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Records with Keyword: Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Showing records 1 to 25 of 38. [First] Page: 1 2 Last
Chemically Enhanced Primary Sludge as an Anaerobic Co-Digestion Additive for Biogas Production from Food Waste
Xiaorong Kang, Yali Liu
December 9, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: chemically enhanced primary sedimentation, food waste, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, VFAs
In order to overcome process instability and buffer deficiency in the anaerobic digestion of mono food waste (FW), chemically enhanced primary sludge (CEPS) was selected as a co-substrate for FW treatment. In this study, batch tests were conducted to study the effects of CEPS/FW ratios on anaerobic co-digestion (coAD) performances. Both soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and protease activity were decreased, with the CEPS/FW mass ratio increasing from 0:5 to 5:0. However, it was also found that the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was eliminated by increasing the CEPS/FW ratio, and that corresponding VFAs concentrations decreased from 13,872.97 to 1789.98 mg chemical oxygen demand per L (mg COD/L). In addition, the maximum value of cumulative biogas yield (446.39 mL per g volatile solids removal (mL/g VSsremoval)) was observed at a CEPS/FW ratio of 4:1, and that the tendency of coenzyme F420 activity was similar to biogas production. The mechanism analysis indicated that... [more]
Thermochemical Conversion of Napier Grass for Production of Renewable Syngas
Mohamad Syazarudin Md Said, Wan Azlina Wan Abdul Karim Ghani, Tan Hong Boon, Siti Aslina Hussain, Denny Kok Sum Ng
December 9, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: energy crop, gasification, Napier grass, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, solid biofuel
Fuel resource diversification is a global effort to deviate from non-renewable fossil fuels. Biomass has been identified as an alternative solid biofuel source due to its desirable properties and carbon neutrality. As reported in the literature, biomass can positively contribute towards combating climate change while providing alleviation for energy security issue. As part of efforts to diversify biomass resources, this work intends to explore the potential of Napier grass, one type of energy crop, for the production of renewable syngas via gasification. This energy crop is originally from Africa, which is highly productive with low cost (40 tonnes per year per hectare). Limited studies were conducted to analyze the potential of such an energy crop as a fuel source, which is the subject of this work. In order to analyze the full potential of such energy crop, the physical and chemical characteristics of this biomass was first analyzed. To determine the productivity of syngas from this... [more]
The Study of a Multicriteria Decision Making Model for Wave Power Plant Location Selection in Vietnam
Chia-Nan Wang, Nguyen Van Thanh, Chih-Chiang Su
December 3, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: FANP, fuzzy logics, MCDM, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, TOPSIS, Wave Energy
With about a 7% average annual economic growth rate in Vietnam, the demand for electricity production is increasing, and, with more than 3000 km of coastline, the country has great potential for developing wave energy sources to meet such electricity production. This energy source, also known as renewable energy, comes from tides, wind, heat differences, flows, and waves. Both wind and wave energy are considered to have the most potential for energy sources in Vietnam. Just as hydropower projects are controversial due to depleting water resources and regulating floods, nuclear power projects cause safety concerns. To overcome this problem, Vietnamese scientists are considering using abundant wave energy resources for electricity. Nowadays, the ocean energy sector offers many new technologies to help minimize carbon dioxide emissions (CO2) in the living environment. Further, many countries already have wave power plants. In this research, an integrated model, combining the fuzzy analyti... [more]
Multi-Attribute Decision-Making: Applying a Modified Brown−Gibson Model and RETScreen Software to the Optimal Location Process of Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Plants
Nasser Yimen, Mustafa Dagbasi
October 26, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: analytic hierarchy process (AHP), Brown–Gibson model, Cameroon, multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM), optimal location, photovoltaic, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, RETScreen
Due to environmental and economic drawbacks of fossil fuels, global renewable energy (RE) capacity has increased significantly over the last decade. Solar photovoltaic (PV) is one of the fastest-growing RE technologies. Selecting an appropriate site is one of the most critical steps in utility-scale solar PV planning. This paper aims at proposing a rational multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach based on the Brown−Gibson model for optimal site selection for utility-scale solar PV projects. The proposed model considers the project’s net present value (NPV) along with seven suitability factors and six critical (constraint) factors. The RETScreen software was applied in calculating the NPV, the simple payback period and the carbon emission savings of the project at each alternative site. The weights of the suitability factors were determined using the analytical hierarchy process. Applied to the case study of finding the best location for a 5 MW solar PV project in northern Camero... [more]
Investigating the Dynamic Impact of CO2 Emissions and Economic Growth on Renewable Energy Production: Evidence from FMOLS and DOLS Tests
Muhammad Waris Ali Khan, Shrikant Krupasindhu Panigrahi, Khamis Said Nasser Almuniri, Mujeeb Iqbal Soomro, Nayyar Hussain Mirjat, Eisa Salim Alqaydi
