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Records with Subject: Energy Policy
Showing records 1 to 25 of 135. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Analysis of Influencing Factors of Occupational Safety and Health in Coal Chemical Enterprises Based on the Analytic Network Process and System Dynamics
Kai Yu, Lujie Zhou, Chen Hu, Linlin Wang, Weiqiang Jin
April 15, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: analytic network process, management and control measures, occupational safety and health, Simulation, system dynamics
In the production process of coal chemical enterprises, there are factors such as dust, poisons, as well as toxic and harmful gases, which seriously restrict the safety and health of employees. It is urgent to strengthen research on occupational safety and health (OSH) of coal chemical enterprises. Research on the influencing factors is very important to improve the level of OSH in coal chemical enterprises. Therefore, this paper analyzed the factors affecting OSH of coal chemical enterprises from four aspects: “human⁻machine⁻environment⁻management„. Then, an influencing factor indicator system was constructed. The weights of the indicator were analyzed using the Analytic Network Process (ANP). On this basis, the primary and secondary indicators of the influencing factors were ranked. Subsequently, the weights of ANP were taken as the influence coefficient between variables, and the System Dynamics (SD) model of OSH control measures was established and analyzed. According to the weight... [more]
Revolution 4.0: Industry vs. Agriculture in a Future Development for SMEs
Ilaria Zambon, Massimo Cecchini, Gianluca Egidi, Maria Grazia Saporito, Andrea Colantoni
April 15, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: agriculture 4.0, application research, Industry 4.0, open source, SMEs, Supply Chain
The present review retraces the steps of the industrial and agriculture revolution that have taken place up to the present day, giving ideas and considerations for the future. This paper analyses the specific challenges facing agriculture along the farming supply chain to permit the operative implementation of Industry 4.0 guidelines. The subsequent scientific value is an investigation of how Industry 4.0 approaches can be improved and be pertinent to the agricultural sector. However, industry is progressing at a much faster rate than agriculture. In fact, already today experts talk about Industry 5.0. On the other hand, the 4.0 revolution in agriculture is still limited to a few innovative firms. For this reason, this work deals with how technological development affects different sectors (industry and agriculture) in different ways. In this innovative background, despite the advantages of industry or agriculture 4.0 for large enterprises, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of... [more]
Integration Multi-Model to Evaluate the Impact of Surface Water Quality on City Sustainability: A Case from Maanshan City in China
Zhanbo Chen, Hui Zhang, Mingxia Liao
April 15, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: ensemble learning, MCDM, multi-model evaluation, water pollution
Water pollution is a worldwide problem that needs to be solved urgently and has a significant impact on the efficiency of sustainable cities. The evaluation of water pollution is a Multiple Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) problem and using a MCDM model can help control water pollution and protect human health. However, different evaluation methods may obtain different results. How to effectively coordinate them to obtain a consensus result is the main aim of this work. The purpose of this article is to develop an ensemble learning evaluation method based on the concept of water quality to help policy-makers better evaluate surface water quality. A valid application is conducted to illustrate the use of the model for the surface water quality evaluation problem, thus demonstrating the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed model.
