Records with Keyword: Life Cycle Analysis
Showing records 1 to 25 of 32. [First] Page: 1 2 Last
Thermodynamic, Exergy and Environmental Impact Assessment of S-CO2 Brayton Cycle Coupled with ORC as Bottoming Cycle
Edwin Espinel Blanco, Guillermo Valencia Ochoa, Jorge Duarte Forero
April 25, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Brayton, environmental impact, Exergy, Life Cycle Analysis, ORC, performance parameters
In this article, a thermodynamic, exergy, and environmental impact assessment was carried out on a Brayton S-CO2 cycle coupled with an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) as a bottoming cycle to evaluate performance parameters and potential environmental impacts of the combined system. The performance variables studied were the net power, thermal and exergetic efficiency, and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) as a function of the variation in turbine inlet temperature (TIT) and high pressure (PHIGH), which are relevant operation parameters from the Brayton S-CO2 cycle. The results showed that the main turbine (T1) and secondary turbine (T2) of the Brayton S-CO2 cycle presented higher exergetic efficiencies (97%), and a better thermal and exergetic behavior compared to the other components of the System. Concerning exergy destruction, it was found that the heat exchangers of the system presented the highest exergy destruction as a consequence of the large mean temperature difference be... [more]
Life Cycle Assessment on Different Synthetic Routes of ZIF-8 Nanomaterials
Vasileios Ntouros, Ioannis Kousis, Dimitra Papadaki, Anna Laura Pisello, Margarita Niki Assimakopoulos
April 24, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: environmental impact assessment, Life Cycle Analysis, metal organic frameworks, nanomaterials, synthesis procedure, ZIF-8
In the last twenty years, research activity around the environmental applications of metal−organic frameworks has bloomed due to their CO2 capture ability, tunable properties, porosity, and well-defined crystalline structure. Thus, hundreds of MOFs have been developed. However, the impact of their production on the environment has not been investigated as thoroughly as their potential applications. In this work, the environmental performance of various synthetic routes of MOF nanoparticles, in particular ZIF-8, is assessed through a life cycle assessment. For this purpose, five representative synthesis routes were considered, and synthesis data were obtained based on available literature. The synthesis included different solvents (de-ionized water, methanol, dimethylformamide) as well as different synthetic steps (i.e., hours of drying, stirring, precursor). The findings revealed that the main environmental weak points identified during production were: (a) the use of dimethylformamide... [more]
Health Cost Estimation of Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Assessing the Pollution Reduction Potential of Zero-Emission Vehicles in Toronto, Canada
Hamidreza Shamsi, Mohammad Munshed, Manh-Kien Tran, Youngwoo Lee, Sean Walker, Jesse The, Kaamran Raahemifar, Michael Fowler
April 24, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: air pollution cost analysis, air pollution modeling, health cost analysis, Life Cycle Analysis, zero-emission vehicles
Fossil fuel vehicles, emitting air toxics into the atmosphere, impose a heavy burden on the economy through additional health care expenses and ecological degradation. Air pollution is responsible for millions of deaths and chronic and acute health problems every year, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The fossil-fuel-based transportation system releases tons of toxic gases into the atmosphere putting human health at risk, especially in urban areas. This analysis aims to determine the economic burden of environmental and health impacts caused by Highway 401 traffic. Due to the high volume of vehicles driving on the Toronto Highway 401 corridor, there is an annual release of 3771 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). These emissions are mainly emitted onsite through the combustion of gasoline and diesel fuel. The integration of electric and hydrogen vehicles shows maximum reductions of 405−476 g CO2e per vehicle-kilometer. Besides these carbon dioxide emiss... [more]
Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Propulsion Systems for Heavy-Duty Transport Applications
Sam Simons, Ulugbek Azimov
April 20, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: climate change, fuel cell, global warming potential, greenhouse gas emissions, heavy-duty transport, Hydrogen, Life Cycle Analysis
To meet climate change challenges, the UK government is aiming to reach zero emissions by 2050. The heavy-duty transportation sector contributes 17% to the UKs total emissions, so to combat this, alternative power units to traditional fossil fuel-reliant internal combustion engines (ICEs) are being utilized and investigated. Hydrogen fuel cells are a key area of interest to try and reduce these transportation emissions. To gain a true view of the impact that hydrogen fuel cells can have, this study looks at the impact the manufacturing of a fuel cell has upon the environment, from material extraction through to the usage phase. This was done through the use of a lifecycle assessment following ISO 14040 standards, with hydrogen systems being compared to alternative systems. This study has found that whilst fuel cells depend upon energy intensive materials for their construction, it is possible to reduce emissions by 34−87% compared to ICE systems, depending upon the source of hydrogen u... [more]
