Records with Keyword: Energy Efficiency
Energy Transitions in Nigeria: The Evolution of Energy Infrastructure Provision (1800⁻2015)
Norbert Edomah, Chris Foulds, Aled Jones
December 3, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Africa, developing countries, energy demand, Energy Efficiency, energy histories, energy policy, energy transitions
The provision of energy infrastructure is essential for economic growth, social cohesion, and environmental sustainability. Understanding the multiple functions and services it provides us requires firstly a deeper understanding of the factors that influence energy infrastructure itself. This paper focusses on the factors that influence the evolution of energy infrastructure in Nigeria. By studying different eras of energy use according to the technologies that were being implemented, resources that were available, and the political practice of the time it is possible to better frame the drivers of energy infrastructure. The paper explores the transitions of how Nigerians managed to obtain the vast majority of energy from food calories and traditional biomass, to the broad portfolio of energy sources that is in use today.
LED (Light-Emitting Diode) Road Lighting in Practice: An Evaluation of Compliance with Regulations and Improvements for Further Energy Savings
Annika K. Jägerbrand
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, luminance, pedestrian and bicycle paths, roads, uniformity
Light-emitting diode (LED) road lighting has been widely implemented in recent years, but few studies have evaluated its performance after installation. This study investigated whether LED road lighting complies with minimum regulations in terms of traffic safety and whether improvements for energy efficiency are possible. Average road surface luminance (L), overall luminance uniformity (Uo), longitudinal luminance uniformity (UI), power density (PD) and normalised power density (PN) were evaluated for 14 roads (seven designed for vehicular traffic and seven for pedestrians and bicycles). Energy savings were calculated as the percentage reduction to the minimum level of the existing lighting class or a lower lighting class and by applying a dimming schedule. The results showed that LED road lighting for vehicular traffic roads generally fulfilled the requirements, whereas that for pedestrian and bicycle roads generally corresponded to the lowest lighting class for L, and often did not... [more]
Energy Research in Airports: A Review
Sergio Ortega Alba, Mario Manana
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: airports, Combined heat and power (CHP) plants, energy benchmarking, energy building, energy conservation, energy consumption, Energy Efficiency, energy modeling, energy simulation, renewable sources
The main function of an airport is to provide access to air transport both for passengers and cargo. The number of air operations over the past 20 years has increased rapidly, and this has led to a rise in the energy needs of airports to satisfy this demand. As a consequence, the cost of energy supply for airport managers has escalated. At the same time, global energy consumption has soared due to the needs of emerging countries like China and India, with the consequent environmental impact. This complex scenario of environmental and economic factors has made airport managers become aware of the need to reduce energy consumption as well as a more efficient use of it. The aim of this article is to analyze the main behaviors and energy trends at airports in more recent research, starting with the description of the main energy sources and consumers, the application of energy conservation and energy efficiency measures, the establishment of energy indicators and benchmarking between airpo... [more]
Modelling the Influence of Climate on the Performance of the Organic Rankine Cycle for Industrial Waste Heat Recovery
Ivan Korolija, Richard Greenough
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: climate, cooling tower, dry condenser, Energy Efficiency, organic Rankine cycle (ORC), recuperator, waste heat
This paper describes a study of the relative influences of different system design decisions upon the performance of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) used to generate electricity from foundry waste heat. The design choices included concern the working fluid, whether to use a regenerator and the type of condenser. The novelty of the research lies in its inclusion of the influence of both the ORC location and the auxiliary electricity used by the pumps and fans in the ORC power system. Working fluids suitable for high temperature applications are compared, including three cyclic siloxanes, four linear siloxanes and three aromatic fluids. The ORC is modelled from first principles and simulation runs carried out using weather data for 106 European locations and a heat input profile that was derived from empirical data. The impact of design decisions upon ORC nominal efficiency is reported followed by the impact upon annual system efficiency in which variations in heat input and the condition... [more]
Economic Impact of Intelligent Dynamic Control in Urban Outdoor Lighting
Igor Wojnicki, Sebastian Ernst, Leszek Kotulski
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: dynamic lighting, Energy Efficiency, intelligent control, intelligent lighting, lighting, outdoor lighting, street lighting
This paper presents and compares the possible energy savings in various approaches to outdoor lighting modernization. Several solutions implementable using currently-available systems are presented and discussed. An innovative approach using real-time sensor data is also presented in detail, along with its formal background, based on Artificial Intelligence methods (rule-based systems) and graph transformations. The efficiency of all approaches has been estimated and compared using real-life data recorded at an urban setting. The article also presents other aspects which influence the efficiency and feasibility of intelligent lighting projects, including design quality, design workload and conformance to standards.
