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Optimal design and operation of a waste tire feedstock polygeneration system
Avinash Shankar Rammohan Subramanian, Truls Gundersen, Thomas A. Adams II
October 8, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide Capture, Gasification, Global Optimization, Polygeneration system, Rubber, Waste Tire, Waste-to-Energy
The accompanying model for the paper 'Optimal design and operation of a waste tire feedstock polygeneration system' is presented. The model is written using the GOSSIP software platform and modeling language.
Melt Stable Functionalized Organosolv and Kraft Lignin Thermoplastic
Shubhankar Bhattacharyya, Leonidas Matsakas, Ulrika Rova, Paul Christakopoulos
March 1, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: etherification, Kraft lignin, lignin, lignin functionalization, organosolv, thermoplastics
A shift towards an economically viable biomass biorefinery concept requires the use of all biomass fractions (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) for the production of high added-value products. As lignin is often underutilized, the establishment of lignin valorization routes is highly important. In-house produced organosolv as well as commercial Kraft lignin were used in this study. The aim of the current work was to make a comparative study of thermoplastic biomaterials from two different types of lignins. Native lignins were alkylate with two different alkyl iodides to produce ether-functionalized lignins. Successful etherification was verified by FT-IR spectroscopy, changes in the molecular weight of lignin, as well as 13C and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The thermal stability of etherified lignin samples was considerably improved with the T2% of organosolv to increase from 143 °C to up to 213 °C and of Kraft lignin from 133 °C to up to 168 °C, and glass transition temper... [more]
Simulation Data of Regional Economic Analysis of OTEC for Applicable Area
Lim Seungtaek, Lee Hosaeng, Moon Junghyun, Kim Hyeonju
March 1, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: closed cycle, internal rate of return, net present value, ocean thermal energy conversion, open cycle
To mitigate the power shortage problem in the South Pacific island nations and the equatorial area, we studied the development characteristics of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) using abundant clean ocean energy. Through the simulation of open- and closed-cycle OTEC, the generation amount and its economic efficiency were compared, and the application characteristics of the power generation cycle according to the seawater temperature distribution were compared by applying various seawater temperature conditions. According to the characteristics of seawater heat sources in the region, the power generation output was about 883.2 kW in Samoa, and the average power generation by region was about 650.5 kW for the open-cycle OTEC model. Regional revenue up to approximately $8,487,000 was generated in Kiribati, driven by the higher electricity tariff of $0.327/kWh and high water costs of $5.86/ton. With the spread of 50 MW commercial plants, Kiribati had a high net present value of $1,9... [more]
Improving the Energy Efficiency of Industrial Refrigeration Systems by Means of Data-Driven Load Management
Josep Cirera, Jesus A. Carino, Daniel Zurita, Juan A. Ortega
March 1, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Compressors, data-driven, energy disaggregation, Energy Efficiency, load management, multi-layer perceptron, NILM, Optimization, partial load ratio, refrigeration systems
A common denominator in the vast majority of processes in the food industry is refrigeration. Such systems guarantee the quality and the requisites of the final product at the expense of high amounts of energy. In this regard, the new Industry 4.0 framework provides the required data to develop new data-based methodologies to reduce such energy expenditure concern. Focusing in this issue, this paper proposes a data-driven methodology which improves the efficiency of the refrigeration systems acting on the load side. The solution approaches the problem with a novel load management methodology that considers the estimation of the individual load consumption and the necessary robustness to be applicable in highly variable industrial environments. Thus, the refrigeration system efficiency can be enhanced while maintaining the product in the desired conditions. The experimental results of the methodology demonstrate the ability to reduce the electrical consumption of the compressors by 17%... [more]
Calculating the Binary Tortuosity in DEM-Generated Granular Beds
Wojciech Sobieski
March 1, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: A-Star Algorithm, binary tortuosity, Discrete Element Method, granular beds, Path Searching Algorithm, porous media
In this paper, a methodology of calculating the tortuosity in three-dimensional granular beds saved in a form of binary geometry with the application of the A-Star Algorithm and the Path Searching Algorithm is presented. The virtual beds serving as examples are prepared with the use of the Discrete Element Method based on data of real, existing samples. The obtained results are compared with the results described in other papers (obtained by the use of the Lattice Boltzmann Method and the Path Tracking Method) as well as with the selected empirical formulas found in the literature. It was stated in the paper that the A-Star Algorithm gives values similar (but always slightly underestimated) to the values obtained via approaches based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method or the Path Tracking Method. In turn, the Path Searching Algorithm gives results in the same value range as popular empirical formulas and additionally it is approximately two times faster than the A-Star Algorithm.
