Records with Keyword: Carbon Dioxide
Showing records 1 to 25 of 165. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Renewable Energy Potential and CO2 Performance of Main Biomasses Used in Brazil
Elem Patricia Rocha Alves, Orlando Salcedo-Puerto, Jesús Nuncira, Samuel Emebu, Clara Mendoza-Martinez
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biofuels, Biomass, Carbon Dioxide, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, thermochemical conversion
This review investigates the effects of the Brazilian agriculture production and forestry sector on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Residual biomasses produced mainly in the agro-industrial and forestry sector as well as fast-growing plants were studied. Possibilities to minimize source-related emissions by sequestering part of carbon in soil and by producing biomass as a substitute for fossil fuel were extensively investigated. The lack of consistency among literature reports on residual biomass makes it difficult to compare CO2 emission reductions between studies and sectors. Data on chemical composition, heating value, proximate and ultimate analysis of the biomasses were collected. Then, the carbon sequestration potential of the biomasses as well as their usability in renewable energy practices were studied. Over 779.6 million tons of agricultural residues were generated in Brazil between 2021 and 2022. This implies a 12.1 million PJ energy potential, while 4.95 million tons of for... [more]
Feasibility Study of Scheme and Regenerator Parameters for Trinary Power Cycles
Vladimir Kindra, Igor Maksimov, Ivan Komarov, Cheng Xu, Tuantuan Xin
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Brayton cycle, Carbon Dioxide, combined cycle power plant, efficiency, heat exchanger, Kalina cycle, organic Rankine cycle
Natural gas-fired combined cycle plants are nowadays one of the most efficient and environmentally friendly energy complexes. High energy efficiency and low specific emissions are achieved primarily due to the high average integral temperature of heat supply in the Brayton−Rankine cycle. In this case, the main sources of energy losses are heat losses in the condenser of the steam turbine plant and heat losses with the exhaust gases of the waste heat boiler. This work is related to the analysis of the thermodynamic and economic effects in the transition from binary to trinary cycles, in which, in addition to the gas and steam−water cycles, there is an additional cycle with a low-boiling coolant. A method for the feasibility study of a waste heat recovery unit for trinary plants is proposed. The schematic and design solutions described will ensure the increased energy and economic performance of combined cycle power plants. Based on the results of the thermodynamic optimization of the st... [more]
CO2 Adsorption Performance of Activated Coke Prepared from Biomass and Coal
He Gao, Shaohua Wang, Miaomiao Hao, Wei Shao, Shuhui Zhang, Lei Zhang, Xiaohan Ren
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: activation, active coke, Adsorption, Carbon Dioxide, nitrogen-containing functional groups
CO2 adsorption is one of the promising CCS technologies, and activated coke is a solid adsorbent with excellent adsorption properties. In this study, activated coke was prepared by using bituminous coal and coconut shells activated with KOH or CaCl2 in a physically activated atmosphere and modified with ammonia. The effect of the active agent impregnation ratio on the physicochemical properties of activated coke was investigated by N2 adsorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The CO2 adsorption performance of activated coke was tested, and the effect of nitrogen-containing functional groups on CO2 adsorption was investigated by experiments and simulations. The results showed that the specific surface area of activated coke reached 629.81 m2/g at a KOH impregnation ratio of 0.5 and 610.66 m2/g at a CaCl2 impregnation ratio of 1. The maximum CO2 adsorption capacity of activated coke reached 71.70 mg/g and 90.99 mg/g for c... [more]
Outdoor Climate as a Decision Variable in the Selection of an Energy-Optimal Refrigeration System Based on Natural Refrigerants for a Supermarket
Lawrence Drojetzki, Mieczyslaw Porowski
