Records with Keyword: Hydrogen
Showing records 1 to 25 of 310. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
A New Approach to the Preparation of Stable Oxide-Composite Cobalt−Samarium Catalysts for the Production of Hydrogen by Dry Reforming of Methane
A. G. Dedov, A. S. Loktev, V. A. Arkhipova, M. A. Bykov, A. A. Sadovnikov, K. A. Cherednichenko, G. A. Shandryuk
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: cobalt–samarium oxide catalysts, dry reforming of methane, heterogeneous catalysis, Hydrogen, Syngas
A new approach to preparing a series of Co/Sm2O3 catalysts for hydrogen production by the dry reforming of methane has been developed. The catalyst precursors were synthesized with a simple method, including the evaporation of aqueous solutions of cobalt and samarium nitrates, followed by a short-term calcination of the resulting material. The as-prepared and spent catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, temperature-programmed reduction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The content of cobalt in the synthesized materials affects their phase composition and carbonization resistance in the dry reforming of the methane reaction. It has been shown that preheating in N2 atmosphere produces catalysts that provide a stable yield of hydrogen and CO of 94−98% for at least 50 h at 900 °C. These yields are among the highest currently available for the dry reforming of methane catalysts made from Co-Sm complex oxides. It h... [more]
Development of an MCTS Model for Hydrogen Production Optimisation
Vitalijs Komasilovs, Aleksejs Zacepins, Armands Kviesis, Kaspars Ozols, Arturs Nikulins, Kaspars Sudars
August 3, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: control modes, cost optimisation, Hydrogen, Monte Carlo tree search, operation scheduling
Hydrogen has the potential to revolutionize the energy industry due to its clean-burning and versatile properties. It is the most abundant element in the universe and can be produced through a variety of methods, including electrolysis. The widespread adoption of hydrogen faces various challenges, including the high cost of production; thus, it is important to optimise the production processes. This research focuses on development of models for hydrogen production optimisation based on various external factors and parameters. Models based on electricity prices are developed and compared between different market situations. To run hydrogen production more effectively, it is required to use renewable energy sources for the production process. Adding the solar power component to the economic evaluation model outcome is more positive. The Monte Carlo tree search (MCTS) algorithm is adapted to effectively control the electrolysis process. MCTS schedule optimization was performed for a 24 h... [more]
Fast Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Helical Tubes
Igor O. Shamshin, Viktor S. Aksenov, Maxim V. Kazachenko, Pavel A. Gusev, Sergey M. Frolov
July 7, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: blended hydrogenous fuels, detonability, Ethylene, fast deflagration-to-detonation transition, Hydrogen, methane, propane, pulsed detonation tube, run-up distance
When designing a new type of power plants operating on pulsed detonations of gaseous or liquid fuels, the concept of fast deflagration-to-detonation transition (FDDT) is used. According to the concept, a flame arising from a weak ignition source must accelerate so fast as to form an intense shock wave at a minimum distance from the ignition source so that the intensity of the shock wave is sufficient for fast shock-to-detonation transition by some additional arrangements. Hence, the FDDT concept implies the use of special means for flame acceleration and shock wave amplification. In this work, we study the FDDT using a pulsed detonation tube comprising a Shchelkin spiral and a helical tube section with ten coils as the means for flame acceleration and shock amplification (focusing), respectively. To attain the FDDT at the shortest distances for fuels of significantly different detonability, the diameter of the pulsed detonation tube is taken close to the limiting diameter of detonation... [more]
Thermal Methane Cracking on Molten Metal: Kinetics Modeling for Pilot Reactor Design
Emma Palo, Vittoria Cosentino, Gaetano Iaquaniello, Vincenzo Piemonte, Emmanuel Busillo
June 9, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: CO2 free process, Hydrogen, methane cracking, Modelling, molten metal process
Up to 80% of hydrogen production is currently carried out through CO2 emission-intensive natural gas reforming and coal gasification. Water-splitting electrolysis using renewable energy (green H2) is the only process that does not emit greenhouses gases, but it is a quite energy-demanding process. To significantly contribute to the clean energy transition, it is critical that low-carbon hydrogen production routes that can replace current production methods and can expand production capacity to meet new demands are developed. A new path, alternative to steam reforming coupled with CCS (blue H2) that is based on methane cracking, in which H2 production is associated with solid carbon instead of CO2 (turquoise H2), has received increasing attention recent years. The reaction takes place inside the liquid bath, a molten metal reactor. The aim of this article is to model the main kinetic mechanisms involved in the methane cracking reaction with molten metals. The model developed was validat... [more]
Alternative Sources of Energy in Transport: A Review
Kristýna Pustějovská, Kamila Janovská, Simona Jursová
June 7, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: alternative energy sources, Hydrogen, LCA, transport
Alternative sour2ces of energy are on the rise primarily because of environmental concerns, in addition to the depletion of fossil fuel reserves. Currently, there are many alternatives, approaches, and attempts to introduce alternative energy sources in the field of transport. This article centers around the need to explore additional energy sources beyond the current ones in use. It delves into individual energy sources that can be utilized for transportation, including their properties, production methods, and the advantages and disadvantages associated with their use across different types of drives. The article not only examines the situation in the Czech Republic but also in other nations. In addition to addressing future mobility, the thesis also considers how the utilization of new energy sources may impact the environment.