Technical Route to Achieve Ultra-Low Emission of Nitrogen Oxides with Predictive Model of Nitrogen Oxide Background Concentration
Yanfei Yao, Yanxin Chen
March 1, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: nitrogen oxide, Pearson coefficient, soft sensor, ultra-low emission
As the most mature denitration technology in the cement clinker burning process, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) has been unable to meet the requirements of ultra-low nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions under low ammonia escape, thus a hybrid denitration process based on SNCR was established. The process had three steps: reducing the NOX background concentration (NBC), implementing staged combustion, and optimizing the effect of the SNCR. One of the keys to this process was the real-time acquisition of the NBC. In this paper, a multivariate linear regression model for the prediction of NBC was constructed and applied to one 12,000 t/d production line and one 5000 t/d production line. For the 12,000 t/d production line, NBC had a positive correlation with the temperature of the calciner outlet, the pressure, and the temperature of the kiln hood, and it had a negative correlation with the quantity of the kiln coal, the temperature of the smoke chamber, and the main motor current of t... [more]
Numerical Study on the Influence of Step Casing on Cavitating Flows and Instabilities in Inducers with Equal and Varying Pitches
Lu Yu, Haochen Zhang, Hui Chen, Zhigang Zuo, Shuhong Liu
March 1, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: cavitating flow and instabilities, inducer, step casing, varying pitch
It is known that cavitating flow characteristics and instabilities in inducers can greatly impact the safety and stability of a liquid rocket. In this paper, step casing optimization design (Model OE and Model AE) was carried out for two three-bladed inducers with an equal (Model O) and a varying pitch (Model A), respectively. The unsteady cavitation flow field and accompanied instabilities were studied via numerical simulations. Reductions of the cavity size and fluctuation were observed in cases with a step casing. A significant difference in cavity structures was seen as well. Referring to the pressure distributions on the blades and details of the flow field, the mechanism of cavitation suppression was revealed. This work provides a feasible and convenient method in engineering practice for optimizing the characteristic of the cavitating flow field and instabilities for the inducer.
MILP Formulation for Solving and Initializing MINLP Problems Applied to Retrofit and Synthesis of Hydrogen Networks
Patrícia R. da Silva, Marcelo E. Aragão, Jorge O. Trierweiler, Luciane F. Trierweiler
March 1, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: hydrogen network, initialization strategy, mathematical programming, MILP optimization, MINLP optimization, virtual compressor approach
The demand for hydrogen in refineries is growing due to its importance as a sulfur capture element. Therefore, hydrogen management is critical for fulfilling demands as efficiently as possible. Through mathematical modeling, hydrogen network management can be better performed. Cost-efficient Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) optimization models for (re)designing were proposed and implemented in GAMS with two case studies. Linear programming has the limitation of no stream mixing allowed; therefore, to overcome this limitation, an algorithm-based procedure called the Virtual Compressor Approach was proposed. Based on the MILP optimal solution obtained, the streams and compressors were merged. As a result, the number of compressors was reduced, along with the inherent investment costs. An operational cost reduction of more than 28% (example 1) and 26% (example 2) was obtained with a linear model. The optimal MILP solution after rearra... [more]
Large Eddy Simulations of Reactive Mixing in Jet Reactors of Varied Geometry and Size
Krzysztof Wojtas, Wojciech Orciuch, Łukasz Makowski
March 1, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, confined impinging jet reactors, large eddy simulation, Mixing, parallel chemical reactions