Cost and Environmental Benefits of Using Pelleted Corn Stover for Bioethanol Production
Ramsharan Pandey, Nurun Nahar, Scott W. Pryor, Ghasideh Pourhashem
April 19, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: biomass pellets, cellulosic biorefinery, Life Cycle Analysis, soaking in aqueous ammonia pretreatment, Technoeconomic Analysis
While the production costs and logistical benefits of biomass pelleting have been widely discussed in the literature, the downstream economic and environmental benefits of processing pelleted biomass have been largely neglected. To investigate those benefits, we performed a comparative techno-economic analysis and life cycle assessment of producing ethanol using loose and pelleted forms of biomass. Analyses of a 2000 metric tons (dry)/d biorefinery showed that using pelleted biomass is more economical than using loose or baled biomass. The lowest minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) for pelleted biomass was USD 0.58/gal less than the lowest MESP for loose biomass. Among all processing conditions analyzed, MESP for ethanol produced with pelleted biomass was always lower than when produced with loose biomass. Shorter pretreatment and hydrolysis times, higher pretreatment solids loadings, lower ammonia requirements, and reduced enzyme loadings were the primary factors contributing to lowe... [more]
Life Cycle Perspectives of Using Non-Pelleted vs. Pelleted Corn Stover in a Cellulosic Biorefinery
Nurun Nahar, Ramsharan Pandey, Ghasideh Pourhashem, David Ripplinger, Scott W. Pryor
April 19, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: biorefinery, cellulosic biomass, corn stover, densification, greenhouse gas (GHG), Life Cycle Analysis, pelleting, soaking in aqueous ammonia pretreatment, solid loadings
Cellulosic biorefineries have attracted interest due to the growing energy security and environmental concerns related to fossil fuel-based energy and chemicals. Using pelleted biomass as a biorefinery feedstock can reduce their processing inputs while improving biomass handling and transportation. However, it is still questionable whether energy and emission savings from feedstock transportation and processing can justify pelletization. A life cycle assessment approach was used to compare energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from pelleted and non-pelleted corn stover as a biorefinery feedstock. Operations considered were pelleting, transportation, and soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment. Despite greater GHG emissions (up to 25 times higher than the transportation) generated from the pelleting process, the model showed a significant opportunity to offset and even reduce overall GHG emissions considering the pretreatment process benefits. Our process energy an... [more]
A Gate-to-Gate Life Cycle Assessment for the CO2-EOR Operations at Farnsworth Unit (FWU)
Anthony Morgan, Reid Grigg, William Ampomah
April 19, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: anthropogenic CO2, carbon storage, CO2-enhanced oil recovery, global warming potential, greenhouse gas (GHG), Life Cycle Analysis
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the Farnsworth Unit’s (FWU) carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) operations were accounted for through a gate-to-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) for a period of about 10 years, since start of injection to 2020, and predictions of 18 additional years of the CO2-EOR operation were made. The CO2 source for the FWU project has been 100% anthropogenically derived from the exhaust of an ethanol plant and a fertilizer plant. A cumulative amount of 5.25 × 106 tonnes of oil has been recovered through the injection of 1.64 × 106 tonnes of purchased CO2, of which 92% was stored during the 10-year period. An LCA analysis conducted on the various unit emissions of the FWU process yielded a net negative (positive storage) of 1.31 × 106 tonnes of CO2 equivalent, representing 79% of purchased CO2. An optimized 18-year forecasted analysis estimated 86% storage of the forecasted 3.21 × 106 tonnes of purchased CO2 with an equivalent 2.90 × 106 tonnes o... [more]
A Multi-Objective Approach toward Optimal Design of Sustainable Integrated Biodiesel/Diesel Supply Chain Based on First- and Second-Generation Feedstock with Solid Waste Use
Evgeniy Ganev, Boyan Ivanov, Natasha Vaklieva-Bancheva, Elisaveta Kirilova, Yunzile Dzhelil
April 19, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: 1G and 2G feedstock, economic, environmental and social criteria, GHG emissions, integrated biodiesel/diesel supply chain, Life Cycle Analysis, optimal design, solid waste use
This study proposes a multi-objective approach for the optimal design of a sustainable Integrated Biodiesel/Diesel Supply Chain (IBDSC) based on first- (sunflower and rapeseed) and second-generation (waste cooking oil and animal fat) feedstocks with solid waste use. It includes mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) models of the economic, environmental and social impact of IBDSC, and respective criteria defined in terms of costs. The purpose is to obtain the optimal number, sizes and locations of bio-refineries and solid waste plants; the areas and amounts of feedstocks needed for biodiesel production; and the transportation mode. The approach is applied on a real case study in which the territory of Bulgaria with its 27 districts is considered. Optimization problems are formulated for a 5-year period using either environmental or economic criteria and the remainder are defined as constraints. The obtained results show that in the case of the economic criterion, 14% of the agricultur... [more]