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, climate, commercial refrigeration system, NH3, optimisation, R744
This paper presents the results of a simulation study on the selection of an energy-optimal refrigeration system based on natural refrigerants as a function of outdoor climate parameters as a decision variable in a supermarket application. Simulations were conducted for twelve locations. Three new original refrigeration systems were presented: Cascade R744/R717 which is an advanced booster extended with an ammonia condensing system (CASC_1); Cascade R744/R717 with CO2 pump-fed MT and pressure-fed LT evaporators (CASC_2); and the R717 booster with CO2 pump-fed MT and LT evaporators (CB_NH3). As a reference system, a CO2 booster system with multi-ejectors and flooded evaporators (CB_EJ) was adopted. The CB_EJ system has been confirmed to be energy optimal for cold and temperate climates (Cfb, Dfa and cooler). In warm temperate climates (Csa, BSk, Cfa and similar), the energy consumption of CB_NH3 was the lowest. CASC_2 and CB_NH3 are energy optimal for hot climates (BWh, Af, Aw). The CB_... [more]
Determination of the Interzonal Airflows in Naturally Ventilated Dwellings Based on Concentration Measurements of the Metabolic Carbon Dioxide
Anna Bulińska, Zbigniew Buliński
April 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, indoor air quality, interzonal airflows, inverse analysis, natural ventilation, tracer gas method
The role of interzonal airflows is especially pronounced in naturally ventilated buildings. In such buildings, reversed airflows in the ventilation stacks might occur as well. This affects the air exchange rate and contaminant distribution in buildings. A significant increase in carbon dioxide concentration is a characteristic phenomenon for poorly ventilated rooms. This paper demonstrates the application of metabolic carbon dioxide concentration measurements for interzonal airflow estimation in naturally ventilated buildings. The presented method is based on the continuous measurements of CO2 concentration at one point in each zone. These measurements are used to estimate airflow pattern in a multizone building by applying an inverse analysis. The developed methodology employs an iterative Levenberg-Marquardt procedure to maximise the nonlinear likelihood function. The validity of the method was verified against measurements carried out in a single naturally ventilated room. Further,... [more]
Promoting Effect of Ultra-Fine Bubbles on CO2 Hydrate Formation
Tsutomu Uchida, Hiroshi Miyoshi, Kenji Yamazaki, Kazutoshi Gohara
April 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, induction time, memory effect, nanobubble
When gas hydrates dissociate into gas and liquid water, many gas bubbles form in the water. The large bubbles disappear after several minutes due to their buoyancy, while a large number of small bubbles (particularly sub-micron-order bubbles known as ultra-fine bubbles (UFBs)) remain in the water for a long time. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that the existence of UFBs is a major factor promoting gas hydrate formation. We then extended our research on this issue to carbon dioxide (CO2) as it forms structure-I hydrates, similar to methane and ethane hydrates explored in previous studies; however, CO2 saturated solutions present severe conditions for the survival of UFBs. The distribution measurements of CO2 UFBs revealed that their average size was larger and number density was smaller than those of other hydrocarbon UFBs. Despite these conditions, the CO2 hydrate formation tests confirmed that CO2 UFBs played important roles in the expression of the promoting effect. The ana... [more]
Experimental Determination of CO2 Diffusion Coefficient in a Brine-Saturated Core Simulating Reservoir Condition
Zerong Li, Lei Yuan, Guodong Sun, Junchen Lv, Yi Zhang
April 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: brine, Carbon Dioxide, CO2 geological storage, diffusion coefficient