Measuring Efficiency of Generating Electric Processes
Chia-Nan Wang, Quoc-Chien Luu, Thi-Kim-Lien Nguyen
April 9, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: data envelopment analysis (DEA), Holt–Winters model, productivity efficiency, undesirable model
Electric energy sources are the foundation for supporting for the industrialization and modernization; however, the processes of electricity generation increase CO₂ emissions. This study integrates the Holt⁻Winters model in number cruncher statistical system (NCSS) to estimate the forecasting data and the undesirable model in data envelopment analysis (DEA) to calculate the efficiency of electricity production in 14 countries all over the world from past to future. The Holt⁻Winters model is utilized to estimate the future; then, the actual and forecasting data are applied into the undesirable model to compute the performance. From the principle of an undesirable model, the study determines the input and output factors as follows nonrenewable and renewable fuels (inputs), electricity generation (desirable output), and CO₂ emissions (undesirable output). The empirical results exhibit efficient/inefficient terms over the period from 2011⁻2021 while converting these fuels into electricity... [more]
Time-Based Trend of Carbon Emissions in the Composting Process of Swine Manure in the Context of Agriculture 4.0
Jun-Ho Huh, Ki-Youn Kim
April 8, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Agriculture 4.0, Carbon Dioxide, carbon emission, CH4, composting process, pig production industry, real-time monitoring system, swine farm, swine manure
The widespread raising of swine in farms becomes a serious problem in terms of the emission of carbon dioxide (CO₂) and methane (CH₄). This study aims to measure concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane, which account for the largest percentage of carbon emissions, to temporally estimate the carbon emitted during the pig-manure composting process. The research subject was a farmhouse raising 3000 growing pigs and 100 mother pigs. The capacity of the composting facility for pig manure treatment was 330 m², and the daily treatment was about 6 tons. After the pig manure discharged from the pig farm was delivered to the composting facility, for the 8 days including 6 before mixing and 2 after mixing, the concentrations of CO₂ and CH₄ were measured. The result shows that the CO₂ and CH₄ concentrations in the composting facility were 1208 ± 385 ppm and 95 ± 10 ppm, respectively. In the comparison of concentrations before and after mixing at the composting facility, the values of both CO₂... [more]
An Economic and Policy Analysis of a District Heating System Using Corn Straw Densified Fuel: A Case Study in Nong’an County in Jilin Province, China
Shizhong Song, Pei Liu, Jing Xu, Linwei Ma, Chinhao Chong, Min He, Xianzheng Huang, Zheng Li, Weidou Ni
March 15, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: corn straw, district heating system, economic model, policy influence, solid densified fuel
The development of district heating systems of corn straw densified fuel (CSDF-DHS) is an important option to promote the use of bioenergy on a large scale for sustainable development, especially in China. At present, China’s biomass densified solid fuel (BSDF) development lags behind previously planned target, main barriers of which are economic and policy support problems. Accurate case studies are key to analyze these problems. This manuscript takes Nong’an County in Jilin Province of China as an example to establish a techno-economic model to evaluate the economic performance of a CSDF-DHS under two policy scenarios. It calculates the economic performance under a benchmark market scenario (BMS) and the current policy scenario (CPS) and analyzes the influence of various policy instruments, including subsidies, carbon trading, and preferential taxation. The results indicate that: (1) The CSDF-DHS option is not competitive under the BMS or CPS compared to the traditional energy system... [more]
An Experimental Study of the Impact of Dynamic Electricity Pricing on Consumer Behavior: An Analysis for a Remote Island in Japan
Thoa Thi Kim Nguyen, Koji Shimada, Yuki Ochi, Takuya Matsumoto, Hiroshi Matsugi, Takao Awata
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: dynamic pricing, electric energy demand response, habit formation
The aim of this research was to investigate how consumer behavior changes after application of dynamic electricity pricing and the persistence of those changes. Based on the investigation results, the authors also discuss the policy implications of demand management to shift consumption to days that have more solar radiation, while at the same time reducing overall consumption. The dynamic pricing experiment was implemented on Nushima Island, located in the center of Japan, with the participation of 50 households. The methodologies used in this study are panel analysis with random effects, and the difference in differences method. Several linear regression analyses are performed to predict hourly electricity usage from a number of explanatory variables, such as life-style factors, the frequency of access to the visualization website, control for weather factors (wind speed and temperatures), and other attributes of the households to predict the log of hourly electric energy consumption... [more]
Systematic Assessment of Carbon Emissions from Renewable Energy Access to Improve Rural Livelihoods
Judith A. Cherni, Raúl Olalde Font, Lucía Serrano, Felipe Henao, Antonio Urbina
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: life-cycle analysis (LCA), multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), photovoltaic technologies, rural energy and development, SURE-DSS
One way of increasing access to electricity for impoverished unconnected areas without adding significant amounts of CO₂ to the atmosphere is by promoting renewable energy technologies. However, decision-makers rarely, if ever, take into account the level of in-built energy requirements and consequential CO₂ emissions found in renewable energy, particularly photovoltaic cells and related equipment, which have been widely disseminated in developing countries. The deployment of solar panels worldwide has mostly relied on silicon crystalline cell modules, despite the fact that less polluting material—in particular, thin film and organic cells—offers comparatively distinct technical, environmental and cost advantages characteristics. A major scientific challenge has thus been the design of a single decision-making approach to assess local and global climate change-related impacts as well as the socio-economic effects of low-carbon technology. The article focuses on the functions of the mul... [more]
