Records with Subject: Energy Policy
Showing records 1 to 25 of 153. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Investigating the Dynamic Impact of CO2 Emissions and Economic Growth on Renewable Energy Production: Evidence from FMOLS and DOLS Tests
Muhammad Waris Ali Khan, Shrikant Krupasindhu Panigrahi, Khamis Said Nasser Almuniri, Mujeeb Iqbal Soomro, Nayyar Hussain Mirjat, Eisa Salim Alqaydi
September 30, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: carbon emissions, dynamic panel cointegration model, economic growth, Energy, Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square (FMOLS), Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Understanding the dynamic nexus between CO2 emissions and economic growth in the sustainable environment helps the economies in developing resources and formulating apposite energy policies. In the recent past, various studies have explored the nexus between CO2 emissions and economic growth. This study, however, investigates the nexus between renewable energy production, CO2 emissions, and economic growth over the period from 1995 to 2016 for seven Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square (FMOLS) and Dynamic Ordinary Least Square (DOLS) methodologies were used to estimate the long- and short-run relationships. The panel results revealed that renewable energy production has a significant long term effect on CO2 emissions for Vietnam (t = −2.990), Thailand (t = −2.505), and Indonesia (t = −2.515), and economic growth impact for Malaysia (t = 2.050), Thailand (t = −2.001), and the Philippines (t = −2.710). It is, therefore, vital that... [more]
Evaluation for the Leaching of Cr from Coal Gangue Using Expansive Soils
Yan Zhang, Hassan Baaj, Rong Zhao
September 30, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: coal gangue, expansive soil, heavy metal, leaching, unconfined compressive strength
Coal gangue can cause significant heavy metal pollution in mining areas, which would have a negative impact on the environment and human health. The objective of this research is to investigate the relationship between expansive soil amount and the leaching behavior of Chromium from coal gangue and the engineering properties of coal gangue used as building materials. The leaching behavior of Chromium from coal gangue was observed using atomic absorption spectrometry. A column leaching experiment was conducted to examine the impact of leaching time and heavy metal concentration. Furthermore, the unconfined compressive strength test was employed to evaluate the engineering properties of coal gangue with expansive soil. The results of the study demonstrate that pH of leachate solutions, leaching time, and expansive soil amounts in mixtures have important influence on Chromium concentration. The leachate solutions, which behave like alkaline, provide a positive environment for adsorbing Cr... [more]
A Review on Energy Consumption, Energy Efficiency and Energy Saving of Metal Forming Processes from Different Hierarchies
Mengdi Gao, Kang He, Lei Li, Qingyang Wang, Conghu Liu
August 8, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy consumption, Energy Efficiency, energy-saving, metal forming process, press
Energy efficiency improvement and environmental impact reduction are emerging issues in the manufacturing industry. Aside from cutting, metal forming is also an important process in manufacturing. Metal forming is energy intensive because of the low energy efficiency of the used metal forming press. Although many literature reviews focused on the energy reduction and energy efficiency of machine tools, a comprehensive literature review of metal forming processes remains lacking because of the great difference between cutting machines and forming equipment. In addition, methods for energy efficiency and energy-saving still need to be promoted in metal forming. In this review, a novel hierarchy of the metal forming system was presented to describe the relationship among the equipment, process, and manufacturing system, providing a guideline of methods for energy efficiency and saving in metal forming. Then, existing energy consumption modeling and estimation theories and methods were dis... [more]
Applied Research Towards Industry 4.0: Opportunities for SMEs
Ilaria Zambon, Gianluca Egidi, Fabiano Rinaldi, Sirio Cividino
August 8, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: industrial processes, Industry 4.0, job safety, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, SMEs, sustainable development, technologies
Industry 4.0 designates the recent digital revolution in the industrial sector, evolving from the comprehensive networking and automation of all the productive areas. Equipment, machinery, materials and products permit to (i) distinguish dealing out environmental settings and current status via sensors; (ii) join them through fixed software; and (iii) progress production procedures in an exclusive method. Additionally, Industry 4.0 exposes new trials to enterprises, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Firms should advance approaches to (i) achieve chances of innovation and digitalization; (ii) expand their processes; and (iii) define innovative business models. Based on these premises, a well-organized political, legal and infrastructural outline is essential to build up a business having an Industry 4.0 approach. Though bigger firms can get ahead through innovation processes and predicting the potential digitalization risks for their business models, SMEs may be in t... [more]
Measuring Energy Efficiency and Environmental Performance: A Case of South Asia
Yumei Hou, Wasim Iqbal, Ghulam Muhammad Shaikh, Nadeem Iqbal, Yasir Ahmad Solangi, Arooj Fatima
August 5, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, energy efficiency indicators, environmental performance, South Asia region
