Records with Keyword: Hydrogen
Showing records 1 to 25 of 325. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Forces Shaping the Future of Design and Design Education
Jeffrey J Siirola
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Education
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide Capture, Hydrogen, Parameter Optimization, Process Design, Process Electrification, Process Synthesis, Structural Optimization
All ABET-accredited engineering programs mandate a culminating major design experience based on knowledge and skills acquired in earlier course work and incorporating realistic appropriate engineering standards and multiple realistic constraints. Some chemical companies organize their Manufacturing Innovation Process into a sequence of stages which typically include Need Identification, Product Design, Basic and Detailed Chemistry, Process Design, Equipment Design, Plant Design, Detailed Engineering and Vendor Specifications, Component Acquisition, Plant Construction Planning and Execution, Operating Procedure Development, Plant Commissioning and Start-up, and Production Planning, Scheduling, and Operation. Each of these stages involve the solution of many "design" problems that could be the subject of the culminating undergraduate chemical engineering design experience... (ABSTRACT ABBREVIATED)
Process Design for the Energy Transition: An Industrial Perspective
Jaffer H. Ghouse
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Ammonia, Energy Systems, Hydrogen, Optimization, Process Design
The United States’ Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) of 2022 has established incentives to facilitate the energy transition. While these policies provide economic incen-tives that encourage investment and may reduce financial risk for the private sector on the supply side, transitioning to a lower carbon or net-zero economy by 2050 presents several challenges. These include designing flexible production systems that can interact with inter-mittent renewable energy resources, ensure process safety, redesigning existing energy infrastructure to support new energy carriers like hydrogen or ammonia, and making long-term investment decisions in an uncertain and evolving market... (ABSTRACT ABBREVIATED)
Comparative Techno-economic Assessment of Hydrogen Production, Storage and Refueling Pathways
Minseong Park, Hegwon Chung, Jiyong Kim
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Energy refueling, Environment, Hydrogen, Process Synthesis, Technoeconomic Analysis
Hydrogen, as a clean and versatile energy carrier, holds immense promise for addressing the world’s growing energy and environmental challenges. However, hydrogen-based energy systems face challenges related to efficient storage methods, energy-intensive production, refueling processes, and overall cost-effectiveness. To solve this problem, a superstructure was developed that integrates overall technologies related to hydrogen energy transportation. This study synthesizes process pathways for hydrogen energy transportation method including energy carrier production, storage, and refueling, based on the developed superstructure. The techno-economic analysis was conducted to evaluate the performance of each transportation pathway and compare it with conventional fossil fuel transportation system. Process performance criteria, including unit production cost (UPC), energy efficiency (EEF), and net CO2 equivalent emissions (NCE), serve as indicators for process performance. By comparing tec... [more]
Role of Hydrogen as Fuel in Decarbonizing US Clinker Manufacturing for Cement Production: Costs and CO2 Emissions Reduction Potentials
Ikenna J. Okeke, Sachin U. Nimbalkar, Kiran Thirumaran, Joe Cresko
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, Cement, Clinker, Decarbonization, Hydrogen
As a low-carbon fuel, feedstock, and energy source, hydrogen is expected to play a vital role in the decarbonization of high-temperature process heat during the pyroprocessing steps of clinker production in cement manufacturing. However, to accurately assess its potential for reducing CO2 emissions and the associated costs in clinker production applications, a techno-economic analysis and a study of facility-level CO2 emissions are necessary. Assuming that up to 20% hydrogen can be blended in clinker fuel mix without significant changes in equipment configuration, this study evaluates the potential reduction in CO2 emissions (scopes 1 and 2) and cost implications when replacing current carbon-intensive fuels with hydrogen. Using the direct energy substitution method, we developed an Excel-based model of clinker production, considering different hydrogen–blend scenarios. Hydrogen from steam methane reformer (gray) and renewable-based electrolysis (green) are considered as sources of hyd... [more]
Integrated Design and Scheduling Optimization of Multi-product processes – case study of Nuclear-Based Hydrogen and Electricity Co-Production
Ruaridh Macdonald, Dharik S. Mallapragada
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Electricity & Electrical Devices, Energy Systems, Hydrogen, Multiscale Modelling, Nuclear
