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Effect of Purification Methods on Commercially Available Cellulose Nanocrystal Properties and TEMPO Oxidation
Manali Banerjee, Sisira Saraswatula, Anna Williams, Blair Brettmann
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: cellulose, nanocellulose, purification, surface modification, TEMPO oxidation
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are attractive for use in polymer composites, biomedical applications, and barrier packaging. In all of these applications they are mixed with other components and compatibility is a major design consideration, as CNCs naturally have a high density of surface hydroxyl groups and primarily disperse well in polar media. Numerous surface modification approaches have been used to address these issues, but challenges remain due to the variability in the commercially available CNC materials. CNCs can be produced from biomass using several extraction methods, most notably acid hydrolysis and biomass extraction, also known as the American Value Added Pulping process. The production method of the CNC material has an impact on both physical and surface properties of CNCs, including size, shape, crystal structure, and zeta potential. In addition, post-treatments can be used to purify the CNC material and further alter these properties. This work studies the propertie... [more]
Physico-Chemical Changes, Microbiological Properties, and Storage Shelf Life of Cow and Goat Milk from Industrial High-Pressure Processing
Sok Fern Tan, Nyuk Ling Chin, Tuan Poy Tee, Sook Kuan Chooi
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: high pressure processing, milk quality, milk storage, pasteurization, shelf life
Industrial high-pressure processing (HPP) was conducted on cow and goat milk in comparison to conventional heat pasteurization. No significant changes were found in the physico-chemical properties of the treated milk except for pH, where pasteurized cow milk experienced a decrease while goat milk’s pH increased for both pasteurized and HPP treated. HPP-treated cow and goat milk both achieved microbial shelf life of 22 days at 8 °C storage with no increase in Bacillus cereus, mesophilic aerobic spores, coliform, yeast and mold but slight increase in psychrotrophic bacteria and total plate count. Pasteurized goat milk was spoilt at the end of storage with exceeding count of psychrotrophic bacteria (9.0 × 108 CFU/mL) and total plate count (3.5 × 108 CFU/mL). HPP-treated cow milk exhibited higher physico-chemical stability than goat milk as evidenced by non-significant change of titratable acidity but goat milk experienced an increase of 0.04% averagely.
Unconfined Dense Plunging Jets Used for Brine Disposal from Desalination Plants
Aaron C. Chow, Ishita Shrivastava, E. Eric Adams, Fahed Al-Rabaie, Bader Al-Anzi
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: aeration, air entrainment, bubble penetration, dense jet, desalination, multiphase flow, plunging jet
Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure entrained air bubble penetration depth and dilution of a dense vertical unconfined plunging jet to evaluate its performance as an outfall to dilute brine from desalination plants as well as a means to aerate water column. Experiments involved neutrally buoyant or dense plunging jets discharging in quiescent receiving water. The density difference between effluent and receiving water, the plunging jet length (height above water surface), and the receiving water salinity were varied in the experiments. Observed penetration depth for neutrally buoyant jets was somewhat greater than previously reported, and increased modestly with jet density. Increasing density also resulted in an increasing number of fine bubbles descending together with the dense plume. These observations can help guide the design of plunging jets to mitigate anoxic conditions in the water column when brine is introduced to a receiving water body, as with seawater desalin... [more]
A Nodes-Based Non-Structural Model Considering a Series Structure for Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis
Yue Xu, Heri Ambonisye Kayange, Guomin Cui
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: HENS design, NNM model, random walk with compulsive evolution, series matches, stream splits
The aim of heat exchanger network synthesis is to design a cost-effective network configuration with the maximum energy recovery. Therefore, a nodes-based non-structural model considering a series structure (NNM) is proposed. The proposed model utilizes a simple principle based on setting the nodes on streams such that to achieve optimization of a heat exchanger network synthesis (HENS) problem. The proposed model uses several nodes to quantify the possible positions of heat exchangers so that the matching between hot and cold streams is random and free. Besides the stream splits, heat exchangers with series structures are introduced in the proposed model. The heuristic algorithm used to solve NNM model is a random walk algorithm with compulsive evolution. The proposed model is used to solve four scale cases of a HENS problem, the results show that the costs obtained by NNM model can be respectively lower 3226 $/a(Case 1), 11,056 $/a(Case 2), 2463 $/a(Case 3), 527 $/a(Case 4) than the... [more]
Kaempferol Rhamnosides from Geranium sibiricum as Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Their Content by HPLC Analysis
Norman G. Quilantang, Kyung Choi, Bog-Hieu Lee, Sanghyun Lee
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: aldose reductase, flavonoid rhamnoside, Geranium sibiricum, HPLC-UV
The study aimed to assess the aldose reductase (AR) inhibition of selected Geranium species and determine the bioactive flavonoid constituents. Flavonoids are known to be good AR inhibitors. Among the species examined, G. sibiricum exhibited potent inhibition of AR (IC50 value, 2.4 µg/mL). Further examination of G. sibiricum, after solvent extraction and fractionation, revealed that the ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 value, 0.41 µg/mL) had a potent AR inhibitory effect. Kaempferol rhamnosides were the active compounds from this fraction. Moreover, G. sibiricum showed the highest content of kaempferol-7-O-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3,7-O-dirhamnoside among the samples examined with a concentration in the extracts of 28.1 and 2.2 mg/g, respectively. This study shows that G. sibiricum exhibits promising AR inhibitory activity, which can be explored further as a natural therapy for treating and managing complications associated with diabetes.