When assessing energy efficiency, most studies have frequently ignored environmental aspects even though the concept has been widely used in the past. This study evaluates the energy efficiency and environmental performance of South Asia by using DEA (data envelopment analysis) like mathematical composite indicator. We construct a comprehensive set of indicators, including an energy self-sufficiency ratio, energy production over consumption ratio, energy imports, diversification index of energy imports, energy reserve ratio, GDP productivity, energy intensity, per capita energy consumption index, carbon emission index, carbon emission index per unit of energy consumption and share of renewable energy in order to develop an energy efficiency and environmental performance index. Unlike other studies, this study first examines each indicator and then estimates a combined score for each country. The results reveal that Bhutan as a more secure country and Pakistan showed a decreasing trend,... [more]
Assessment of the Governance System Regarding Adoption of Energy Efficient Appliances by Households in Nigeria
James A. Gana, Thomas Hoppe
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, governance, household electrical appliances, Nigeria, policy
The adoption of energy efficient electrical appliances by households has a great potential to reduce electricity consumption in Nigeria. A well-formulated and implemented policy (mix) to spur adoption is said to be required to drive this process. This article presents an assessment of policies that aim to spur adoption among households, and the related governance system. The analytical framework used for this analysis is the Governance Assessment Tool (GAT). Data collection involved semi-structured interviews, a review of policy documents, and secondary quantitative data. The results show that policies in Nigeria had little effect in meeting pre-set goals. The governance system was found to be weakly developed due to a lack of policy, the overlapping work of different governmental organizations, a lack of appropriate resources, and a lack of householders’ involvement in agenda-setting and decision-making processes. Current actions mostly depend on local programmes that run via donor ai... [more]
Exploring the Feasibility of Low-Carbon Scenarios Using Historical Energy Transitions Analysis
Tamaryn Napp, Dan Bernie, Rebecca Thomas, Jason Lowe, Adam Hawkes, Ajay Gambhir
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: decarbonisation, energy systems modelling, energy transition, low-carbon
The scenarios generated by energy systems models provide a picture of the range of possible pathways to a low-carbon future. However, in order to be truly useful, these scenarios should not only be possible but also plausible. In this paper, we have used lessons from historical energy transitions to create a set of diagnostic tests to assess the feasibility of an example 2 °C scenario (generated using the least cost optimization model, TIAM-Grantham). The key assessment criteria included the rate of deployment of low carbon technologies and the rate of transition between primary energy resources. The rates of deployment of key low-carbon technologies were found to exceed the maximum historically observed rate of deployment of 20% per annum. When constraints were added to limit the scenario to within historically observed rates of change, the model no longer solved for 2 °C. Under these constraints, the lowest median 2100 temperature change for which a solution was found was about 2.1 °... [more]
Towards Nearly Zero Energy Buildings in Europe: A Focus on Retrofit in Non-Residential Buildings
Delia D’Agostino, Paolo Zangheri, Luca Castellazzi
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy policy, energy requirements, nearly zero energy buildings (NZEBs), non-residential buildings, retrofit
Buildings are the focus of European (EU) policies aimed at a sustainable and competitive low-carbon economy by 2020. Reducing energy consumption of existing buildings and achieving nearly zero energy buildings (NZEBs) are the core of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) and the recast of the Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD). To comply with these requirements, Member States have to adopt actions to exploit energy savings from the building sector. This paper describes the differences between deep, major and NZEB renovation and then it provides an overview of best practice policies and measures to target retrofit and investment related to non-residential buildings. Energy requirements defined by Member States for NZEB levels are reported comparing both new and existing residential and non-residential buildings. The paper shows how the attention given to refurbishment of NZEBs increased over the last decade, but the achievement of a comprehensive implementation of retrofit... [more]
Where Diffusion of Clean Technologies and Barriers to Innovation Clash: Application to the Global Diffusion of the Electrical Arc Furnace
José Antonio Moya
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: barriers, diffusion of innovations, energy efficiency gap, energy-system models, industrial energy efficiency
This paper analyses the role of barriers preventing the worldwide take-up of a clean technology: the electrical arc furnace. It also identifies which barriers affect a parameter that summarises the combined effect of all of them. The first step, determination of the combined effect of the barriers, is carried out using a novel approach to model the diffusion of innovations. This new approach is composed only by terms that account for the driver of innovations and the parameter that summarises the effect of barriers. The objective quantification of the effect of barriers in the diffusion of innovations opens up new opportunities for designing policies to overcome the barriers identified as the most relevant, for identifying the effect of existing policies, for relating innovation indicators with those barriers or for better incorporating the effect of barriers in bottom-up models that forecast the technological evolution of the economy.
