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Records with Keyword: Simulation
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Learn Aspen Plus in 24 Hours 2nd Edition Solution Files
Thomas A. Adams II
January 6, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: Aspen Plus, Education, Learn Aspen Plus in 24 Hours, Simulation
These Aspen Plus v12 simulations are the solution or demonstration files for the book Learn Aspen Plus in 24 Hours, 2nd Edition, by Thomas A. Adams II. They are given as-is with no warranty or guarantee of accuracy or correctness. They are for educational purposes only.

The files list contains a large .zip of all files, or otherwise you can download them independently.

Files correspond to these tutorials:

Tutorial 2 Physical Property Modelling - Selecting physical properties. Understanding the database.
Tutorial 3 Problem Solving Tools - Design Specs and Sensitivity Analyses
Tutorial 4 Heat Exchangers - HEATER, HEATX
Tutorial 5 Equilibrium-based Distillation Models - RadFrac (in equilibrium mode)
Tutorial 6 Advanced Problem Solving Tools - Utilities, GHG Emissions, Optimization
Tutorial 7 Chemical Reactor Models - RSTOIC, REQUIL, RYIELD, RGIBBS, RCSTR, RPFR
Tutorial 8 Rate-based Distillation Models - RadFrac (in rate-based mode)
Tutorial 9 Custom Models and External Con... [more]
Research on Optimization of Coal Slime Fluidized Bed Boiler Desulfurization Cooperative Operation
Yangjian Xiao, Yudong Xia, Aipeng Jiang, Xiaofang Lv, Yamei Lin, Hanyu Zhang
October 14, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: boiler thermal efficiency, cooperative optimization, mechanism model, Simulation, slime fluidized bed
The semi-dry desulfurization of slime fluidized bed boilers (FBB) has been widely used due to its advantages of low cost and high desulfurization efficiency. In this paper, the cooperative optimization of a two-stage desulfurization processes in the slime fluidized bed boiler was studied, and a model-based optimization strategy was proposed to minimize the operational cost of the desulfurization system. Firstly, a mathematical model for the FBB with a two-stage desulfurization process was established. The influences of coal slime elements on combustion flue gas and the factors that may affect the thermal efficiency of the boiler were then analyzed. Then, on the basis of the developed model, a number of parameters affecting the SO2 concentration at the outlet of the slime fluidized bed boiler were simulated and deeply analyzed. In addition, the effects of the sulfur content of coal slime, excess air coefficient, and calcium to sulfur ratio were also discussed. Finally, according to the... [more]
Modeling and Design of the Automatic Pressure Regulating Valve in the Foam Firefighting System
Zhijun Yang, Hongjun Chen, Lifang He, Xikun Wang
July 19, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: automatic pressure balancing valve, foam firefighting system, in-line balanced pressure (ILBP) proportioner, mathematical model, Simulation
This paper presents a novel design of the automatic pressure balancing valve, used in the in-line balanced pressure (ILBP) proportioner for the foam firefighting system, at a required percentage of solution. Featured in a four-chamber configuration with a double-acting diaphragm actuator, it can automatically maintain the foam concentrate pressure with the pressure in the supply water pipeline, within a precision level of 0.02 MPa (or 1.3%), under the design operating condition. The static characteristics at the equilibrium state have been discussed in terms of poppet displacement with reference to the geometrical dimensions and operating pressures of the valve. The dynamic response of the valve during the startup has been examined through building the mathematical model of the forces on the valve and solving it numerically using MATLAB. The results show that the response time of the valve is always less than 0.01 s, which fully satisfies the stability and hysteresis requirement. The p... [more]
Aspen Plus Simulations of a Lignocellulosic Biomass-to-Butanol Thermochemical Process
Chinedu Okoli, Thomas A Adams II
July 6, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Aspen Plus, Biofuels, Biomass, Butanol, Kinetic Model, Lignocellulosic, Mixed Alcohol Synthesis, Simulation, Thermochemical
Several Aspen Plus simulation files are presented which were used in the research paper by Chinedu Okoli and Thomas A. Adams II: "Design and Assessment of Advanced Thermochemical Plants for Second Generation Biobutanol Production Considering Mixed Alcohols Synthesis Kinetics" published in Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol 56, pp 1543-1558 (2017). Four Aspen Plus V8.4 workbook files are provided AS IS, with no guarantee of accuracy or functionality. They are the original files used in the underlying work and have not been groomed or sanitized.

