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Records with Keyword: Hydrogen
A Critical Study of Stationary Energy Storage Policies in Australia in an International Context: The Role of Hydrogen and Battery Technologies
January 31, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Australia, battery, electrical energy storage, Hydrogen, policy, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
This paper provides a critical study of current Australian and leading international policies aimed at supporting electrical energy storage for stationary power applications with a focus on battery and hydrogen storage technologies. It demonstrates that global leaders such as Germany and the U.S. are actively taking steps to support energy storage technologies through policy and regulatory change. This is principally to integrate increasing amounts of intermittent renewable energy (wind and solar) that will be required to meet high renewable energy targets. The relevance of this to the Australian energy market is that whilst it is unique, it does have aspects in common with the energy markets of these global leaders. This includes regions of high concentrations of intermittent renewable energy (Texas and California) and high penetration rates of residential solar photovoltaics (PV) (Germany). Therefore, Australian policy makers have a good opportunity to observe what is working in an i... [more]
Coordination Control of a Novel Wind Farm Configuration Including a Hydrogen Storage System and a Gas Turbine
January 7, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Planning & Scheduling
Keywords: electrolyzer, gas turbine, Hydrogen, wind farm
This paper proposes a novel configuration that combines wind turbines, an electrolyzer, and a gas turbine with the corresponding generator. A control strategy for this configuration is also proposed. The purpose of this configuration and its control strategy is to make the wind farm work like a conventional power plant from a grid’s point of view. The final proposed configuration works properly with the proposed control strategy, the three times per revolution (3p) oscillation frequency is removed and the output power fluctuations caused by wind fluctuation are compensated. The final power output of the proposed configuration is constant like that of a conventional power plant, and it can change according to the different requirements of the transmission system operator.
Solar Hydrogen Production via a Samarium Oxide-Based Thermochemical Water Splitting Cycle
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Reaction Engineering
Keywords: computational analysis, Hydrogen, samarium oxide, solar thermochemical, thermodynamics, water splitting
The computational thermodynamic analysis of a samarium oxide-based two-step solar thermochemical water splitting cycle is reported. The analysis is performed using HSC chemistry software and databases. The first (solar-based) step drives the thermal reduction of Sm₂O₃ into Sm and O₂. The second (non-solar) step corresponds to the production of H₂ via a water splitting reaction and the oxidation of Sm to Sm₂O₃. The equilibrium thermodynamic compositions related to the thermal reduction and water splitting steps are determined. The effect of oxygen partial pressure in the inert flushing gas on the thermal reduction temperature (TH) is examined. An analysis based on the second law of thermodynamics is performed to determine the cycle efficiency (ηcycle) and solar-to-fuel energy conversion efficiency (ηsolar−to−fuel) attainable with and without heat recuperation. The results indicate that ηcycle and ηsolar−to−fuel both increase with decreasing TH, due to the reduction in oxygen partial pre... [more]
Generation of Hydrogen, Lignin and Sodium Hydroxide from Pulping Black Liquor by Electrolysis
October 22, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Reaction Engineering
Black liquor is generated in Kraft pulping of wood or non-wood raw material in pulp mills, and regarded as a renewable resource. The objective of this paper was to develop an effective means to remove the water pollutants by recovery of both lignin and sodium hydroxide from black liquor, based on electrolysis. The treatment of a 1000 mL of black liquor (122 g/L solid contents) consumed 345.6 kJ of electric energy, and led to the generation of 30.7 g of sodium hydroxide, 0.82 g of hydrogen gas and 52.1 g of biomass solids. Therefore, the recovery ratios of elemental sodium and biomass solids are 80.4% and 76%, respectively. Treating black liquor by electrolysis is an environmentally friendly technology that can, in particular, be an alternative process in addressing the environmental issues of pulping waste liquor to the small-scale mills without black liquor recovery.
Ventilation System Influence on Hydrogen Explosion Hazards in Industrial Lead-Acid Battery Rooms
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Process Monitoring
Keywords: battery, CFD modelling, explosion, Hydrogen, ventilation
When charging most types of industrial lead-acid batteries, hydrogen gas is emitted. A large number of batteries, especially in relatively small areas/enclosures, and in the absence of an adequate ventilation system, may create an explosion hazard. This paper describes full scale tests, which demonstrate conditions that can occur in a battery room in the event of a ventilation system breakdown. Over the course of the tests, full scale hydrogen emission experiments were performed to study emission time and flammable cloud formation according to the assumed emission velocity. On this basis, the characteristics of dispersion of hydrogen in the battery room were obtained. The CFD model Fire Dynamic Simulator created by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) was used for confirmation that the lack of ventilation in a battery room can be the cause of an explosive atmosphere developing, and leading to, a potential huge explosive hazard. It was demonstrated that different ventil... [more]
The Optimization of Hybrid Power Systems with Renewable Energy and Hydrogen Generation
September 20, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Modelling and Simulations
This paper discusses the optimization of hybrid power systems, which consist of solar cells, wind turbines, fuel cells, hydrogen electrolysis, chemical hydrogen generation, and batteries. Because hybrid power systems have multiple energy sources and utilize different types of storage, we first developed a general hybrid power model using the Matlab/SimPowerSystemTM, and then tuned model parameters based on the experimental results. This model was subsequently applied to predict the responses of four different hybrid power systems for three typical loads, without conducting individual experiments. Furthermore, cost and reliability indexes were defined to evaluate system performance and to derive optimal system layouts. Finally, the impacts of hydrogen costs on system optimization was discussed. In the future, the developed method could be applied to design customized hybrid power systems.
Dry Reforming of Methane Using a Nickel Membrane Reactor
July 31, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Process Design
Dry reforming is a very interesting process for synthesis gas generation from CH 4 and CO 2 but suffers from low hydrogen yields due to the reverse water⁻gas shift reaction (WGS). For this reason, membranes are often used for hydrogen separation, which in turn leads to coke formation at the process temperatures suitable for the membranes. To avoid these problems, this work shows the possibility of using nickel self-supported membranes for hydrogen separation at a temperature of 800 ∘ C. The higher temperature effectively suppresses coke formation. The paper features the analysis of the dry reforming reaction in a nickel membrane reactor without additional catalyst. The measurement campaign targeted coke formation and conversion of the methane feedstock. The nickel approximately 50% without hydrogen separation. The hydrogen removal led to an increase in methane conversion to 60⁻90%.
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Direct Steam Generation Concentrated Solar Power Plant with a Decalin/Naphthalene Thermochemical Storage System
June 12, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Process Design
This study presents the design and analysis of a new integrated direct steam generation (DSG) concentrated solar power (CSP) plant with a decalin/naphthalene thermochemical storage system. Model simulations were performed in accordance to historical hourly solar radiation data over a year, using a combination of Aspen Plus v10, MATLAB 2016b, and Microsoft Excel VBA. It was found that the proposed plant feasibly stored and discharged energy, based on the solar radiation and chemical storage availability, to maintain base-load power productions (250 MW or 120 MW) with an overall efficiency of 14.6%. The effectiveness of the designed storage system was found to be comparable to a molten salt storage system which is currently used in existing CSP plants. The proposed integrated DSG CSP plant with a decalin/naphthalene thermochemical storage system shows promise for being an alternative to existing CSP plants.