CO2 diffusion coefficient plays a crucial part in saline aquifers for the CO2 storage and the safety of long-term sequestration. Therefore, it is particularly important to measure the diffusion coefficient accurately. As far as we know, there are currently no CO2 brine diffusion data in real cores under reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. In this paper, a study on the CO2 diffusion coefficient diffused in a brine-saturated Berea core along the radial direction was conducted at temperatures of 313.15 K to 373.15 K and pressures of 8 MPa to 30 MPa. On account of the experimental results, the effect of permeability, NaCl concentration, temperature and pressure on the CO2 diffusivity is analyzed. The results in this study indicate that the diffusion coefficient increases with increasing permeability, pressure and temperature and decreases with increasing NaCl concentration. However, the relationship between pressure and the diffusion coefficient is not linear. As the pressure gr... [more]
Analysis of the Operation of an Unheated Wooden Church to the Shaping of Thermal and Humidity Conditions Using the Numerical Method
Grzegorz Nawalany, Paweł Sokołowski, Małgorzata Michalik
April 25, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, indoor microclimate, numerical method, religious building, wooden structure
The article deals with the problem of the effects of using a wooden church on thermal and humidity conditions forming inside. Religious services in the studied site were provided several times a year. The building was not used in the remaining time. The analysis of the effects of the frequency of religious services and the number of people at the services on the formation of temperature and humidity conditions in the wooden church is provided in this paper. The effect of the presence of people in the church on CO2 concentration fluctuations was also studied. Analysis of the results showed that external conditions have the greatest effect on internal microclimate substitutions. The presence of people affects temporary fluctuations in internal parameters. Both the number of people attending the service and the time of year are important. An indoor air temperature amplitude of 9.4 °C was recorded during the winter period. The CO2 level in the church during the service exceeded the limit v... [more]
Evaluation of Integrated Concepts with CO2 for Heating, Cooling and Hot Water Production
Silje Smitt, Ángel Pardiñas, Armin Hafner
April 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, concept evaluation, heat pump, heating and cooling, hotels, numerical modeling, system design, thermal storage
The hotel sector is characterized by high thermal demands and a large carbon footprint, which greatly contributes to the global warming effect. Consequently, there is a need to investigate solutions that can reduce energy usage within this sector by means of environmentally friendly and sustainable technologies. Integrated CO2 heat pump systems for heating, cooling, and hot water production in hotels have demonstrated promising results. This paper theoretically compares the energy consumption, environmental impact, and cost of three different design concepts for integrated CO2 units equipped with thermal storage. The main characteristics of the evaluated designs are single-stage compression, parallel compression, and ejector-supported parallel compression. Furthermore, two separate hot water charging strategies were implemented and investigated over a large span of ambient temperatures and loads. The evaluations were carried out by considering eight different European locations, rangin... [more]
Spectroscopic Identification on CO2 Separation from CH4 + CO2 Gas Mixtures Using Hydroquinone Clathrate Formation
Ji-Ho Yoon, Dongwon Lee, Jong-Won Lee
April 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, clthrate, hydroquinone, landfill gas, methane
The formation of hydroquinone (HQ) clathrate and the guest behaviors of binary (CH4 + CO2) gas mixtures were investigated by focusing on an application to separate CO2 from landfill gases. Spectroscopic measurements show that at two experimental pressures of 20 and 40 bar, CO2 molecules are preferentially captured in HQ clathrates regardless of the gas composition. In addition, preferential occupation by CO2 is observed more significantly when the formation pressure and the CH4 concentration are lower. Because the preferential occupation of CO2 is found with binary (CH4 + CO2) gas mixtures regardless of the composition of the feed gas, a clathrate-based process can be applied to CO2 separation or concentration from landfill gases or (CH4 + CO2) mixed gases.