The four base cases considered in this study are:

1. A "biomass only" process in which the entire plant's energy supply comes from biomass.
2. A "biomass only" process that uses a divided wall column as a part of the distillation sequence
3. A "NG and power import" process in which natural gas and grid electricity are used to provide supplementary power.
4. A "NG import" case in which natural gas (but not grid... [more]
A Numerical Study on the Pilot Injection Conditions of a Marine 2-Stroke Lean-Burn Dual Fuel Engine
Hao Guo, Song Zhou, Jiaxuan Zou, Majed Shreka
May 25, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, dual-fuel engine, pre-combustion chamber, Simulation, two-stroke
The global demand for clean fuels is increasing in order to meet the requirements of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) of 0.5% global Sulphur cap and Tier III emission limits. Natural gas has begun to be popularized on liquefied natural gas (LNG) ships because of its low cost and environment friendly. In large-bore marine engines, ignition with pilot fuel in the prechamber is a good way to reduce combustion variability and extend the lean-burn limit. However, the occurrence of knock limits the increase in power. Therefore, this paper investigates the effect of pilot fuel injection conditions on performance and knocking of a marine 2-stroke low-pressure dual-fuel (LP-DF) engine. The engine simulations were performed under different pilot fuel parameters. The results showed that the average in-cylinder temperature, the average in-cylinder pressure, and the NOx emissions gradually decreased with the delay of the pilot injection timing. Furthermore, the combustion situation gra... [more]
Efficient Simulation of Chromatographic Processes Using the Conservation Element/Solution Element Method
Valentin Plamenov Chernev, Alain Vande Wouwer, Achim Kienle
April 30, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: conservation element/solution element (CE/SE) method, method of lines (MOL), simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography, Simulation, single-column chromatography
Chromatographic separation processes need efficient simulation methods, especially for nonlinear adsorption isotherms such as the Langmuir isotherms which imply the formation of concentration shocks. The focus of this paper is on the space−time conservation element/solution element (CE/SE) method. This is an explicit method for the solution of systems of partial differential equations. Numerical stability of this method is guaranteed when the Courant−Friedrichs−Lewy condition is satisfied. To investigate the accuracy and efficiency of this method, it is compared with the classical cell model, which corresponds to a first-order finite volume discretization using a method of lines approach (MOL). The evaluation is done for different models, including the ideal equilibrium model and a mass transfer model for different adsorption isotherms—including linear and nonlinear Langmuir isotherms—and for different chromatographic processes from single-column operation to more sophisticated simulat... [more]
Aspen Plus Simulations of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol Separation and Recovery Processes
Giancarlo Dalle Ave, Thomas A Adams II
April 27, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: 2-ethyl-hexanol, Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol, Aspen Plus, Decane, Decanol, Extracton, Fermentation, Hexanol, Oleyl Alcohol, Simulation
This is a collection of Aspen Plus v8.8 Simulation Files that were used to conduct the research published in Dalle Ave G, Adams TA II, "Techno-economic comparison of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol fermentation using various extractants", Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 156, 15 January 2018, Pages 288-300. The LAPSE postprint of this work is available at LAPSE:2018.0132.

Each simulation file contains a flowsheet model of the process to recover acetone, butanol, and ethanol from the ABE fermentation broth for the following case studies:

1. Direct distillation of the ABE Broth
2. Product extraction and purification from ABE Broth using 2-Ethyl-1-Hexanol
3. Product extraction and purification from ABE Broth using Decane
4. Product extraction and purification from ABE Broth using Decanol
5. Product extraction and purification from ABE Broth using Hexanol
6. Product extraction and purification from ABE Broth using Mesitylene
7. Product extraction and purification from ABE... [more]
Aspen Plus Simulation of a Rectisol Process for Blue Hydrogen Production
Thomas A Adams II
March 12, 2021 (v2)
This is an Aspen Plus v12 model for a Rectisol process used for removing CO2 from a shifted syngas stream arising from steam methane reforming for the purposes of Blue hydrogen production. It is intended for educational use, and is useful as a starting point for those interested in simulating this process. It is not optimized in any way, but it contains a working flowsheet for those interested in modifying it for your own purposes.