An Artificial Intelligence Approach to Predict the Thermophysical Properties of MWCNT Nanofluids
Balaji Bakthavatchalam, Nagoor Basha Shaik, Patthi Bin Hussain
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, experimental data, nanofluids, prediction, thermophysical properties
Experimental data of thermal conductivity, thermal stability, specific heat capacity, viscosity, UV−vis (light transmittance) and FTIR (light absorption) of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) dispersed in glycols, alcohols and water with the addition of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) surfactant for 0.5 wt % concentration along a temperature range of 25 °C to 200 °C were verified using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). In this research, an ANN approach was proposed using experimental datasets to predict the relative thermophysical properties of the tested nanofluids in the available literature. Throughout the designed network, 65% and 25% of data points were comprehended in the training and testing set while the other 10% was utilized as a validation set. The parameters such as temperature, concentration, size and time were considered as inputs while the thermophysical properties were considered as outputs to develop ANN models of further predictions with unseen datasets. Th... [more]
Performance Assessment of SWRO Spiral-Wound Membrane Modules with Different Feed Spacer Dimensions
A. Ruiz-García, I. Nuez
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: desalination, feed spacers, membrane performance, permeability coefficients, reverse osmosis, seawater
Reverse osmosis is the leading process in seawater desalination. However, it is still an energy intensive technology. Feed spacer geometry design is a key factor in reverse osmosis spiral wound membrane module performance. Correlations obtained from experimental work and computational fluid dynamics modeling were used in a computational tool to simulate the impact of different feed spacer geometries in seawater reverse osmosis spiral wound membrane modules with different permeability coefficients in pressure vessels with 6, 7 and 8 elements. The aim of this work was to carry out a comparative analysis of the effect of different feed spacer geometries in combination with the water and solute permeability coefficients on seawater reverse osmosis spiral wound membrane modules performance. The results showed a higher impact of feed spacer geometries in the membrane with the highest production (highest water permeability coefficient). It was also found that the impact of feed spacer geometr... [more]
Covalently Cross-Linked Nanoparticles Based on Ferulated Arabinoxylans Recovered from a Distiller’s Dried Grains Byproduct
Yubia De Anda-Flores, Elizabeth Carvajal-Millan, Jaime Lizardi-Mendoza, Agustin Rascon-Chu, Ana Luisa Martínez-López, Jorge Marquez-Escalante, Francisco Brown-Bojorquez, Judith Tanori-Cordova
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: bioethanol industry, cross-linking, electrospray, ferulated arabinoxylans, nanoparticles
The purpose of this investigation was to extract ferulated arabinoxylans (AX) from dried distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS) plus to investigate their capability to form covalently cross-linked nanoparticles. AX registered 7.3 µg of ferulic acid/mg polysaccharide and molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity of 661 kDa and 149 mL/g, correspondingly. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to confirm the identity of this polysaccharide. AX formed laccase induced covalent gels at 1% (w/v), which registered an elastic modulus of 224 Pa and a content of FA dimers of 1.5 µg/mg polysaccharide. Scanning electron microscopy pictures of AX gels exhibited a microstructure resembling a rough honeycomb. AX formed covalently cross-linked nanoparticles (NAX) by coaxial electrospray. The average hydrodynamic diameter of NAX determined by dynamic light scattering was 328 nm. NAX presented a spherical and regular shape by transmission electron microscopy analysis. NAX may be an attra... [more]
Sorbent Based on Polyvinyl Butyral and Potassium Polytitanate for Purifying Wastewater from Heavy Metal Ions
Anna Ermolenko, Maria Vikulova, Alexey Shevelev, Elena Mastalygina, Peter Ogbuna Offor, Yuri Konyukhov, Anton Razinov, Alexander Gorokhovsky, Igor Burmistrov
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: heavy metals, polymer composite, polyvinyl butyral, potassium polytitanate, sorbent, Wastewater
Currently, the rapid development of industry leads to an increase in negative anthropogenic impacts on the environment, including water ecosystems. This circumstance entails toughening environmental standards and, in particular, requirements for the content of pollutants in wastewater. As a result, developing technical and cost-effective ways for wastewater purification becomes relevant. This study is devoted to the development of a novel composite sorbent, based on polyvinyl butyral and potassium polytitanate, designed to purify water from heavy metal ions. The co-deposition of a mixture based on a polymer solution and a filler suspension was used to obtain a composite material. In this work, the influence of the deposition conditions on the structure and properties of the resulting composites was studied, as well as the optimal ratio of components, including solvent, precipitant, polymer binder, and filler, were established. In the course of this study on the sorption properties of t... [more]