Parametric Investigation of a Ground Source CO2 Heat Pump for Space Heating
Evangelos Bellos, Christos Tzivanidis
April 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, geothermal energy, ground source heat pump, heat pump, space heating
The objective of the present study is the parametric investigation of a ground source heat pump for space heating purposes with boreholes. The working fluid in the heat pump is CO2, and the geothermal field includes boreholes with vertical heat exchangers (U-tube). This study is conducted with a developed model in Engineering Equation Solver which is validated with data from the literature. Ten different parameters are investigated and more specifically five parameters about the heat pump cycle and five parameters for the geothermal unit. The heat pump’s examined parameters are the high pressure, the heat exchanger effectiveness, the temperature level in the heater outlet, the flow rate of the geothermal fluid in the evaporator and the heat exchanger thermal transmittance in the evaporator. The other examined parameters about the geothermal unit are the ground mean temperature, the grout thermal conductivity, the inner diameter of the U-tube, the number of the boreholes and the length... [more]
National Carbon Accounting—Analyzing the Impact of Urbanization and Energy-Related Factors upon CO2 Emissions in Central−Eastern European Countries by Using Machine Learning Algorithms and Panel Data Analysis
Florian Marcel Nuţă, Alina Cristina Nuţă, Cristina Gabriela Zamfir, Stefan-Mihai Petrea, Dan Munteanu, Dragos Sebastian Cristea
April 20, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, carbon emissions, energy consumption, energy intensity, environment, urbanization
The work at hand assesses several driving factors of carbon emissions in terms of urbanization and energy-related parameters on a panel of emerging European economies, between 1990 and 2015. The use of machine learning algorithms and panel data analysis offered the possibility to determine the importance of the input variables by applying three algorithms (Random forest, XGBoost, and AdaBoost) and then by modeling the urbanization and the impact of energy intensity on the carbon emissions. The empirical results confirm the relationship between urbanization and energy intensity on CO2 emissions. The findings emphasize that separate components of energy consumption affect carbon emissions and, therefore, a transition toward renewable sources for energy needs is desirable. The models from the current study confirm previous studies’ observations made for other countries and regions. Urbanization, as a process, has an influence on the carbon emissions more than the actual urban regions do,... [more]
Immobilising Microalgae and Cyanobacteria as Biocomposites: New Opportunities to Intensify Algae Biotechnology and Bioprocessing
Gary S. Caldwell, Pichaya In-na, Rachel Hart, Elliot Sharp, Assia Stefanova, Matthew Pickersgill, Matthew Walker, Matthew Unthank, Justin Perry, Jonathan G. M. Lee
April 19, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: bioreactor, Carbon Capture, Carbon Dioxide, eutrophication, immobilization, latex polymers, Process Intensification, Wastewater
There is a groundswell of interest in applying phototrophic microorganisms, specifically microalgae and cyanobacteria, for biotechnology and ecosystem service applications. However, there are inherent challenges associated with conventional routes to their deployment (using ponds, raceways and photobioreactors) which are synonymous with suspension cultivation techniques. Cultivation as biofilms partly ameliorates these issues; however, based on the principles of process intensification, by taking a step beyond biofilms and exploiting nature inspired artificial cell immobilisation, new opportunities become available, particularly for applications requiring extensive deployment periods (e.g., carbon capture and wastewater bioremediation). We explore the rationale for, and approaches to immobilised cultivation, in particular the application of latex-based polymer immobilisation as living biocomposites. We discuss how biocomposites can be optimised at the design stage based on mass transfe... [more]
Czech Building Stock: Renovation Wave Scenarios and Potential for CO2 Savings until 2050
Antonín Lupíšek, Tomáš Trubačík, Petr Holub
April 19, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, climate change mitigation, Energy Efficiency, EU Green Deal, national building stock, Paris Agreement, scenarios modelling
One of the major anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases is the operation of building stock. Improving its energy efficiency has the potential to significantly contribute to achieving climate change mitigation targets. The purpose of this study was to roughly estimate such potential for the operation of the national building stock of Czechia to steer the national debate on the development of related national plans. The estimation is based on a simplified energy model of the Czech building stock that consists of sub-models of residential and nonresidential building stocks, for which their future energy consumptions, shares of energy carriers and sources, and emission factors were modeled in four scenarios. Uncertainties from the approximation of the emission factors were investigated in a sensitivity analysis. The results showed that the operation of the Czech building stock in 2016 totaled 36.9 Mt CO2, which represented 34.6% of the total national carbon dioxide emissions. The four b... [more]
Potential Pathway for Reliable Long-Term CO2 Storage as Clathrate Hydrates in Marine Environments
Beatrice Castellani
April 18, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, carbon storage, clathrate hydrates, gas hydrate, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
A countermeasure to global warming is removing high CO2 amounts from the atmosphere and locating the emitted CO2 into long-term stable carbon storage sites. The sequestration technologies must be reliable, long-lasting, and environmentally friendly. An alternative and innovative approach that may meet the sequestration requirements is CO2 storage as clathrate hydrates in marine environments. Extensive research has been devoted to CO2-CH4 replacement in natural gas hydrates. Another option is the direct formation of CO2 hydrates into deep ocean water or into marine underfloor sediments. This article deals with the positioning of direct hydrate-based CO2 storage among the other traditional geological options and the discussion of new, by-far, state-of-the-art knowledge required for the development of a hydrate-based CO2 storage pathway that is reliable, stable, durable, efficient, and environmentally benign.
