Keywords
Records with Keyword: Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The Regulatory Noose: Logan City’s Adventures in Micro-Hydropower
Megan Hansen, Randy T. Simmons, Ryan M. Yonk
December 3, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: hydropower, micro-hydropower, regulation, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Recent growth in the renewable energy industry has increased government support for alternative energy. In the United States, hydropower is the largest source of renewable energy and also one of the most efficient. Currently, there are 30,000 megawatts of potential energy capacity through small- and micro-hydro projects throughout the United States. Increased development of micro-hydro could double America’s hydropower energy generation, but micro-hydro is not being developed at the same rate as other renewable sources. Micro-hydro is regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and subject to the same regulation as large hydroelectric projects despite its minimal environmental impact. We studied two cases of micro-hydro projects in Logan, Utah, and Afton, Wyoming, which are both small rural communities. Both cases showed that the web of federal regulation is likely discouraging the development of micro-hydro in the United States by increasing the costs in time and funds for d... [more]
Assessment of the Variability of Biogas Production from Sugar Beet Silage as Affected by Movement and Loss of the Produced Alcohols and Organic Acids
Ali Heidarzadeh Vazifehkhoran, Jin Mi Triolo, Søren Ugilt Larsen, Kasper Stefanek, Sven G. Sommer
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: anaerobic digestion, Beta vulgaris, biomethanation, ensiling, organic components, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The biochemical methane potential and composition of sugar beet pulp silage were investigated using samples taken from six different depths in both open and closed silos (height 3.6 m). The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of pulp silage in open silos ranged from 337 to 420 normal litre (NL) CH₄/kg volatile solids (VS), while the BMP of pulp silage in closed silos varied between 411 and 451 NL CH₄/kg VS. The biochemical methane potential peaked at a depth of 1.45 m with 420 NL CH₄/kg VS for open silos and 451 NL CH₄/kg VS for closed silos. The ethanol concentration and biochemical methane potential showed the same trend with depth throughout the silos. The energy loss correlated to the loss of volatile solids, and the depths described a linear relationship between them for both the open and closed silos (R² = 0.997 for the open silo and R² = 0.991 for the closed silo). The energy potentials and composition of beet pulp silage were highly stratified and there was a risk that the sila... [more]
A Study on the Efficiency Improvement of Multi-Geothermal Heat Pump Systems in Korea Using Coefficient of Performance
Young-Ju Jung, Hyo-Jun Kim, Bo-Eun Choi, Jae-Hun Jo, Young-Hum Cho
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: building energy, coefficient of performance (COP), geothermal heat pump (GHP), hybrid operation, operation method, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, TRNSYS
The Korean government is fostering a renewable energy industry as a means of handling the energy crisis. Among the renewable energy systems available, geothermal energy has been highlighted as highly efficient, safely operable and relatively unaffected by outdoors air conditions. Despite the increasing use of renewable energy, the devices using renewables may not be operating appropriately. This study examined current problems in the operation of a geothermal heat pump (GHP) system. The efficiency of a geothermal heat pump system to studied to maximize the operation plan. Our study modelled the target building and analyzed the energy using TRNSYS, which is a dynamic energy simulation tool, to apply the coefficient of performance (COP) and evaluate the operation method. As a result, the GHP total energy consumption from the COP control method was reduced by 46% compared to the current operation. The proposed control method was evaluated after applying the system to a building. The resul... [more]
Pricing of Biomethane Products Targeted at Private Households in Germany—Product Attributes and Providers’ Pricing Strategies
Carsten Herbes, Lorenz Braun, Dennis Rube
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: biogas, biomethane, consumer, Germany, marketing, price, pricing, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, willingness-to-pay (WTP)
In the effort to combat global warming, renewable energies play a key role. However, most efforts are still focused on the electricity market, so renewables remain underrepresented in the heat market. Biomethane derived from biogas is an intriguing option for using renewable energy to generate heat in residential homes. However, biomethane comes at a significantly higher cost than natural gas, meaning providers have to ask a price premium from consumers. Determining a pricing strategy is thus of crucial importance. Besides cost, providers have to consider consumers’ willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the product. We propose that they could draw on existing research on WTP for green electricity, albeit with some important modifications and scarce research on biomethane. To explore this proposition, we performed a first-of-its-kind analysis of providers’ pricing strategies for biomethane, using both providers’ published data and data provided in response to e-mail queries. Based on the feature... [more]