Application of Project Management Process on Environmental Management System Improvement in Mining-Energy Complexes
Jelena Malenović Nikolić, Dejan Vasović, Ivana Filipović, Stevan Mušicki, Ivica Ristović
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: environment, management, mining and energy complexes, network planning, sustainable development
Aims and background: Mining and energy complexes in Serbia are recognized as a major source of a large number of pollutants. Serbia’s environmental performance reports clearly indicate that large mining and energy complexes are the dominant source of air pollution. It is difficult to determine which of them remarkably threaten the quality of the environment, as all the basic elements of the environment (air, water, and soil) are threatened, not just one. Mining and energy complexes significantly reduce the quality of the immediate environment, as the distance areas throughout water and air pollution propagation. Additional motivation for this study lies in the fact that large mining and energy complexes are particularly interesting because they are located in the immediate vicinity or large rivers (mostly the Danube), which are protected in many national and international legislation acts (particularly the Danube). The basis for the preservation of environmental quality is an effective... [more]
Project Management for a Wind Turbine Construction by Applying Fuzzy Multiple Objective Linear Programming Models
He-Yau Kang, Amy H. I. Lee, Tzu-Ting Huang
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: fuzzy multiple objective linear programming (FMOLP), program evaluation and review technique (PERT), project management, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, wind turbine
Meeting the demand of energy is a challenge for many countries these days, and generating electricity from renewable resources has become a main trend for future economic development. The construction of a renewable energy plant is costly and timely; therefore, a good project management model is essential. In this paper, a fuzzy multiple objective linear programming (FMOLP) model is constructed based on program evaluation and review technique (PERT) first. With the consideration of the different degrees of importance of the multiple objectives, a fuzzy multiple weighted-objective linear programming (FMWOLP) model is constructed next. Through each proposed model, a compromise solution can be devised to maximize the total degree of satisfaction while considering multiple objectives. The results can provide references for the management on what activities and how long these activities should be crashed, how much the total project cost should be, and how long the total project duration tim... [more]
Supporting Renewables’ Penetration in Remote Areas through the Transformation of Non-Powered Dams
Thomas Patsialis, Ioannis Kougias, Nerantzis Kazakis, Nicolaos Theodossiou, Peter Droege
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy autarky, remote areas’ electrification, renewable energy sources (RES) penetration, small-scale hydropower (SHP), solar photovoltaic systems (SPVS)
Supplying power to remote areas may be a challenge, even for those communities already connected to the main grid. Power is often transmitted from long distances, under adverse weather conditions, and with aged equipment. As a rule, modernizing grid infrastructure in such areas to make it more resilient faces certain financial limitations. Local distribution may face stability issues and disruptions through the year and—equally important—it cannot absorb significant amounts of locally-produced power. The European policy has underlined the importance of energy production in local level towards meeting energy security and climate targets. However, the current status of these areas makes the utilization of the local potential prohibitive. This study builds on the observation that in the vicinity of such mountainous areas, irrigation dams often cover different non energy-related needs (e.g., irrigation, drinking water). Transforming these dams to small-scale hydropower (SHP) facilities can... [more]
The Impact of Renewable Energy Policies on the Adoption of Anaerobic Digesters with Farm-Fed Wastes in Great Britain
Baboo Lesh Gowreesunker, Savvas A. Tassou
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: anaerobic digesters (AD), animal farms, biogas boilers, combined heat and power (CHP), UK renewable energy incentives
This paper explores the effects of the feed-in tariff (FiT) and renewable heat incentive (RHI) schemes on the adoption of anaerobic digesters (AD), and the potential energy generation from farm-fed wastes in Great Britain. This paper adopts a linear programming model, developed in the International Energy Agency (IEA) TIMES platform, aiming to quantify the degree of adoption of AD and the type of energy generation technologies that can be driven by digester biogas to reduce farm energy costs. The results show that the adoption of AD is cost-beneficial for all farms, but different rates of the FiT and RHI schemes will influence the competitiveness between the implementation of combined heat and power (CHP) systems and the utilisation of biogas to only generate heat. The choice of technology is further dependent on the electricity/heat use ratio of the farms and the energy content of the feedstock. The results show that pig farms will more readily adopt CHP, because of its relatively hig... [more]
Assessment of Renewable Sources for the Energy Consumption in Malta in the Mediterranean Sea
Vincenzo Franzitta, Domenico Curto, Daniele Milone, Davide Rao
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Malta, Mediterranean Sea, point absorber, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Wave Energy, Wave Energy Converter (WEC)
The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the energy production in the Maltese islands, focusing on the employment of renewable energies in order to increase their energy independence. The main renewable source here proposed is wave energy: thanks to a strategic position, Malta will be able to produce electrical energy using an innovative type of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) based on the prototype of a linear generator realized by University of Palermo. The use of this new technology will be able to cut down the electrical energy production from traditional power plants and, consequently, the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Wave energy source and off-shore photovoltaic (PV) technology are here proposed. Particularly, the installation of 12 wave farms, for a total installed capacity of 86 MW, will generate about 9.5% of Malta’s energy requirement in 2025, while the installation of 9.6 MW of off-shore PV will generate about 0.73%.