Liquified Petroleum Gas-Fuelled Vehicle CO2 Emission Modelling Based on Portable Emission Measurement System, On-Board Diagnostics Data, and Gradient-Boosting Machine Learning
Maksymilian Mądziel
April 18, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Carbon Dioxide, emission modelling, LPG, Machine Learning, portable emission measurement system, vehicle emission
One method to reduce CO2 emissions from vehicle exhaust is the use of liquified petroleum gas (LPG) fuel. The global use of this fuel is high in European countries such as Poland, Romania, and Italy. There are a small number of computational models for the purpose of estimating the emissions of LPG vehicles. This work is one of the first to present a methodology for developing microscale CO2 emission models for LPG vehicles. The developed model is based on data from road tests using the portable emission measurement system (PEMS) and on-board diagnostic (OBDII) interface. This model was created from a previous exploratory data analysis while using gradient-boosting machine learning methods. Vehicle velocity and engine RPM were chosen as the explanatory variables for CO2 prediction. The validation of the model indicates its good precision, while its use is possible for the analysis of continuous CO2 emissions and the creation of emission maps for environmental analyses in urban areas. T... [more]
Techno-Economic Analysis of the Modernization Options of a Gas Turbine Power Plant Using Aspen HYSYS
Dias Raybekovich Umyshev, Eduard Vladislavovich Osipov, Andrey Anatolievich Kibarin, Maxim Sergeyevich Korobkov, Tatyana Viktorovna Khodanova, Zhansaya Serikkyzy Duisenbek
April 18, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Aspen HYSYS, Carbon Dioxide, CHP, gas turbine, HRSG, NOx
Currently, 90% of Kazakhstan’s oil is situated in 15 oil and gas fields where simple cycle gas turbines are utilized for electricity generation. The need for developing techniques to enhance the efficiency and eco-friendliness of fuel consumption in Kazakhstan’s oil fields is imperative. In this article, methods for improving the energy efficiency of a simple gas turbine power plant functioning in an oil field are discussed, with consideration given to the impact of ambient temperature and specific environmental constraints, such as water scarcity and high temperatures. Two schemes to increase efficiency are evaluated: the first involves the utilization of a waste heat boiler for steam production intended for technological purposes, while the second involves electricity generation through a combination of a waste heat boiler and a steam turbine. Models based on Aspen HYSYS were formulated, with actual gas turbine power plant operation taken into account. Analysis indicated that a waste... [more]
A Review of Carbon Capture and Valorization Technologies
Jiban Podder, Biswa R. Patra, Falguni Pattnaik, Sonil Nanda, Ajay K. Dalai
April 18, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, fossil fuels, greenhouse gas, sequestration, storage, utilization
Global fossil fuel consumption has induced emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2), which has emanated global warming. Significant levels of CO2 are released continually into the atmosphere from the extraction of fossil fuels to their processing and combustion for heat and power generation including the fugitive emissions from industries and unmanaged waste management practices such as open burning of solid wastes. With an increase in the global population and the subsequent rise in energy demands and waste generation, the rate of CO2 release is at a much faster rate than its recycling through photosynthesis or fixation, which increases its net accumulation in the atmosphere. A large amount of CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere from various sources such as the combustion of fossil fuels in power plants, vehicles and manufacturing industries. Thus, carbon capture plays a key role in the race to achieve net zero emissions, paving a path for a decarbonized economy. To reduce the c... [more]
Design of a Device and System to Study the Liquid−Solid-Phase Equilibrium Experiment of CO2 in PLNG
Jianlu Zhu, Zihe Li, Yuxing Li
April 17, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, liquid–solid-phase equilibrium, low-temperature and high-pressure apparatus, Natural Gas
