Records with Keyword: Extraction
Showing records 1 to 25 of 52. [First] Page: 1 2 3 Last
Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) in an Intermittent Process as an Alternative for Obtaining Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis) Leaf Hydroalcoholic Extract (Tincture)
Larissa da Cunha Rodrigues, Renata Barbosa Bodini, Fernando de Lima Caneppele, Gustavo César Dacanal, Eduardo José Crevelin, Luiz Alberto Beraldo de Moraes, Alessandra Lopes de Oliveira
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Extraction, Fick’s Law, high-pressure, intermittent process, isovitexin, phenolic compounds
Tinctures are medicinal plant extracts obtained by extraction with a hydroalcoholic solution (70%) by percolation (PER). This process takes about 26 h to prepare, in addition to using a large amount of solvent. In our research, passion fruit leaf tinctures were obtained using extract with the same pressurized hydroalcoholic solution as in an intermittent process. The objective was to demonstrate that this emerging technology can be economical and profitable. An optimization using Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was performed to evaluate the influence of process variables on the yields and compositions of the extracts. The temperature (T) was the factor that most influenced the responses. Extraction with pressurized liquid (PLE) provided total yields and total phenolic and flavonoid contents in greater amounts than PER. The optimized conditions of the process variables studied in the CCRD for the highest content of total phenolics (43.2 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids (58.8 mg QE/g)... [more]
DFT Prediction of Radiolytic Stability of Conformationally Flexible Ligands
Anastasiia Smirnova, Maksim Yablonskiy, Vladimir Petrov, Artem Mitrofanov
May 2, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: DFT, diglycolamides, Extraction, irradiation, radiolytic stability, spent nuclear fuel
Radiolytic stability is one of the main requirements of the ligands for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The prediction of radiation stability based only on the 2D molecular structural formula allows us to accelerate and simplify the development of new ligands. Here, we used quantum chemistry to investigate the radiolytic behavior of water-soluble diglycolamides as one of the most popular ligands for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The accurate accounting of conformational mobility in the descriptors based on the Frontier Orbital Fukui theory allowed us to obtain a good correlation between theoretical and experimental data.
Studies of Niobium Sorption from Chloride Solutions with the Use of Anion-Exchange Resins
Almagul Ultarakova, Zaure Karshyga, Nina Lokhova, Azamat Yessengaziyev, Kaisar Kassymzhanov, Arailym Mukangaliyeva
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: anion-exchange resin, distribution coefficient, exchange capacity, Extraction, niobium, sorption
This paper presents the results of studies for niobium sorption from chloride solutions with the use of anion-exchange organic sorbents: Amberlite IRA-67, Purolite A-100, AB-17-8, and AN-2FN. Niobium sorption was performed from model niobium-containing solutions. Data on comparative sorption characteristics of the studied sorbents were obtained, and the static exchange capacity of the sorbents, values of distribution coefficients, and extraction degree during the niobium sorption from chloride solutions were calculated. The Purolite A-100 anion-exchange resin exhibited the highest affinity for niobium ions under the conditions studied. Its distribution coefficient was 184 mL/g; the niobium extraction degree was 41.5%. To study the equilibrium sorption of niobium from solution on the Purolite A-100 anionite, three well-known models of isotherms were applied: Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin−Radushkevich. The data obtained confirm the good agreement of the Langmuir model with the result... [more]
Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Water-Extracted and Aqueous Ethanol-Extracted Quinoa Stalks for Enzymatic Saccharification of Cellulose
Cristhian Carrasco, Leif J. Jönsson, Carlos Martín
April 21, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: enzymatic saccharification, Extraction, hydrothermal pretreatment, quinoa stalks, saponins