Assessment of Mass and Energy Balance of Waste Printed Circuit Board Recycling through Hydrogen Reduction in Black Copper Smelting Process
Aulia Qisthi Mairizal, Agung Yoga Sembada, Kwong Ming Tse, Nawshad Haque, M. Akbar Rhamdhani
June 7, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: black copper smelting, decarbonization, Hydrogen, thermodynamic analysis, waste PCB
Due to growing concern over environmental impacts and the pressure to lower carbon footprints in the metals industry, hydrogen (H2) has gained attention as a promising alternative for the replacement of carbon as a reductant and fuel. This paper evaluates the potential use of hydrogen as an energy source and reducing agent during the processing of waste printed circuit boards (waste PCBs) from e-waste through black copper smelting. The effect of the use of carbon and hydrogen during the reduction−oxidation process was analysed and compared from the perspective of thermodynamics and heat balance. The thermodynamic analyses of waste-PCB processing were carried out using the FactSage thermochemical package for the smelting process at temperatures from 1473 K to 1673 K (1200−1400 °C). The results show that the CO2 emissions can be reduced by 73% when hydrogen is used as the reducing agent. A minimum of 10 wt% of waste PCBs in the feed material can be used to replace the necessary carbon to... [more]
Economic Analysis: Green Hydrogen Production Systems
María Teresa Muñoz Díaz, Héctor Chávez Oróstica, Javiera Guajardo
June 7, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: green hydrogen, Hydrogen, hydrogen export, hydrogen strategy, LCOH hydrogen, renewable sources
The continued use of energy sources based on fossil fuels has various repercussions for the environment. These repercussions are being minimized through the use of renewable energy supplies and new techniques to decarbonize the global energy matrix. For many years, hydrogen has been one of the most used gases in all kinds of industry, and now it is possible to produce it efficiently, on a large scale, and in a non-polluting way. This gas is mainly used in the chemical industry and in the oil refining industry, but the constant growth of its applications has generated the interest of all the countries of the world. Its use in transportation, petrochemical industries, heating equipment, etc., will result in a decrease in the production of greenhouse gases, which are harmful to the environment. This means hydrogen is widely used and needed by countries, creating great opportunities for hydrogen export business. This paper details concepts about the production of green hydrogen, its associ... [more]
The Fuel Flexibility of Gas Turbines: A Review and Retrospective Outlook
Michel Molière
May 26, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, Biofuels, combustion, fossil fuels, fuel flexibility, gas turbine, Hydrogen, low emissions
Land-based gas turbines (GTs) are continuous-flow engines that run with permanent flames once started and at stationary pressure, temperature, and flows at stabilized load. Combustors operate without any moving parts and their substantial air excess enables complete combustion. These features provide significant space for designing efficient and versatile combustion systems. In particular, as heavy-duty gas turbines have moderate compression ratios and ample stall margins, they can burn not only high- and medium-BTU fuels but also low-BTU ones. As a result, these machines have gained remarkable fuel flexibility. Dry Low Emissions combustors, which were initially confined to burning standard natural gas, have been gradually adapted to an increasing number of alternative gaseous fuels. The paper first delivers essential technical considerations that underlie this important fuel portfolio. It then reviews the spectrum of alternative GT fuels which currently extends from lean gases (coal b... [more]
Risk Assessment of a Hydrogen Refueling Station in an Urban Area
Jongbeom Kwak, Haktae Lee, Somin Park, Jaehyuk Park, Seungho Jung
May 26, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Hydrogen, hydrogen refueling station, hydrogen risk assessment model, HyRAM, quantitative risk assessment
After the Paris Agreement was signed in 2015, many countries worldwide focused on the hydrogen economy, aiming for eco-friendly and renewable energy by moving away from the existing carbon economy, which has been the primary source of global warming. Hydrogen is the most common element on Earth. As a light substance, hydrogen can diffuse quickly; however, it also has a small risk of explosion. Representative explosion accidents have included the Muskingum River Power Plant Vapor Cloud Explosion accident in 2007 and the Silver Eagle Refinery Vapor Cloud Explosion accident in 2009. In addition, there was an explosion in a hydrogen tank in Gangneung, Korea, in May 2019, and a hydrogen refueling station (HRS) in Norway exploded in 2018. Despite this risk, Korea is promoting the establishment of HRSs in major urban centers, including downtown areas and public buildings, by using the Regulatory Sandbox to install HRSs. This paper employed the Hydrogen Risk Assessment Model (HyRAM) of Sandia... [more]