Advances in Energy Hybridization for Resilient Supply: A Sustainable Approach to the Growing World Demand
Haider Al-Rubaye, Joseph D. Smith, Mohammed H. S. Zangana, Prashant Nagapurkar, Yishu Zhou, Greg Gelles
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: hybrid energy system, Life Cycle Analysis, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, resilience
Energy poverty, defined as a lack of access to reliable electricity and reliance on traditional biomass resources for cooking, affects over a billion people daily. The World Health Organization estimates that household air pollution from inefficient stoves causes more premature deaths than malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. Increasing demand for energy has led to dramatic increases in emissions. The need for reliable electricity and limiting emissions drives research on Resilient Hybrid Energy Systems (RHESs), which provide cleaner energy through combining wind, solar, and biomass energy with traditional fossil energy, increasing production efficiency and reliability and reducing generating costs and emissions. Microgrids have been shown as an efficient means of implementing RHESs, with some focused mainly on reducing the environmental impact of electric power generation. The technical challenges of designing, implementing, and applying microgrids involve conducting a cradle-to-grave... [more]
Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Merging Recycling Methods for Spent Lithium Ion Batteries
Zhiwen Zhou, Yiming Lai, Qin Peng, Jun Li
March 9, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: energy consumption, greenhouse gas emission, hydrometallurgical method, in-situ roasting reduction, Life Cycle Analysis, pyrometallurgical method, recycling, spent lithium-ion batteries
An urgent demand for recycling spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is expected in the forthcoming years due to the rapid growth of electrical vehicles (EV). To address these issues, various technologies such as the pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical method, as well as the newly developed in-situ roasting reduction (in-situ RR) method were proposed in recent studies. This article firstly provides a brief review on these emerging approaches. Based on the overview, a life cycle impact of these methods for recovering major component from one functional unit (FU) of 1 t spent EV LIBs was estimated. Our results showed that in-situ RR exhibited the lowest energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 4833 MJ FU−1 and 1525 kg CO2-eq FU−1, respectively, which only accounts for ~23% and ~64% of those for the hydrometallurgical method with citric acid leaching. The H2O2 production in the regeneration phase mainly contributed the overall impact for in-situ RR. The transportation di... [more]
LCA-Based Regional Distribution and Transference of Carbon Emissions from Wind Farms in China
Xintian Bi, Jin Yang, Siyuan Yang
March 3, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: carbon emissions, Life Cycle Analysis, regional transfer, wind power
As a clean form of energy utilization, wind power is important for alleviating climate change. Although no direct carbon emissions occur in wind power generation, there exist upstream carbon emissions from manufacturing and installation, which have indirect effects on both the locations of wind farms and areas involved in upstream production and manufacturing. In this paper, based on Input−Output based Life Cycle Analysis (IO-LCA), we explored the lifetime carbon emissions of 378 wind farms in China that were still in operation in 2015. The regional distributions of carbon emissions from wind farms during the whole lifetime were depicted. The embodied carbon emission transfers from the location of the wind farm operation to upstream turbine manufacturing regions were traced. The net emission reduction benefits among regions were also calculated. Results show that carbon emissions mainly distribute in Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, and Tianjin in the turbine manufacturing stage, with a total... [more]
Review on Ventilation Systems for Building Applications in Terms of Energy Efficiency and Environmental Impact Assessment
Effrosyni Giama
March 3, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, environmental impact assessment, Life Cycle Analysis, ventilation systems
Buildings are responsible for approximately 30−40% of energy consumption in Europe, and this is a fact. Along with this fact is also evident the existence of a defined and strict legislation framework regarding energy efficiency, decarbonization, sustainability, and renewable energy systems in building applications. Moreover, information and communication technologies, along with smart metering for efficient monitoring, has come to cooperate with a building’s systems (smart buildings) to aim for more advanced and efficient energy management. Furthermore, the well-being in buildings still remains a crucial issue, especially nowadays that health and air quality are top priority goals for occupants. Taking all the above into consideration, this paper aims to analyze ventilation technologies in relation to energy consumption and environmental impact assessment using the life cycle approach. Based on the review analysis of the existing ventilation technologies, the emphasis is given to para... [more]
