cost implications when replacing current carbon-intensive fuels with hydrogen. Using the direct energy substitution method, we developed an Excel-based model of clinker production, considering different hydrogen–blend scenarios. Hydrogen from steam methane reformer (gray) and renewable-based electrolysis (green) are considered as sources of hyd... [more]
CO2 Mitigation in Chemical Processes: Role of Process Recycle Optimization
Diane Hildebrandt, James Fox, Neil Stacey, Baraka C. Sempuga
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, Energy, Entropy Analysis, Methane Reforming, Minimizing CO2 Emissions, Optimization, Process Material Balance, Process Synthesis, Target Material Balance, Work Analysis
In designing low-carbon processes, the unintended emission of CO2 remains a significant concern due to its global environmental impact. This paper explores carbon management within chemical processes, specifically examining the correlation between the process material balance (PMB) and CO2 emissions to understand and identify the potential for reducing these emissions. We interrogate the foundational issue of carbon discharge by analyzing the interplay among mass, energy, and entropy balances, which collectively influence the PMB. We introduce the concept of the Target Material Balance (TMB), which represents the material balance of a process corresponding to minimum CO2 emissions within the given constraints. We could ask what decisions in the design and operation of processes result in higher CO2 emissions than the TMB. We will focus on the interaction between reactions and recycles and how the arrangement of recycles in processes can inadvertently change the PMB, thereby increasing... [more]
Synthesis of 2,6-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid by Decarboxylase-Catalyzed Carboxylation Using CO2 and In Situ Product Removal
Daniel Ohde, Benjamin Thomas, Paul Bubenheim, Andreas Liese
June 24, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, carboxylation, decarboxylase, in situ product removal, process development
For the enzymatic carboxylation of resorcinol to 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,6-DHBA) using gaseous CO2 in an aqueous triethanolamine phase, an adsorption-based in situ product removal was demonstrated. The aim is to improve the reaction yield, which is limited by an unfavourable thermodynamic equilibrium. First, a screening for a high-affinity adsorber was carried out. Then, the application of a suitable adsorber was successfully demonstrated. This enabled achieving reaction yields above 80% using the adsorber for in situ product removal. The applied biotransformation was scaled up to 1.5 L at lab-scale. Furthermore, a downstream process based on the elution and purification of the product bound to the adsorber was developed to obtain 2,6-DHBA in high purity. Recycling is one of the key factors in this system, making it possible to recycle the reaction medium, the adsorber and the solvents in additional batches.
The Use of the Autotrophic Culture of Arthrospira platensis for CO2 Fixation from Biogas Combustion
Marcin Dębowski, Marcin Zieliński, Alona Vdovychenko, Joanna Kazimierowicz
June 7, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Arthrospira platensis, biogas, Carbon Dioxide, cyanobacteria biomass, exhaust gases, vertical photobioreactor
The increased concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has a strong impact on global warming. Therefore, efficient technologies must be used to reduce CO2 emissions. One of the methods is the biofixation of CO2 by microalgae and cyanobacteria. This is now a widely described technology that can improve the economics of biomass production and reduce CO2 emissions. There are no reports on the possibility of using it to clean exhaust gases from biogas combustion. The aim of the research was to determine the possibility of using Arthrospira platensis cultures to remove CO2 from biogas combustion. The efficiency of biomass production and the effectiveness of biological CO2 fixation were evaluated. The use of exhaust gases led to a more efficient increase in cyanobacterial biomass. The growth rate in the exponential phase was 209 ± 17 mgVS/L·day, allowing a biomass concentration of 2040 ± 49 mgVS/L. However, the use of exhaust gases led to a decrease in the pH of the culture medium and a rapid... [more]
Recent Progress in Electrochemical CO2 Reduction at Different Electrocatalyst Materials
Marcela Miranda Barcelos, Maria de Lourdes Soprani Vasconcellos, Josimar Ribeiro
June 7, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, copper, electrocatalysts, electroreduction of CO2, nickel, zinc
Given the environmental problems caused by burning fossil fuels, it is believed that converting carbon dioxide (CO2) into chemical inputs is a great ally to generating clean energy. In this way, investigative studies related to electrochemical CO2 reduction (CO2RE) concerning the behavior of metal catalysts have received attention about the processes involved. CO2RE can be an important tool to mitigate the presence of this gas in the Earth’s atmosphere. Given these considerations, in this review, we report the main catalysts used to act as CO2RE. Among them, we emphasize catalysts based on Ni, Zn, and Cu, which encompass the main properties related to the electrochemical conversion of CO2. Regarding the Cu-based catalyst, it presents high conversion efficiency but low selectivity. Furthermore, we also describe the main mechanisms related to the electrochemical conversion of CO2.