Increasing wind and solar electricity generation in power systems increases temporal variability in electricity prices which incentivizes the development of flexible processes for electricity generation and electricity-based fuels/chemicals production. Here, we develop a computational framework for the integrated design and optimization of multi-product processes interacting with the grid under time-varying electricity prices. Our analysis focuses on the case study of nuclear-based hydrogen (H2) and electricity generation, involving nuclear power plants (NPP) producing high temperature heat and electricity coupled with a high temperature steam electrolyzers (HTSE) for H2 production. The ability to co-produce H2 along with nuclear is widely seen as critical to improving the economics of nuclear energy technologies. To that end, our model focuses on evaluating the least-cost design and operations of the NPP-HTSE system while accounting for: a) power consumption variation with current den... [more]
Process and Network Design for Sustainable Hydrogen Economy
Monzure-Khoda Kazi, Akhilesh Gandhi, M.M. Faruque Hasan
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Management, Hydrogen, Network Design, Optimization, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Supply Chain
This study presents a comprehensive approach to optimizing hydrogen supply chain network (HSCN), focusing initially on Texas, with potential scalability to national and global regions. Utilizing mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), the research decomposes into two distinct modeling stages: broad supply chain modeling and detailed hub-specific analysis. The first stage identifies optimal hydrogen hub locations, considering county-level hydrogen demand, renewable energy availability, and grid capacity. It determines the number and placement of hubs, county participation within these hubs, and the optimal sites for hydrogen production plants. The second stage delves into each selected hub, analyzing energy mixes under variable solar, wind, and grid profiles, sizing specific production and storage facilities, and scheduling to match energy availability. Iterative refinement incorporates detailed insights back into the broader model, updating costs and configurations to converge upo... [more]
Optimization of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell Systems Accounting for Long-Term Performance and Health Degradation
Nishant V. Giridhar, Debangsu Bhattacharyya, Douglas A. Allan, Stephen E. Zitney, Mingrui Li, Lorenz T. Biegler
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Dynamic Degradation Modelling, Fuel Cells, Hydrogen, Optimization, Solid Oxide Cells
This study focuses on optimizing solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) systems for efficient and durable long-term hydrogen (H2) production. While the elevated operating temperatures of SOECs offer advantages in terms of efficiency, they also lead to chemical degradation, which shortens cell lifespan. To address this challenge, dynamic degradation models are coupled with a steady-state, two-dimensional, non-isothermal SOEC model and steady-state auxiliary balance of plant equipment models, within the IDAES modeling and optimization framework. A quasi-steady state approach is presented to reduce model size and computational complexity. Long-term dynamic simulations at constant H2 production rate illustrate the thermal effects of chemical degradation. Dynamic optimization is used to minimize the lifetime cost of H2 production, accounting for SOEC replacement, operating, and energy expenses. Several optimized operating profiles are compared by calculating the Levelized Cost of Hydrogen (LC... [more]
Preliminary Examination of the Biogas-to-Hydrogen Conversion Process
Hegwon Chung, Minseong Park, Jiyong Kim
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Biosystems, Data-driven model, Environment, Hydrogen, Optimization, Technoeconomic Analysis
Biogas is a promising energy source for sustainable hydrogen production due to its high concentration of CH4. However, determining the optimal process configuration is challenging due to the uncertainty of the fed biogas composition and the sensitivity of the operating conditions. This necessitates early-stage evaluation of the biomass-to-hydrogen process's performance, considering economics, energy efficiency, and environmental impacts. A data-driven model was introduced for early-stage assessment of hydrogen production from biogas without whole process simulation and optimization. The model was developed based on various biogas compositions and generated parameters for mass and energy balance. A database of unit processes was created using simulation models. Sensitivity analysis was performed under four techno-economic and environmental evaluation criteria: Unit Production Cost (UPC), Energy Efficiency (EEF), Net CO2 equivalent Emission (NCE), and Maximum H2 Production (MHP). The ear... [more]
Modeling the Maximization of Waste Heat Use in a Liquid Solvent Direct Air Capture Plant Through Hydrogen Production
Erick O. Arwa, Kristen R. Schell