A Review of Environmental and Economic Implications of Closing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle—Part One: Wastes and Environmental Impacts
Robin Taylor, William Bodel, Laurence Stamford, Gregg Butler
March 2, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: closed fuel cycle, Life Cycle Analysis, nuclear fuel cycle, open fuel cycle, radioactive waste, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, spent nuclear fuel
Globally, around half a million tonnes of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will be in dry or wet storage by around 2050. Continued storage is not sustainable, and this SNF must eventually either be disposed (the open nuclear fuel cycle) or recycled (the closed fuel cycle). Many international studies have addressed the advantages and disadvantages of these options. To inform this debate, a detailed survey of the available literature related to environmental assessments of closed and open cycles has been undertaken. Environmental impacts are one of the three pillars that, alongside economic and societal impacts, must be considered for sustainable development. The aims are to provide a critical review of the open literature in order to determine what generic conclusions can be drawn from the broad base of international studies. This review covers the results of life cycle assessments and studies on waste arisings, showing how the management of spent fuels in the open and closed cycles impact the... [more]
Comparison of Environmental Impact Assessment Methods in the Assembly and Operation of Photovoltaic Power Plants: A Systematic Review in the Castilla—La Mancha Region
Marichell Zarzavilla, Andrea Quintero, Manuela Andrés Abellán, Francisco López Serrano, Miguel Chen Austin, Nathalia Tejedor-Flores
March 2, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: clean energy, environmental impact assessment, greenhouse gas emissions, Life Cycle Analysis, photovoltaic power plant
Solar energy is in high demand due to its environmental benefits and economic potential; however, concerns remain about the total impact it holds. In 2020, for Spain, Castilla-La Mancha was the second autonomous community with the highest photovoltaic energy production. Thus, a systematic review on 15 large-scale PV solar energy projects was carried out to assess the industry impacts, through environmental impact assessment (EIA), within the Autonomous Community of Castilla—La Mancha. An estimation of these impacts from a pre-operational approach is presented, based on primary energy needs and emissions discarded during its life cycle due to the manufacture, operation, and recycling of the photovoltaic modules. Based on both the life cycle assessment (LCA) and EIA, the approaches were compared with the results obtained. The obtained results suggest that determining the actual impacts of power plants in this region could provide justified information for the public administration and te... [more]
Environmental Impact Assessment and Classification of 48 V Plug-in Hybrids with Real-Driving Use Case Simulations
Tobias Frambach, Ralf Kleisch, Ralf Liedtke, Jochen Schwarzer, Egbert Figgemeier
March 1, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: 48 V, battery sizing, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), Life Cycle Analysis, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), real-driving simulation
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are commonly operated with high-voltage (HV) components due to their higher power availability compared to 48 V-systems. On the contrary, HV-powertrain components are more expensive and require additional safety measures. Additionally, the HV system can only be repaired and maintained with special equipment and protective gear, which is not available in all workshops. PHEVs based on a 48 V-system level can offer a reasonable compromise between the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission-saving potential and cost-effectiveness in small- and medium-sized electrified vehicles. In our study, the lifecycle emissions of the proposed 48 V PHEV system were compared to a conventional vehicle, 48 V HEV, and HV PHEV for individual driving use cases. To ensure a holistic evaluation, the analysis was based on measured real-driving cycles including Global Position System (GPS) map-matched slope profiles for a parallel hybrid. Optimal PHEV battery capacities were derive... [more]
Life Cycle Assessment of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emission from HEV, PHEV and BEV for China in the Past, Present and Future
Renjie Wang, Yuanyuan Song, Honglei Xu, Yue Li, Jie Liu
February 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: CO2 emissions, electric vehicles, fossil fuel consumption, generation mix, Life Cycle Analysis