We applied large eddy simulation (LES) to predict the course of reactive mixing carried out in confined impinging jet reactors (CIJR). The reactive mixing process was studied in a wide range of flow rates both experimentally and numerically using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). We compared several different reactor geometries made in different sizes in terms of both reaction yields and mixing efficiency. Our LES model predictions were validated using experimental data for the tracer concentration distribution and fast parallel chemical test reactions, and compared with the k-ε model supplemented with the turbulent mixer model. We found that the mixing efficiency was not affected by the flow rate only at the highest tested Reynolds numbers. The experimental results and LES predictions were found to be in good agreement for all reactor geometries and operating conditions, while the k-ε model well predicted the trend of changes. The CFD method used, i.e., the modeling approach using c... [more]
Fault Detection and Isolation System Based on Structural Analysis of an Industrial Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plant
Gustavo Pérez-Zuñiga, Raul Rivas-Perez, Javier Sotomayor-Moriano, Victor Sánchez-Zurita
March 1, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: diagnostic test, model based fault diagnosis, seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant, structural analysis, water scarcity
Currently, the use of industrial seawater reverse osmosis desalination (ISROD) plants has increased in popularity in light of the growing global demand for freshwater. In ISROD plants, any fault in the components of their control systems can lead to a plant malfunction, and this condition can originate safety risks, energy waste, as well as affect the quality of freshwater. This paper addresses the design of a fault detection and isolation (FDI) system based on a structural analysis approach for an ISROD plant located in Lima (Peru). Structural analysis allows obtaining a plant model, which is useful to generate diagnostic tests. Here, diagnostic tests via fault-driven minimal structurally overdetermined (FMSO) sets are computed, and then, binary integer linear programming (BILP) is used to select the FMSO sets that guarantee isolation. Simulations shows that all the faults of interest (sensors and actuators faults) are detected and isolated according to the proposed design.
The Effect of Citric Acid, NaCl, and CaCl2 on Qualitative Changes of Horse Meat in Cold Storage
Renata Stanisławczyk, Mariusz Rudy, Marian Gil, Paulina Duma-Kocan, Dariusz Dziki, Stanisław Rudy
March 1, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: citric acid, horse meat quality, marinating, physicochemical properties, sensory analysis, sodium chloride
In this study, we aimed to analyze the effect of citric acid, NaCl, and CaCl2 on the qualitative changes of horse meat during cold storage. The study material was the longest dorsal muscles (M. longissimus dorsi (LM)) obtained from twelve half-carcasses of horses. The muscle was cut into five steaks, each of which was about 3 cm thick. One sample was kept as a control sample, and the remaining ones were treated with NaCl, citric acid, and CaCl2 (0.2 M and 0.3 M). The study material was obtained 24 h after the slaughter of the animals and was marinated in solution (citric acid and 0.2 M and 0.3 M calcium chloride) and by sprinkling and rubbing (sodium chloride). The applied treatments significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved the texture parameters of horse meat (univariate analysis of variance). Citric acid caused deterioration of the study material with respect to the binding and retention of intrinsic water. Among the tested material, the lightest color of the meat was obtained for sample ma... [more]
Bubble Properties in Bubbling and Turbulent Fluidized Beds for Particles of Geldart’s Group B
Tom Wytrwat, Mahdi Yazdanpanah, Stefan Heinrich
March 1, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: bubble size, bubble velocity, bubbling, capacitance probe, fluidized bed, Geldart group B, phase holdup, regime transition, turbulent
Predicting bubble properties in fluidized beds is of high interest for reactor design and modeling. While bubble sizes and velocities for low velocity bubbling fluidized beds have been examined in several studies, there have been only few studies about bubble behavior at superficial gas velocities up into the turbulent regime. For this reason, we performed a thorough investigation of the size, shape and velocity of bubbles at superficial gas velocities ranging from 0.18 m/s up to 1.6 m/s. Capacitance probes were used for the determination of the bubble properties in three different fluidized bed facilities sized of 0.1 m, 0.4 m and 1 m in diameter. Particles belonging to Geldart’s group B (Sauter mean diameter: 188 µm, solid density: ρs = 2600 kg/m3) were used. Correlations for the determination of bubble phase holdup, vertical bubble length and bubble velocity are introduced in this work. The shape of bubbles was found to depend on superficial gas velocity. This implies that at large... [more]