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Climate change, Direct air capture, Hydrogen, Negative emission technologies, PEM
Direct air capture (DAC) of carbon dioxide is a promising technology to enable climate change mitigation. The liquid solvent DAC (LSDAC) process is one of the leading technologies being piloted. However, LSDAC uses a high-temperature regeneration process which requires a lot of thermal energy. Although current LSDAC designs incorporate pre-heat cyclones and a heat recovery steam generator to enable heat recovery, these do not maximize the use of the heat in the products of calcination. In this paper, a linear optimization model is developed to minimize energy cost in a LSDAC that is powered by renewable energy and natural gas. First, the material flow network is modified to include a heat exchanger (HX) and water supply to a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyser. Mass and energy balance constraints are then developed to include the water flow as well as the energy balance at the PEM and the HX. Results show that about 911 tonnes of hydrogen could be produced over 336 hours of ope... [more]
Equation-Oriented Modeling of Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor for Blue Hydrogen Production
Damian T. Agi, Hani A. E. Hawa, Alexander W. Dowling
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Hydrogen, Membranes, Model Initialization, Modelling, Process Design, Water-Gas Shift
Water-gas shift membrane reactors (WGS-MRs) offer a pathway to affordable blue H2 generation/purification from gasified feedstock or reformed fuels. To exploit their cost benefits for blue hydrogen production, WGS-MRs’ performance needs to be optimized, which includes navigating the multidimensional design space (e.g., temperature, feed pressures, space velocity, membrane permeance and selectivity, catalytic performance). This work describes an equation-oriented modeling framework for WGS-MRs in the Pyomo ecosystem, with an emphasis on model scaling and multi-start initialization strategies to facilitate reliable convergence with nonlinear optimization solvers. We demonstrate, through sensitivity analysis, that our model converges rapidly (< 1 CPU second on a laptop computer) under a wide range of operating parameters (e.g., feed pressures of 1-3 MPa, reactor temperatures of 624-824 K, sweep-to-feed ratios of 0-0.5, and steam/carbon ratios of 1-5). Ongoing work includes (1) validat... [more]
Microbial Electrolysis Cell Exergy Evaluation
Valentin Nenov, Lyubka Atanasova, Hyusein Yemendzhiev, Ralitza Koleva
June 7, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: exergy balance, Hydrogen, microbial electrolysis cell
Bio-electrochemical systems have increasingly become the focus of research due to their potential in environmental biotechnology, particularly in the domains of waste utilization and energy recovery. A prominent method within this domain is the transformation of organic matter into hydrogen via microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). This study offers a thorough analysis of MEC performance, employing exergy analysis and incorporating relevant data from the existing literature. The findings of this research indicate a relationship between process efficiency and effective electron transfer originating from biological oxidation to the cathode reaction, facilitating hydrogen generation. The assessment performed revealed that the exergy efficiency of the process varies by a wide range, depending on conditions such as substrate type and concentration, applied external voltage, and the presence of specific inhibitors. This interplay between substrate concentration, overall efficiency, and energy... [more]
Current Status and Economic Analysis of Green Hydrogen Energy Industry Chain
Xinrong Yan, Wenguang Zheng, Yajuan Wei, Zhaoqian Yan
June 7, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: application, economic analysis, Hydrogen, production, storage and transportation
Under the background of the power system profoundly reforming, hydrogen energy from renewable energy, as an important carrier for constructing a clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient energy system, is a necessary way to realize the objectives of carbon peaking and carbon neutrality. As a strategic energy source, hydrogen plays a significant role in accelerating the clean energy transition and promoting renewable energy. However, the cost and technology are the two main constraints to green hydrogen energy development. Herein, the technological development status and economy of the whole industrial chain for green hydrogen energy “production-storage-transportation-use” are discussed and reviewed. After analysis, the electricity price and equipment cost are key factors to limiting the development of alkaline and proton exchange membrane hydrogen production technology; the quantity, scale and distance of transportation are key to controlling the costs of hydrogen storage and transportatio... [more]
Economic Modelling of Mixing Hydrogen with Natural Gas
Aleksejs Zacepins, Daniels Kotovs, Vitalijs Komasilovs, Armands Kviesis