Towards Highly Energy-Efficient Roadway Lighting
Adam Sȩdziwy, Leszek Kotulski
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: computational intelligence, Energy Efficiency, large-scale photometric computations, lighting design, smart grid
The reports presented by consulting firms show that annual energy costs generated by 340 million streetlights are expected to reach $23.9 to $42.5 billion by 2025. Those numbers reveal a motivation behind the research aiming at optimizing outdoor lighting energy efficiency. They show that even a small unit improvement can yield large benefits due to the effect of scale. The development of solid state lighting solutions enables highly effective modernization of street lighting installations. It allows obtaining power saving not only by replacing high pressure lamps with LEDs but also by improving a design quality and by introducing a dynamic street lighting control. Both methods, however, are not feasible for industry-standard software tools due to the significant complexity related to a configuration optimization, especially for large-scale projects. The goal of this article is presenting the workaround to the complexity issue, which is based on application of graph methods. They enabl... [more]
Optimization of the Heating System Use in Aged Public Buildings via Model Predictive Control
Edorta Carrascal, Izaskun Garrido, Aitor J. Garrido, José María Sala
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, energy-saving policies, Model Predictive Control, RC-thermal model, system characterization, thermal comfort
This work presents the implementation of a Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme used to study the improvement of the thermal quality in aged residential buildings without any rehabilitation. The controller manages the heating system of an experimentally characterized model of a residential dwelling in a social block built during the decade of the 1960s located in the neighborhood of Otxarkoaga (Bilbao, Spain), so as to obtain an optimal energy efficiency performance. Due to the characteristics of the construction in those days, this kind of buildings suffer problems related to the use of awkward building materials and inefficient heating systems. A comparison with traditionally used ON-OFF hysteresis control is presented in order to demonstrate the energetic improvement provided by the MPC scheme. Besides, the variation of different parameters of the MPC is also studied to determine its influence over the energy consumption and comfort conditions.
Performance Evaluation of Radiator and Radiant Floor Heating Systems for an Office Room Connected to a Ground-Coupled Heat Pump
Ioan Sarbu, Calin Sebarchievici
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, GCHP, geothermal energy, radiant floor heating, radiator heating, simulation models
A ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system used to provide the space heating for an office room is a renewable, high performance technology. This paper discusses vapour compression-based HP systems, briefly describing the thermodynamic cycle calculations, as well as the coefficient of performance (COP) and CO₂ emissions of a HP with an electro-compressor and compares different heating systems in terms of energy consumption, thermal comfort and environmental impact. It is focused on an experimental study performed to test the energy efficiency of the radiator or radiant floor heating system for an office room connected to a GCHP. The main performance parameters (COP and CO₂ emissions) are obtained for one month of operation of the GCHP system, and a comparative analysis of these parameters is presented. Additionally, two numerical simulation models of useful thermal energy and the system COP in heating mode are developed using the Transient Systems Simulation (TRNSYS) software. Finally, t... [more]
A Biologically-Inspired Power Control Algorithm for Energy-Efficient Cellular Networks
Hyun-Ho Choi, Jung-Ryun Lee