Pressurized liquefied natural gas (PLNG) is a new natural gas liquefaction solution proposed in recent years for reducing the construction and operating costs of floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG). For natural gas, the liquefaction temperature is strongly influenced by the pressure; when the pressure increases, the liquefaction temperature of natural gas increases accordingly. The increase in the liquefaction temperature of natural gas leads to a higher solubility of impurities such as carbon dioxide, which means that the pretreatment standards for liquefied natural gas can be reduced. Therefore, the use of PLNG technology can simplify pretreatment plants and significantly reduce construction and operating costs. In order to better apply PLNG technology to FLNG, it is necessary to understand the solubility of carbon dioxide in pressurized LNG and the phase change during liquefaction. To achieve this, experimental setups are needed to simulate the temperature and pressure environment... [more]
Techno-Economic Analysis of Succinic Acid Production from Sugar-Rich Wastewater
Hyunjin Kim, Byoung-In Sang, Panagiotis Tsapekos, Irini Angelidaki, Merlin Alvarado-Morales
April 17, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biomethane, Carbon Dioxide, economic analysis, process simulation, succinic acid
Succinic acid (SA) is a valuable platform chemical that can be converted into biodegradable plastics, resins, solvents, etc. The emerging biological routes for SA production are gaining more attention because they exploit the natural abilities of bacteria to fixate carbon dioxide (CO2). On the other hand, an inexpensive organic carbon source that can fulfill the energetic requirements of the microbial strain is also a significant challenge for industrial SA production. The current work presents a holistic techno-economic analysis of SA production using sugar-rich residual streams and biogas as raw materials. Simulation results showed that by establishing an integrated process, high SA production can be simultaneously achieved with biogas upgrading. The CO2 provided from biogas and carbohydrates, which are provided from organic by-products is converted into two products: biomethane (CH4 > 95%, a clean biofuel), and SA. The mass and energy balances and techno-economic indicators were sim... [more]
A New Method of Regulating the Cooling Capacity of a Cooling System with CO2
Artur Bieniek, Jan Kuchmacz, Karol Sztekler, Lukasz Mika, Ewelina Radomska
April 14, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, cooling capacity, energy efficiency ratio, hot gas bypass valve, R-744, transcritical cycle
New guidelines set by international organizations for refrigeration companies cause that natural working fluids such as carbon dioxide are increasingly used in new refrigeration systems. Carbon dioxide (R-744) is used in freezing, cooling, or air conditioning installations, in which the cooling load fluctuates hourly. To adapt the cooling capacity of the evaporator to the current cooling load of the cooled space, a number of control elements are used. The paper proposes a new method of regulating the cooling capacity for a one-stage refrigeration cycle with the R-744 refrigerant and an internal heat exchanger (IHX). The proposed method involves using an additional evaporator and combines the possibility of regulating the cooling capacity with the possibility of energy efficiency ratio (EER) improvement. The energy analysis of the proposed method of regulating the cooling capacity was performed and the results were compared with the control method. The control method was using the compr... [more]
Promoting Public Awareness of Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies in the Russian Federation: A System of Educational Activities
Yurii Vasilev, Alexey Cherepovitsyn, Anna Tsvetkova, Nadejda Komendantova
April 14, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, carbon storage, CCS-technologies, public attitude, public awareness, sequestration
The latest technologies for climate change mitigation are carbon capture and storage (CCS). Some countries are developing CCS projects, and they are currently at different stages of deployment. Despite the signing of international agreements on climate change mitigation, Russia’s efforts to develop and implement CCS technologies are quite limited. Therefore, it is vital that people are aware of the importance of carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage. The purpose of this article is to produce guidelines and toolkits to form a system of measures aimed at raising awareness of the Russian society on carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies. The paper discusses the key findings of several recent studies on the topic, e.g., a study focusing on the level of environmental consciousness among St. Petersburg students; a content analysis of the Russian school textbooks; a study of environmental groups in Russian social media; and an experimental study on creating eco-comics and... [more]