Auto-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment (A-HTP) and sulfuric-acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment (SA-HTP) were applied to quinoa stalks in order to reduce their recalcitrance towards enzymatic saccharification. Prior to pretreatment, quinoa stalks were extracted with either water or a 50:50 (v/v) ethanol−water mixture for removing saponins. Extraction with water or aqueous ethanol, respectively, led to removal of 52 and 75% (w/w) of the saponins contained in the raw material. Preliminary extraction of quinoa stalks allowed for a lower overall severity during pretreatment, and it led to an increase of glucan recovery in the pretreated solids (above 90%) compared with that of non-extracted quinoa stalks (73−74%). Furthermore, preliminary extraction resulted in enhanced hydrolysis of hemicelluloses and lower by-product formation during pretreatment. The enhancement of hemicelluloses hydrolysis by pre-extraction was more noticeable for SA-HTP than for A-HTP. As a result of the pretre... [more]
A Comparative Study on Thermochemical Valorization Routes for Spent Coffee Grounds
Jie Yang, Hao Chen, Haibo Niu, Josiah McNutt, Quan He
April 21, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: biocrude, biodiesel, Extraction, hydrothermal liquefaction, life cycle assessment, spent coffee grounds
Extracting oil from spent coffee grounds (SCG) for biodiesel production has recently attracted much research interest. Large amounts of organic solvents are involved for oil extraction and biodiesel synthesis. Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an emerging thermochemical technology with great potential for biocrude production from a broad range of feedstocks. This study attempted to compare two SCG valorization options: route 1, oil extraction for biodiesel production followed by HTL of defatted SCG; and route 2, direct HTL of raw SCG. The microwave-assisted extraction conditions were optimized to effectively remove oil from SCG using response surface methodology. Under optimal conditions, an SCG oil yield of 8.4 wt.% could be achieved. HTL of defatted SCG generated less biocrude (18.9 wt.%) than that of raw SCG (28.1 wt.%). The biochemical compositions of resultant biocrudes were largely different from each other. The life cycle assessment was conducted on each of the SCG valorization... [more]
Analysis of the Pyrolytic Behaviour of Birch, Maple, and Rowan Leaves
Valentina Zubkova, Andrzej Strojwas, Marcin Bielecki
April 19, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Extraction, leaves, pyrolysis, TG/FT-IR, UV-spectroscopy, XRD
A research study was conducted on the thermal behaviour of leaves of urban greenery (birch, maple, and rowan) and the products of their pyrolysis and extraction as assisted by microwaves. The obtained products of pyrolysis and extraction were investigated with the use of FT-IR and UV spectroscopies and XRD techniques. A contractive analysis of samples of chars, condensates, after-extraction residue, and extracts showed that the changes in structural-chemical parameters of leaves of different types of trees during pyrolysis and extraction take place in distinct ways. About 22% of material was removed from birch leaves during extraction, and more than 17% of material was extracted from maple and rowan leaves. It was determined that, during pyrolysis of after-extraction residue of leaves, many fewer PAH compounds with carbonyl groups along with alcohols and phenols are emitted than during pyrolysis of non-extracted leaves. Taking into account that pyrolysis is the first stage of combustio... [more]
Optimal Monazite Concentration Processes for the Extraction of Uranium and Thorium Fuel Material
Olga Fedorova, Elizaveta Vershinina, Svetlana Krasitskaya, Ivan Tananaev, Boris Myasoedov, Marco Vocciante
April 3, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: autoclave leaching, Extraction, flow chart, monazite, radium, rare earth elements, separation, thorium, uranium
The optimal conditions for the nitric acid dissolution of precipitates of hydroxides and hydrated oxides of rare-earth elements, uranium, and thorium obtained after autoclave alkaline opening of samples of monazite concentrate have been determined. The distribution of radioactive impurities between the solid phase and the solution in the processes of alkaline opening, dephosphorization, and acid dissolution of the pulp was studied. Two options are proposed for the extraction of uranium and thorium in the presence of rare earth elements, followed by separation of the components using tributyl phosphate of various contents in the carbon diluent.