In order to fulfill the commitment of China to achieve carbon peak by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2060, all industries have been taking their respective carbon reduction actions. The transportation industry accounts for 11% of CO2 emission of the whole society, and its energy conservation and carbon reduction benefit is of great significance to the national carbon reduction process. New energy vehicles are undoubtedly one of the most important means of carbon emission reduction in the transportation sector. However, electric vehicles still have CO2 emissions, as the fossil fuel use comes from upstream power. To systematically and comprehensively evaluate the CO2 emissions of HEV, PHEV and BEV in the whole process, this study introduces the life-cycle method to research on the past and current situations, and predict future scenarios for ICEV and EV light-duty vehicles at the national and regional levels, by deeply analyzing the generation mix and generating efficiency from the WTT st... [more]
Life Cycle Analysis of Innovative Technologies: Cold Formed Steel System and Cross Laminated Timber
Ornella Iuorio, Antonio Gigante, Rosa Francesca De Masi
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: cold formed steel, cross laminate timber, embodied carbon, greenhouse gases, Life Cycle Analysis, net zero
Reducing the embodied and operational energy of buildings is a key priority for construction and real estate sectors. It is essential to prioritize materials and construction technologies with low carbon footprints for the design of new buildings. Off-site constructions systems are claimed to have the potential to deliver a low carbon build environment, but at present there are a lack of data about their real environmental impacts. This paper sheds lights on the environmental performance of two offsite technologies: cold formed steel and cross laminated timber. Specifically, the environmental impacts of a CFS technology are discussed according to six standard impact categories, which includes the global warming potential and the total use of primary energy. The study is based on a detailed cradle to gate life cycle analysis of a real case study, and discusses the impacts of both structural and non-structural components of CFS constructions. As a useful frame of reference, this work com... [more]
Life Cycle Assessment of an Integrated PV-ACAES System
Daniele Cocco, Lorenzo Lecis, Davide Micheletto
February 22, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: adiabatic compressed air energy storage, Energy Storage, Life Cycle Analysis, renewable energy sources, sustainable energy communities
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the overall life cycle environmental impact of an adiabatic compressed air energy storage (ACAES) system, which is designed to achieve the best match between the power production of a photovoltaic (PV) power plant and the power demand from the final user. The electrical energy demand of a small town, with a maximum power load of about 10 MW, is considered a case study. The ACAES system is designed with a compressor-rated power of about 10 MW and charging and discharging times of 10 and 24 h, respectively. Different sizes of the PV plant, ranging from 20 to 40 MWp, and two different solutions for the compressed air storage, an underground cavern, and a gas pipeline, are analyzed. The aim of this analysis is to compare the impacts on human health, ecosystem quality, climate change, and resource consumption of the PV power generation plant and the integrated PV-ACAES system with those of a reference scenario in which the end user demand is met entirely... [more]
Life Cycle Assessment of Industrial Building Construction and Recovery Potential. Case Studies in Seville
Madelyn Marrero, Cristina Rivero-Camacho, Alejandro Martínez-Rocamora, María Desirée Alba-Rodríguez, Jaime Solís-Guzmán
February 22, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: carbon footprint, industrial building, Life Cycle Analysis, recycling potential, water footprint
In Spain, most businesses are medium to small size enterprises, representing 90% of the total, but there is a lack of studies of the types of building this sector uses. The main objective of this paper is to present a method for the evaluation of small industrial construction projects to facilitate the introduction of eco-efficient solutions. For this, it is necessary to identify the most representative buildings and the aspects of these which have the most environmental impact. A methodology in place for the evaluation of dwelling construction is adapted, for the first time, to evaluate industrial buildings. The construction solutions characterized are those traditionally used in the sector, as identified through 87 surveys. A standardized classification of work units is proposed to enable the use of environmental product information, such as eco-labels and/or EPD, and LCA databases. The carbon footprint (CF) and water footprint (WF) are the indicators selected because of their straig... [more]
Life Cycle Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of Primary and Recycled Aluminum in China
Tianduo Peng, Lei Ren, Ershun Du, Xunmin Ou, Xiaoyu Yan
February 21, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, Life Cycle Analysis, primary and recycled aluminum