The Role of Direct Air Capture in EU’s Decarbonisation and Associated Carbon Intensity for Synthetic Fuels Production
Rocio Gonzalez Sanchez, Anatoli Chatzipanagi, Georgia Kakoulaki, Marco Buffi, Sandor Szabo
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: carbon footprint, decarbonisation, direct air capture, Hydrogen, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Synthetic Fuels
Direct air capture (DAC) is considered one of the mitigation strategies in most of the future scenarios trying to limit global temperature to 1.5 °C. Given the high expectations placed on DAC for future decarbonisation, this study presents an extensive review of DAC technologies, exploring a number of techno-economic aspects, including an updated collection of the current and planned DAC projects around the world. A dedicated analysis focused on the production of synthetic methane, methanol, and diesel from DAC and electrolytic hydrogen in the European Union (EU) is also performed, where the carbon footprint is analysed for different scenarios and energy sources. The results show that the maximum grid carbon intensity to obtain negative emissions with DAC is estimated at 468 gCO2e/kWh, which is compliant with most of the EU countries’ current grid mix. Using only photovoltaics (PV) and wind, negative emissions of at least −0.81 tCO2e/tCO2 captured can be achieved. The maximum grid inte... [more]
Hydrogen Production from Supercritical Water Gasification of Model Compounds of Crude Glycerol from Biodiesel Industries
Kapil Khandelwal, Philip Boahene, Sonil Nanda, Ajay K. Dalai
May 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: design of experiments, glycerol, Hydrogen, response surface methodology, supercritical water gasification
Biodiesel production through transesterification results in a large quantity of crude glycerol as a byproduct, the utilization of which is technically and economically challenging. Because of the ability to efficiently process wet feedstocks, supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is utilized in this study to convert crude glycerol into hydrogen-rich syngas. A significant challenge addressed through this study is the decomposition routes of different heterogeneous components of crude glycerol during SCWG. Pure glycerol, methanol and oleic acid were investigated for SCWG as the model compounds of crude glycerol. SCWG of model compounds at temperature, pressure, feedstock concentration and reaction time of 500 °C, 23−25 MPa, 10 wt% and 1 h, respectively, revealed methanol to exhibit the highest H2 yield of 7.7 mmol/g, followed by pure glycerol (4.4 mmol/g) and oleic acid (1.1 mmol/g). The effects of feedstock concentration from 30 wt% to 10 wt% increased H2 yield from all model compound... [more]
Power Output Optimisation via Arranging Gas Flow Channels for Low-Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) for Hydrogen-Powered Vehicles
James Chilver-Stainer, Anas F. A. Elbarghthi, Chuang Wen, Mi Tian
May 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, fuel cell, gas flow channel, Hydrogen, hydrogen-powered vehicle, micro porous layer, optimal configuration, polymer electrolyte membrane, power output
As we move away from internal combustion engines to tackle climate change, the importance of hydrogen-powered vehicles and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology has dramatically increased. In the present study, we aimed to determine the optimal configuration for the power output of a PEMFC system using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling to analyse variations of the primary serpentine design of gas flow channels. This helps improve efficiency and save on valuable materials used, reducing potential carbon emissions from the production of hydrogen vehicles. Different numbers of serpentine gas channels were represented with various spacing between them, within the defined CFD model, to optimise the gas channel geometry. The results show that the optimum configuration was found to have 11 serpentine channels with a spacing of 3.25 mm. In this optimum configuration, the ratio between the channel width, channel spacing, and serpentine channel length was found to... [more]
Experimental Investigation of the Influence of NO on a PEM Fuel Cell System and Voltage Recovery Strategies
Peter Reithuber, Florian Poimer, Stefan Brandstätter, Eberhard Schutting, Simon Buchberger, Alexander Trattner, Helmut Eichlseder
May 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: catalyst poisoning, critical operating conditions, Hydrogen, irreversible degradation, mitigation strategies, NO, PEM fuel cell, reversible degradation, voltage loss, voltage recovery