A novel sustainable design for production of liquid fuels
Leila Hoseinzade, Thomas A Adams II
October 30, 2018 (v1)
In this study, a novel biomass-gas-and-nuclear-to-liquids (BGNTL) process is proposed. In this process, nuclear heat is used as the heat source of a steam methane reforming (SMR) process. In a prior work, a rigorous model was developed for the integrated nuclear heat and steam methane reforming process in the gPROMS software package. This model was applied to simulate the integrated nuclear heat and SMR section of BGNTL in Aspen Plus within the other process sections. The BGNTL process was considered for producing different fuels including gasoline & diesel or dimethyl ether (DME). Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is considered as an optional section. The performance of the BGNTL process was compared against a non-nuclear process called biomass-and-gas-to-liquids (BGTL). The efficiency, economics, and environmental impact analyses show that the BGNTL process to produce DME is the most efficient, economic and environmentally friendly process among the considered designs. As a resu... [more]
Error Assessment of Solar Irradiance Forecasts and AC Power from Energy Conversion Model in Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems
Gianfranco Chicco, Valeria Cocina, Paolo Di Leo, Filippo Spertino, Alessandro Massi Pavan
October 22, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: distributed generation, error assessment, irradiance spike, photovoltaic (PV) conversion model, photovoltaic systems, power profiles, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, weather forecasts
Availability of effective estimation of the power profiles of photovoltaic systems is essential for studying how to increase the share of intermittent renewable sources in the electricity mix of many countries. For this purpose, weather forecasts, together with historical data of the meteorological quantities, provide fundamental information. The weak point of the forecasts depends on variable sky conditions, when the clouds successively cover and uncover the solar disc. This causes remarkable positive and negative variations in the irradiance pattern measured at the photovoltaic (PV) site location. This paper starts from 1 to 3 days-ahead solar irradiance forecasts available during one year, with a few points for each day. These forecasts are interpolated to obtain more irradiance estimations per day. The estimated irradiance data are used to classify the sky conditions into clear, variable or cloudy. The results are compared with the outcomes of the same classification carried out wi... [more]
Energy Management Strategy for Microgrids by Using Enhanced Bee Colony Optimization
Whei-Min Lin, Chia-Sheng Tu, Ming-Tang Tsai
October 22, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: bee colony optimization, microgrid, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, time-of-use
This paper presents a microgrid (MG) energy management strategy by considering renewable energy and battery storage systems. Renewable energy, including wind power generation and solar power generation, is integrated into the distribution network, for which is formulated the optimal dispatch model of mixed-power generation by considering the charging/discharging scheduling of battery storage systems. The MG system has an electrical link for power exchange between the MG and the utility during different hours of the day. Based on the time-of-use (TOU) and all technical constraints, an enhanced bee colony optimization (EBCO) is proposed to solve the daily economic dispatch of MG systems. In the EBCO procedure, the self-adaption repulsion factor is embedded in the bee swarm of the BCO in order to improve the behavior patterns of each bee swarm and increase its search efficiency and accuracy in high dimensions. Different modifications in moving patterns of EBCO are proposed to search the f... [more]
Biofuel Impacts on World Food Supply: Use of Fossil Fuel, Land and Water Resources
David Pimentel, Alison Marklein, Megan A. Toth, Marissa Karpoff, Gillian S. Paul, Robert McCormack, Joanna Kyriazis, Tim Krueger
October 15, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: agriculture, Biofuels, Energy, food security, fossil fuels, natural resources, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The rapidly growing world population and rising consumption of biofuels are increasing demand for both food and biofuels. This exaggerates both food and fuel shortages. Using food crops such as corn grain to produce ethanol raises major nutritional and ethical concerns. Nearly 60% of humans in the world are currently malnourished, so the need for grains and other basic foods is critical. Growing crops for fuel squanders land, water and energy resources vital for the production of food for human consumption. Using corn for ethanol increases the price of U.S. beef, chicken, pork, eggs, breads, cereals, and milk more than 10% to 30%.