September 30, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: carbon emissions, dynamic panel cointegration model, economic growth, Energy, Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square (FMOLS), Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Understanding the dynamic nexus between CO2 emissions and economic growth in the sustainable environment helps the economies in developing resources and formulating apposite energy policies. In the recent past, various studies have explored the nexus between CO2 emissions and economic growth. This study, however, investigates the nexus between renewable energy production, CO2 emissions, and economic growth over the period from 1995 to 2016 for seven Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square (FMOLS) and Dynamic Ordinary Least Square (DOLS) methodologies were used to estimate the long- and short-run relationships. The panel results revealed that renewable energy production has a significant long term effect on CO2 emissions for Vietnam (t = −2.990), Thailand (t = −2.505), and Indonesia (t = −2.515), and economic growth impact for Malaysia (t = 2.050), Thailand (t = −2.001), and the Philippines (t = −2.710). It is, therefore, vital that... [more]
Economic Viability and Environmental Efficiency Analysis of Hydrogen Production Processes for the Decarbonization of Energy Systems
Li Xu, Ying Wang, Syed Ahsan Ali Shah, Hashim Zameer, Yasir Ahmed Solangi, Gordhan Das Walasai, Zafar Ali Siyal
September 30, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: economic viability, environmental efficiency, hydrogen production processes, multi-criteria analysis, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The widespread penetration of hydrogen in mainstream energy systems requires hydrogen production processes to be economically competent and environmentally efficient. Hydrogen, if produced efficiently, can play a pivotal role in decarbonizing the global energy systems. Therefore, this study develops a framework which evaluates hydrogen production processes and quantifies deficiencies for improvement. The framework integrates slack-based data envelopment analysis (DEA), with fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) and fuzzy technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS). The proposed framework is applied to prioritize the most efficient and sustainable hydrogen production in Pakistan. Eleven hydrogen production alternatives were analyzed under five criteria, including capital cost, feedstock cost, O&M cost, hydrogen production, and CO2 emission. FAHP obtained the initial weights of criteria while FTOPSIS determined the ultimate weights of criteria for each... [more]
Applied Research Towards Industry 4.0: Opportunities for SMEs
Ilaria Zambon, Gianluca Egidi, Fabiano Rinaldi, Sirio Cividino
August 8, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: industrial processes, Industry 4.0, job safety, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, SMEs, sustainable development, technologies
Industry 4.0 designates the recent digital revolution in the industrial sector, evolving from the comprehensive networking and automation of all the productive areas. Equipment, machinery, materials and products permit to (i) distinguish dealing out environmental settings and current status via sensors; (ii) join them through fixed software; and (iii) progress production procedures in an exclusive method. Additionally, Industry 4.0 exposes new trials to enterprises, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Firms should advance approaches to (i) achieve chances of innovation and digitalization; (ii) expand their processes; and (iii) define innovative business models. Based on these premises, a well-organized political, legal and infrastructural outline is essential to build up a business having an Industry 4.0 approach. Though bigger firms can get ahead through innovation processes and predicting the potential digitalization risks for their business models, SMEs may be in t... [more]
Designing and Testing Composite Energy Storage Systems for Regulating the Outputs of Linear Wave Energy Converters
Zanxiang Nie, Xi Xiao, Pritesh Hiralal, Xuanrui Huang, Richard McMahon, Min Zhang, Weijia Yuan
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Storage, linear machine, power conversion, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Wave Energy
Linear wave energy converters generate intrinsically intermittent power with variable frequency and amplitude. A composite energy storage system consisting of batteries and super capacitors has been developed and controlled by buck-boost converters. The purpose of the composite energy storage system is to handle the fluctuations and intermittent characteristics of the renewable source, and hence provide a steady output power. Linear wave energy converters working in conjunction with a system composed of various energy storage devices, is considered as a microsystem, which can function in a stand-alone or a grid connected mode. Simulation results have shown that by applying a boost H-bridge and a composite energy storage system more power could be extracted from linear wave energy converters. Simulation results have shown that the super capacitors charge and discharge often to handle the frequent power fluctuations, and the batteries charge and discharge slowly for handling the intermit... [more]
Study on the Tribological Characteristics of Australian Native First Generation and Second Generation Biodiesel Fuel
Md Mofijur Rahman, Mohammad Rasul, Nur Md Sayeed Hassan
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: beauty leaf biodiesel, macadamia biodiesel, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, wear and friction