Air contaminants can have detrimental effects on the performance and durability of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles. This research focuses on the experimental investigation of the effect of nitrogen monoxide (NO) in the cathode gas stream, which provokes a cell voltage decrease due to the partially reversible adsorption of NO on the platinum catalyst. The concentration and exposure time of NO in the cathode gas stream are varied at selected constant current densities and load ramps to assess the effects throughout the fuel cell system operating range. The results show the cell voltage loss in the presence of NO and reveal a near-catalyst saturation with increased injected NO mass. Additionally, several voltage recovery and mitigation strategies are introduced and discussed by presenting conclusions about the general effect of NO on a fuel cell system in operation. The most promising recovery strategy for fuel cell systems is identified, and the overall system degradati... [more]
Improving Ecological Efficiency of Gas Turbine Power System by Combusting Hydrogen and Hydrogen-Natural Gas Mixtures
Serhiy Serbin, Mykola Radchenko, Anatoliy Pavlenko, Kateryna Burunsuz, Andrii Radchenko, Daifen Chen
May 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: combustion chamber, ecological parameters, fuel, fuel cell, gas turbine, hybrid power plant, Hydrogen
Currently, the issue of creating decarbonized energy systems in various spheres of life is acute. Therefore, for gas turbine power systems including hybrid power plants with fuel cells, it is relevant to transfer the existing engines to pure hydrogen or mixtures of hydrogen with natural gas. However, significant problems arise associated with the possibility of the appearance of flashback zones and acoustic instability of combustion, an increase in the temperature of the walls of the flame tubes, and an increase in the emission of nitrogen oxides, in some cases. This work is devoted to improving the efficiency of gas turbine power systems by combusting pure hydrogen and mixtures of natural gas with hydrogen. The organization of working processes in the premixed combustion chamber and the combustion chamber with a sequential injection of ecological and energy steam for the “Aquarius” type power plant is considered. The conducted studies of the basic aerodynamic and energy parameters of... [more]
Perspectives on Hydrogen
Alberto Abánades
May 2, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: decarbonisation, education, energy vector, Hydrogen, implementation, regulation, reskilling
Humankind has an urgent need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Such a challenge requires deep transformation of the current energy system in our society. Achieving this goal has given an unprecedented role to decarbonized energy vectors. Electricity is the most consolidated of such vectors, and a molecular vector is in the agenda to contribute in the future to those end uses that are difficult to electrify. Additionally, energy storage is a critical issue for both energy vectors. In this communication, discussion on the status, hopes and perspectives of the hydrogen contribution to decarbonization are presented, emphasizing bottlenecks in key aspects, such as education, reskilling and storage capacity, and some concerns about the development of a flexible portfolio of technologies that could affect the contribution and impact of the whole hydrogen value chain in society. This communication would serve to the debate and boost discussion about the topic.
Mathematical Modeling of Microbial Electrolysis Cells for Enhanced Urban Wastewater Treatment and Hydrogen Generation
Narges Rahimi, Ursula Eicker
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Hydrogen, microbial electrolysis cell, Modelling, Wastewater
Conventional wastewater treatment plants (CWTPs) are intensive energy consumers. New technologies are emerging for wastewater treatment such as microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) that can simultaneously treat wastewater and generate hydrogen as a renewable energy source. Mathematical modeling of single and dual-chamber microbial electrolysis cells (SMEC and DMEC) has been developed based on microbial population growth in this study. The model outputs were validated successfully with previous works, and are then used for comparisons between the SMEC and DMEC regarding the hydrogen production rate (HPR). The results reveal that the daily HPR in DMEC is higher than in SMEC, with about 0.86 l H2 and 0.52 l H2, respectively, per 1 L of wastewater. Moreover, the results have been used to compare the HPR in water electrolysis (WE) processes and MECs. WE consume 51 kWh to generate 1 kg of hydrogen, while SMEC and DMEC require only 30 kWh and 24.5 kWh, respectively.