Solar-Assisted Carbon Capture Process Integrated with a Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant—A Simulation-Based Study
Yasser Abbas Hammady Al-Elanjawy, Mustafa Yilmaz
June 7, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Capture, Carbon Dioxide, natural gas combustion cycle, SAM
In the realm of Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) power plants, it is crucial to prioritize the mitigation of CO2 emissions to ensure environmental sustainability. The integration of post-combustion carbon capture technologies plays a pivotal role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions enhancing the NGCC’s environmental profile by minimizing its carbon footprint. This research paper presents a comprehensive investigation into the integration of solar thermal energy into the Besmaya Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) power plant, located in Baghdad, Iraq. Leveraging advanced process simulation and modeling techniques employing Aspen Plus software, the study aims to evaluate the performance and feasibility of augmenting the existing NGCC facility with solar assistance for post-carbon capture. The primary objective of this research is to conduct a thorough simulation of the Besmaya NGCC power plant under its current operational conditions, thereby establishing a baseline for subsequent ana... [more]
Solubility of Methane in Ionic Liquids for Gas Removal Processes Using a Single Multilayer Perceptron Model
Claudio A. Faúndez, Elías N. Fierro, Ariana S. Muñoz
June 7, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: algorithm learning, artificial neural network, Carbon Dioxide, ionic liquids, methane, multilayer perceptron, solubility
In this work, four hundred and forty experimental solubility data points of 14 systems composed of methane and ionic liquids are considered to train a multilayer perceptron model. The main objective is to propose a simple procedure for the prediction of methane solubility in ionic liquids. Eight machine learning algorithms are tested to determine the appropriate model, and architectures composed of one input layer, two hidden layers, and one output layer are analyzed. The input variables of an artificial neural network are the experimental temperature (T) and pressure (P), the critical properties of temperature (Tc) and pressure (Pc), and the acentric (ω) and compressibility (Zc) factors. The findings show that a (4,4,4,1) architecture with the combination of T-P-Tc-Pc variables results in a simple 45-parameter model with an absolute prediction deviation of less than 12%.
An Experimental Investigation of Interaction between CO2 Solution and Rock under Reservoir Conditions in the Jimsar Shale Oil Formation
Haibo He, Xinfang Ma, Fan Lei, Xinqiu Liu, Ming Jiang, Yue Li, Jianye Mou
June 5, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, chemical sequestration, Jimsar, microscopic pore structure, mineral
Chemical sequestration is one important manner of CCUS. The injection of CO2 into an oil reservoir can not only sequestrate CO2 but also raise the oil recovery factor. The performance of chemical sequestration of CO2 depends on the interaction between CO2 solution and reservoir rock. In this paper, we have conducted three different scales of experiments, e.g., microscopic scale, core scale, and time scale, to fully investigate the interaction and resultant variation to mineral content, microscopic structure, porosity, and permeability under reservoir conditions (i.e., reservoir temperature of 90 °C) in Jimusar shale oil formation. The microscopic-scale experiment applied SEM and hyperspectral scanning to obtain microscopic pore throat structure and element distribution before and after soaking the rock in CO2 solution. The core-scale experiment employed XRD to evaluate mineral content variation caused by CO2 solution. Core flooding experiments were conducted to evaluate porosity and pe... [more]
Integration of Chemical Looping Combustion to a Gasified Stream with Low Hydrogen Content
Guadalupe S. Fraga-Cruz, Mario A. Pérez-Méndez, Gladys Jiménez-García, Rafael Huirache-Acuña, Fabricio Nápoles-Rivera, Jaime Espino-Valencia, Rafael Maya-Yescas
June 5, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, chemical looping combustion, mass and energy balances, reduction of emissions, Syngas
Global population growth requires the use of various natural resources to satisfy the basic needs of humanity. Fossil fuels are mainly used to produce electricity, transportation and the artificial air conditioning of habitats. Nevertheless, countries around the world are looking for alternative energy sources due to the decrease in the availability of these fuels and their high environmental impact. The mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (H2 + CO), commonly called syngas, is a high-value feedstock for various industrial applications. By varying the composition of syngas, especially the H2/CO molar ratio, it can be used to produce methanol, fuels or synthetic natural gas. However, when this ratio is very low, the separation of this gas usually represents a great problem when making the energy balance, which is why it is proposed to adapt a combustion process in chemical cycles, taking advantage of the energy of this gas, reducing the energy impact of the process. During the presen... [more]
Rollling-out pioneering carbon dioxide capture and transport chains from inlad European industrial facilities: a techno-economic, environmental, and regulatory analysis
Viola Becattini, Luca Riboldi, Johannes Burger, Julian Nöhl, Pauline Oeuvray, Adriana Reyes-Lua, Rahul Anantharaman, Andre Bardow, Linda Frattini, Chao Fu, Marco Mazzotti, Simon Roussanaly, Cristina Zotica
April 11, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Carbon Capture, Carbon Dioxide, CO2 transport, environmental impact, techno-economic