Aluminum production is a major energy consumer and important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. Estimation of the energy consumption and GHG emissions caused by aluminum production in China has attracted widespread attention because China produces more than half of the global aluminum. This paper conducted life cycle (LC) energy consumption and GHG emissions analysis of primary and recycled aluminum in China for the year 2020, considering the provincial differences on both the scale of self-generated electricity consumed in primary aluminum production and the generation source of grid electricity. Potentials for energy saving and GHG emissions reductions were also investigated. The results indicate that there are 157,207 MJ of primary fossil energy (PE) consumption and 15,947 kg CO2-eq of GHG emissions per ton of primary aluminum ingot production in China, with the LC GHG emissions as high as 1.5−3.5 times that of developed economies. The LC PE consumption and GHG emiss... [more]
Assessing Long-Term Medical Remanufacturing Emissions with Life Cycle Analysis
Julia A. Meister, Jack Sharp, Yan Wang, Khuong An Nguyen
February 17, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: carbon footprint, greenhouse gas emissions, Life Cycle Analysis, medical remanufacturing, single-use devices
The unsustainable take-make-dispose linear economy prevalent in healthcare contributes 4.4% to global Greenhouse Gas emissions. A popular but not yet widely-embraced solution is to remanufacture common single-use medical devices like electrophysiology catheters, significantly extending their lifetimes by enabling a circular life cycle. To support the adoption of catheter remanufacturing, we propose a comprehensive emission framework and carry out a holistic evaluation of virgin manufactured and remanufactured carbon emissions with Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). We followed ISO modelling standards and NHS reporting guidelines to ensure industry relevance. We conclude that remanufacturing may lead to a reduction of up to 60% per turn (−1.92 kg CO2eq, burden-free) and 57% per life (−1.87 kg CO2eq, burdened). Our extensive sensitivity analysis and industry-informed buy-back scheme simulation revealed long-term emission reductions of up to 48% per remanufactured catheter life (−1.73 kg CO2eq).... [more]
Life cycle analyses of SOFC/gas turbine hybrid power plants accounting for long-term degradation effects
Haoxiang Lai, Thomas Adams II
January 5, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Uncategorized
In this study, cradle-to-product life cycle analyses were conducted for a variety of natural-gas-based and coal-based SOFC power plant conceptual designs, while also accounting for long-term SOFC degradation. For each type of plant, four base case designs were considered: a standalone SOFC plant, a standalone SOFC plant with a steam cycle, an SOFC/GT hybrid plant, and an SOFC/GT hybrid plant with a steam cycle. The boundary of each base case was subsequently expanded to include either wet cooling or dry cooling options and DC to AC conversion, and was subjected to additional cradle-to-product life cycle analyses. The environmental impact results were computed using ReCiPe 2016 (H) and TRACI 2.1 V1.05 in SimaPro. The main factors affecting the midpoint impacts between cases were the plant efficiency and total SOFC manufacturing required over the plant’s lifetime, which were both strongly connected to long-term degradation effects. The findings also showed that the standalone SOFC plant... [more]
Life cycle analyses of SOFC/gas turbine hybrid power plants accounting for long-term degradation effects
Haoxiang Lai, Thomas Adams II
January 5, 2023 (v2)
SimaPro model used in this work.
Is CCS really so expensive? An analysis of cascading costs and CO2 emissions reduction of industrial CCS implementation applied to a bridge
Sai Gokul Subraveti, Elda Rodriguez, Andrea Ramirez, Simon Roussanaly
July 19, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Bridge, Carbon Capture and Storage, CCS, Cement, Cost-Benefit analysis, Life Cycle Analysis, Steel, Technoeconomic Analysis
Carbon capture, transport, and storage (CCS) is an essential technology to mitigate global CO2 emissions from power and industry sectors. Despite the increasing recognition and interest in both the scientific community and stakeholders, current CCS deployment is far behind targeted ambitions. A key reason is that CCS is often perceived as too expensive to reduce CO2 emissions. The costs of CCS have however traditionally been looked at from the industrial plant point of view which does not necessarily reflect the end-user’s perspective. This paper addresses the incomplete view by investigating the impact of implementing CCS in industrial facilities on the overall costs and CO2 emissions of end-user products and services. As an example, this work examines the extent to which an increase in costs of raw materials (cement and steel) due to CCS impact the costs of building a bridge. Our results show that although CCS significantly increases the cost of cement and steel, the subsequent incre... [more]
Dynamic Lifecycle Assessment of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Considering Long-Term Degradation Effects
Mina Naeini, James S. Cotton, Thomas A. Adams II
December 15, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Environmental impacts, Life Cycle Analysis, Performance degradation, SOFC
The submission includes SimaPro project for LCA of SOFCs with 10-year replacement plan, a text file explaining how to run the SimaPro file, and SOFC inventory tables provided in an Excel file.
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