Showing records 1 to 25 of 377. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Decarbonization of Oil Refineries through Electrification and Low-Carbon Feedstocks
Ana I. Torres
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Decarbonization, Green Fuels, Oil refineries, Process Design, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Chemical Process Industries must navigate a series of changes in their operations to comply with increasing sustainability targets. These changes may involve the use of electricity-based operations, the implementation of carbon capture strategies, and the use of biomass or end-of-life carbon-containing waste as feedstocks. De-carbonizing oil refineries is particularly challenging as they possess highly valuable infrastructure. Discarding this infrastructure before the end of its life to build entirely new electric and biomass-based operations does not seem to be an economical or even a sustainable solution. This presentation will cover recent work in my group related to the decarbonization of oil refineries, focusing on proposing solutions that could be integrated with existing plants... (ABSTRACT ABBREVIATED)
Dimensionality Reduction in Optimal Process Design with Many Uncertain Sustainability Objectives
Hongxuan Wang, Andrew Allman
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Multi-Objective Optimization, Network Theory, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The study of sustainable design has gained prominence in response to the growing emphasis on environmental and social impacts of critical infrastructure. Addressing the different dimensions inherent in sustainability issues necessitates the application of many-objective optimization techniques. In this work, an illustrative four-objective design system is formulated, wherein uncertainties lie within two different socially-oriented objectives. A stochastic community detection approach is proposed to identify robust groupings of objectives. The findings reveal that the modularity of the optimal solution surpasses that of the average graph, thus demonstrating the efficacy of the proposed approach. Furthermore, a comprehensive exploration of the Pareto frontiers for both the robust and single-scenario best groupings is undertaken, demonstrating that using the robust grouping results in little to no information loss about tradeoffs.
Sustainable Process Systems Engineering – You’re Doing It Wrong!
Raymond L. Smith
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Most studies in process systems engineering are applying incomplete methods when incorporating sustainability. Including sustainability is a laudable goal, and practitioners are encouraged to develop systems that promote economic, environmental, and social aspects. Ten methods that are often overlooked in performing sustainable process systems engineering are listed in this effort and discussed in detail. Practitioners are encouraged to create designs that are inherently safer, to be more complete in their identification of process chemicals used and released, to be complete in their definitions of supply chains, and to apply additional environmental impact categories. Other methods point to items that are factors in process systems engineering such as disruptive recycling, robust superstructures for optimizations, and employing complete sets of objectives. Finally, users should be aware that sustainability tools are available, which might have been outside of their awareness.
Biomanufacturing in Space: New Concepts and Paradigms for Process Design
Brenda Cansino-Loeza, Vernon McIntosh, Krista Ternus, Victor M. Zavala
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Circularity, Equivalent System Mass, Process Design, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Space manufacturing
One of the main challenges to support life in space is the development of sustainable, circular processes that reduce the high cost of resupply missions. Space biomanufacturing is an emerging paradigm that aims to reduce the need for resources, enabling on-demand manufacture of products. The cost of installing biomanufacturing systems in space depends on the cost of transporting the system components, which is directly proportional to their mass/weight. From this perspective, the system mass is a critical factor that dictates process design, and this has important implications in how we can approach such design. For instance, mass constraints require circular use of resources and tight process integration (to minimize resupply) and restricts the type of resources and equipment needed. In this work, we evaluate the lactic acid bioproduction design using Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Pichia pastoris. We use the Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric as a key design measure... [more]
Design and Optimization of Circular Economy Networks: A Case Study of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)
Abdulhakeem Ahmed, Ana I. Torres
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Circular Economy, Plastic Recycling, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Supply Chain Optimization