Non-Antagonistic Contradictoriness of the Progress of Advanced Digitized Production with SARS-CoV-2 Virus Transmission in the Area of Dental Engineering
Leszek A. Dobrzański, Lech B. Dobrzański, Anna D. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz, Joanna Dobrzańska, Karolina Rudziarczyk, Anna Achtelik-Franczak
March 1, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: additive digital light printing, dendrological matrix, dentistry 4.0, elimination clinical aerosol at the source, Industry 4.0, photopolymer materials, SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, SPEC strategy
The general goals of advanced digitized production in the Industry 4.0 stage of the industrial revolution were presented along with the extended holistic model of Industry 4.0, introduced by the authors, indicating the importance of material design and the selection of appropriate manufacturing technology. The effect of the global lockdown caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission pandemic was a drastic decrease in production, resulting in a significant decrease in the gross domestic product GDP in all countries, and gigantic problems in health care, including dentistry. Dentists belong to the highest risk group because the doctor works in the patient’s respiratory tract. This paper presents a breakthrough authors solution, implemented by the active SPEC strategy, and aims to eliminate clinical aerosol at the source by negative pressure aspirating bioaerosol at the patient’s mouth line. The comparative benchmarking analysis and its results show that only the proprietary solution with... [more]
Research on Optimal Control of Excavator Negative Control Swing System
Lijie Zhang, Wenbo Fu, Xiaoming Yuan, Zhaoliang Meng
March 1, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: braking stability, excavator swing system, main valve pilot pressure, overflow, PRV, response
In order to improve the energy efficiency and dynamic of negative control swing systems of excavators, this paper proposes a technical scheme of adding two PRVs (pressure reducing valves) to main valve pilot control circuit, which can adjust main value opening arbitrarily according to the working condition. A pump-value compound control strategy was formulated to regulate the system power flow. During swing motor acceleration, main pump and the two PRVs are controlled to match system supply flow with motor demand flow, thereby reducing motor overflow and shortening system response time. During swing motor braking, the channel from motor to tank is opened to release hydraulic brake pressure by controlling PRVs before swing speed reduces to zero, which prevents the motor from reversing and oscillating. A simulation model of 37-ton excavator was established, and the control strategy was simulated. The original and optimized performance of the swing system were compared and analyzed, and r... [more]
Development of an Oxygen Pressure Estimator Using the Immersion and Invariance Method for a Particular PEMFC System
Ángel Hernández-Gómez, Victor Ramirez, Belem Saldivar
March 1, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: estimator development, Lyapunov’s Theorem application, non-linear system, PEMFC system, sensor replacement
The fault detection method has been used usually to give a diagnosis of the performance and efficiency in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems. To be able to use this method a lot of sensors are implemented in the PEMFC to measure different parameters like pressure, temperature, voltage, and electrical current. However, despite the high reliability of the sensors, they can fail or give erroneous measurements. To address this problem, an efficient solution to replace the sensors must be found. For this reason, in this work, the immersion and invariance method is proposed to develop an oxygen pressure estimator based on the voltage, electrical current density, and temperature measurements. The estimator stability region is calculated by applying Lyapunov’s Theorem and constraints to achieve stability are established for the oxygen pressure, electrical current density, and temperature. Under these estimator requirements, oxygen pressure measurements of high reliability a... [more]
Effect of Mixed Commercial Cold Flow Improvers on Flow Properties of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil
Siyu Nie, Leichang Cao
March 1, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: biodiesel, mechanism, mixed cold flow improver, orthogonal experiment
The uniform design method was used to screen the solidifying point depressing effects of 18 traditional diesel cold flow improvers on biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil. The cold flow improvers with good effects were selected for orthogonal optimization. Finally, the mixed cold flow improver (CFI) with the best depressing effect was selected to explore its depressing mechanism for biodiesel. The results show that the typical CFIs such as A132, A146, 10-320, 10-330, A-4, CS-1, AH-BSFH, Haote, T1804D, and HL21 all have a certain solidifying point depressing effect on biodiesel, while other cold flow improvers had no obvious effect. Amongst them, 10-330 (PMA polymer) and AH-BSFH (EVA polymer) had better solidifying point depressing effects over others, both of which reduced the solidifying point (SP) of biodiesel by 4 °C and the cold filter plugging point (CFPP) by 2 °C and 3 °C, respectively. From the orthogonal mixing experiment, it can be seen that the combination of 10-330 and A... [more]
Short-Chain Polyglycerol Production via Microwave-Assisted Solventless Glycerol Polymerization Process Over Lioh-Modified Aluminium Pillared Clay Catalyst: Parametric Study
Muhammad Sajid, Muhammad Ayoub, Suzana Yusup, Bawadi Abdullah, Rashid Shamsuddin, Roil Bilad, Chi Cheng Chong, Aqsha Aqsha
March 1, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: alkali modified, aluminium pillared clay, glycerol polymerization, microwave, polyglycerol
In the current study, microwave-assisted glycerol polymerization for short-chain polyglycerol production was conducted unprecedentedly over low-cost catalyst, lithium-modified aluminium pillared clay (Li/AlPC) catalysts without the solvent. The influences of disparate reaction parameters such as the effects of Li loadings (10, 20, 30 wt.%), catalyst loadings (2, 3, 4 wt.%), operating temperatures (200, 220, 240 °C) and operating times (1−4 h) on the glycerol conversions, and polyglycerol yield (particularly for diglycerol and triglycerol), were elucidated. The fresh catalysts were subjected to physicochemical properties evaluation via characterization techniques, viz. N2 physisorption, XRD, SEM, NH3-TPD and CO2-TPD. In comparison, 20 wt.% Li/AlPC demonstrated the best performance under non-conventional heating, credited to its outstanding textural properties (an increase of basal spacing to 21 Ȧ, high surface area of 95.48 m2/g, total basicity of 34.48 mmol/g and average pore diameter... [more]
Scale-Up of Self-Regenerating Semi-Batch Adsorption Cycles through Concurrent Adsorption and Reduction of Cr(VI) on Sheep Wool
Mohamed Badrelzaman, Mustafa I. Khamis, Taleb H. Ibrahim, Fawwaz H. Jumean
March 1, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Adsorption, hexavalent chromium, industrial wastewater, semi-batch adsorption cycles, wool
A previous publication by our group reported that adsorption of Cr(VI) on sheep wool reached 99% when allowed a long residence time, with concurrent reduction to Cr(III). In this study, the process was scaled up by optimizing a pilot plant based on semi-batch adsorption cycles. This yielded Cr(III), which is about 300 times less toxic than Cr(VI), and can be precipitated using lime at high pH. Since the reduction step is slower than the adsorption one, an adsorption column was designed to perform semi-batch operation cycles, whereby the extended “off cycle” allows reduction to take place. Since reduction of Cr(VI) frees active sites on wool, the plant acts in lieu of in situ regeneration, accompanied by additional adsorption of Cr(VI). The results show that 97% of the column efficiency can be recovered within 24 h of “off cycle”. Wastewater from a local electroplating industry was treated by this method with high removal of Cr(VI), reaching the limit permitted by environmental standard... [more]
Freeze-Drying with Structured Sublimation Fronts—Visualization with Neutron Imaging
Nicole Vorhauer-Huget, David Mannes, Mathias Hilmer, Sebastian Gruber, Markus Strobl, Evangelos Tsotsas, Petra Foerst
March 1, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: drying front, freeze-drying, front structure, image analysis, neutron tomography