The Desalination Process Driven by Wave Energy: A Challenge for the Future
Vincenzo Franzitta, Domenico Curto, Daniele Milone, Alessia Viola
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: desalination, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Water, wave
The correlation between water and energy is currently the focus of several investigations. In particular, desalination is a technological process characterized by high energy consumption; nevertheless, desalination represents the only practicable solution in several areas, where the availability of fresh water is limited but brackish water or seawater are present. These natural resources (energy and water) are essential for each other; energy system conversion needs water, and electrical energy is necessary for water treatment or transport. Several interesting aspects include the study of saline desalination as an answer to freshwater needs and the application of renewable energy (RE) devices to satisfy electrical energy requirement for the desalination process. A merge between renewable energy and desalination is beneficial in that it is a sustainable and challenging option for the future. This work investigates the possibility of using renewable energy sources to supply the desalinat... [more]
Dynamic Simulation of a Trigeneration Scheme for Domestic Purposes Based on Hybrid Techniques
Luis Acevedo, Javier Uche, Alejandro Del Almo, Fernando Círez, Sergio Usón, Amaya Martínez, Isabel Guedea
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: dynamic simulations, hybrid systems, membrane distillation (MD), photovoltaic/thermal (PVT), reverse osmosis (RO), TRNSYS®, wind turbine (WT)
In this paper, the design of a system providing electricity by coupling photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) collectors and a wind turbine (WT), sanitary hot water (SHW) coming from the PVT and evacuated tube collectors (ETCs) and fresh water (FW) produced in two seawater desalting facilities (membrane distillation, MD, and reverse osmosis, RO), has been carefully analyzed by means of a dynamic model developed in TRNSYS®. This analysis is compulsory to operate a lab-scale pilot plant that is being erected at Zaragoza, Spain. A new model-type has been included in TRNSYS® in order to include the MD unit in the scheme. A sensitivity analysis of some free-design variables, such that the ETC surface, PVT and ETC tilt, water storage tank, batteries capacities, and mass flow rates delivered to the SHW service and/or feeding the MD unit has been performed in order to propose the definite design of the scheme. The proposed base case was able to produce up to 15,311 L per year in the MD system and cover a... [more]
Life Cycle Assessment of Horse Manure Treatment
Ola Eriksson, Åsa Hadin, Jay Hennessy, Daniel Jonsson
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: anaerobic digestion, bedding material, biogas, combustion, composting, horse manure, incineration, life cycle assessment (LCA)
Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1) unmanaged composting; (2) managed composting; (3) large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plant; (4) drying and small-scale combustion; and (5) liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with... [more]
Cost Analysis of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stacks for Mass Production
Mauro Francesco Sgroi, Furio Zedde, Orazio Barbera, Alessandro Stassi, David Sebastián, Francesco Lufrano, Vincenzo Baglio, Antonino Salvatore Aricò, Jacob Linder Bonde, Michael Schuster
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: catalysts, cost analysis, direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), Membranes, stack
Fuel cells are very promising technologies for efficient electrical energy generation. The development of enhanced system components and new engineering solutions is fundamental for the large-scale deployment of these devices. Besides automotive and stationary applications, fuel cells can be widely used as auxiliary power units (APUs). The concept of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is based on the direct feed of a methanol solution to the fuel cell anode, thus simplifying safety, delivery, and fuel distribution issues typical of conventional hydrogen-fed polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs). In order to evaluate the feasibility of concrete application of DMFC devices, a cost analysis study was carried out in the present work. A 200 W-prototype developed in the framework of a European Project (DURAMET) was selected as the model system. The DMFC stack had a modular structure allowing for a detailed evaluation of cost characteristics related to the specific components. A scale-down... [more]
American’s Energy Future: An Analysis of the Proposed Energy Policy Plans in Presidential Election
Ming-Hsun Cheng, Minliang Yang, Yu Wang
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy future, party polarization, president election, public opinion, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