Circular systems design is an emerging approach for promoting sustainable development. Despite its perceived advantages, the characterization of circular systems remains loosely defined and ambiguous. This work proposes a network optimization framework that evaluates three objective functions related to economic and environmental domains and employs a Pareto analysis to illuminate the trade-offs between objectives. The US polyethylene terephthalate (PET) value chain is selected as a case study and represented via a superstructure containing various recycling pathways. The superstructure optimization problems are modeled as a mixed integer linear program (MILP) and linear programs (LPs), implemented in Pyomo, and solved with CPLEX for a one-year assessment horizon. Solutions to the circular economy models are then compared to the corresponding solutions of linear economy models. Preliminary results show that the optimal circular network is advantageous over the optimal linear network fo... [more]
NMPC for Mode-Switching Operation of Reversible Solid Oxide Cell Systems
Mingrui Li, Douglas A. Allan, San Dinh, Lorenz T. Biegler, Debangsu Bhattacharyya, Vibhav Dabadghao, Nishant Giridhar, Stephen E. Zitney
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Energy & Environment, Implementation, NMPC, Process Optimization & Control, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, SOEC, SOFC, Solid Oxide Cells
Solid oxide cells (SOCs) are a promising dual-mode technology that generates hydrogen through high-temperature water electrolysis and generates power through a fuel cell reaction that consumes hydrogen. Reversible operation of SOCs requires a transition between these two modes for hydrogen production setpoints as the demand and price of electricity fluctuate. Moreover, a well-functioning control system is important to avoid cell degradation during mode-switching operation. In this work, we apply nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) to an SOC module and supporting equipment and compare NMPC performance to classical proportional integral (PI) control strategies, while ramping between the modes of hydrogen and power production. While both control methods provide similar performance in many metrics, NMPC significantly reduces cell thermal gradients and curvatures (mixed spatial temporal partial derivatives) during mode switching. A dynamic process flowsheet of the reversible SOC syste... [more]
Towards 3-fold sustainability in biopharmaceutical process development and product distribution
Miriam Sarkis, Steven Sachio, Nilay Shah, Cleo Kontoravdi, Maria M. Papathanasiou
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Biosystems, Dynamic Modelling, Industry 40, Machine Learning, Process Design, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Supply Chain
The (bio-)pharmaceutical industry is facing crossroads in an effort to ramp up its global capacity, while working to meet net-zero targets and to ensure continuous drug supply. Beyond geopolitical challenges faced worldwide, (bio-)pharmaceutical processes have been historically very complex to design, optimise and integrate in a global distribution network that is resilient and adaptable to changes. In this paper we offer a perspective of how Process Systems Engineering (PSE) tools can support and advance (bio-)pharma practices with an outlook towards 3-fold sustainability. The latter is considering three main pillars, namely social (drug supply), economical and environmental sustainability. We discuss PSE contributions that have revolutionised process design in this space, as well as the optimisation of distributions networks in pharmaceuticals. We do this by means of example cases: one on model-based unit operation design and a second one on sustainable supply chain networks in the... [more]
Autonomous Hydrodistillation with a Digital Twin for Efficient and Climate Neutral Manufacturing of Phytochemicals
Alexander Uhl, Larissa Knierim, Theresa Höß, Marcel Flemming, Axel Schmidt, Jochen Strube
June 21, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: autonomous operation, climate neutrality, digital twin, green technology, hydrodistillation, natural products, phytochemicals, process analytical technology, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Hydrodistillation is traditionally a green technology for the manufacturing of natural products that are volatile. As well as acknowledged process intensification methods such as microwave support for energy efficiency to move towards climate neutral operation, digital twins combined with process analytical technology for advanced process control enables reliable operation of an optimal operation point regarding lowest cost of goods, as well as lowest global warming potential equivalent. A novel process control enabled by digital twin technology has shown to reduce the ecological footprint of the extraction by up to 46.5%, while reducing the cost of extraction by 22.4%. Additionally, skilled operator time is reduced, and the sustainable plant material is utilized most efficiently. The approach is ready to apply, but broad industrialization seems to be held back by unclear business cases and lack of comprehension of decision makers. This is in drastic contrast to the political demand fo... [more]
Reinventing Processes for Sustainability via Process Intensification and Integration
Worapon Kiatkittipong, Jun Wei Lim
June 21, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: environment, integration, intensification, processes, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, waste
A waste material cannot truly be called waste when the procedures and technologies have been invented and developed to exploit and utilize it [...]