SOLIS—A Novel Decision Support Tool for the Assessment of Solar Radiation in ArcGIS
Jan K. Kazak, Małgorzata Świąder
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: ArcGIS, decision support system, photovoltaics, Renewable Energy, Simulation, solar radiation, sustainable development
The global Sustainable Development Goals influence the implementation of energy development strategies worldwide. However, in order to support local stakeholders in sustainable energy development strategies and climate change adaptation plans and the implementation of policies, there is a need to equip local decision makers with tools enabling the assessment of sustainable energy investments. In order to do so, the aim of this study is to create a novel tool for the assessment of solar radiation (SOLIS) in ArcGIS. The SOLIS tool builds on the existing ArcGIS algorithm by including input data conversion and post-processing of the results. This should expand the group of potential users of solar radiation analyses. The self-filtering tool excludes surfaces that are not suitable for solar energy investments due to geometrical reasons. The reduction of the size of the output data is positive for technical reasons (speed of the calculation and occupied storage place) and for cognitive reaso... [more]
A Novel Method for Estimating Wave Energy Converter Performance in Variable Bathymetry Regions and Applications
Kostas Belibassakis, Markos Bonovas, Eugen Rusu
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: arrays, marine environment, Renewable Energy, variable bathymetry effects, wave energy converters
A numerical model is presented for the estimation of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) performance in variable bathymetry regions, taking into account the interaction of the floating units with the bottom topography. The proposed method is based on a coupled-mode model for the propagation of the water waves over the general bottom topography, in combination with a Boundary Element Method for the treatment of the diffraction/radiation problems and the evaluation of the flow details on the local scale of the energy absorbers. An important feature of the present method is that it is free of mild bottom slope assumptions and restrictions and it is able to resolve the 3D wave field all over the water column, in variable bathymetry regions including the interactions of floating bodies of general shape. Numerical results are presented concerning the wave field and the power output of a single device in inhomogeneous environment, focusing on the effect of the shape of the floater. Extensions of the... [more]
Sea-Water Desalination for Load Levelling of Gen-Sets in Small Off-Grid Islands
Alessandro Corsini, Eileen Tortora
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: desalination, diesel engine, island, Renewable Energy, water-energy nexus
This study deals with the energy/water nexus on small off-grid islands. Small islands share several characteristics that hinder the introduction of new plants, such as: Energy system balance when renewable sources are introduced; water shortages, usually addressed via shipping from the mainland; environmental and historical heritage values; and, scarce land availability. In these cases, it is mandatory to detect energy/water technology integration and management solutions respecting the peculiarities and boundaries of the sites. The present work proposes a desalination plant with a primary scope of load leveler and a secondary scope of water producer. The aim is to propose a simple and non-invasive solution for energy/water management in order to limit impacts on the local environment while improving the match between renewable energy and local generation by means of desalination. This study led to an integrated system composed of local diesel engine power plant, distributed roof-top p... [more]
The Synergies of Shared Autonomous Electric Vehicles with Renewable Energy in a Virtual Power Plant and Microgrid
Riccardo Iacobucci, Benjamin McLellan, Tetsuo Tezuka
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: charge optimization, electric vehicles, Renewable Energy, shared transportation, vehicle-to-grid