Efficient Use of Low-Emission Power Supply for Means of Transport
Tomasz Neumann
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: green energy, Hydrogen, transport efficiency, transportation
The paper presents the possibilities of low-emission-powered vehicles based mainly on compressed hydrogen. It shows currently used forms of powering vehicles based on their genesis, process of obtention, and popularity. They are also compared to each other, presenting the advantages and disadvantages of a given solution. The share of electricity in transport, its forecasts for the future, and the possibilities of combination with conventional energy sources are also described. Based on current technological capabilities, hydrogen plays a crucial role, as presented in the above work, constituting a fundamental basis for future transport solutions.
Challenges of Industrial-Scale Testing Infrastructure for Green Hydrogen Technologies
Jonas Bollmann, Sudhagar Pitchaimuthu, Moritz F. Kühnel
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: electrolysis, Hydrogen, photocatalysis, testing
Green hydrogen is set to become the energy carrier of the future, provided that production technologies such as electrolysis and solar water splitting can be scaled to global dimensions. Testing these hydrogen technologies on the MW scale requires the development of dedicated new test facilities for which there is no precedent. This perspective highlights the challenges to be met on the path to implementing a test facility for large-scale water electrolysis, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic water splitting and aims to serve as a much-needed blueprint for future test facilities based on the authors’ own experience in establishing the Hydrogen Lab Leuna. Key aspects to be considered are the electricity and utility requirements of the devices under testing, the analysis of the produced H2 and O2 and the safety regulations for handling large quantities of H2. Choosing the right location is crucial not only for meeting these device requirements, but also for improving financial viabi... [more]
The Potential of Collaboration between India and Japan in the Hydrogen Sector
Takuma Otaki, Rajib Shaw
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy policy, Hydrogen, hydrogen policy, India-Japan relationship
With growing concern about risks related to energy security around the world, the development of hydrogen cooperation between India and Japan has become very important to ensure the economic security of the two countries and to deepen economic cooperation. This report covers both public and private initiatives in the hydrogen area in both countries and visualizes the high potential and potential areas where both countries could cooperate in the hydrogen area, as well as the challenges that are necessary for cooperation. The following four factors are strong incentives for India and Japan to deepen cooperation in the hydrogen field: (1) India has a high potential hydrogen supply capacity, (2) India is very active in implementing hydrogen in society, (3) Japan is already conducting R&D in areas of high interest to India and (4) Japan will need to import hydrogen from other countries in the future. The issues of (1) cost visualization, including transportation costs, (2) harmonization of... [more]
Physics-Based Prediction for the Consumption and Emissions of Passenger Vehicles and Light Trucks up to 2050
Manfred Dollinger, Gerhard Fischerauer
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: battery electric vehicle, consumption shares, electric motor, fuel cell, greenhouse gas emission, Hydrogen, physical model, range prediction, real-world conditions, truck
The increasing market share of electric vehicles and the politically intended phase-out of the internal combustion engine require reliable and realistic predictions for future consumption and greenhouse gas emissions as a function of technological solutions. This also includes the consumption- and emission-intensive transport of goods. We consider both passenger vehicles and commercial vehicle traffic in our study and have investigated whether there are drive alternatives to the battery electric vehicle that enable uninterrupted trips with a long range, especially for regional delivery services and internationally active freight forwarders. To this end, we have analysed three system architectures and their expected technological progress until 2050: battery electric vehicles (BEV), fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) running on compressed natural gas (CNG). The latter case serves as a best-practice reference from a combustion technology pe... [more]
Supercritical Water Gasification of Coconut Shell Impregnated with a Nickel Nanocatalyst: Box−Behnken Design and Process Evaluation
Marcela M. Marcelino, Gary A. Leeke, Guozhan Jiang, Jude A. Onwudili, Carine T. Alves, Delano M. de Santana, Felipe A. Torres, Ednildo A. Torres, Silvio A. B. Vieira de Melo
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: coconut shell, efficiency, Hydrogen, nickel, supercritical water gasification
The energy conversion of nickel-impregnated coconut shells using supercritical water has not yet been explored. The impregnation process was conducted at room temperature and a pH of 5.80 for 72 h. Characterization of the prepared sample confirmed the presence of nickel nanoparticles with an average size of 7.15 nm. The gasification of control and impregnated samples was performed at 400−500 °C, biomass loading from 20 to 30 wt% and residence time from 20 to 60 min. The response surface methodology (RSM) approach, with a Box−Behnken method, was used to design the experiments. The optimization model showed that the non-catalytic process at 500 °C, 60 min and 20 wt% of biomass loading could promote an H2 yield of 8.8 mol% and gasification efficiency of 47.6%. The gasification of nickel-impregnated coconut shells showed significantly higher gasification efficiency (58.6%) and hydrogen yield (17.2 mol%) with greater carbon and hydrogen efficiencies (109.4 and 116.9%) when compared to the n... [more]