A Fractal-Based Correlation for Time-Dependent Surface Diffusivity in Porous Adsorbents
Vassilis J. Inglezakis, Marco Balsamo, Fabio Montagnaro
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Adsorption, fractal-like dynamics, hindered diffusion, hopping, surface diffusivity, zeolites
Fluid−solid adsorption processes are mostly governed by the adsorbate transport in the solid phase and surface diffusion is often the limiting step of the overall process in microporous materials such as zeolites. This work starts from a concise review of concepts and models for surface transport and variable surface diffusivity. It emerges that the phenomenon of hindered surface diffusion for monolayer adsorption, which is common in zeolites, and models able to fit a non-monotonic trend of surface diffusivity against adsorbate solid phase concentration, have received limited attention. This work contributes to the literature of hindered diffusion by formulating a time-dependent equation for surface diffusivity based on fractal dynamics concepts. The proposed equation takes into account the contributions of both fractal-like diffusion (a time-decreasing term) and hopping diffusion (a time-increasing term). The equation is discussed and numerically analyzed to testify its ability to rep... [more]
New, Aqueous Radical (Co)Polymerization of Olefins at Low Temperature and Pressure
Devid Hero, Gergely Kali
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: cyclodextrin, free-radical polymerization, poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate), polyethylene, polypropylene
In this communication, we describe our preliminary results for the development of a new method of ethylene and propene (co)polymerization at low pressure at room temperature, using cyclodextrin-assisted aqueous radical polymerization for the first time. For polypropylene homopolymerization, the cyclodextrin was entirely removed, and the partially soluble polymer was characterized. The purification of polyethylene was not complete, since the threaded cyclodextrins remained on the polymer chain, enhancing its solubility and enable to analyze the sample. With this environmentally benign method, polyolefines could be produced, for the first time. The estimated yield was low, and therefore the conditions should be further tuned for industrial application. This straightforward approach could also be applied to synthesize poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) copolymer with an ethylene content of 20 mol% and enhanced yield. Although the procedure in this stage of research has some limitations, the... [more]
Adaptive Control Strategy of Energy Storage System Participating in Primary Frequency Regulation
Chaoxiong Fang, Yuchen Tang, Rong Ye, Zhangsui Lin, Zhenshan Zhu, Buying Wen, Chengtao Ye
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: drop control, Energy Storage, primary frequency regulation, virtual inertial control
In order to solve the capacity shortage problem in power system frequency regulation caused by large-scale integration of renewable energy, the battery energy storage-assisted frequency regulation is introduced. In this paper, an adaptive control strategy for primary frequency regulation of the energy storage system (ESS) was proposed. The control strategy combined virtual droop control, virtual inertial control, and virtual negative inertial control. The virtual inertial control was used to reduce the frequency change rate, and the virtual droop control was used to reduce the steady-state frequency deviation. The virtual droop control and the virtual inertia control were adopted in the frequency deterioration stage to slow down the frequency drop. While in the frequency recovery stage, the virtual negative inertia control worked together with the virtual droop control to accelerate the frequency recovery. Besides, the coefficients of the control methods were related to the state of ch... [more]
Air-Forced Flow in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: Calculation of Fan-Induced Friction in Open-Cathode Conduits with Virtual Roughness
Dejan Brkić, Pavel Praks
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Colebrook equation, flow friction factor, Fuel Cells, numerically stabile solution, open-cathode, pressure drop, roughness, symbolic regression
Measurements of pressure drop during experiments with fan-induced air flow in the open-cathode proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) show that flow friction in its open-cathode side follows logarithmic law similar to Colebrook’s model for flow through pipes. The stable symbolic regression model for both laminar and turbulent flow presented in this article correlates air flow and pressure drop as a function of the variable flow friction factor which further depends on the Reynolds number and the virtual roughness. To follow the measured data, virtual inner roughness related to the mesh of conduits of fuel cell used in the mentioned experiment is 0.03086, whereas for pipes, real physical roughness of their inner pipe surface goes practically from 0 to 0.05. Numerical experiments indicate that the novel approximation of the Wright-ω function reduced the computational time from half of a minute to fragments of a second. The relative error of the estimated friction flow factor is les... [more]