As the leader of the largest economy, President of the United States has substantive influence on addressing climate change problems. However, a presidential election is often dominated by issues other than energy problems. This paper focuses on the 2016 presidential election, and examines the energy plans proposed by the leading Democrat and Republican candidates. Our data from the Iowa caucus survey in January 2016 suggests that voters were more concerned about terrorism and economic issues than environmental issues. We then compare the Democratic and Republican candidate’s view of America’s energy future, and evaluate their proposed renewable energy targets. We find that the view on renewable energy is polarized between Democratic and Republican candidates, while candidates from both parties agree on the need for energy efficiency. Results from our ordinal least squares regression models suggests that Democratic candidates have moderate to ambitious goals for developing solar and ot... [more]
The Energy Audit Activity Focused on the Lighting Systems in Historical Buildings
Giacomo Salvadori, Fabio Fantozzi, Michele Rocca, Francesco Leccese
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy audit, energy saving, historical buildings, lamps replacement, lighting systems
The energy audit for a building is a procedure designed mainly to obtain adequate knowledge of the energy consumption profile, identify, and quantify opportunities for energy savings by a cost-benefit analysis and report, clearly and comprehensively, about the obtained results. If the audit is referred to a building with a significant historical and artistic value, a compatibility evaluation of the energy saving interventions with the architectural features should also be developed. In this paper, analysing the case study of a historical building used as public offices in Pisa (Italy), the authors describe how it is possible to conduct an energy audit activity (especially dedicated to the lighting system) and they show how, for this type of buildings, it is possible to obtain significant energy savings with a refurbishment of the lighting system. A total number of seven interventions on indoor and outdoor lighting sub-systems were analysed in the paper. They are characterised by absolu... [more]
Wind Turbines’ End-of-Life: Quantification and Characterisation of Future Waste Materials on a National Level
Niklas Andersen, Ola Eriksson, Karl Hillman, Marita Wallhagen
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: composites, copper, decommission, electronics, end-of-life, iron, materials, plastic, recycling, Steel, Sweden, waste, wind turbine
Globally, wind power is growing fast and in Sweden alone more than 3000 turbines have been installed since the mid-1990s. Although the number of decommissioned turbines so far is few, the high installation rate suggests that a similarly high decommissioning rate can be expected at some point in the future. If the waste material from these turbines is not handled sustainably the whole concept of wind power as a clean energy alternative is challenged. This study presents a generally applicable method and quantification based on statistics of the waste amounts from wind turbines in Sweden. The expected annual mean growth is 12% until 2026, followed by a mean increase of 41% until 2034. By then, annual waste amounts are estimated to 240,000 tonnes steel and iron (16% of currently recycled materials), 2300 tonnes aluminium (4%), 3300 tonnes copper (5%), 340 tonnes electronics (<1%) and 28,000 tonnes blade materials (barely recycled today). Three studied scenarios suggest that a well-func... [more]
Scenario Analysis of Carbon Emissions of China’s Electric Power Industry Up to 2030
Qunli Wu, Chenyang Peng
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: carbon emissions, electric power industry, LEAP model, scenario simulation
In this paper, the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) model is constructed to simulate six scenarios for forecasting national electricity demand in China. The results show that in 2020 the total electricity demand will reach 6407.9~7491.0 billion KWh, and will be 6779.9~10,313.5 billion KWh in 2030. Moreover, under the assumption of power production just meeting the social demand and considering the changes in the scale and technical structure of power industry, this paper simulates two scenarios to estimate carbon emissions and carbon intensity till 2030, with 2012 as the baseline year. The results indicate that the emissions intervals are 4074.16~4692.52 million tCO₂ in 2020 and 3948.43~5812.28 million tCO₂ in 2030, respectively. Carbon intensity is 0.63~0.64 kg CO₂/KWh in 2020 and 0.56~0.58 kg CO₂/KWh in 2030. In order to accelerate carbon reduction, the future work should focus on making a more stringent criterion on the intensity of industrial power consumption and exp... [more]
Sustainable Energy Transitions in China: Renewable Options and Impacts on the Electricity System
Xiaoyang Sun, Baosheng Zhang, Xu Tang, Benjamin C. McLellan, Mikael Höök
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy transition, EnergyPLAN, renewable energy mix, sustainability assessment