June 7, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: CO2 reduction, economic evaluation, heat values, Hydrogen, Natural Gas
As global efforts intensify to transition toward cleaner and more sustainable energy sources, the blending of hydrogen with natural gas emerges as a promising strategy to reduce carbon emissions and enhance energy security. This study employs a systematic approach to assess the economic viability of hydrogen blending, considering factors such as gas costs and heat values. Various hydrogen blending scenarios are analyzed to determine the optimal blend ratios, taking into account both technical feasibility and economic considerations. The study discusses potential economic benefits, challenges, and regulatory implications associated with the widespread adoption of hydrogen−natural gas mixtures. Furthermore, the study explores the impact of this integration on existing natural gas infrastructure, exploring the potential for enhanced energy storage and delivery. The findings of this research contribute valuable insights to policymakers, industry stakeholders, and researchers engaged in the... [more]
How Would Structural Change in Electricity and Hydrogen End Use Impact Low-Carbon Transition of an Energy System? A Case Study of China
Nuobei Zhang, Zheng Li, Xiaoying Zheng, Pei Liu
June 6, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: bottom-up model, China, electricity, Hydrogen, scenarios
Driven by global targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, energy systems are expected to undergo fundamental changes. In light of carbon neutrality policies, China is expected to significantly increase the proportion of hydrogen and electricity in its energy system in the future. Nevertheless, the future trajectory remains shrouded in uncertainty. To explore the potential ramifications of varying growth scenarios pertaining to hydrogen and electricity on the energy landscape, this study employs a meticulously designed bottom-up model. Through comprehensive scenario calculations, the research aims to unravel the implications of such expansions and provide a nuanced analysis of their effects on the energy system. Results show that with an increase in electrification rates, cumulative carbon dioxide emissions over a certain planning horizon could be reduced, at the price of increased unit reduction costs. By increasing the share of end-use electricity and hydrogen from 71% to 80% in 20... [more]
The Gaseous Hydrogen Transport Capacity in Nanopores Coupling Bulk Flow Mechanisms and Surface Diffusion: Integration of Profession and Innovation
Yanglu Wan, Wei Lu, Zhouman Huang, Rucang Qian, Zheng Sun
June 5, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Adsorption, flow capacity, Hydrogen, nanopores, surface diffusion
Due to its unique chemical structure, hydrogen energy inherently has a high calorific value without reinforcing global warming, so it is expected to be a promising alternative energy source in the future. In this work, we focus on nanoconfined hydrogen flow performance, a critical issue in terms of geological hydrogen storage. For nanopores where the pore scale is comparable to hydrogen’s molecular size, the impact on hydrogen molecules exerted by the pore surface cannot be neglected, leading to the molecules near the surface gaining mobility and slipping on the surface. Furthermore, hydrogen adsorption takes place in the nanopores, and the way the adsorption molecules move is completely different from the bulk molecules. Hence, the frequently applied Navier−Stokes equation, based on the no-slip boundary condition and overlooking the contribution of the adsorption molecules, fails to precisely predict the hydrogen flow capacity in nanopores. In this paper, hydrogen molecules are classi... [more]
A New Approach to the Preparation of Stable Oxide-Composite Cobalt−Samarium Catalysts for the Production of Hydrogen by Dry Reforming of Methane
A. G. Dedov, A. S. Loktev, V. A. Arkhipova, M. A. Bykov, A. A. Sadovnikov, K. A. Cherednichenko, G. A. Shandryuk
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: cobalt–samarium oxide catalysts, dry reforming of methane, heterogeneous catalysis, Hydrogen, Syngas
A new approach to preparing a series of Co/Sm2O3 catalysts for hydrogen production by the dry reforming of methane has been developed. The catalyst precursors were synthesized with a simple method, including the evaporation of aqueous solutions of cobalt and samarium nitrates, followed by a short-term calcination of the resulting material. The as-prepared and spent catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, temperature-programmed reduction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The content of cobalt in the synthesized materials affects their phase composition and carbonization resistance in the dry reforming of the methane reaction. It has been shown that preheating in N2 atmosphere produces catalysts that provide a stable yield of hydrogen and CO of 94−98% for at least 50 h at 900 °C. These yields are among the highest currently available for the dry reforming of methane catalysts made from Co-Sm complex oxides. It h... [more]