Investigating Vapour Cloud Explosion Dynamic Fatality Risk on Offshore Platforms by Using a Grid-Based Framework
Usama Muhammad Niazi, Mohammad Shakir Nasif, Masdi Muhammad, Faisal Khan
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Bayesian inference, CFD modelling, grid-based approach, human fatality dynamic risk, vapour cloud explosions
The reliability of petroleum offshore platform systems affects human safety and well-being; hence, it should be considered in plant design and operation in order to determine its effect on human fatality risk. Methane Vapour Cloud Explosions (VCE) in offshore platforms are known to be one of the fatal potential accidents that can be attributed to failure in plant safety systems. Traditional Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA) lacks in providing microlevel risk assessment studies and are unable to update risk with the passage of time. This study proposes a grid-based dynamic risk analysis framework for analysing the effect of VCEs on the risk of human fatality in an offshore platform. Flame Acceleration Simulator (FLACS), which is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software, is used to model VCEs, taking into account different wind and leakage conditions. To estimate the dynamic risk, Bayesian Inference (BI) is utilised using Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) data. The proposed framework... [more]
Characteristics of Gliding Arc Plasma and Its Application in Swirl Flame Static Instability Control
Weiqi Chen, Di Jin, Wei Cui, Shengfang Huang
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: discharge characteristics, gliding arc plasma, static instability control, swirl flame
Based on an experimental system involving a pulsating airflow burner and gliding arc generator, the characteristics of gliding arc plasma at different flow rates and its control effect on the static instability of the swirl flame have been studied. The current, voltage, and power wave forms, as well as the simultaneous evolution of plasma topology, were measured to reveal the discharge characteristics of the gliding arc. A bandpass filter was used to capture the chemiluminescence of CH in the flame, and pressure at the burner outlet was acquired to investigate the static instability. Experimental results showed that there were two different discharge types in gliding arc plasma. With the low flow rate, the glow type discharge was sustained and the current was nearly a sine wave with hundreds of milliamperes of amplitude. With the high flow rate, the spark type discharge appeared and spikes which approached almost 1 ampere in 1 μs were found in the current waveform. The lean blowout lim... [more]
Understanding the Effect of Granulation and Milling Process Parameters on the Quality Attributes of Milled Granules
Lalith Kotamarthy, Nirupaplava Metta, Rohit Ramachandran
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: batch loading, granule critical quality attributes, mill critical process parameters, milling, milling regimes, wet granulation
Milling is an essential unit operation used for particle size reduction in solid oral dosage manufacturing. The breakage of particles in a comil is due to the intense shear applied on the particles between impeller and the screen. Breakage also occurs due to the impact from a rotating impeller. Particles exit the mill based on their size relative to the aperture size of the screen bores. This study was set up to understand the working of the comil better. A new CPP (Critical Process Parameter), in the form of batch loading was identified. It was found that there are two different regimes (quasi static regime and impact regime) in which a comil generally operates, and the effect of the CPP’s (batch loading and impeller speed) on these regimes was studied. Knowledge of the effect of upstream operations on a particular unit operation is of significant importance, especially for pharmaceutical industry. For this reason, the effect of granulation variables such as liquid-to-solid ratio, gra... [more]
Generalization of the FOPDT Model for Identification and Control Purposes
Cristina I. Muresan, Clara M. Ionescu
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: first order plus dead time model, fractional order control, fractional order delay, fractional order system, frequency response, gain margin, phase margin, stability
This paper proposes a theoretical framework for generalization of the well established first order plus dead time (FOPDT) model for linear systems. The FOPDT model has been broadly used in practice to capture essential dynamic response of real life processes for the purpose of control design systems. Recently, the model has been revisited towards a generalization of its orders, i.e., non-integer Laplace order and fractional order delay. This paper investigates the stability margins as they vary with each generalization step. The relevance of this generalization has great implications in both the identification of dynamic processes as well as in the controller parameter design of dynamic feedback closed loops. The discussion section addresses in detail each of this aspect and points the reader towards the potential unlocked by this contribution.