Large-scale deployment of CO2 capture, transport, and storage (CCTS) requires the rolling-out of extensive value chains. In this study, we present the development, design, techno-economic, environmental, and regulatory analysis of four pioneering chains that capture and condition CO2 from existing European industrial plants and their multi-modal transport to selected ports in Northern Europe. The pioneering chains can avoid between 65% and 87% of the industrial emissions, including scope 3, with a cost of CO2 avoided ranging between 100 and 300 euro/tCO2. The economic and environmental performance of the CCTS chains are substantially affected by the geographic location of the industrial emitters and the CO2 volumes to be transported. The analysis relies on the assumption that the four industrial plants would be early movers. While, in the future, technology maturation and infrastructure development are expected to reduce costs and emissions associated with the CCTS chain, this study q... [more]
The Pursuit of Energy Reduction in Generation of Stable Nanobubbles
Karol Ulatowski, Andrzej Cecuga, Paweł Sobieszuk
February 10, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, nanobubbles, stability, surfactants
The repeatable and cost-efficient generation of nanobubbles is still a challenge. In most cases, the hydrodynamic generation of nanobubbles is used at larger scales. Therefore, every cost reduction possible in nanobubble generation is needed. In this work, we decided to check how the generation of nanobubbles changes when the surrounding liquid properties change. The generation of nanobubbles was carried out in a novel setup, designed by us. We investigated the minimum liquid velocity needed for nanobubble generation and propose correlations describing this based on the physicochemical properties of the liquid and gas phases. As carbon dioxide nanobubbles are commonly used for the treatment of ischemia and chronic wounds, the investigation of their stability enhancement is crucial for the wider public. We investigated the minimum rotation rate of the impeller needed for CO2 nanobubble generation and the influence of a biomedical surfactant (Pluronic P-123) addition and concentration ch... [more]
Carbon Dioxide Prevents Oxygen Adsorption at Low-Temperature Oxidation Stage of Low-Rank Coal: Laboratory Study and Molecular Simulation
Gang Cheng, Haiyan Wang, Bo Tan, Shuhui Fu
January 5, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: activation energy, Carbon Dioxide, competitive adsorption, fire prevention and extinguishing, heat release, prevent oxygen adsorption
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is widely used in the prevention and control of spontaneous coal combustion. In this manuscript, three low-rank coals with different metamorphic degrees were selected as the research objects. The temperature-programmed experiments, in situ infrared cooling experiments, simulation of the competitive adsorption of CO2 and oxygen (O2) in coal pores, and simulation study of the CO2 inhibition of the coal oxygen composite reaction were used to obtain the role and effect of CO2 in preventing oxygen adsorption in coal at the low-temperature oxidation stage. It was concluded that CO2 can displace the O2 near the pore wall to physically prevent the adsorption of O2. Through the changing law of heating rate and a kinetics analysis, it was found that CO2 can increase its activation energy by 5.3−108.3% during the slow heating stage of coal and reduce its heat rate. At around 120 °C, coal loses the protective effect of CO2. From the changes in functional groups, it can be seen... [more]
The Displacement Behaviors of Different Pore-Scales during CO2 Flooding and Huff-n-Puff Processes in Tight Oil Reservoirs Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
Mingyang Yang, Shijun Huang, Kuiqian Ma, Fenglan Zhao, Haoyue Sun, Xinyang Chen
November 30, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, EOR, NMR, pore-scales, tight oil reservoir
Injecting CO2 into tight oil reservoirs is a potential approach for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO2 sequestration. However, the effects of different pore-scales on EOR are poorly understood, and this has a significant impact on recovery. In this paper, a pore size correction model based on X-ray computerized tomography (CT) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was developed in order to establish the relationship between the pore radius and the transverse relaxation time. Different pore-scales are divided according to the cumulative distribution characteristics of the transverse relaxation time (T2). CO2 flooding and huff-n-puff experiments were conducted to investigate the dynamic displacement behaviors in different pore-scales. The results indicate that there are three pore-scales: micropores (T2 < 0.3 ms), intermediate pores (0.3 ms < T2 < 100 ms), and macropores (100 ms < T2). However, there are also pseudo-sweep pores (PPs), equilibrium pores (EPs), and sweep pores... [more]
Exploring the Feasibility of Carbon Capture Onboard Ships
Sadi Tavakoli, Gunnar Malm Gamlem, Donghoi Kim, Simon Roussanaly, Rahul Anantharaman, Kevin Kusup Yum, Anders Valland
November 6, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: amine, Carbon Capture, Carbon Dioxide, IMO, Maritime
International shipping is crucial for global freight transport, but is mainly based on fossil fuels, leading to significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Global GHG emissions must peak by 2025 and drop by at least 43% by 2030 to limit global warming within 1.5◦C. This calls for urgent action in all sectors as well as shipping. Scaling up alternative fuels may take too long, considering technical modifications onboard the vessels, as well as fuel production and infrastructure for distribution. Many alternative fuels are also inherently dependent on access to clean electricity, which is already in a shortage. Carbon capture from ships is another route to emission reduction that can be implemented faster and without increasing the demand for renewable electricity.