Characterization of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil from Hardwood and Softwood Lignin
Zahra Echresh Zadeh, Ali Abdulkhani, Basudeb Saha
March 22, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: bio-oil, bioenergy, characterization, Extraction, lignin, pyrolysis
The depletion of fossil fuel reserves and the increase of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission have led to moving towards alternative, renewable, and sustainable energy sources. Lignin is one of the significant, renewable and sustainable energy sources of biomass and pyrolysis is one of the most promising technologies that can convert lignocellulosic biomass to bio-oil. This study focuses on the production and characterization of bio-oil from hardwood and softwood lignin via pyrolysis process using a bench-scale batch reactor. In this study, a mixed solvent extraction method with different polarities was developed to fractionate different components of bio-crude oil into three fractions. The obtained fractions were characterized by using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS). The calculated bio-oil yields from Sigma Kraft lignin and Chouka Kraft lignin were about 30.2% and 24.4%, respectively. The organic solvents, e.g., toluene, methanol, and water were evaluated for chemical ext... [more]
Research on Mechanical−Structural and Oil Yield Properties during Xanthoceras sorbifolium Seed Oil Extraction
Xiaopeng Liu, Huan Chen, Liu Yang, Yonglin Zhang
March 20, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Extraction, in-situ observation, mechanical–structural property, oil yield, Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge seed
Products from Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge seed have gained extensive attention for various applications, especially in the fields of edible oils and industrial applications. In order to study seed kernel mechanical−structural behavior and oil yield mechanisms during extrusion, we set up a self-developed texture analyzer with in situ microscope observation. Test results indicated that seed kernel oil yield and pressing energy showed an approximately parabolic shape under pressing strain, and maximum oil yield reached 25.7%. Only local tissue damage occurred on seed kernels at strain 45−85%, cracks formed from the kernel edge to the inside zone and small cracks obviously increased in number, corresponding with the oil yield and energy−strain curve. The effect of speed on oil yield showed an opposite trend to strain effect; high pressing speed led to lower oil yield due to the short time for oil precipitation and lower pressing energy. Dwell time obviously promoted oil output within 600... [more]
A Study of the Pyrolysis Products of Kraft Lignin
Matteo Borella, Alessandro A. Casazza, Gabriella Garbarino, Paola Riani, Guido Busca
March 2, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: alkyl-alkoxy-phenols, Extraction, lignin, pyrolysis, sulfur compounds
In order to valorize lignin wastes to produce useful aromatic compounds, the thermal degradation pyrolysis of Kraft lignin in the absence of catalysts has been investigated at 350, 450, and 550 °C. The high content of sulfur in the fresh sample led to the formation of S-containing compounds in products whose evolution in the gas phase was monitored through GC-MS analysis. Pyrolytic gas is rich in CH4, CO, CO2, and H2S with the presence of other sulfur compounds in smaller amounts (i.e., CH3SH, CH3-S-CH3, SO2, COS, and CS2). Biochar morphology and elemental composition have been investigated by means of SEM and EDX. The carbon content reaches ~90% after pyrolysis at 550 °C, while the oxygen content showed a decreasing trend with increasing temperature. From GC-MS analysis, bio-oil resulted rich in alkyl-alkoxy phenols, together with (alkyl)dihydroxy benzenes and minor amounts of hydrocarbons and sulfur compounds. NaOH/H2O and EtOH/H2O extraction were performed with the aim of extracting... [more]
Intensification of endo-1,4-Xylanase Extraction by Coupling Microextractors and Aqueous Two-Phase System
Marko Božinović, Renata Vičević, Nikolina Zekić, Anita Šalić, Ana Jurinjak Tušek, Bruno Zelić
February 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: aqueous two-phase system, batch extraction, continuous microextractor, Extraction, Optimization, xylanase