Monitoring of Biochemical Parameters and GHG Emissions in Bioaugmented Manure Composting
Cevat Yaman
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: bioaugmentation, C:N ratio, greenhouse gas (GHG), agronomic testing, manure, windrow composting
Composting is a sustainable alternative for the management of manure. In this study, the effects of bioaugmentation on cattle manure composting was investigated. In this study, two windrow piles were placed at 1.7 m in height, 2.1 m in bottom width, 0.6 m in top width, and 54 m in length. Microbial inoculum was added to pile 1, whereas the second pile was used as the control. After 17 days, the C:N ratio was reduced from 25.6 to 13.6 and the total nitrogen was increased from 1.89% to 3.36% in pile 1. The dominant bacteria identified in the compost samples belonged to the genera Clostridium, Bacillus, and Flavobacterium. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction indicated that the most commonly known pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella, were not detected in the finished material, indicating that the pathogenic microorganisms were inactivated by the composting process. Agronomic testing for cured compost indicated a C:N ratio of less than 15 and NH+4-N:NO3−-N rat... [more]
Effect of Oxaliplatin on Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels in Peripheral Neuropathic Pain
Woojin Kim
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: allodynia, oxaliplatin, peripheral neuropathic pain, voltage-gated sodium channel
Oxaliplatin is a chemotherapeutic drug widely used to treat various types of tumors. However, it can induce a serious peripheral neuropathy characterized by cold and mechanical allodynia that can even disrupt the treatment schedule. Since the approval of the agent, many laboratories, including ours, have focused their research on finding a drug or method to decrease this side effect. However, to date no drug that can effectively reduce the pain without causing any adverse events has been developed, and the mechanism of the action of oxaliplatin is not clearly understood. On the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons, oxaliplatin is reported to modify their functions, such as the propagation of the action potential and induction of neuropathic pain. Voltage-gated sodium channels in the DRG neurons are important, as they play a major role in the excitability of the cell by initiating the action potential. Thus, in this small review, eight studies that investigated the effect of oxalip... [more]
Control of Specific Growth Rate in Fed-Batch Bioprocesses: Novel Controller Design for Improved Noise Management
Yann Brignoli, Brian Freeland, David Cunningham, Michal Dabros
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: bioprocess monitoring and control, dielectric spectroscopy, microbial bioprocessing, PAT, signal noise management, specific growth rate control
Accurate control of the specific growth rate (µ) of microorganisms is dependent on the ability to quantify the evolution of biomass reliably in real time. Biomass concentration can be monitored online using various tools and methods, but the obtained signal is often very noisy and unstable, leading to inaccuracies in the estimation of μ. Furthermore, controlling the growth rate is challenging as the process evolves nonlinearly and is subject to unpredictable disturbances originating from the culture’s metabolism. In this work, a novel feedforward-feedback controller logic is presented to counter the problem of noise and oscillations in the control variable and to address the exponential growth dynamics more effectively. The controller was tested on fed-batch cultures of Kluyveromyces marxianus, during which μ was estimated in real time from online biomass concentration measurements obtained with dielectric spectroscopy. It is shown that the specific growth rate can be maintained at dif... [more]
Incremental Modeling and Monitoring of Embedded CPU-GPU Chips
Oussama Djedidi, Mohand Djeziri
August 29, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: analytical redundancy, embedded systems, Modelling, monitoring, smartphones, system-on-chip
This paper presents a monitoring framework to detect drifts and faults in the behavior of the central processing unit (CPU)-graphics processing unit (GPU) chips powering them. To construct the framework, an incremental model and a fault detection and isolation (FDI) algorithm are hereby proposed. The reference model is composed of a set of interconnected exchangeable subsystems that allows it to be adapted to changes in the structure of the system or operating modes, by replacing or extending its components. It estimates a set of variables characterizing the operating state of the chip from only two global inputs. Then, through analytical redundancy, the estimated variables are compared to the output of the system in the FDI module, which generates alarms in the presence of faults or drifts in the system. Furthermore, the interconnected nature of the model allows for the direct localization and isolation of any detected abnormalities. The implementation of the proposed framework requir... [more]