Development of an MCTS Model for Hydrogen Production Optimisation
Vitalijs Komasilovs, Aleksejs Zacepins, Armands Kviesis, Kaspars Ozols, Arturs Nikulins, Kaspars Sudars
August 3, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: control modes, cost optimisation, Hydrogen, Monte Carlo tree search, operation scheduling
Hydrogen has the potential to revolutionize the energy industry due to its clean-burning and versatile properties. It is the most abundant element in the universe and can be produced through a variety of methods, including electrolysis. The widespread adoption of hydrogen faces various challenges, including the high cost of production; thus, it is important to optimise the production processes. This research focuses on development of models for hydrogen production optimisation based on various external factors and parameters. Models based on electricity prices are developed and compared between different market situations. To run hydrogen production more effectively, it is required to use renewable energy sources for the production process. Adding the solar power component to the economic evaluation model outcome is more positive. The Monte Carlo tree search (MCTS) algorithm is adapted to effectively control the electrolysis process. MCTS schedule optimization was performed for a 24 h... [more]
Fast Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Helical Tubes
Igor O. Shamshin, Viktor S. Aksenov, Maxim V. Kazachenko, Pavel A. Gusev, Sergey M. Frolov
July 7, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: blended hydrogenous fuels, detonability, Ethylene, fast deflagration-to-detonation transition, Hydrogen, methane, propane, pulsed detonation tube, run-up distance
When designing a new type of power plants operating on pulsed detonations of gaseous or liquid fuels, the concept of fast deflagration-to-detonation transition (FDDT) is used. According to the concept, a flame arising from a weak ignition source must accelerate so fast as to form an intense shock wave at a minimum distance from the ignition source so that the intensity of the shock wave is sufficient for fast shock-to-detonation transition by some additional arrangements. Hence, the FDDT concept implies the use of special means for flame acceleration and shock wave amplification. In this work, we study the FDDT using a pulsed detonation tube comprising a Shchelkin spiral and a helical tube section with ten coils as the means for flame acceleration and shock amplification (focusing), respectively. To attain the FDDT at the shortest distances for fuels of significantly different detonability, the diameter of the pulsed detonation tube is taken close to the limiting diameter of detonation... [more]
Thermal Methane Cracking on Molten Metal: Kinetics Modeling for Pilot Reactor Design
Emma Palo, Vittoria Cosentino, Gaetano Iaquaniello, Vincenzo Piemonte, Emmanuel Busillo
June 9, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: CO2 free process, Hydrogen, methane cracking, Modelling, molten metal process
Up to 80% of hydrogen production is currently carried out through CO2 emission-intensive natural gas reforming and coal gasification. Water-splitting electrolysis using renewable energy (green H2) is the only process that does not emit greenhouses gases, but it is a quite energy-demanding process. To significantly contribute to the clean energy transition, it is critical that low-carbon hydrogen production routes that can replace current production methods and can expand production capacity to meet new demands are developed. A new path, alternative to steam reforming coupled with CCS (blue H2) that is based on methane cracking, in which H2 production is associated with solid carbon instead of CO2 (turquoise H2), has received increasing attention recent years. The reaction takes place inside the liquid bath, a molten metal reactor. The aim of this article is to model the main kinetic mechanisms involved in the methane cracking reaction with molten metals. The model developed was validat... [more]
Alternative Sources of Energy in Transport: A Review
Kristýna Pustějovská, Kamila Janovská, Simona Jursová
June 7, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: alternative energy sources, Hydrogen, LCA, transport
Alternative sour2ces of energy are on the rise primarily because of environmental concerns, in addition to the depletion of fossil fuel reserves. Currently, there are many alternatives, approaches, and attempts to introduce alternative energy sources in the field of transport. This article centers around the need to explore additional energy sources beyond the current ones in use. It delves into individual energy sources that can be utilized for transportation, including their properties, production methods, and the advantages and disadvantages associated with their use across different types of drives. The article not only examines the situation in the Czech Republic but also in other nations. In addition to addressing future mobility, the thesis also considers how the utilization of new energy sources may impact the environment.