The simulation was developed using the simulation strategy given in Adams TA II, Khojestah Salkuyeh Y, Nease J. Processes and Simulations for Solvent-based CO2Capture and Syngas Cleanup. Chapter in: Reactor and process design for in sustainable energy technology. Elsevier (2014). Pages 163-232. ISBN: 978-0-444-59566-9. It is based on the process discussed in Doctor RD, Molburg JC, Thimmapuram PR, Berry GF, Livengood CD. Gasification combined cycle: carbon dioxide recovery, transport, and disposal. US DOE Report, Argonne National Laboratory ANL/ESD-24. 19... [more]
Temperature Variation at Solid-Fluid Interface of Thin Film Lubricated Contact Problems
Szabolcs Szávai, Sándor Kovács
December 17, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: FEM, film, lubrication, Simulation, TEHD, temperature, thin, variation
Many calculating methods have been already developed for solving contact problems of parts such as gears, cams, and followers under fluid film lubrication conditions considering the temperature and pressure dependence. Similarly, the determination of the elasto-hydrodynamic pressure distribution the processes taking place in the lubricant and the contacting bodies, as well as in their environment, have to be dealt with simultaneously for the determination of the temperature field. A system of equation for the modelling of thermo-elastohydrodynamic lubrication between two contacting bodies containing hydrodynamic, thermodynamic, and strength problems is a highly non-linear system which becomes even more so if the temperature and pressure dependence of the material properties are considered. To solve this system, scientists started to use the finite element formulation in the 1960s and it was found to be a promising and reliable method. Earlier, the lubrication analysts used only the h-v... [more]
Mode-Based Analysis and Optimal Operation of MSF Desalination System
Hanhan Gao, Aipeng Jiang, Qiuyun Huang, Yudong Xia, Farong Gao, Jian Wang
October 26, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: first principle modeling, MSF, optimal operation, seawater desalination, Simulation
Multi-stage flash (MSF) desalination plays an important role in achieving large-scale fresh water driven by thermal energy. In this paper, based on first-principle modeling of a typical multi-stage flash desalination system, the effects of different operational parameters on system performance and operational optimization for cost saving were extensively studied. Firstly, the modelled desalination system was divided into flash chamber modules, brine heater modules, mixed modules and split modules, and based on energy and mass conservation laws the equations were formulated and put together to describe the whole process model. Then, with physical parameter calculation the whole process was simulated and analyzed on the platform of MATLAB, and the water production performance effected by operational parameters such as the feed temperature of seawater, the recycle brine from the discharge section, steam temperature and flowrate of recycled brine were discussed and analyzed. Then, the opti... [more]
Design and Eco-techno-economic Analyses of SOFC/GT Hybrid Systems Accounting for Long-term Degradation Effects
Haoxiang Lai, Nor Farida Harun, David Tucker, Thomas Adams II
November 24, 2020 (v2)
Models and codes that were used in this work. Please read the simulation instruction.
An Innovative Design of an Integrated MED-TVC and Reverse Osmosis System for Seawater Desalination: Process Explanation and Performance Evaluation
Omer Mohamed Abubaker Al-hotmani, Mudhar Abdul Alwahab Al-Obaidi, Yakubu Mandafiya John, Raj Patel, Iqbal Mohammed Mujtaba
July 17, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: integrated system of MED_TVC and double RO processes, performance assessment, permeate and retentate reprocessing RO processes (PRRO and RRRO), seawater desalination, Simulation
In recent times two or more desalination processes have been combined to form integrated systems that have been widely used to resolve the limitations of individual processes as well as producing high performance systems. In this regard, a simple integrated system of the Multi Effect Distillation (MED)/Thermal Vapour Compression (TVC) and Permeate Reprocessing Reverse Osmosis (PRRO) process was developed by the same authors and confirmed its validity after a comparison study against other developed configurations. However, this design has a considerable amount of retentate flowrate and low productivity. To resolve this issue, two novel designs of MED and double reverse osmosis (RO) processes including Permeate and Retentate Reprocessing designs (PRRP and RRRO) are developed and modelled in this paper. To systematically assess the consistency of the presented designs, the performance indicators of the novel designs are compared against previous simple designs of MED and PRRO processes a... [more]
Scope and Limitations of Modelling, Simulation, and Optimisation of a Spiral Wound Reverse Osmosis Process-Based Water Desalination
Alanood A. Alsarayreh, Mudhar A. Al-Obaidi, Raj Patel, Iqbal M. Mujtaba
July 17, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Modelling, Optimization, reverse osmosis process, Simulation, spiral wound (SW) module, water desalination
The reverse osmosis (RO) process is one of the best desalination methods, using membranes to reject several impurities from seawater and brackish water. To systematically perceive the transport phenomena of solvent and solutes via the membrane texture, several mathematical models have been developed. To date, a large number of simulation and optimisation studies have been achieved to gauge the influence of control variables on the performance indexes, to adjust the key variables at optimum values, and to realise the optimum production indexes. This paper delivers an intensive review of the successful models of the RO process and both simulation and optimisation studies carried out on the basis of the models developed. In general, this paper investigates the scope and limitations of the RO process, as well as proving the maturity of the associated perspective methodologies.