Accuracy Assessment of RANS Predictions of Active Flow Control for Hydrofoil Cavitation
Chandra Shekhar Pant, Yann Delorme, Steven Frankel
August 29, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: cavitation control, hydrodynamic performance, OpenFOAM
In this work, we numerically investigate the cavitating flow on the scaled-down 2D model of guided vanes. Furthermore, the effects of wall injection on both the cavitation and on the hydrodynamic performance of the guided vane are studied. The numerical simulations are performed using OpenFOAM v1906. We used a 2D k- ω SST model for modeling the turbulence in the present set of simulations. We studied the flow for two angles of attack, viz. 3 ∘ and 9 ∘ . For the 3 ∘ angle of attack, the present numerical work is in good agreement with the previous experimental work, but for the larger angle of attack, because of flow separation, the present simulations do not capture the flow correctly.
Breakup Processes and Droplet Characteristics of Liquid Jets Injected into Low-Speed Air Crossflow
Lingzhen Kong, Tian Lan, Jiaqing Chen, Kuisheng Wang, Huan Sun
August 29, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: breakup regime, droplet size, droplet velocity, liquid jet, PDA, primary breakup
The breakup processes and droplet characteristics of a liquid jet injected into a low-speed air crossflow in the finite space were experimentally investigated. The liquid jet breakup processes were recorded by high-speed photography, and phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) was employed to measure the droplet sizes and droplet velocities. Through the instantaneous image observation, the liquid jet breakup mode could be divided into bump breakup, arcade breakup and bag breakup modes, and the experimental regime map of primary breakup processes was summarized. The transition boundaries between different breakup modes were found. The gas Weber number (Weg) could be considered as the most sensitive dimensionless parameter for the breakup mode. There was a Weg transition point, and droplet size distribution was able to change from the oblique-I-type to the C-type with an increase in Weg. The liquid jet Weber number (Wej) had little effect on droplet size distribution, and droplet size was in the... [more]
The Evolution of Cell Free Biomanufacturing
Michael Vilkhovoy, Abhinav Adhikari, Sandra Vadhin, Jeffrey D. Varner
August 29, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: cell-free protein synthesis, cell-free systems, synthetic biology
Cell-free systems are a widely used research tool in systems and synthetic biology and a promising platform for manufacturing of proteins and chemicals. In the past, cell-free biology was primarily used to better understand fundamental biochemical processes. Notably, E. coli cell-free extracts were used in the 1960s to decipher the sequencing of the genetic code. Since then, the transcription and translation capabilities of cell-free systems have been repeatedly optimized to improve energy efficiency and product yield. Today, cell-free systems, in combination with the rise of synthetic biology, have taken on a new role as a promising technology for just-in-time manufacturing of therapeutically important biologics and high-value small molecules. They have also been implemented at an industrial scale for the production of antibodies and cytokines. In this review, we discuss the evolution of cell-free technologies, in particular advancements in extract preparation, cell-free protein synth... [more]
Development of an Optimal Path Algorithm for Construction Equipment
Hak June Lee, So Young Lim
August 29, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: algorithm, construction, dump, Modelling, optimal path, safety, terrain
The fourth industrial revolution based on information and communication technology (ICT and IoT) is converging into the overall realm of technology, economy and society, creating innovative changes. In line with these changes, research is being actively carried out to integrate information and communication with automation at construction sites. This study was started to analyze problems arising from inefficient operation of construction equipment through analysis of risks arising at construction sites and to provide solutions related to these problems. In order to provide the optimal route of movement of construction equipment, an expert survey was conducted and an algorithm was developed to establish the optimal route of movement by analyzing the weights for each item of the survey. The adequacy of the algorithm was determined by comparing the developed algorithm with the actual data of the construction site in operation, and a safe and productive route as well as problems related to... [more]
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