Mechanical Property Comparison of Geopolymer Brick Dried by Electrical and Passive Solar Devices with Phase Change Material (Paraffin Wax)
Jeevan Ashok Kumar, Sattanathan Muthuvel, Rajay Vedaraj Issac Selvaraj, Monsuru Ramoni, Ragavanantham Shanmugam, Ranjitharamasamy Sudhakara Pandian
June 21, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: compressive strength, flexural strength, geopolymer brick (GPB), latentheat of fusion, paraffin wax, phase change material (PCM), Renewable and Sustainable Energy, solar dryer, specific heat, tensile strength, thermal conductivity
In geopolymer bricks (GPBs), fly ash content, which is waste from power plants, is converted into bricks by chemical treatment. GPBs can be dried by using appropriate curing methods. Conventionally, electric oven curing is one of the prominent methods. Using a solar dryer instead of an electric oven provides the added advantage of saving high-grade electrical energy. So, in this work, a solar dryer with the phase change material (PCM) paraffin wax and without a PCM is used for curing applications. GPBs gain an added advantage when compared to conventional bricks like cement and sand bricks in terms of strength. A GPB has been taken as a specimen for comparing the compressive strength, tensile split strength, and flexural strength of electrical-energy-based curing and solar-energy-based curing. It has been experimentally observed that solar-energy-based curing with and without a PCM exhibits higher compressive strength, higher tensile split strength, and flexural strength when compared... [more]
Dry Machining Techniques for Sustainability in Metal Cutting: A Review
Shailendra Pawanr, Kapil Gupta
June 10, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: cutting fluid, dry machining, environment, machinability, microwave sintering, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, self-lubricating coatings, textured tools, tool coatings
Dry machining has gained significant importance in the last few years due to its promising contribution towards sustainability. This review study introduces dry machining, presents its benefits, and summarizes the recent technological developments that can facilitate dry machining. It aims to provide a concise overview of the current state of the art in dry machining to promote sustainability. This article synthesizes and emphasizes the useful information from the existing literature, and summarizes the methods and tools used to implement it. It also identifies some of the major problems and challenges and their potential solutions to make dry machining more viable and efficient. It concludes with some future research directions important for the scholars and researchers to establish the field further. From this review study, the major findings are: (1) tools with textures or patterns can enhance the cutting performance of dry machining for various materials, (2) tool coating is an eff... [more]
Proposal of Industry 5.0-Enabled Sustainability of Product−Service Systems and Its Quantitative Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Method
Qichun Jin, Huimin Chen, Fuwen Hu
June 6, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, data envelopment analysis, design for sustainability, Industry 4.0, Industry 5.0, multi-criteria decision making, product–service system, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
In the wake of Industry 4.0, the ubiquitous internet of things provides big data to potentially quantify the environmental footprint of green products. Further, as the concept of Industry 5.0 emphasizes, the increasing mass customization production makes the product configurations full of individuation and diversification. Driven by these fundamental changes, the design for sustainability of a high-mix low-volume product−service system faces the increasingly deep coupling of technology-driven product solutions and value-driven human-centric goals. The multi-criteria decision making of sustainability issues is prone to fall into the complex, contradictory, fragmented, and opaque flood of information. To this end, this work presents a data-driven quantitative method for the sustainability assessment of product−service systems by integrating analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) methods to measure the sustainability of customized products and promote the Ind... [more]
Parametric Energy Efficiency Impact Analysis for Industrial Process Heating Furnaces Using the Manufacturing Energy Assessment Software for Utility Reduction
Prakash Singh Bisht, Bhaskaran Gopalakrishnan, Rupesh Dahal, Hailin Li, Zhichao Liu
June 5, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: emission reduction, energy assessment, Energy Efficiency, industrial furnace, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, utility reduction
Industrial process heating furnace operations consume considerable energy in the U.S. manufacturing sector, making it crucial to identify energy efficient strategies due to the growing need to minimize energy usage and emissions. It is important to identify the potential impact of these factors to enable process engineers to operate process heating systems at the maximum possible efficiency. This study examines and identifies the key impact factors that influence the efficiency of process heating systems using MEASUR (v1.4.0), the DOE software tools such as the insulation effectiveness, the burner stoichiometry, cooling medium, thermal storage, and atmospheric gases. Data from a two-fuel-fired heat treatment furnace and an electric arc furnace (EAF) for steelmaking were employed to establish the baseline heat balance models in MEASUR. The fractional factorial design experiment was developed with two-level parameter values and energy efficiency strategies for the heat input into industr... [more]
A Thermo-Economic Measure of Sustainability
Umberto Lucia, Giulia Grisolia
June 5, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: bio-economy, happiness, human development index, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, thermodynamics, wealth
Recently, an improvement of the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI), named the Thermodynamic Human Development Index (THDI), has been introduced to link socio-economics to environmental and technical pillars of sustainable development. In this paper, the THDI is linked to the Kaya identity to bring out the quantities useful in energy economics and to obtain a clearer tool for the evaluation of sustainability. Moreover, the THDI has been normalized for use as an index for the analysis of sustainability. The component related to environmental emissions, which is included in the THDI, can be linked to the Kaya identity. This linkage allows us to use the THDI for the analysis of scenarios, which is useful for evaluating the possible impacts of any future actions on the development of countries.