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: bio-inspired algorithm, Energy Efficiency, energy-efficient cellular network, flocking model, green base station, power control algorithm
Most of the energy used to operate a cellular network is consumed by a base station (BS), and reducing the transmission power of a BS can therefore afford a substantial reduction in the amount of energy used in a network. In this paper, we propose a distributed transmit power control (TPC) algorithm inspired by bird flocking behavior as a means of improving the energy efficiency of a cellular network. Just as each bird in a flock attempts to match its velocity with the average velocity of adjacent birds, in the proposed algorithm, each mobile station (MS) in a cell matches its rate with the average rate of the co-channel MSs in adjacent cells by controlling the transmit power of its serving BS. We verify that this bio-inspired TPC algorithm using a local rate-average process achieves an exponential convergence and maximizes the minimum rate of the MSs concerned. Simulation results show that the proposed TPC algorithm follows the same convergence properties as the flocking algorithm and... [more]
Efficient Photovoltaic System Maximum Power Point Tracking Using a New Technique
Mehdi Seyedmahmoudian, Ben Horan, Rasoul Rahmani, Aman Maung Than Oo, Alex Stojcevski
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: computational cost, Energy Efficiency, maximum power point tracking, partial shading conditions, photovoltaic systems, soft computing methods, stability
Partial shading is an unavoidable condition which significantly reduces the efficiency and stability of a photovoltaic (PV) system. When partial shading occurs the system has multiple-peak output power characteristics. In order to track the global maximum power point (GMPP) within an appropriate period a reliable technique is required. Conventional techniques such as hill climbing and perturbation and observation (P&O) are inadequate in tracking the GMPP subject to this condition resulting in a dramatic reduction in the efficiency of the PV system. Recent artificial intelligence methods have been proposed, however they have a higher computational cost, slower processing time and increased oscillations which results in further instability at the output of the PV system. This paper proposes a fast and efficient technique based on Radial Movement Optimization (RMO) for detecting the GMPP under partial shading conditions. The paper begins with a brief description of the behavior of PV... [more]
Controlled Mechanical Ventilation in Buildings: A Comparison between Energy Use and Primary Energy among Twenty Different Devices
Lamberto Tronchin, Kristian Fabbri, Chiara Bertolli
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, indoor air quality, mechanical ventilation, ventilation
Indoor air quality (IAQ) of buildings is a problem that affects both comfort for occupants and the energy consumption of the structure. Controlled mechanical ventilation systems (CMVs) make it possible to control the air exchange rate. When using CMV systems, it is interesting to investigate the relationship between the useful thermal energy requirements for ventilation and the energy consumption of these systems. This paper addresses whether there is a correlation between these two parameters. The methodology used in this work involves the application of equations of technical Italian regulations UNI/TS 11300 applied to a case study. The case study is represented by a 54 m³ room, which is assumed to have three CMV systems installed (extraction, insertion, insertion and extraction) for twenty different devices available on the market. Afterwards, simulations of useful thermal energy requirements QH,ve and primary energy EP,V were performed according to the electrical power of each fan... [more]
A Simple Assessment of Housing Retrofit Policies for the UK: What Should Succeed the Energy Company Obligation?