Biodiesels are a renewable energy source, and they have the potential to be used as alternatives to diesel fuel. The aim of this study is to investigate the wear and friction characteristics of Australian native first generation and second generation biodiesels using a four-ball tribo tester. The biodiesel was produced through a two-step transesterification process and characterized according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. The tribological experiment was carried out at a constant 1800 rpm and different loads and temperatures. In addition, the surface morphology of the ball was tested by scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The test results indicated that biodiesel fuels have a lower coefficient of frictions (COF) and lower wear scar diameter (WSD) up to 83.50% and 41.28%, respectively, compared to conventional diesel fuel. The worn surface area results showed that biodiesel fuel has a minimum percen... [more]
Multi-Objective Optimization of Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells with Metallic and Dielectric Nanoparticles
Giovanni Aiello, Salvatore Alfonzetti, Santi Agatino Rizzo, Nunzio Salerno
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: evolutionary algorithms, finite element method, nanoplamonics, Optimization, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, solar cell
Thin-film solar cells enable a strong reduction of the amount of silicon needed to produce photovoltaic panels but their efficiency lowers. Placing metallic or dielectric nanoparticles over the silicon substrate increases the light trapping into the panel thanks to the plasmonic scattering from nanoparticles at the surface of the cell. The goal of this paper is to optimize the geometry of a thin-film solar cell with silver and silica nanoparticles in order to improve its efficiency, taking into account the amount of silver. An efficient evolutionary algorithm is applied to perform the optimization with a reduced computing time.
Lobatto-Milstein Numerical Method in Application of Uncertainty Investment of Solar Power Projects
Mahmoud A. Eissa, Boping Tian
March 26, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Egypt, numerical simulation, real option, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, stochastic differential equation
Recently, there has been a growing interest in the production of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES). The RES investment is characterized by uncertainty, which is long-term, costly and depends on feed-in tariff and support schemes. In this paper, we address the real option valuation (ROV) of a solar power plant investment. The real option framework is investigated. This framework considers the renewable certificate price and, further, the cost of delay between establishing and operating the solar power plant. The optimal time of launching the project and assessing the value of the deferred option are discussed. The new three-stage numerical methods are constructed, the Lobatto3C-Milstein (L3CM) methods. The numerical methods are integrated with the concept of Black⁻Scholes option pricing theory and applied in option valuation for solar energy investment with uncertainty. The numerical results of the L3CM, finite difference and Monte Carlo methods are compared to show the ef... [more]
Project Management for a Wind Turbine Construction by Applying Fuzzy Multiple Objective Linear Programming Models
He-Yau Kang, Amy H. I. Lee, Tzu-Ting Huang
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: fuzzy multiple objective linear programming (FMOLP), program evaluation and review technique (PERT), project management, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, wind turbine
Meeting the demand of energy is a challenge for many countries these days, and generating electricity from renewable resources has become a main trend for future economic development. The construction of a renewable energy plant is costly and timely; therefore, a good project management model is essential. In this paper, a fuzzy multiple objective linear programming (FMOLP) model is constructed based on program evaluation and review technique (PERT) first. With the consideration of the different degrees of importance of the multiple objectives, a fuzzy multiple weighted-objective linear programming (FMWOLP) model is constructed next. Through each proposed model, a compromise solution can be devised to maximize the total degree of satisfaction while considering multiple objectives. The results can provide references for the management on what activities and how long these activities should be crashed, how much the total project cost should be, and how long the total project duration tim... [more]
Assessment of Renewable Sources for the Energy Consumption in Malta in the Mediterranean Sea
Vincenzo Franzitta, Domenico Curto, Daniele Milone, Davide Rao
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Malta, Mediterranean Sea, point absorber, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Wave Energy, Wave Energy Converter (WEC)
The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the energy production in the Maltese islands, focusing on the employment of renewable energies in order to increase their energy independence. The main renewable source here proposed is wave energy: thanks to a strategic position, Malta will be able to produce electrical energy using an innovative type of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) based on the prototype of a linear generator realized by University of Palermo. The use of this new technology will be able to cut down the electrical energy production from traditional power plants and, consequently, the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Wave energy source and off-shore photovoltaic (PV) technology are here proposed. Particularly, the installation of 12 wave farms, for a total installed capacity of 86 MW, will generate about 9.5% of Malta’s energy requirement in 2025, while the installation of 9.6 MW of off-shore PV will generate about 0.73%.