What Role Does Simulation Play in Sustainable Industrial Development?
Julia Nazarejova, Vladimir Modrak
June 5, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: economic, environmental, industry, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Simulation
Sustainability as a concept is present in most aspects of our everyday life, and industry is no exception. Likewise, there is no doubt that the necessity to produce goods in a sustainable way and to ensure that products are sustainable is gaining more and more attention from producers, customers, governments, and various organizations. Understandably, there are several ways to increase the sustainable development of industrial production. One effective tool is simulation, which can have a significant impact on improving environmental, economic, and social sustainability. This paper explores the role of simulation as a powerful scientific and engineering solution in advancing sustainability within industrial ecosystems. Its main scope is to map the existing literature on the usage of simulation as a supportive tool for achieving this goal. For this purpose, a bibliometric analysis was conducted, allowing for tailored insights into the use of simulation in sustainable production.
Comparative Review on the Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Biomass: A Focus on Corn
Jean Claude Assaf, Zeinab Mortada, Sid-Ahmed Rezzoug, Zoulikha Maache-Rezzoug, Espérance Debs, Nicolas Louka
June 5, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: bioethanol production, clean energy, corn, Energy Efficiency, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
In the contemporary era, conventional energy sources like oil, coal, and natural gas overwhelmingly contribute 89.6% to global CO2 emissions, intensifying environmental challenges. Recognizing the urgency of addressing climate concerns, a pivotal shift towards renewable energy, encompassing solar, wind, and biofuels, is crucial for bolstering environmental sustainability. Bioethanol, a globally predominant biofuel, offers a versatile solution, replacing gasoline or integrating into gasoline−ethanol blends while serving as a fundamental building block for various valuable compounds. This review investigates the dynamic landscape of biomass generations, drawing insightful comparisons between the first, second, third, and fourth generations. Amid the drive for sustainability, the deliberate focus on the initial generation of biomass, particularly corn, in bioethanol production is grounded in the current dependence on edible crops. The established utilization of first-generation biomass, e... [more]
Synergies between Lean and Industry 4.0 for Enhanced Maintenance Management in Sustainable Operations: A Model Proposal
David Mendes, Pedro D. Gaspar, Fernando Charrua-Santos, Helena Navas
February 10, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy transition, Industry 4.0, Lean Philosophy, maintenance, maintenance management, model, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, sensors, TPM
Companies actively seek innovative tools and methodologies to enhance operations and meet customer demands. Maintenance plays a crucial role in achieving such objectives. This study identifies existing models that combine Lean Philosophy and Industry 4.0 principles to enhance decision-making and activities related to maintenance management. A comprehensive literature review on key concepts of Lean Philosophy and Industry 4.0, as well as an in-depth analysis of existing models that integrate these principles, is performed. An innovative model based on the synergies between Lean Philosophy and Industry 4.0, named the Maintenance Management in Sustainable Operations (MMSO) model, is proposed. A pilot test of the application of the MMSO model on a conveyor belt led to an operational time increase from 82.3% to 87.7%, indicating a notable 6.6% improvement. The MMSO model significantly enhanced maintenance management, facilitating the collection, processing, and visualization of data via int... [more]
Integration of Renewable-Energy-Based Green Hydrogen into the Energy Future
Ismail Marouani, Tawfik Guesmi, Badr M. Alshammari, Khalid Alqunun, Ahmed Alzamil, Mansoor Alturki, Hsan Hadj Abdallah
January 12, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: efficiency improvement, electrolysis, green hydrogen production, leading countries in this field, net-zero gas emissions, optimization techniques, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, technologies used
There is a growing interest in green hydrogen, with researchers, institutions, and countries focusing on its development, efficiency improvement, and cost reduction. This paper explores the concept of green hydrogen and its production process using renewable energy sources in several leading countries, including Australia, the European Union, India, Canada, China, Russia, the United States, South Korea, South Africa, Japan, and other nations in North Africa. These regions possess significant potential for “green” hydrogen production, supporting the transition from fossil fuels to clean energy and promoting environmental sustainability through the electrolysis process, a common method of production. The paper also examines the benefits of green hydrogen as a future alternative to fossil fuels, highlighting its superior environmental properties with zero net greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, it explores the potential advantages of green hydrogen utilization across various industrial, c... [more]