The extraction of xylanase was performed using an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) based on polyethylene glycol (PEG1540) and various salts. Preliminary studies in a batch extractor showed that the highest extraction efficiency, E = 79.63 ± 5.21%, and purification factor, PF = 1.26 ± 0.25, were obtained with sodium citrate dihydrate-H2O-PEG1540-based ATPS for an extraction time of 10 min. The process was optimized using the experimental Box-Behnken design at three levels with three factors: extraction time (t), xylanase concentration (γ), and mass fraction of PEG in the ATPS (wPEG). Under optimal process conditions (γ = 0.3 mg/mL, wPEG = 0.21 w/w, and t = 15 min), E = 99.13 ± 1.20% and PF = 6.49 ± 0.05 were achieved. In order to intensify the process, the extraction was performed continuously in microextractors at optimal process conditions. The influence of residence time, different feeding strategies, and channel diameter on extraction efficiency and purification factor was further ex... [more]
Brown Seaweed Sargassum-Based Sorbents for the Removal of Cr(III) Ions from Aqueous Solutions
Natalia Niedzbała, Katarzyna Dziergowska, Maja Wełna, Anna Szymczycha-Madeja, Jacek Chęcmanowski, Nathalie Bourgougnon, Izabela Michalak
February 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Cr(III) ions sorption, Extraction, nanoparticles biosynthesis, seaweed, Wastewater
In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were biosynthesized with the use of an extract derived from seaweed (Sargassum sp.) and used as a sorbent for the removal of Cr(III) ions from wastewater. The biosorption properties of the seaweed itself as well as of the post-extraction residue were investigated for comparison. ZnO NPs were characterized with UV−vis, ICP-OES, FTIR, XRD, and SEM techniques. The sorption capacity of the (bio)sorbents was investigated as a function of contact time at different pH values and initial concentrations of metal ions. Sorption kinetics and isotherms were studied in order to comprehend the sorption nature and mechanism. The sorption kinetic data were well-fitted with the pseudo-second-order model, and the highest sorption capacity was calculated for ZnO NPs (137 mg/g), whereas those calculated for Sargassum sp. (82.0 mg/g) and the post-extraction residue (81.3 mg/g) were comparable (at pH 5 and 300 mg of Cr(III) ions/L). The adsorption isotherms... [more]
Isolation and Purification of Actinides Using N,O-Hybrid Donor Ligands for Closing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
Mikhail Alyapyshev, Vasiliy Babain, Dmitry Kirsanov
February 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: actinide, Extraction, lanthanide, N,O-hybrid extractant, separation
Despite the fact that in the mass consciousness nuclear power is associated with increased environmental risks, this type of energy today remains one of the cleanest, most efficient and carbon neutral. Further development of nuclear energy is hampered by the problem of appropriate handling of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). A very attractive concept of the closed nuclear cycle has been developed to solve it. A real-life implementation of this concept requires the development of technological processes for the efficient separation of minor actinides from the rest of the SNF components. Recent progress in this area has been closely associated with N,O-hybrid donor ligands for liquid−liquid extraction. This work systematically reviews the available literature on the topic and provides detailed explanations on the behavior of the most perspective ligands. Notably, another important aspect of the application of N,O-hybrid donor ligands in nuclear cycle analytics through their incorporation in che... [more]
Cs Extraction from Chloride Media by Calixarene Crown-Ethers
Marie Simonnet, Thomas Sittel, Patrik Weßling, Andreas Geist
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Asse II salt mine, calixarene-crown-ether, cesium, chloride media, decontamination, Extraction, radioactive waste
Asse II salt mine, in Germany, contains low and intermediate-level radioactive waste that must be retrieved in the upcoming years. Potentially contaminated salts and brines will require treatment, with 137Cs being the main contaminant. Cs+ is problematic to selectively recover due to its chemical similarity with Na+ and K+ which are present in high quantities in a salt mine. This paper offers a novel solution for Cs+ separation from concentrated chloride salt media by solvent extraction with calixarene-crown-ether extractants in an alcoholic diluent. The proposed solvent extracts Cs+ at elevated chloride concentrations (3−4 M) while back-extraction is achieved by contacting the solvent with dilute (0.01 M) hydrochloric acid.