Luciana Maria Miu, Natalia Wisniewska, Christoph Mazur, Jeffrey Hardy, Adam Hawkes
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: barriers, Energy Company Obligation, Energy Efficiency, energy saving, Green Mortgage, housing retrofit, policy assessment, Variable Council Tax, Variable Stamp Duty Land Tax
Despite the need for large-scale retrofit of UK housing to meet emissions reduction targets, progress to date has been slow and domestic energy efficiency policies have struggled to accelerate housing retrofit processes. There is a need for housing retrofit policies that overcome key barriers within the retrofit sector while maintaining economic viability for customers, funding organizations, and effectively addressing UK emission reductions and fuel poverty targets. In this study, we use a simple assessment framework to assess three policies (the Variable Council Tax, the Variable Stamp Duty Land Tax, and Green Mortgage) proposed to replace the UK’s current major domestic retrofit programme known as the Energy Company Obligation (ECO). We show that the Variable Council Tax and Green Mortgage proposals have the greatest potential for overcoming the main barriers to retrofit policies while maintaining economic viability and contributing to high-level UK targets. We also show that, while... [more]
A Framework for Green Remodeling Enabling Energy Efficiency and Healthy Living for the Elderly
Sung Jun Park, Mi Jeong Kim
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: elderly’s housing, Energy Efficiency, healthy living, home remodeling, sustainability
This study proposes a framework for green remodeling for the elderly that emphasizes the role of designers and the notion of aging in place. Energy efficiency is critical for older persons because many of them spend more time at home and are less likely to heat and cool their homes appropriately. Improving the energy performance of the elderly’s housing by green remodeling could promote energy efficiency and healthy living for the elderly. Based on remodeling components derived from related work, key factors to be considered regarding the remodeling for the elderly were investigated. A framework for green remodeling enabling energy efficiency was developed for home upgrades for the elderly. Identifying the area of application and critical components for energy efficiency helps improve the energy performance for the elderly. This study is significant because it considers the elderly’s characteristics and experiences in the development of a sustainable remodeling process rather than new-... [more]
Energy Efficient Design of Massive MIMO Based on Closely Spaced Antennas: Mutual Coupling Effect
Peerapong Uthansakul, Arfat Ahmad Khan, Monthippa Uthansakul, Pumin Duangmanee
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, massive MIMO, mutual coupling, power, power consumption, time division duplex
Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output MIMO technology is a promising candidate for the next generation of communication applications, which essentially group hundreds of transmitting antennas together at the base station and provides the higher energy and spectral efficiency. In this article, the transmitting antennas are assumed to be closely spaced at the base station, which in turn results into a mutual coupling effect between the antenna terminals. The optimal system parameters and the energy efficiency are computed by considering the mutual coupling effect between the antenna terminals. Mutual coupling effect is deeply investigated on the energy efficiency and the other optimal parameters. We propose the domain splitter algorithm for the optimization of energy efficiency and the computation of different optimal system parameters in this article. The computational complexity of the proposed domain splitter algorithm is not dependent on the number of transceiver chains, and the det... [more]
Data Envelopment Analysis in Energy and Environmental Economics: An Overview of the State-of-the-Art and Recent Development Trends
Abbas Mardani, Dalia Streimikiene, Tomas Balezentis, Muhamad Zameri Mat Saman, Khalil Md Nor, Seyed Meysam Khoshnava
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: data envelopment analysis (DEA), efficiency measures, energy economics, Energy Efficiency, environmental economics
Measurement of environmental and energy economics presents an analytical foundation for environmental decision making and policy analysis. Applications of data envelopment analysis (DEA) models in the assessment of environmental and energy economics are increasing notably. The main objective of this review paper is to provide the comprehensive overview of the application of DEA models in the fields of environmental and energy economics. In this regard, a total 145 articles published in the high-quality international journals extracted from two important databases (Web of Science and Scopus) were selected for review. The 145 selected articles are reviewed and classified based on different criteria including author(s), application scheme, different DEA models, application fields, the name of journals and year of publication. This review article provided insights into the methodological and conceptualization study in the application of DEA models in the environmental and energy economics... [more]
An Optimization Scheme for Water Pump Control in Smart Fish Farm with Efficient Energy Consumption
Israr Ullah, DoHyeun Kim
July 31, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, fish farm, IoT, Kalman filter, Optimization