The Fermentation of a Marine Probiotic Bacterium on Low-Cost Media Formulated with Industrial Fish Gelatin Waterstreams and Collagen Hydrolysates
José Antonio Vázquez, Adrián Pedreira, Iván Salmerón, Dyah H. Wardhani, Jesus Valcarcel
September 21, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: bioconversion, collagen hydrolysates, gelatin effluents, marine probiotic bacteria, Phaeobacter sp. DIFR 27-4, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Chemical effluents generated by the isolation of fish gelatin and collagen hydrolysates produced from the enzyme proteolysis of skin wastes are protein-rich substrates that could be used as nutrients in bacterial bioprocessing. In this study, the suitability of such nutrients in supporting the growth of a marine probiotic bacterium, Phaeobacter sp. DIFR 27-4, was studied. Both gelatin effluents and collagen hydrolysates were obtained from the skins of shark, tuna, salmon and turbot. The chemical composition of the substrates included the complete presence of all quantified amino acids. Low-cost marine culture media were formulated with these protein materials alongside a very low concentration of yeast extract and marine water. In batch cultures with gelatin effluents, the growth rates of the strain DIFR 27-4 were somewhat lower than those found in the control marine commercial media. In the case of the hydrolysates, the bacterial production of biomass was similar or higher than that o... [more]
A Comprehensive Model for Evaluating Titanium Industry Security in China
Xiangwei Hui, Ming Qi, Wenhao Wang, Sen Yang, Chengqi Zhang
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: entropy weight-TOPSIS, grey correlation analysis, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, security system, titanium industry chain
Currently, China is the largest consumer of titanium (Ti), yet the development of its Ti industry is limited by numerous factors, such as industrial structure imbalance. This study aimed to evaluate the security of China’s Ti industry from 2010 to 2020, seeking to identify relevant issues and propose policy strategies. Firstly, a comprehensive evaluation system for Ti industry security was established, encompassing aspects of availability, economics, and sustainability. Secondly, the entropy weight technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) combination method and gray correlation method were employed to assess the safety level of China’s Ti industry chain in each year from 2010 to 2020. Additionally, the coupling degree and sensitivity were used to analyze the dimension layers and index system to determine those that negatively impact the safety level of the Ti industry chain. The analysis results reveal that the economic level exerts a significant influ... [more]
A Study on Environmental Trends and Sustainability in the Ocean Economy Using Topic Modeling: South Korean News Articles
Hee Jay Kang, Changhee Kim, Sungki Kim, Chanho Kim
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: environmental trends, ocean economy, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, text mining, topic modeling
The ocean economy plays a critical role in global economic growth, yet it confronts substantial environmental risks. This study employs topic modeling of South Korean news articles to analyze the evolving trends of environmental risks and sustainability in ocean economy. A dataset comprising 50,213 articles from 2008 to 2022 is examined, revealing prevalent environmental concerns that have persisted over the years. The findings demonstrate an increasing emphasis on sustainability and marine environmental issues, as evidenced by prominent keywords related to construction, safety, plastic pollution, and ecosystem conservation. Through Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) in topic modeling, 10 distinct themes are identified, encompassing sustainable fisheries management, accident and disaster response, polar environment, carbon neutrality, microplastic pollution, habitat ecosystems, cruise tourism development, nuclear power plant pollution, and infectious diseases. The outcomes highlight the... [more]
The Sustainability Study and Exploration in the Building Commercial Complex System Based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)−Emergy−Carbon Emission Analysis
Jun Cao, Yangfei Zhu, Junxue Zhang, Hechi Wang, Haohao Zhu
August 3, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: building system, LCA-carbon emission, LCA-emergy, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