Assessment of Mass and Energy Balance of Waste Printed Circuit Board Recycling through Hydrogen Reduction in Black Copper Smelting Process
Aulia Qisthi Mairizal, Agung Yoga Sembada, Kwong Ming Tse, Nawshad Haque, M. Akbar Rhamdhani
June 7, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: black copper smelting, decarbonization, Hydrogen, thermodynamic analysis, waste PCB
Due to growing concern over environmental impacts and the pressure to lower carbon footprints in the metals industry, hydrogen (H2) has gained attention as a promising alternative for the replacement of carbon as a reductant and fuel. This paper evaluates the potential use of hydrogen as an energy source and reducing agent during the processing of waste printed circuit boards (waste PCBs) from e-waste through black copper smelting. The effect of the use of carbon and hydrogen during the reduction−oxidation process was analysed and compared from the perspective of thermodynamics and heat balance. The thermodynamic analyses of waste-PCB processing were carried out using the FactSage thermochemical package for the smelting process at temperatures from 1473 K to 1673 K (1200−1400 °C). The results show that the CO2 emissions can be reduced by 73% when hydrogen is used as the reducing agent. A minimum of 10 wt% of waste PCBs in the feed material can be used to replace the necessary carbon to... [more]
Economic Analysis: Green Hydrogen Production Systems
María Teresa Muñoz Díaz, Héctor Chávez Oróstica, Javiera Guajardo
June 7, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: green hydrogen, Hydrogen, hydrogen export, hydrogen strategy, LCOH hydrogen, renewable sources
The continued use of energy sources based on fossil fuels has various repercussions for the environment. These repercussions are being minimized through the use of renewable energy supplies and new techniques to decarbonize the global energy matrix. For many years, hydrogen has been one of the most used gases in all kinds of industry, and now it is possible to produce it efficiently, on a large scale, and in a non-polluting way. This gas is mainly used in the chemical industry and in the oil refining industry, but the constant growth of its applications has generated the interest of all the countries of the world. Its use in transportation, petrochemical industries, heating equipment, etc., will result in a decrease in the production of greenhouse gases, which are harmful to the environment. This means hydrogen is widely used and needed by countries, creating great opportunities for hydrogen export business. This paper details concepts about the production of green hydrogen, its associ... [more]
The Fuel Flexibility of Gas Turbines: A Review and Retrospective Outlook
Michel Molière
May 26, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, Biofuels, combustion, fossil fuels, fuel flexibility, gas turbine, Hydrogen, low emissions
Land-based gas turbines (GTs) are continuous-flow engines that run with permanent flames once started and at stationary pressure, temperature, and flows at stabilized load. Combustors operate without any moving parts and their substantial air excess enables complete combustion. These features provide significant space for designing efficient and versatile combustion systems. In particular, as heavy-duty gas turbines have moderate compression ratios and ample stall margins, they can burn not only high- and medium-BTU fuels but also low-BTU ones. As a result, these machines have gained remarkable fuel flexibility. Dry Low Emissions combustors, which were initially confined to burning standard natural gas, have been gradually adapted to an increasing number of alternative gaseous fuels. The paper first delivers essential technical considerations that underlie this important fuel portfolio. It then reviews the spectrum of alternative GT fuels which currently extends from lean gases (coal b... [more]
Risk Assessment of a Hydrogen Refueling Station in an Urban Area
Jongbeom Kwak, Haktae Lee, Somin Park, Jaehyuk Park, Seungho Jung
May 26, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Hydrogen, hydrogen refueling station, hydrogen risk assessment model, HyRAM, quantitative risk assessment
After the Paris Agreement was signed in 2015, many countries worldwide focused on the hydrogen economy, aiming for eco-friendly and renewable energy by moving away from the existing carbon economy, which has been the primary source of global warming. Hydrogen is the most common element on Earth. As a light substance, hydrogen can diffuse quickly; however, it also has a small risk of explosion. Representative explosion accidents have included the Muskingum River Power Plant Vapor Cloud Explosion accident in 2007 and the Silver Eagle Refinery Vapor Cloud Explosion accident in 2009. In addition, there was an explosion in a hydrogen tank in Gangneung, Korea, in May 2019, and a hydrogen refueling station (HRS) in Norway exploded in 2018. Despite this risk, Korea is promoting the establishment of HRSs in major urban centers, including downtown areas and public buildings, by using the Regulatory Sandbox to install HRSs. This paper employed the Hydrogen Risk Assessment Model (HyRAM) of Sandia... [more]
The Role of Direct Air Capture in EU’s Decarbonisation and Associated Carbon Intensity for Synthetic Fuels Production
Rocio Gonzalez Sanchez, Anatoli Chatzipanagi, Georgia Kakoulaki, Marco Buffi, Sandor Szabo
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: carbon footprint, decarbonisation, direct air capture, Hydrogen, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Synthetic Fuels
Direct air capture (DAC) is considered one of the mitigation strategies in most of the future scenarios trying to limit global temperature to 1.5 °C. Given the high expectations placed on DAC for future decarbonisation, this study presents an extensive review of DAC technologies, exploring a number of techno-economic aspects, including an updated collection of the current and planned DAC projects around the world. A dedicated analysis focused on the production of synthetic methane, methanol, and diesel from DAC and electrolytic hydrogen in the European Union (EU) is also performed, where the carbon footprint is analysed for different scenarios and energy sources. The results show that the maximum grid carbon intensity to obtain negative emissions with DAC is estimated at 468 gCO2e/kWh, which is compliant with most of the EU countries’ current grid mix. Using only photovoltaics (PV) and wind, negative emissions of at least −0.81 tCO2e/tCO2 captured can be achieved. The maximum grid inte... [more]
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