The Desalination Process Driven by Wave Energy: A Challenge for the Future
Vincenzo Franzitta, Domenico Curto, Daniele Milone, Alessia Viola
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: desalination, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Water, wave
The correlation between water and energy is currently the focus of several investigations. In particular, desalination is a technological process characterized by high energy consumption; nevertheless, desalination represents the only practicable solution in several areas, where the availability of fresh water is limited but brackish water or seawater are present. These natural resources (energy and water) are essential for each other; energy system conversion needs water, and electrical energy is necessary for water treatment or transport. Several interesting aspects include the study of saline desalination as an answer to freshwater needs and the application of renewable energy (RE) devices to satisfy electrical energy requirement for the desalination process. A merge between renewable energy and desalination is beneficial in that it is a sustainable and challenging option for the future. This work investigates the possibility of using renewable energy sources to supply the desalinat... [more]
American’s Energy Future: An Analysis of the Proposed Energy Policy Plans in Presidential Election
Ming-Hsun Cheng, Minliang Yang, Yu Wang
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy future, party polarization, president election, public opinion, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
As the leader of the largest economy, President of the United States has substantive influence on addressing climate change problems. However, a presidential election is often dominated by issues other than energy problems. This paper focuses on the 2016 presidential election, and examines the energy plans proposed by the leading Democrat and Republican candidates. Our data from the Iowa caucus survey in January 2016 suggests that voters were more concerned about terrorism and economic issues than environmental issues. We then compare the Democratic and Republican candidate’s view of America’s energy future, and evaluate their proposed renewable energy targets. We find that the view on renewable energy is polarized between Democratic and Republican candidates, while candidates from both parties agree on the need for energy efficiency. Results from our ordinal least squares regression models suggests that Democratic candidates have moderate to ambitious goals for developing solar and ot... [more]
Financing Innovations for the Renewable Energy Transition in Europe
Raphael Bointner, Simon Pezzutto, Gianluca Grilli, Wolfram Sparber
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: 2030, Europe, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, research and development expenditures
Renewable energy sources are vital to achieving Europe’s 2030 energy transition goals. Technological innovation, driven by public expenditures on research and development, is a major driver for this change. Thus, an extensive dataset on these expenditures of the European Member States and the European Commission, dating back to the early 1970s, was created. This paper creates predictive scenarios of public investment in renewable energy research and development in Europe based on this historical dataset and current trends. Funding from both, European Member States and the European Commission, between today and 2030 are used in the analysis. The impact on the cumulative knowledge stock is also estimated. Two projection scenarios are presented: (1) business as usual; and (2) an advanced scenario, based on the assumption that the Mission Innovation initiative causes public expenditures to increase in the coming years. Both scenarios are compared to the European 2030 climate and energy fra... [more]
Multi-Objective Optimization of a Solar Chimney Power Plant with Inclined Collector Roof Using Genetic Algorithm
Ehsan Gholamalizadeh, Man-Hoe Kim
February 5, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: inclined collector roof, multi-objective genetic algorithm, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, solar chimney power plant
This paper presents an optimization of a solar chimney power plant with an inclined collector roof using genetic algorithms. Five design parameters that affect the system performance are the collector radius, collector inlet height, collector outlet height, chimney height and diameter. A multi-objective design to simultaneously optimize three conflicting objectives including system efficiency, power output and expenditure is used. Based on this approach, obtaining the best combination of the possible geometrical parameters, performance of two built pilot power plants in Kerman (Iran) and Manzanares (Spain) are optimized thermo-economically. The heights of the zero-slope collectors of the Kerman and Manzanares systems are 2 m and 1.85 m, respectively. The results show that in the Kerman pilot the optimal collector inlet and outlet heights are 1.5 m and 2.95 m, respectively, while those optimal heights in the Manzanares prototype are 1.5 m and 4.6 m, respectively. It is found that select... [more]
Simulation of Polygeneration Systems
Francesco Calise, Massimo Dentice D’Accadia
February 5, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: distributed generation, dynamic simulations, Polygeneration, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
This Special Issue aims at collecting the recent studies dealing with polygeneration systems, with a special focus on the possible integration of different technologies into a single system, able to convert one or multiple energy sources into energy services (electricity, heat and cooling) and other useful products (e.g., desalinized water, hydrogen, glycerin, ammonia, etc.). Renewable sources (solar, wind, hydro, biomass and geothermal), as well as fossil fuels, feeding advanced energy systems such as fuel cells and cogeneration systems, are considered. Special attention is paid to control strategies and to the management of the systems in general. Studies including thermoeconomic analyses and system optimizations are presented.