A Paradox over Electric Vehicles, Mining of Lithium for Car Batteries
John H. T. Luong, Cang Tran, Di Ton-That
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: brines, car battery, CO2 emission, electric vehicles, Extraction, lithium, lithium reserves, lithium-ion battery (LiB), mining, recycling
Lithium, a silver-white alkali metal, with significantly high energy density, has been exploited for making rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LiBs). They have become one of the main energy storage solutions in modern electric cars (EVs). Cobalt, nickel, and manganese are three other key components of LiBs that power electric vehicles (EVs). Neodymium and dysprosium, two rare earth metals, are used in the permanent magnet-based motors of EVs. The operation of EVs also requires a high amount of electricity for recharging their LiBs. Thus, the CO2 emission is reduced during the operation of an EV if the recharged electricity is generated from non-carbon sources such as hydroelectricity, solar energy, and nuclear energy. LiBs in EVs have been pushed to the limit because of their limited storage capacity and charge/discharge cycles. Batteries account for a substantial portion of the size and weight of an EV and occupy the entire chassis. Thus, future LiBs must be smaller and more powerful... [more]
Influence of Physicochemical Properties and Parent Material on Chromium Fractionation in Soils
Claudia Campillo-Cora, Laura Rodríguez-González, Manuel Arias-Estévez, David Fernández-Calviño, Diego Soto-Gómez
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: CaCl2, DTPA, Extraction, H2O, heavy metal, Modelling, predict, spiking
Chromium is an element that possess several oxidation states and can easily pass from one to another, so its behavior in soils is very complex. For this reason, determining its fate in the environment can be difficult. In this research work we tried to determine which factors affect the chromium fractionation in natural soils, conditioning chromium mobility. We paid special attention to the parent material. For this purpose, extraction experiments were carried out on spiked soils incubated for 50−60 days, using H2O, CaCl2 and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The most efficient extraction rate in all soils was achieved using water, followed by CaCl2 and DTPA. We obtained models with an adjusted R2 of 0.8097, 0.8471 and 0.7509 for the H2O Cr, CaCl2 Cr and DTPA Cr respectively. All models were influenced by the amount of chromium added and the parent material: amphibolite and granite influenced the amount of H2O Cr extracted, and schist affected the other two fractions (CaCl2 an... [more]
Effect of Processing on Phenolic Composition of Olive Oil Products and Olive Mill By-Products and Possibilities for Enhancement of Sustainable Processes
Fereshteh Safarzadeh Markhali
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: Extraction, olive mill by-products, olive oil products, phenolics, processing, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The bio-functional properties of olive oil products and by-products rely greatly on the proportions and types of the endogenous phenolics that may favorably/unfavorably change during various processing conditions. The olive oil industrial activities typically produce (i) olive oils, the main/marketable products, and (ii) olive mill by-products. The mechanical processing of olive oil extraction is making progress in some areas. However, the challenges inherent in the existing system, taking into consideration, the susceptibilities of phenolics and their biosynthetic variations during processing, hamper efforts to ascertain an ideal approach. The proposed innovative means, such as inclusion of emerging technologies in extraction system, show potential for sustainable development of olive oil processing. Another crucial factor, together with the technological advancements of olive oil extraction, is the valorization of olive mill by-products that are presently underused while having great... [more]
Recovery of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) Using Ionic Solvents
Guilhem Arrachart, Julien Couturier, Sandrine Dourdain, Clément Levard, Stéphane Pellet-Rostaing
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: deep-eutectic solvent, Extraction, ionic liquid, leaching, rare earth elements, separation
Rare earth elements (REEs) are becoming more and more significant as they play crucial roles in many advanced technologies. Therefore, the development of optimized processes for their recovery, whether from primary resources or from secondary sources, has become necessary, including recovery from mine tailings, recycling of end-of-life products and urban and industrial waste. Ionic solvents, including ionic liquids (ILs) and deep-eutectic solvents (DESs), have attracted much attention since they represent an alternative to conventional processes for metal recovery. These systems are used as reactive agents in leaching and extraction processes. The most significant studies reported in the last decade regarding the recovery of REEs are presented in this review.