The introduction of shared autonomous electric vehicles (SAEVs), expected within the next decade, can transform the car into a service, accelerate electrification of the transport sector, and allow for large scale control of electric vehicle charging. In this work, we investigate the potential for this system to provide aggregated storage when combined with intermittent renewable energy sources. We develop a simulation methodology for the optimization of vehicle charging in the context of a virtual power plant or microgrid, with and without grid connection or distributed dispatchable generators. The model considers aggregate storage availability from vehicles based on transport patterns taking into account the necessary vehicle redistribution. We investigate the case of a grid-connected VPP with rooftop solar and the case of a isolated microgrid with solar, wind, and dispatchable generation. We conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis to study the effect of several parameters on th... [more]
Operation and Economic Assessment of Hybrid Refueling Station Considering Traffic Flow Information
Suyang Zhou, Yuxuan Zhuang, Wei Gu, Zhi Wu
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: battery storage, electricity tariffs, hybrid refueling station, integrated refueling station, mixed integer linear programming, optimal planning, Renewable Energy
It is anticipated that the penetration of “Green-Energy„ vehicles, including Electric Vehicle (EV), Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV), and Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) will keep increasing in next decades. The demand of refueling stations will correspondingly increase for refueling these “Green-Energy„ vehicles. While such kinds of “Green-Energy„ vehicles can provide both social and economic benefits, effective management of refueling various kinds of these vehicles is necessary to maintain vehicle users’ comfortabilities and refueling station’s return on investment. To tackle these problems, this paper proposes a novel energy management approach for hybrid refueling stations with EV chargers, Hydrogen pumps and gas pumps. Firstly, the detailed models of EV chargers, Hydrogen pumps with electrolyte and hydrogen tank, the gas pumps with gas tank, renewable resources, and battery energy storage systems are established. The forecasting methodologies for renewable energy, electricity price and the traf... [more]
Solar Panel Supplier Selection for the Photovoltaic System Design by Using Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) Approaches
Tien-Chin Wang, Su-Yuan Tsai
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: DEA, FAHP, fuzzy logic, Renewable Energy, solar panel, supplier selection
The period of industrialization and modernization has increased energy demands around the world. As with other countries, the Taiwanese government is trying to increase the proportion of renewable energy, especially solar energy resources. Thus, there are many solar power plants built in Taiwan. One of the most important components of a solar power plant is the solar panel. The solar panel supplier selection process is a complex and multi-faceted decision that can reduce the cost of purchasing equipment and supply this equipment on time. In this research, we propose fuzzy MCDM approach that includes fuzzy analytical hierarchy process model (FAHP) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) for evaluation and selection of solar panel supplier for a photovoltaic system design in Taiwan. The main objective of this work is to design a fuzzy MCDM approach for solar panel supplier selection based on qualitative and quantitative factors. In the first step of this research, FAHP is applied to define t... [more]
Techno-Economic Feasibility Study of Renewable Power Systems for a Small-Scale Plasma-Assisted Nitric Acid Plant in Africa
Aikaterini Anastasopoulou, Sughosh Butala, Bhaskar Patil, John Suberu, Martin Fregene, Juergen Lang, Qi Wang, Volker Hessel
July 30, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: COE, HOMER, nitric acid, NPC, plasma process, Renewable Energy
The expected world population growth by 2050 is likely to pose great challenges in the global food demand and, in turn, in the fertilizer consumption. The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations has forecasted that 46% of this projected growth will be attributed to Africa. This, in turn, raises further concerns about the sustainability of Africa’s contemporary fertilizer production, considering also its high dependence on fertilizer imports. Based on these facts, a novel “green” route for the synthesis of fertilizers has been considered in the context of the African agriculture by means of plasma technology. More precisely, a techno-economic feasibility study has been conducted for a small-scale plasma-assisted nitric acid plant located in Kenya and South Africa with respect to the electricity provision by renewable energy sources. In this study, standalone solar and wind power systems, as well as a hybrid system, have been assessed for two different electricity loads... [more]
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