The Role of Hydrogen and H2 Mobility on the Green Transition of Islands: The Case of Anafi (Greece)
Andreas Dimou, Konstantinos Moustakas, Stergios Vakalis
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Energy Storage, green islands, Hydrogen, mobility, RES, solar, Wind
The holistic green energy transition of non-interconnected islands faces several challenges if all the energy sectors are included, i.e., electricity, heating/cooling, and mobility. On the one hand, the penetration of renewable energy systems (RES) is limited due to design restrictions with respect to the peak demand. On the other hand, energy-intensive heating and mobility sectors pose significant challenges and may be difficult to electrify. The focus of this study is on implementing a hybrid Wind−PV system on the non-interconnected island of Anafi (Greece) that utilizes surplus renewable energy production for both building heating through heat pumps and hydrogen generation. This comprehensive study aims to achieve a holistic green transition by addressing all three main sectors—electricity, heating, and transportation. The produced hydrogen is utilized to address the energy needs of the mobility sector (H2 mobility), focusing primarily on public transportation vehicles (buses) and s... [more]
Development of Model-Based PEM Water Electrolysis HILS (Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation) System for State Evaluation and Fault Detection
Taehyung Koo, Rockkil Ko, Dongwoo Ha, Jaeyoung Han
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: dynamic response, hardware-in-the-loop simulation, Hydrogen, Modelling, PEMWE, real time, system simulation
Hydrogen is attracting attention as a good energy-storage medium for renewable energy. Among hydrogen production technologies using renewable energy, water electrolysis is drawing attention as a key technology for green hydrogen production using renewable energy. In particular, polymeric electrolyte membrane water electrolysis systems have several advantages compared to other types of water electrolysis technologies, such as small size and mass, high efficiency, low operating temperature, and low power consumption. However, until now, proton-exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis systems have not been reliable. In this study, system failure diagnosis techniques were presented among the various methods for improving reliability. We developed PEM water electrolysis stack models and system models to predict the performance of the system and analyze the dynamic properties using MATLAB/Simulink® 2018a, which have been validated under various conditions. The developed dynamic characteris... [more]
A Perspective on the Overarching Role of Hydrogen, Ammonia, and Methanol Carbon-Neutral Fuels towards Net Zero Emission in the Next Three Decades
Haifeng Liu, Jeffrey Dankwa Ampah, Yang Zhao, Xingyu Sun, Linxun Xu, Xueli Jiang, Shuaishuai Wang
April 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: ammonia, carbon-neutral fuels, decarbonization, Hydrogen, Methanol
Arguably, one of the most important issues the world is facing currently is climate change. At the current rate of fossil fuel consumption, the world is heading towards extreme levels of global temperature rise if immediate actions are not taken. Transforming the current energy system from one largely based on fossil fuels to a carbon-neutral one requires unprecedented speed. Based on the current state of development, direct electrification of the future energy system alone is technically challenging and not enough, especially in hard-to-abate sectors like heavy industry, road trucking, international shipping, and aviation. This leaves a considerable demand for alternative carbon-neutral fuels such as green ammonia and hydrogen and renewable methanol. From this perspective, we discuss the overarching roles of each fuel in reaching net zero emission within the next three decades. The challenges and future directions associated with the fuels conclude the current perspective paper.
The New Model of Energy Cluster Management and Functioning
Maciej Sołtysik, Karolina Mucha-Kuś, Jacek Kamiński
April 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: energy cluster, energy community, Energy Storage, Hydrogen, management
This article was aimed to answer the question of whether local energy communities have a sufficient energy surplus for storage purposes, including hydrogen production. The article presents an innovative approach to current research and a discussion of the concepts of the collective prosumer and virtual prosumer that have been implemented in the legal order and further amended in the law. From this perspective, it was of utmost importance to analyze the model of functioning of an energy cluster consisting of energy consumers, energy producers, and hydrogen storage, whose goal is to maximize the obtained benefits, assuming the coopetitive nature of the relationship. The announced and clear perspective of the planned benefits will provide the cluster members a measurable basis for participation in such an energy community. However, the catalogue of benefits will be conditioned by the fulfillment of several requirements related to both the scale of covering energy demand from own sources a... [more]
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