A Review of the Extraction and Closed-Loop Spray Drying-Assisted Micro-Encapsulation of Algal Lutein for Functional Food Delivery
Zexin Lei, Timothy Langrish
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: algae, closed loop spray drying, Extraction, glass transition temperature, lutein, microencapsulation
In this study, the physical and chemical properties and bioavailability of lutein have been summarized, with the novelty of this work being the review of lutein from production to extraction, through to preservation and drying, in order to deliver a functional food ingredient. The potential health functions of lutein have been introduced in detail. By comparing algae and marigold flowers, the advantages of algae extraction technology have been discussed. In this article, we have introduced the use of closed-loop spray drying technology to microencapsulate lutein to improve its stability and solubility. Microencapsulation of unstable substances by spray drying is a potentially useful direction that is worth exploring further.
Sonication, a Potential Technique for Extraction of Phytoconstituents: A Systematic Review
Muhammad Modassar A. N. Ranjha, Shafeeqa Irfan, José M. Lorenzo, Bakhtawar Shafique, Rabia Kanwal, Mirian Pateiro, Rai Naveed Arshad, Lufeng Wang, Gulzar Ahmad Nayik, Ume Roobab, Rana Muhammad Aadil
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: bioactive compounds, Extraction, oils, pectin, sonication, ultrasound
Traditional extraction techniques have lost their optimum performance because of rising consumer demand and novel technologies. In this regard, several techniques were developed by humans for the extraction of plant materials from various indigenous sources, which are no longer in use. Many of the techniques are not efficient enough to extract maximum plant material. By this time, evolution in extraction has led to development of various techniques including microfiltration, pulsed electric fields, high pressure, microwave assistance, enzyme assistance, supercritical fluid, subcritical fluid and ultrasonication. These innovations in food processing/extraction are known as “Green Food Processing”. These technologies were basically developed by focusing on three universal parameters: simplicity, energy efficiency and economy. These green technologies are practical in a number of different food sectors, mostly for preservation, inhibition of microorganisms, inactivation of enzymes and ext... [more]
Selective Gold and Palladium Adsorption from Standard Aqueous Solutions
Paolo Trucillo, Ernesto Di Maio, Amedeo Lancia, Francesco Di Natale
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Adsorption, Extraction, hydrometallurgy, leaching, platinum group metals, precious metals
The intensive exploitation of resources on a global level has led to a progressive depletion of mineral reserves, which were proved to be insufficient to meet the high demand for high-technological devices. On the other hand, the continuous production of Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is causing serious environmental problems, due to the complex composition of WEEE, which makes the recycling and reuse particularly challenging. The average metal content of WEEE is estimated to be around 30% and varies depending on the manufacturing period and brand of production. It contains base metals and precious metals, such as gold and palladium. The remaining 70% of WEEEs is composed of plastics, resins, and glassy materials. The recovery of metals from WEEEs is characterized by two main processes well represented by the literature: Pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy. Both of them require the pre-treatment of WEEEs, such as dismantling and magnetic separation of plastics. In... [more]
Improvement of Carrot Accelerated Solvent Extraction Efficacy Using Experimental Design and Chemometric Techniques
Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Strahinja Kovačević, Vanja Šeregelj, Olja Šovljanski, Anamarija Mandić, Gordana Ćetković, Jelena Vulić, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: antioxidant activity, carotenoids, Extraction, hierarchical cluster analysis, polyphenols, response surface methodology, sum of ranking differences