Healthy fish production requires intensive care and ensuring stable and healthy production environment inside the farm tank is a challenging task. An Internet of Things (IoT) based automated system is highly desirable that can continuously monitor the fish tanks with optimal resources utilization. Significant cost reduction can be achieved if farm equipment and water pumps are operated only when required using optimization schemes. In this paper, we present a general system design for smart fish farms. We have developed an optimization scheme for water pump control to maintain desired water level in fish tank with efficient energy consumption through appropriate selection of pumping flow rate and tank filling level. Proposed optimization scheme attempts to achieve a trade-off between pumping duration and flow rate through selection of optimized water level. Kalman filter algorithm is applied to remove error in sensor readings. We observed through simulation results that optimization sc... [more]
Using Field Data for Energy Efficiency Based on Maintenance and Operational Optimisation. A Step towards PHM in Process Plants
Micaela Demichela, Gabriele Baldissone, Behnoush Darabnia
July 31, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: conservation supply curve, Energy Efficiency, maintenance optimization
Energy saving is an important issue for any industrial sector; in particular, for the process industry, it can help to minimize both energy costs and environmental impact. Maintenance optimization and operational procedures can offer margins to increase energy efficiency in process plants, even if they are seldom explicitly taken into account in the predictive models guiding the energy saving policies. To ensure that the plant achieves the desired performance, maintenance operations and maintenance results should be monitored, and the connection between the inputs and the outcomes of the maintenance process, in terms of total contribution to manufacturing performance, should be explicit. In this study, a model for the energy efficiency analysis was developed, based on cost and benefits balance. It is aimed at supporting the decision making in terms of technical and operational solutions for energy efficiency, through the optimization of maintenance interventions and operational procedu... [more]
Model Predictive Control of the Exit Part Temperature for an Austenitization Furnace
Hari S. Ganesh, Thomas F. Edgar, Michael Baldea
July 30, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: austenitization, Energy Efficiency, iron and steel, Model Predictive Control
Quench hardening is the process of strengthening and hardening ferrous metals and alloys by heating the material to a specific temperature to form austenite (austenitization), followed by rapid cooling (quenching) in water, brine or oil to introduce a hardened phase called martensite. The material is then often tempered to increase toughness, as it may decrease from the quench hardening process. The austenitization process is highly energy-intensive and many of the industrial austenitization furnaces were built and equipped prior to the advent of advanced control strategies and thus use large, sub-optimal amounts of energy. The model computes the energy usage of the furnace and the part temperature profile as a function of time and position within the furnace under temperature feedback control. In this paper, the aforementioned model is used to simulate the furnace for a batch of forty parts under heuristic temperature set points suggested by the operators of the plant. A model predict... [more]
Extending Applications of High-Pressure Homogenization by Using Simultaneous Emulsification and Mixing (SEM)—An Overview
Vanessa Gall, Marc Runde, Heike P. Schuchmann
July 30, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, high-pressure homogenization, Mixing, Process Intensification, process modifications
Conventional high-pressure homogenization (HPH) is widely used in the pharmaceutical, chemical, and food industries among others. In general, its aim is to produce micron or sub-micron scale emulsions with excellent product characteristics. However, its energy consumption is still very high. Additionally, several limitations and boundaries impede the usage of high-pressure homogenization for special products such as particle loaded or highly concentrated systems. This article gives an overview of approaches that have been used in order to improve the conventional high-pressure homogenization process. Emphasis is put on the ‘Simultaneous Emulsification and Mixing’ process that has been developed to broaden the application areas of high-pressure homogenization.
Electro- or Turbo-Driven?—Analysis of Different Blast Processes of Blast Furnace
Wenqiang Sun, Yueqiang Zhao, Yunchun Wang
July 30, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: blast process, electro-driven, energy cost, Energy Efficiency, turbo-driven
There has always been a dispute about the energy efficiency and energy cost of electro-driven and turbo-driven blast furnace (BF) blast processes. In order to find where the problem lies, energy efficiency analysis models and energy cost analysis models of electro-driven and turbo-driven blast processes were established, and the differences between the two driving processes in terms of theoretical minimum steam consumption, energy efficiency and energy cost were studied. The results showed that the theoretical minimum steam consumption of a blast process depends on steam thermodynamic properties and is unrelated to drive mode and drive process. A certain overlapped interval between electro-driven and turbo-driven blast processes in terms of energy efficiency exists. The equation for calculating the standard coal coefficient of steam was proposed, and the relationship to judge strengths and weaknesses of the two driving modes in terms of energy efficiency and energy cost was established... [more]
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