Chinese energy consumption has been dominated by coal for decades, but this needs to change to protect the environment and mitigate anthropogenic climate change. Renewable energy development is needed to fulfil the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) for the post-2020 period, as stated on the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris. This paper reviews the potential of renewable energy in China and how it could be utilised to meet the INDC goals. A business-as-usual case and eight alternative scenarios with 40% renewable electricity are explored using the EnergyPLAN model to visualise out to the year 2030. Five criteria (total cost, total capacity, excess electricity, CO₂ emissions, and direct job creation) are used to assess the sustainability of the scenarios. The results indicate that renewables can meet the goal of a 20% share of non-fossil energy in primary energy and 40%⁻50% share of non-fossil energy in electricity power. The low nuclear-hydro power... [more]
Financing Innovations for the Renewable Energy Transition in Europe
Raphael Bointner, Simon Pezzutto, Gianluca Grilli, Wolfram Sparber
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: 2030, Europe, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, research and development expenditures
Renewable energy sources are vital to achieving Europe’s 2030 energy transition goals. Technological innovation, driven by public expenditures on research and development, is a major driver for this change. Thus, an extensive dataset on these expenditures of the European Member States and the European Commission, dating back to the early 1970s, was created. This paper creates predictive scenarios of public investment in renewable energy research and development in Europe based on this historical dataset and current trends. Funding from both, European Member States and the European Commission, between today and 2030 are used in the analysis. The impact on the cumulative knowledge stock is also estimated. Two projection scenarios are presented: (1) business as usual; and (2) an advanced scenario, based on the assumption that the Mission Innovation initiative causes public expenditures to increase in the coming years. Both scenarios are compared to the European 2030 climate and energy fra... [more]
A Review of Factors Influencing the Cost Development of Electricity Generation Technologies
Sascha Samadi
February 5, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: cost development, economies of scale, electricity generation technologies, literature review, technological learning
This article reviews the literature on the past cost dynamics of various renewable, fossil fuel and nuclear electricity generation technologies. It identifies 10 different factors which have played key roles in influencing past cost developments according to the literature. These 10 factors are: deployment-induced learning, research, development and demonstration (RD&D)-induced learning, knowledge spillovers from other technologies, upsizing, economies of manufacturing scale, economies of project scale, changes in material and labour costs, changes in fuel costs, regulatory changes, and limits to the availability of suitable sites. The article summarises the relevant literature findings for each of these 10 factors and provides an overview indicating which factors have impacted on which generation technologies. The article also discusses the insights gained from the review for a better understanding of possible future cost developments of electricity generation technologies. Finall... [more]
A Detailed Assessment of the Wave Energy Resource at the Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site
Reduan Atan, Jamie Goggins, Stephen Nash
February 5, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), extreme waves, operational waves, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), wave characterisation, wave energy resource, wave power, wave resource variability
Wave characteristic assessments of wave energy test sites provide a greater understanding of prevailing wave conditions and are therefore extremely important to both wave energy test site operators and clients as they can inform wave energy converter design, optimisation, deployment, operation and maintenance. This research presents an assessment of the wave resource at the Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) on the west coast of Ireland based on 12-years of modelled data from January 2004 to December 2015. The primary aim is to provide an assessment of annual and seasonal wave characteristics and resource variability at the two deployment berths which comprise the site. A nested model has been developed using Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) to replicate wave propagations from regional to local scale with a 0.05° resolution model covering the northeast Atlantic and a 0.0027° resolution model covering AMETS. The coarse and fine models have been extensively validated against avail... [more]
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