Energy Saving in Water Distribution Network through Pump as Turbine Generators: Economic and Environmental Analysis
Mauro De Marchis, Barbara Milici, Roberto Volpe, Antonio Messineo
January 31, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: energy recovery, greenhouse gas (GHG), pump as turbine (PAT), Renewable and Sustainable Energy, water distribution network
Complex systems of water distribution networks (WDS) are used to supply water to users. WDSs are systems where a lot of distributed energy is available. Historically, this energy is artificially dissipated by pressure reduction valves (PRVs), thanks to which water utilities manage the pressure level in selected nodes of the network. The present study explores the use of economic hydraulic machines, pumps as turbines (PATs) to produce energy in a small network located in a town close to Palermo (Italy). The main idea is to avoid dissipation in favor of renewable energy production. The proposed study is applied to a WDN typical of the Mediterranean countries, where the users, to collect water during the period of water scarcity conditions, install private tanks. The presence of private tanks deeply modifies the network from its designed condition. In the proposed analysis, the economic benefit of PATs application in water distribution networks has been investigated, accounting for the pr... [more]
Energy Efficiency Strategies for Ecological Greenhouses: Experiences from Murcia (Spain)
Hilario Becerril, Ignacio de los Rios
January 31, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: conventional agriculture (CA), ecological agriculture (EA), fossil fuels, greenhouses, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Transformational Agricultural Society
There has been a continuous growth in ecological agriculture (EA) in recent years. It is recognized as a production system with rational energy use and low demand for fossil fuels. There are many studies relating to this subject, in contrast to the few studies regarding the use of energy and its impact on the environment in ecological greenhouses. This article analyzes the strategies adopted by a Transformational Agricultural Society (Sociedad Agraria de Transformación) in order to improve energy efficiency in ecological greenhouses, with regards to the use of fossil fuels. The methodology is based on the Working With People (WWP) Model, which involves social learning processes over 30 years in one of the largest regions of ecological crops in Spain. The results show that the measures taken to manage the greenhouses have achieved a decrease of over 80% in terms of fossil fuel consumption. The experience demonstrates that EA, as opposed to conventional agriculture (CA), is a system with... [more]
A Critical Study of Stationary Energy Storage Policies in Australia in an International Context: The Role of Hydrogen and Battery Technologies
Jason Moore, Bahman Shabani
January 31, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Australia, battery, electrical energy storage, Hydrogen, policy, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
This paper provides a critical study of current Australian and leading international policies aimed at supporting electrical energy storage for stationary power applications with a focus on battery and hydrogen storage technologies. It demonstrates that global leaders such as Germany and the U.S. are actively taking steps to support energy storage technologies through policy and regulatory change. This is principally to integrate increasing amounts of intermittent renewable energy (wind and solar) that will be required to meet high renewable energy targets. The relevance of this to the Australian energy market is that whilst it is unique, it does have aspects in common with the energy markets of these global leaders. This includes regions of high concentrations of intermittent renewable energy (Texas and California) and high penetration rates of residential solar photovoltaics (PV) (Germany). Therefore, Australian policy makers have a good opportunity to observe what is working in an i... [more]
Theoretical Framework of Organizational Intelligence: A Managerial Approach to Promote Renewable Energy in Rural Economies
Nicolae Istudor, Minodora Ursacescu, Cleopatra Sendroiu, Ioan Radu