Tankers, dry bulk carriers, and container vessels contribute a majority of global shipping emissions and are therefore prime candidates for carbon capture and storage. Solvent-based post-combustion capture is mature and suita... [more]
Thermal-Hydraulic Characteristics of Carbon Dioxide in Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers with Staggered Airfoil Fins
Kun Xi, Xiang Zhao, Zhihui Xie, Fankai Meng, Zhuoqun Lu, Xiangkun Ji
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: airfoil fin, Carbon Dioxide, numerical computation, printed circuit heat exchanger, thermal-hydraulic characteristics
Airfoil fin printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) have broad application prospects in the naval, aerospace, electric power, and petrochemical industries. The channel structure is a critical factor affecting their thermal-hydraulic characteristics. In this study, a novel PCHE channel structure with staggered NACA 0025 airfoil-shaped fins was proposed; accordingly, the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the novel channel structure using carbon dioxide as the working fluid at different fin heights under different operating conditions (trans-, near-, and far-critical) were investigated. The results indicated that the thermal-hydraulic performance of the PCHE under the trans-critical operating condition was better than that under the near-critical and far-critical operating conditions. Compared with conventional airfoil fin channels, the novel airfoil fin channel attained comparable comprehensive performance while reducing the fin volume by 50%, thus achieving a more lightweight PCHE de... [more]
Carbon Dioxide Capture and Product Characteristics Using Steel Slag in a Mineral Carbonation Plant
Hyesung Lee, Tae Wook Kim, Soung Hyoun Kim, Yu-Wei Lin, Chien-Tsung Li, YongMan Choi, Changsik Choi
July 4, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: calcium carbonate, calcium oxide, Carbon Dioxide, mineral carbonation, steel slag
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology can reduce CO2 emissions by 85 to 95% for power plants and kilns with high CO2 emissions. Among CCS technologies, carbon dioxide capture using steel slag is a method of carbonating minerals by combining oxidized metals in the slag, such as CaO, MgO, and SiO2, with CO2. This study assessed the amount of CO2 captured and the sequestration efficiency in operating a mineral carbonation plant with a CO2 capture capacity of 5 tons/day by treating the exhaust gas from a municipal waste incinerator and identified the characteristics of the mineral carbonation products. As a result, the average concentration of CO2 in the inflow and outflow gas during the reaction time was 10.0% and 1.1%, respectively, and the average CO2 sequestration efficiency was 89.7%. This resulted in a conversion rate of CaO of > 90%. This study manifested that mineral carbonation products are more stable than steel slag as a construction material and are effective at sequester... [more]
Construction of Water Vapor Stable Ultramicroporous Copper-Based Metal−Organic Framework for Efficient CO2 Capture
Fengfan Yang, Xiaolu Wang, Jiayue Tian, Xusheng Wang, Linfeng Liang
June 13, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, Energy, environment, MOFs, porous material
It is quite essential to obtain an excellent CO2 adsorption capacity, CO2 adsorption selectivity and water vapor stability at the same time for practical CO2 capture after combustion. Through the combination of ultramicropore and the high density of CO2-philic sites without OMSs, an ultra-microporous Cu-based metal−organic framework has been designed and synthesized, featuring a high CO2 capacity (99 cm3 g−1 and 56.6 cm3 g−1 at 273 K and 298 K, respectively), high selectivity over N2 (118 at a scale of CO2/N2 15/85, 298 K) and excellent water vapor stability, simultaneously. Theoretical calculations indicate that neighboring ketonic O atoms with suitable distance play vital roles in boosting CO2 selective capture.