Central and Eastern European CO2 Market—Challenges of Emissions Trading for Energy Companies
Dorota Ciesielska-Maciągowska, Dawid Klimczak, Małgorzata Skrzek-Lubasińska
April 13, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, emissions trading, energy companies from Central and Eastern Europe, EU ETS
The aim of this article was to identify challenges of emissions trading that the Polish and CEE Central and Eastern Europe energy industry will face, as well as to indicate key implications for the competitiveness of the companies from the energy sector resulting from that trading. The EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is the emissions trading system, which results from the EU policy concerning climate change. It is a tool for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). The system regulates an annual allocation of the allowances. The price of CO2 emission allowances is subject to constant fluctuations because it depends on various macroeconomic factors as well as is an effect of proprietary trading by global investment banks. Polish energy companies have an increasing share in the emission of CO2 in the European market. This is due to the fact that other European countries are rapidly moving away from fossil fuel-fired sources. The cost per MWh related to CO2 price has been growing in the... [more]
Retrofit Decarbonization of Coal Power Plants—A Case Study for Poland
Staffan Qvist, Paweł Gładysz, Łukasz Bartela, Anna Sowiżdżał
April 12, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, climate change, Coal, decarbonization, Nuclear, renewable, repowering, retrofit decarbonization
Out of 2 TWe of coal power plant capacity in operation globally today, more than half is less than 14 years old. Climate policy related to limiting CO2-emissions makes the longer-term operation of these plants untenable. In this study, we assess the spectrum of available options for the future of both equipment and jobs in the coal power sector by assessing the full scope of “retrofit decarbonization” options. Retrofit decarbonization is an umbrella term that includes adding carbon capture, fuel conversion, and the replacement of coal boilers with new low-carbon energy sources, in each case re-using as much of the existing equipment as economically practicable while reducing or eliminating emissions. This article explores this idea using the Polish coal power fleet as a case study. Retrofit decarbonization in Poland was shown to be most attractive using high-temperature small modular nuclear reactors (SMRs) to replace coal boilers, which can lower upfront capital costs by ~28−35% and l... [more]
Techno-Economic Assessment of Different Heat Exchangers for CO2 Capture
Solomon Aforkoghene Aromada, Nils Henrik Eldrup, Fredrik Normann, Lars Erik Øi
April 11, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Aspen HYSYS, capture cost, Carbon Capture, Carbon Dioxide, energy cost, heat exchanger, sensitivity, Simulation
We examined the cost implications of selecting six different types of heat exchangers as the lean/rich heat exchanger in an amine-based CO2 capture process. The difference in total capital cost between different capture plant scenarios due to the different costs of the heat exchangers used as the lean/rich heat exchanger, in each case, is in millions of Euros. The gasketed-plate heat exchanger (G-PHE) saves significant space, and it saves considerable costs. Selecting the G-PHE instead of the shell and tube heat exchangers (STHXs) will save €33 million−€39 million in total capital cost (CAPEX), depending on the type of STHX. About €43 million and €2 million in total installed costs (CAPEX) can be saved if the G-PHE is selected instead of the finned double-pipe heat exchanger (FDP-HX) or welded-plate heat exchanger, respectively. The savings in total annual cost is also in millions of Euros/year. Capture costs of €5/tCO2−€6/tCO2 can be saved by replacing conventional STHXs with the G-PH... [more]
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