January 30, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: business strategy, economic intelligence, entropy process, knowledge management, organizational innovation, organizational intelligence, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The companies involved in the energy sector must reinvent themselves to be innovative and adaptable to contemporary environmental changes. The promotion of renewable energy in rural communities is a great challenge for these companies. They should focus on improving the environment scanning actions and the knowledge management (KM) system and enhancing the collective intelligence to avoid the loss of information, to foster innovation, and to maintain a competitive advantage. To achieve these goals, energy companies require appropriate management tools and practices. The purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical framework of organizational intelligence (OI) supported by a cross-perspective analysis of various aspects: economic intelligence (EI) and KM practices, entropy processes, and organizational enablers. A pilot investigation for testing the framework in the case of Transelectrica S.A. has been elaborated. The findings reveal that the elements of the OI framework are embedd... [more]
A Review of Classification Problems and Algorithms in Renewable Energy Applications
María Pérez-Ortiz, Silvia Jiménez-Fernández, Pedro A. Gutiérrez, Enrique Alexandre, César Hervás-Martínez, Sancho Salcedo-Sanz
January 7, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: applications, classification algorithms, Machine Learning, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Classification problems and their corresponding solving approaches constitute one of the fields of machine learning. The application of classification schemes in Renewable Energy (RE) has gained significant attention in the last few years, contributing to the deployment, management and optimization of RE systems. The main objective of this paper is to review the most important classification algorithms applied to RE problems, including both classical and novel algorithms. The paper also provides a comprehensive literature review and discussion on different classification techniques in specific RE problems, including wind speed/power prediction, fault diagnosis in RE systems, power quality disturbance classification and other applications in alternative RE systems. In this way, the paper describes classification techniques and metrics applied to RE problems, thus being useful both for researchers dealing with this kind of problem and for practitioners of the field.
The Regulatory Noose: Logan City’s Adventures in Micro-Hydropower
Megan Hansen, Randy T. Simmons, Ryan M. Yonk
December 3, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: hydropower, micro-hydropower, regulation, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Recent growth in the renewable energy industry has increased government support for alternative energy. In the United States, hydropower is the largest source of renewable energy and also one of the most efficient. Currently, there are 30,000 megawatts of potential energy capacity through small- and micro-hydro projects throughout the United States. Increased development of micro-hydro could double America’s hydropower energy generation, but micro-hydro is not being developed at the same rate as other renewable sources. Micro-hydro is regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and subject to the same regulation as large hydroelectric projects despite its minimal environmental impact. We studied two cases of micro-hydro projects in Logan, Utah, and Afton, Wyoming, which are both small rural communities. Both cases showed that the web of federal regulation is likely discouraging the development of micro-hydro in the United States by increasing the costs in time and funds for d... [more]
Assessment of the Variability of Biogas Production from Sugar Beet Silage as Affected by Movement and Loss of the Produced Alcohols and Organic Acids
Ali Heidarzadeh Vazifehkhoran, Jin Mi Triolo, Søren Ugilt Larsen, Kasper Stefanek, Sven G. Sommer
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: anaerobic digestion, Beta vulgaris, biomethanation, ensiling, organic components, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The biochemical methane potential and composition of sugar beet pulp silage were investigated using samples taken from six different depths in both open and closed silos (height 3.6 m). The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of pulp silage in open silos ranged from 337 to 420 normal litre (NL) CH₄/kg volatile solids (VS), while the BMP of pulp silage in closed silos varied between 411 and 451 NL CH₄/kg VS. The biochemical methane potential peaked at a depth of 1.45 m with 420 NL CH₄/kg VS for open silos and 451 NL CH₄/kg VS for closed silos. The ethanol concentration and biochemical methane potential showed the same trend with depth throughout the silos. The energy loss correlated to the loss of volatile solids, and the depths described a linear relationship between them for both the open and closed silos (R² = 0.997 for the open silo and R² = 0.991 for the closed silo). The energy potentials and composition of beet pulp silage were highly stratified and there was a risk that the sila... [more]
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