Design and Eco-techno-economic Analyses of SOFC/Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems Accounting for Long-Term Degradation
Haoxiang Lai, David Tucker, Nor Farida Harun, Thomas Adams II
June 30, 2020 (v1)
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a promising next-generation technology for power production from fossil fuels. Because they convert chemical energy into electricity electrochemically, they are generally more efficient than combustion-based power plants due to the thermodynamic limitations of combustion cycles, and accordingly, have lower carbon intensities [1]. However, one of the main drawbacks of SOFCs (and SOFC stacks) is that they can degrade over time in a variety of ways, including accruing damage to the anode, cathode, interconnects, and other cell or stack components. SOFCs are most commonly used in “constant power” mode, in which the fuel flow rate and current density are increased over time to counteract the degradation effects and yield a constant power output. However, higher flow rates cause the degradation rates to grow even faster, resulting in a lifetime potentially as short as 1.5 years [2].

Recent research has found that by operating in “constant voltage” mode,... [more]
Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) Operation
Daniela Dering, Christopher Swartz, Neslihan Dogan
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: basic oxygen furnace, dynamic model, Simulation
Basic oxygen furnaces (BOFs) are widely used to produce steel from hot metal. The process typically has limited automation which leads to sub-optimal operation. Economically optimal operation can be potentially achieved by using a dynamic optimization framework to provide operators the best combination of input trajectories. In this paper, a first-principles based dynamic model for the BOF that can be used within the dynamic optimization routine is described. The model extends a previous work by incorporating a model for slag formation and energy balances. In this new version of the mathematical model, the submodel for the decarburization in the emulsion zone is also modified to account for recent findings, and an algebraic equation for the calculation of the calcium oxide saturation in slag is developed. The dynamic model is then used to simulate the operation of two distinct furnaces. It was found that the prediction accuracy of the developed model is significantly superior to its pr... [more]
Integrated Method of Monitoring and Optimization of Steam Methane Reformer Process
Nenad Zečević, Nenad Bolf
June 10, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: ammonia production, numerical modelling, Simulation, steam methane reforming
Reforming of natural gas with steam represents the most energy-intensive part of ammonia production. An integrated numerical model for calculating composition of primary reforming products with cross-checking of outlet methane molar concentration, heat duty, maximum tube wall temperature, tube pressure drops, and approach to equilibrium was set up involving production parameters. In particular, the model was used for continuous monitoring and optimization of a steam methane reformer (SMR) catalyst in ammonia production. The calculations involve the solution of material and energy balance equations along with reaction kinetic expressions. Open source code based on Matlab file was used for modelling and calculation of various physical properties of the reacting gases. One of the main contributions is development of the rapid integrated method for data exchange between any distributed control system (DCS) and the model to accomplish continuous monitoring and optimization of SMR catalyst a... [more]
Intelligent Colored Token Petri Nets for Modeling, Control, and Validation of Dynamic Changes in Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems
Husam Kaid, Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari, Zhiwu Li, Reggie Davidrajuh
May 22, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: colored Petri net, Modelling, Reconfigurable manufacturing system, Simulation
The invention of reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMSs) has created a challenging problem: how to quickly and effectively modify an RMS to address dynamic changes in a manufacturing system, such as processing failures and rework, machine breakdowns, addition of new machines, addition of new products, removal of old machines, and changes in processing routes induced by the competitive global market. This paper proposes a new model, the intelligent colored token Petri net (ICTPN), to simulate dynamic changes or reconfigurations of a system. The main idea is that intelligent colored tokens denote part types that represent real-time knowledge about changes and status of a system. Thus, dynamic configurations of a system can be effectively modeled. The developed ICTPN can model dynamic changes of a system in a modular manner, resulting in the development of a very compact model. In addition, when configurations appear, only the changed colored token of the part type from the current mo... [more]