Human studies have demonstrated the multiple health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Due to its high fiber, mineral and antioxidant content, carrot is an ideal source for the development of nutraceuticals or functional ingredients. Current research assesses accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) traits which affect the antioxidant qualities of carrot extract using response surface methodology (RSM), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and the sum of ranking differences (SRD). A mixture of organic solvents, acetone, and ethanol with or without the addition of 20% water was applied. The total carotenoid and polyphenol contents in extracts, as well as their scavenging activity and reducing power, were used as responses for the optimization of ASE extraction. RSM optimization, in the case of 20% water involvement, included 49% of acetone and 31% of ethanol (Opt1), while in the case of pure organic solvents, pure ethanol was the best choice (Opt2). The results of HCA clearly pointed out si... [more]
Evaluation of Inhibitory Activities of Sophora flavescens and Angelica gigas Nakai Root Extracts against Monoamine Oxidases, Cholinesterases, and β-Secretase
Jong Eun Park, Seul-Ki Mun, Sung-Tae Yee, Hoon Kim
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: Angelica gigas Nakai, Extraction, multi-target inhibition, neurodegenerative diseases, Sophora flavescens
In this study, Sophora flavescens (SF) from Yeongcheon (YSF) and Mt. Jiri (JiSF), and Angelica gias (AG) from Yeongcheon (YAG), Mt. Jiri (JiAG), and Jecheon (JeAG) were extracted using three concentrations of ethanol, 95% (95Et), 70% (70Et), and 50% (50Et), and hot water (DW) to evaluate the inhibitions of monoamine oxidases (MAOs; MAO-A and B), cholinesterases (ChEs; AChE and BChE) and β-secretase (BACE1) for targeting depression and neurodegenerative diseases. There were no significant differences in constituent compounds depending on herbal origins, except that YSF-95Et and JiSF-95Et showed a distinct non-polar spot upper maackiain position, and JiAG and JeAG showed a higher amount of decursin than YAG. Ethanolic YAG and JeAG extracts showed the highest MAO-A inhibition, and YSF-95Et mostly inhibited MAO-B. JiSF-95Et showed the highest AChE inhibition and YSF-70Et, JiSF-95Et, and -70Et showed the highest BChE inhibition. Interestingly, ethanolic AG extracts showed extremely potent B... [more]
Optimization of Extraction of Natural Antimicrobial Pigments Using Supercritical Fluids: A Review
Tarek Abou Elmaaty, Khaled Sayed-Ahmed, Hanan Elsisi, Mai Magdi
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: antimicrobial activity, Extraction, natural pigments, Optimization, supercritical fluid
It has become increasingly popular to replace chemically synthesized compounds with natural counterparts mostly found in natural sources, such as natural pigments. The conventional extraction processes for these compounds are limited by the toxicity and flammability of the solvents. To obtain pure extracts, it is always a longer process that requires several steps. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a cutting-edge green technology that is continuously increasing and expanding its fields of application, with benefits such as no waste produced, shorter extraction time, automation, and lower solvent consumption. The SFE of natural pigments has high potential in food, textiles, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals; there are a number of other applications that can benefit from the SFE technique of natural pigments. The pigments that are extracted via SFE have a high potential for application and sustainability because of their biological and antimicrobial properties as well as low environme... [more]
A Comparative Analysis of Vanadyl Porphyrins Isolated from Resins of Heavy Oils with High and Low Vanadium Content
Makhmut Yakubov, Guzalia Abilova, Elvira Tazeeva, Svetlana Yakubova, Damir Tazeev, Nikolay Mironov, Dmitriy Milordov
February 22, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: chromatography, Extraction, heavy oil, MALDI mass spectrometry, resins, spectroscopy, vanadium, vanadyl porphyrins
The composition of purified vanadyl porphyrins recovered from the resins of heavy oils possessing high and low vanadium contents was investigated. Vanadium content in the resins of the heavy oils under study differs by a factor of ca. 15. To recover and purify vanadyl porphyrins from the resins, extraction by N,N−dimethylformamide (DMF) with subsequent two-stage column chromatography on silica gel and sulfocationite were employed. The change of structural-group composition and content of vanadyl porphyrins in the products obtained at each stage was evaluated using Fourier IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Analysis of the purified vanadyl porphyrins using MALDI mass spectrometry determined distribution of their most abundant types (etio- and DPEP) and identified C27−C39 homologs for the resins possessing high vanadium content and C28−C39 homologs for the resins with low vanadium content.
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