This paper focuses on the sustainable exploration of building systems, which combines ecological concepts and low-carbon designs for a comprehensive sustainability assessment investigation. The study employed the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)-Emergy and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)-Carbon emission methods to discuss a range of topics, including the main contributing factors, sustainability index verification, sensitivity analysis, and potential improvement measures. From an ecological sustainability perspective, the results indicate that the building operation stage plays a critical role, accounting for approximately 45% of the entire emergy in the building commercial complex. The sustainable index (ESI) is 0.354, which is below the standard of 1. Moreover, the building operation stage also significantly contributes to carbon emissions, particularly in the 50th anniversary of operation. Based on these findings, the study recommends two potential strategies to improve the ecological state... [more]
Influence of the Adsorption Bed Composition on the Low-Pressure Fluidization
Anna Kulakowska, Anna Zylka, Jaroslaw Krzywanski, Dorian Skrobek, Karolina Grabowska, Marcin Sosnowski, Wojciech Nowak
August 2, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Adsorption, adsorption cooling and desalination systems, carbon nanotubes, Energy Efficiency, fluidization, low pressure, net-zero emission, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, silica gel
The paper presents an innovative concept of the fluidization of an adsorption bed carried out under low-pressure conditions. Additionally, different bed mixes were used to test the effects of the bed composition on fluidization. Fluidization was caused by the pressure difference and the velocity of the flowing water vapor. These features make the research presented in this article significantly different from other studies known in the literature and constitute the main novelty of the paper. Silica gel with a particle diameter of 200−250 µm (Geldart group B) with aluminum and carbon nanotube additives was fluidized under reduced pressure (10−25 mbar). The pressure difference results in the flow of water vapor and, consequently, induces fluidization. The pressure in the evaporator was approx. 10 mbar, while in the reaction chamber it was approx. 25 mbar. The pressure difference of about 10−15 mbar allows for a flow of water vapor between the evaporator and the reaction chamber. During t... [more]
Coffee Pulp: A Sustainable and Affordable Source for Developing Functional Foods
Angélica Pérez Calvo, Nelson Paz Ruiz, Zuly Delgado Espinoza
July 7, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: circular economy, coffee, environmental impact, experimental design, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, value added
Coffee cultivation in the Department of Cauca, Colombia, is vital for much of the department’s economy. Coffee processing generates waste, such as pulp, which accounts to about 40% of the fresh fruit. Currently, in most cases in Cauca, coffee byproducts are discarded, and, in other cases, the coffee pulp is used for fertilizers, generating environmental problems due to its decomposition. This research aims to design a process for supplying a functional food in the form of an energy bar based on coffee pulp and other components of the region, such as quinoa and panela, helping to mitigate the environmental impact of coffee production. Our research included four phases. First, we determined the study area; in the second phase, we studied an energy bar’s nutritional and physical characteristics. Then, the requirements and specifications of the bar were defined, and the authors documented the process diagram, variables within the process, and the quality plan. Finally, the authors conducte... [more]
Accelerating Plastic Circularity: A Critical Assessment of the Pathways and Processes to Circular Plastics
Jovan Tan, Shuyue Jia, Seeram Ramakrishna
June 7, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: chemical recycling, circular economy, circular plastics, circularity, life cycle, mechanical recycling, plastics, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, sustainable development
Achieving plastic circularity is imperative to using plastics without adverse effects. Today, only 9% of global plastic waste is recycled, signifying the need for more substantial advancements to accelerate our progress toward achieving plastic circularity. This article contributes to our collective efforts to accelerate plastic circularity by critically assessing the state-of-the-art, gaps, and outlook of the pathways and processes to circular plastics. It employs qualitative methods to derive new insights that empower scholars and practitioners to prescribe effective strategies to shape the future of plastic circularity and its research agenda. This article concludes that today’s circularity pathways for plastics are not economically viable, significantly hindering their scalability and widespread adoption. It further validates that focusing on the product design and effectiveness of the available collection and sorting systems can considerably improve our progress in achieving plast... [more]
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