Renewable Energy Potential and CO2 Performance of Main Biomasses Used in Brazil
Elem Patricia Rocha Alves, Orlando Salcedo-Puerto, Jesús Nuncira, Samuel Emebu, Clara Mendoza-Martinez
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biofuels, Biomass, Carbon Dioxide, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, thermochemical conversion
This review investigates the effects of the Brazilian agriculture production and forestry sector on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Residual biomasses produced mainly in the agro-industrial and forestry sector as well as fast-growing plants were studied. Possibilities to minimize source-related emissions by sequestering part of carbon in soil and by producing biomass as a substitute for fossil fuel were extensively investigated. The lack of consistency among literature reports on residual biomass makes it difficult to compare CO2 emission reductions between studies and sectors. Data on chemical composition, heating value, proximate and ultimate analysis of the biomasses were collected. Then, the carbon sequestration potential of the biomasses as well as their usability in renewable energy practices were studied. Over 779.6 million tons of agricultural residues were generated in Brazil between 2021 and 2022. This implies a 12.1 million PJ energy potential, while 4.95 million tons of for... [more]
Feasibility Study of Scheme and Regenerator Parameters for Trinary Power Cycles
Vladimir Kindra, Igor Maksimov, Ivan Komarov, Cheng Xu, Tuantuan Xin
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Brayton cycle, Carbon Dioxide, combined cycle power plant, efficiency, heat exchanger, Kalina cycle, organic Rankine cycle
Natural gas-fired combined cycle plants are nowadays one of the most efficient and environmentally friendly energy complexes. High energy efficiency and low specific emissions are achieved primarily due to the high average integral temperature of heat supply in the Brayton−Rankine cycle. In this case, the main sources of energy losses are heat losses in the condenser of the steam turbine plant and heat losses with the exhaust gases of the waste heat boiler. This work is related to the analysis of the thermodynamic and economic effects in the transition from binary to trinary cycles, in which, in addition to the gas and steam−water cycles, there is an additional cycle with a low-boiling coolant. A method for the feasibility study of a waste heat recovery unit for trinary plants is proposed. The schematic and design solutions described will ensure the increased energy and economic performance of combined cycle power plants. Based on the results of the thermodynamic optimization of the st... [more]
CO2 Adsorption Performance of Activated Coke Prepared from Biomass and Coal
He Gao, Shaohua Wang, Miaomiao Hao, Wei Shao, Shuhui Zhang, Lei Zhang, Xiaohan Ren
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: activation, active coke, Adsorption, Carbon Dioxide, nitrogen-containing functional groups
CO2 adsorption is one of the promising CCS technologies, and activated coke is a solid adsorbent with excellent adsorption properties. In this study, activated coke was prepared by using bituminous coal and coconut shells activated with KOH or CaCl2 in a physically activated atmosphere and modified with ammonia. The effect of the active agent impregnation ratio on the physicochemical properties of activated coke was investigated by N2 adsorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The CO2 adsorption performance of activated coke was tested, and the effect of nitrogen-containing functional groups on CO2 adsorption was investigated by experiments and simulations. The results showed that the specific surface area of activated coke reached 629.81 m2/g at a KOH impregnation ratio of 0.5 and 610.66 m2/g at a CaCl2 impregnation ratio of 1. The maximum CO2 adsorption capacity of activated coke reached 71.70 mg/g and 90.99 mg/g for c... [more]
Outdoor Climate as a Decision Variable in the Selection of an Energy-Optimal Refrigeration System Based on Natural Refrigerants for a Supermarket
Lawrence Drojetzki, Mieczyslaw Porowski
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, climate, commercial refrigeration system, NH3, optimisation, R744
This paper presents the results of a simulation study on the selection of an energy-optimal refrigeration system based on natural refrigerants as a function of outdoor climate parameters as a decision variable in a supermarket application. Simulations were conducted for twelve locations. Three new original refrigeration systems were presented: Cascade R744/R717 which is an advanced booster extended with an ammonia condensing system (CASC_1); Cascade R744/R717 with CO2 pump-fed MT and pressure-fed LT evaporators (CASC_2); and the R717 booster with CO2 pump-fed MT and LT evaporators (CB_NH3). As a reference system, a CO2 booster system with multi-ejectors and flooded evaporators (CB_EJ) was adopted. The CB_EJ system has been confirmed to be energy optimal for cold and temperate climates (Cfb, Dfa and cooler). In warm temperate climates (Csa, BSk, Cfa and similar), the energy consumption of CB_NH3 was the lowest. CASC_2 and CB_NH3 are energy optimal for hot climates (BWh, Af, Aw). The CB_... [more]
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