The particular structure of the sublimation front in vacuum freeze-drying of porous media is, in most situations, not accessible at the pore scale. The classical measurement techniques access the process only globally. Knowledge about the structure of the front, however, is necessary for prescriptive analysis of freeze-drying, as it dictates not only drying velocity, drying time, and overall energy consumption, but also the material properties after drying. This is especially relevant in situations in which the freeze-drying process is carried out close to the collapse temperature of the product. We, therefore, study the sublimation of ice with neutron tomography and analyze the spatial formation of the dry space using the example of frozen cylindrical maltodextrin with drying parameters at the limit of material collapse. We show that the sublimation front forms unique fractal structures that differ strongly from the usual form of a flat front. Distinct dry fingers covering the sample,... [more]
CFD-DEM Simulation of a Coating Process in a Fluidized Bed Rotor Granulator
Philipp Grohn, Marius Lawall, Tobias Oesau, Stefan Heinrich, Sergiy Antonyuk
February 22, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: capillary force, CFD-DEM simulation, coating model, drying process, fluidized bed rotor granulator, viscous force, wet particle
Coating of particles is a widely used technique in order to obtain the desired surface modification of the final product, e.g., specific color or taste. Especially in the pharmaceutical industry, rotor granulators are used to produce round, coated pellets. In this work, the coating process in a rotor granulator is investigated numerically using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) coupled with the discrete element method (DEM). The droplets are generated as a second particulate phase in DEM. A liquid bridge model is implemented in the DEM model to take the capillary and viscous forces during the wet contact of the particles into account. A coating model is developed, where the drying of the liquid layer on the particles, as well as the particle growth, is considered. The simulation results of the dry process compared to the simulations with liquid injection show an important influence of the liquid on the particle dynamics. The formation of liquid bridges and the viscous forces in the li... [more]
Resource Allocation in Two-Patch Epidemic Model with State-Dependent Dispersal Behaviors Using Optimal Control
Sunmi Lee, Okbun Baek, Luis Melara
February 22, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: final epidemic size, optimal control interventions, the basic reproduction number, two-patch model with virtual dispersal
A two-patch epidemic model is considered in order to assess the impact of virtual dispersal on disease transmission dynamics. The two-patch system models the movement of individuals between the two-patches using a residence-time matrix P, where P depends on both residence times and state variables (infected classes). In this work, we employ this approach to a general two-patch SIR model in order to investigate the effect of state dependent dispersal behaviors on the disease dynamics. Furthermore, optimal control theory is employed to identify and evaluate patch-specific control measures aimed at reducing disease prevalence at a minimal cost. Optimal policies are computed under various dispersal scenarios (depending on the different residence-time matrix configurations). Our results suggest there is a reduction of the outbreak and the proportion of time spent by individuals in a patch exhibits less fluctuations in the presence of patch-specific optimal controls. Furthermore, the optimal... [more]
Single and Binary Equilibrium Studies for Ni2+ and Zn2+ Biosorption onto Lemna gibba from Aqueous Solutions
Liliana Morales-Barrera, César Mateo Flores-Ortiz, Eliseo Cristiani-Urbina
February 22, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: competitive biosorption, divalent nickel, divalent zinc, Lemna gibba, pH and metal concentration effect, single and binary metal biosorption isotherm
The biosorption ability of Lemna gibba for removing Ni2+ and Zn2+ ions in aqueous batch systems, both individually and simultaneously, was examined. The influences of solution pH and initial single and binary metal concentrations on equilibrium Ni2+ and Zn2+ biosorption was explored. The optimal solution pH for Ni2+ and Zn2+ biosorption was 6.0, for both the single and binary metal systems. Ni2+ and Zn2+ biosorption capacities increased with increasing initial metal concentrations. The presence of Zn2+ ions more adversely affected the biosorption of Ni2+ ions in the binary metal systems than vice versa. The single and binary biosorption isotherms of Ni2+ and Zn2+ revealed that L. gibba’s affinity for Zn2+ ions was higher than that for Ni2+ ions. The Redlich−Peterson and Freundlich isotherm models fit well to the experimental equilibrium data of Ni2+ ions, whereas Redlich−Peterson and Langmuir models better described the equilibrium data of Zn2+ ions in single metal systems. The modifie... [more]