Simulation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode in Aspen HYSYS—A Study on the Effect of Reforming Activity on Distributed Performance Profiles, Carbon Formation, and Anode Oxidation Risk
Khaliq Ahmed, Amirpiran Amiri, Moses O. Tadé
May 2, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: anode oxidation, carbon formation, internal reforming, Simulation, SOFC
A distributed variable model for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), with internal fuel reforming on the anode, has been developed in Aspen HYSYS. The proposed model accounts for the complex and interactive mechanisms involved in the SOFC operation through a mathematically viable and numerically fast modeling framework. The internal fuel reforming reaction calculations have been carried out in a plug flow reactor (PFR) module integrated with a spreadsheet module to interactively calculate the electrochemical process details. By interlinking the two modules within Aspen HYSYS flowsheeting environment, the highly nonlinear SOFC distributed profiles have been readily captured using empirical correlations and without the necessity of using an external coding platform, such as MATLAB or FORTRAN. Distributed variables including temperature, current density, and concentration profiles along the cell length, have been discussed for various reforming activity rates. Moreover, parametric estimation of... [more]
CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation: An Introduction to Published Reviews
Alfredo Iranzo
January 2, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: combustion, Computational Fluid Dynamics, energy engineering, heat transfer, Modelling, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Simulation, thermal radiation, turbulence
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been firmly established as a fundamental discipline to advancing research on energy engineering. The major progresses achieved during the last two decades both on software modelling capabilities and hardware computing power have resulted in considerable and widespread CFD interest among scientist and engineers. Numerical modelling and simulation developments are increasingly contributing to the current state of the art in many energy engineering aspects, such as power generation, combustion, wind energy, concentrated solar power, hydro power, gas and steam turbines, fuel cells, and many others. This review intends to provide an overview of the CFD applications in energy and thermal engineering, as a presentation and background for the Special Issue “CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation” published by Processes in 2020. A brief introduction to the most significant reviews that have been published on the particular topics is... [more]
Effect of Pre-Combustion Chamber Nozzle Parameters on the Performance of a Marine 2-Stroke Dual Fuel Engine
Hao Guo, Song Zhou, Majed Shreka, Yongming Feng
January 2, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, dual-fuel engine, pre-combustion chamber, Simulation, two-stroke
In recent years and with the increasing rigor of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) emission regulations, the shipping industry has focused more on environment-friendly and efficient power. Low-pressure dual-fuel (LP-DF) engine technology with high efficiency and good emissions has become a promising solution in the development of marine engines. This engine often uses pre-combustion chamber (PCC) to ignite natural gas due to its higher ignition energy. In this paper, a parametric study of the LP-DF engine was proceeded to investigate the design scheme of the PCC. The effect of PCC parameters on engine performance and emissions were studied from two aspects: PCC nozzle diameter and PCC nozzle angle. The results showed that the PCC nozzle diameter affected the propagation of the flame in the combustion chamber. Moreover, suitable PCC nozzle diameters helped to improve flame propagation stability and engine performance and reduce emissions. Furthermore, the angle of the PCC no... [more]
Hybrid Integrations of Value Stream Mapping, Theory of Constraints and Simulation: Application to Wooden Furniture Industry
Emad Alzubi, Anas M. Atieh, Khaleel Abu Shgair, John Damiani, Sima Sunna, Abdallah Madi
December 16, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: bottleneck detection, OEE, Simulation, value stream map (VSM), wooden furniture manufacturing case study
This paper studies manufacturing processes in a wooden furniture manufacturing company. The company suffers from long manufacturing lead times and an unbalanced production line. To identify sources of waste and delay value stream mapping (VSM) and a discrete event simulation model is implemented. VSM is used to visualize and analyze the major processes of the company and provide quantifiable KPIs; the manufacturing lead-time and then Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) settings. A discrete event simulation model is then built to analyze the company on a wider scale and provide the data required to identify bottlenecks. Building on the data gathered from the production lines and the simulation model, two-bottleneck detection methods are used, the utilization method, and the waiting time method. Then based on the comparison of the two methods a third bottleneck detection is utilized; the scenario-based method, to identify the primary and secondary bottlenecks. After the bottlenecks are... [more]
Development of an Electric Arc Furnace Simulator Based on a Comprehensive Dynamic Process Model
Thomas Hay, Thomas Echterhof, Ville-Valtteri Visuri
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: electric arc furnace, process model, Simulation, steelmaking
A simulator and an algorithm for the automatic creation of operation charts based on process conditions were developed on the basis of an existing comprehensive electric arc furnace process model. The simulator allows direct user input and real-time display of results during the simulation, making it usable for training and teaching of electric arc furnace operators. The automatic control feature offers a quick and automated evaluation of a large number of scenarios or changes in process conditions, raw materials, or equipment used. The operation chart is adjusted automatically to give comparable conditions at tapping and allows the assessment of the necessary changes in the operating strategy as well as their effect on productivity, energy, and resource consumption, along with process emissions.
Analysis of Power Loss and Improved Simulation Method of a High Frequency Dual-Buck Full-Bridge Inverter
Zhun Meng, Yi-Feng Wang, Liang Yang, Wei Li
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: dual-buck inverter, grid-connected generation, high frequency conversion, loss analysis, SiC power device, Simulation
A high frequency dual-buck full-bridge inverter for small power renewable energy application is proposed in this paper. A switching frequency of 400 kHz is achieved with the adoption of the SiC power device. A two-pole two-zero (2P2Z) compensator is employed in the outer voltage loop to generate the current reference for inner current loop. A 3P3Z compensator is adopted in the inner current loop to track the current reference. A systematic way for calculating the losses of high frequency inverter is presented, and the losses of the components are thoroughly analyzed. The turn-on and turn-off procedures of the inverter are discussed in detail. The losses caused by high frequency are calculated accurately, and the loss distribution is established as well. The procedure of the loss analysis gives a practical example for calculating the loss of similar type inverters. Moreover, deviation between pulse width modulation (PWM) control signal and switching response in high frequency switching... [more]
Simulation of Ion Exchange Resin with Finite Difference Methods
Yawen Zhu, Bobo Liu, Ruichao Peng, Yunbai Luo, Ping Yu
December 9, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: finite difference method, ion exchange, Matlab, Simulation
Ion exchange resin is used to remove potentially corrosive impurities from coolant in the first circuit of a nuclear power plant. After one operational cycle, the used and unused resin in the mixed bed is discarded as solid waste. The aim of this work is to create a mathematical model to predict the operational cycle time of the mixed bed resin for reducing unused resin discharge. A partial differential equation (PDE) was set up with the conservation of matter. A finite difference method was used to solve the PDE. Matlab was the programming and calculating tool used in this work. The data from solution were obtained at different time and space nodes. The model was then verified experimentally using different ions on exchange columns. Concentrations of K+, Mn2+, and Cl- were calculated to verify the validation of the model by comparing it with experimental data. The calculated values showed good consistency with the experimental value.
Process Cost Management of Alzheimer’s Disease
Hana Tomaskova, Martin Kopecky, Petra Maresova
November 24, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, BPMN, process cost management, Simulation, system dynamics
Summary: Determining the cost of healthcare and social care for patients is a crucial issue for many parties; therefore, both public and private payments play a decisive role in patient care. The article deals with the analysis of the possibilities of the simulation of costs related to Alzheimer’s disease. This disease is highly variable, and the cost items vary considerably. Therefore, it is necessary to use simulation methods. The results of simulation models can then be implemented in sophisticated methods working with activity costs. Findings: Models for health and social care are specific. No significant re-engineering is expected in this area, so the models must be unambiguous and easy to understand for all representatives involved. Modeling of business processes is thus a suitable means for analysis in this area. The process cost calculation is built on two simulation models. The first model is the Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), the results of which are verified in... [more]
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