Digital Twins in Pharmaceutical and Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing: A Literature Review
Yingjie Chen, Ou Yang, Chaitanya Sampat, Pooja Bhalode, Rohit Ramachandran, Marianthi Ierapetritou
February 22, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: biopharmaceutical manufacturing, digital twin, Industry 4.0, pharmaceutical manufacturing, process modeling
The development and application of emerging technologies of Industry 4.0 enable the realization of digital twins (DT), which facilitates the transformation of the manufacturing sector to a more agile and intelligent one. DTs are virtual constructs of physical systems that mirror the behavior and dynamics of such physical systems. A fully developed DT consists of physical components, virtual components, and information communications between the two. Integrated DTs are being applied in various processes and product industries. Although the pharmaceutical industry has evolved recently to adopt Quality-by-Design (QbD) initiatives and is undergoing a paradigm shift of digitalization to embrace Industry 4.0, there has not been a full DT application in pharmaceutical manufacturing. Therefore, there is a critical need to examine the progress of the pharmaceutical industry towards implementing DT solutions. The aim of this narrative literature review is to give an overview of the current statu... [more]
Optimal Energy Management for Microgrids Considering Uncertainties in Renewable Energy Generation and Load Demand
Haotian Wu, Hang Li, Xueping Gu
February 22, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: ant colony optimization, energy management, microgrids, Optimization, pattern search optimization, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, uncertainty, wind power
This paper proposes an efficient power management approach for the 24 h-ahead optimal maneuver of Mega−scale grid−connected microgrids containing a huge penetration of wind power, dispatchable distributed generation (diesel generator), energy storage system and local loads. The proposed energy management optimization objective aims to minimize the microgrid expenditure for fuel, operation and maintenance and main grid power import. It also aims to maximize the microgrid revenue by exporting energy to the upstream utility grid. The optimization model considers the uncertainties of the wind energy and power consumptions in the microgrids, and appropriate forecasting techniques are implemented to handle the uncertainties. The optimization model is formulated for a day-ahead optimization timeline with one-hour time steps, and it is solved using the ant colony optimization (ACO)-based metaheuristic approach. Actual data and parameters obtained from a practical microgrid platform in Atlanta,... [more]
In Vitro Bioadsorption of Cd2+ Ions: Adsorption Isotherms, Mechanism, and an Insight to Mycoremediation
Raman Kumar, Priyanka Sharma, Ahmad Umar, Rajeev Kumar, Namita Singh, P. K. Joshi, Fahad A. Alharthi, Abdulaziz Ali Alghamdi, Nabil Al-Zaqri
February 22, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: bioadsorption, bioadsorption mechanism, cadmium, heavy metals, isotherms, mycoremediation, T. fasciculatum, T. longibrachiatum
The objective of this paper is to establish the significance of the mycoremediation of contaminants such as Cd2+ to achieve sustainable and eco-friendly remediation methods. Industries such as electroplating, paint, leather tanning, etc. release an enormous amount of Cd2+ in wastewater, which can drastically affect our flora and fauna. Herein, we report on the in vitro bioadsorption of Cd2+ ions using fungal isolates obtained from different contaminated industrial sites. The detailed studies revealed that two fungal species, i.e., Trichoderma fasciculatum and Trichoderma longibrachiatum, were found to be most effective against the removal of Cd2+ when screened for Cd2+ tolerance on potato dextrose agar (PDA) in different concentrations. Detailed adsorption studies were conducted by exploring various experimental factors such as incubation time, temperature, pH, inoculum size, and Cd2+ salt concentrations. Based on optimum experimental conditions, T. fasciculatum exhibited approximately... [more]
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