Barriers to Energy Efficiency in Swedish Non-Energy-Intensive Micro- and Small-Sized Enterprises—A Case Study of a Local Energy Program
Fredrik Backman
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: barriers, Energy Efficiency, municipal, Swedish local enterprises
Improved energy efficiency has become a strategic issue and represents a priority for European competitiveness. Countries adopt various energy policies on local and national levels where energy audit programs are the most common energy end-use efficiency policy for industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). However, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, which can be explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates how Swedish municipalities can support local micro- and small-sized enterprises with improved energy efficiency and the existence of different barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency. Relating this empirical case study to the theoretical barriers outlined in the text, this study found that the major explanatory factors related to non-implementation of cost-effective energy efficiency measures among micro- and small-sized industrial enterprises were bounded ratio... [more]
The Economy-Carbon Nexus in China: A Multi-Regional Input-Output Analysis of the Influence of Sectoral and Regional Development
Xin Yan, Jianping Ge
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: China, CO2 emission, economic growth, multi-regional input-output
China has become the world’s largest carbon dioxide (CO₂) emitter. Sectoral production activities promote economic development while also adding considerably to national CO₂ emissions. Due to their different sectoral structures, each region shows different levels of economic development and CO₂ emissions. The Chinese government hopes to achieve the dual objectives of economic growth and CO₂ emissions reduction by encouraging those sectors that have high economic influence and low environmental influence. Based on the above background, this study constructed an inter-regional sectoral economic influence coefficient (REIC) and a CO₂ emissions influence coefficient (RCIC) based on the basic multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model to analyse the economy-carbon nexus of 17 sectors in 30 regions in China in 2010. The results showed that most Chinese sectors and regions had low CO₂ emissions influences in 2010. However, some sectors showed negative environmental influences. Specifically, the... [more]
Assessing the Feasibility of Global Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios
Ajay Gambhir, Laurent Drouet, David McCollum, Tamaryn Napp, Dan Bernie, Adam Hawkes, Oliver Fricko, Petr Havlik, Keywan Riahi, Valentina Bosetti, Jason Lowe
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: climate change mitigation, low-carbon scenarios, mitigation feasibility
This study explores the critical notion of how feasible it is to achieve long-term mitigation goals to limit global temperature change. It uses a model inter-comparison of three integrated assessment models (TIAM-Grantham, MESSAGE-GLOBIOM and WITCH) harmonized for socio-economic growth drivers using one of the new shared socio-economic pathways (SSP2), to analyse multiple mitigation scenarios aimed at different temperature changes in 2100, in order to assess the model outputs against a range of indicators developed so as to systematically compare the feasibility across scenarios. These indicators include mitigation costs and carbon prices, rates of emissions reductions and energy efficiency improvements, rates of deployment of key low-carbon technologies, reliance on negative emissions, and stranding of power generation assets. The results highlight how much more challenging the 2 °C goal is, when compared to the 2.5⁻4 °C goals, across virtually all measures of feasibility. Any delay i... [more]
Development of an Nearly Zero Emission Building (nZEB) Life Cycle Cost Assessment Tool for Fast Decision Making in the Early Design Phase
Hae Jin Kang
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: cost optimal model, designer’s proposed model, investment cost, LCC analysis, nearly Zero Emission Building, operation cost
An economic feasibility optimization method for the life cycle cost (LCC) has been developed to apply energy saving techniques in the early design stages of a building. The method was developed using default data (e.g., operation schedules), energy consumption prediction equations and cost prediction equations utilizing design variables considered in the early design phase. With certain equations developed, an LCC model was constructed using the computational program MATLAB, to create an automated optimization process. To verify the results from the newly developed assessment tool, a case study on an office building was performed to outline the results of the designer’s proposed model and the cost optimal model.
Study on the Tribological Characteristics of Australian Native First Generation and Second Generation Biodiesel Fuel
Md Mofijur Rahman, Mohammad Rasul, Nur Md Sayeed Hassan
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: beauty leaf biodiesel, macadamia biodiesel, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, wear and friction
Biodiesels are a renewable energy source, and they have the potential to be used as alternatives to diesel fuel. The aim of this study is to investigate the wear and friction characteristics of Australian native first generation and second generation biodiesels using a four-ball tribo tester. The biodiesel was produced through a two-step transesterification process and characterized according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. The tribological experiment was carried out at a constant 1800 rpm and different loads and temperatures. In addition, the surface morphology of the ball was tested by scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The test results indicated that biodiesel fuels have a lower coefficient of frictions (COF) and lower wear scar diameter (WSD) up to 83.50% and 41.28%, respectively, compared to conventional diesel fuel. The worn surface area results showed that biodiesel fuel has a minimum percen... [more]
Low-Carbon Energy Development in Indonesia in Alignment with Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) by 2030
Ucok W.R. Siagian, Bintang B. Yuwono, Shinichiro Fujimori, Toshihiko Masui
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Asia-Pacific Integrated Model/Computable General (AIM/CGE) model, economic development impact, efficiency measures, greenhouse gas emission reduction, Indonesia, Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC), low-carbon energy development, mitigation cost, renewable energies
This study analyzed the role of low-carbon energy technologies in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of Indonesia’s energy sector by 2030. The aim of this study was to provide insights into the Indonesian government’s approach to developing a strategy and plan for mitigating emissions and achieving Indonesia’s emission reduction targets by 2030, as pledged in the country’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution. The Asia-Pacific Integrated Model/Computable General Equilibrium (AIM/CGE) model was used to quantify three scenarios that had the same socioeconomic assumptions: baseline, countermeasure (CM)1, and CM2, which had a higher emission reduction target than that of CM1. Results of the study showed that an Indonesian low-carbon energy system could be achieved with two pillars, namely, energy efficiency measures and deployment of less carbon-intensive energy systems (i.e., the use of renewable energy in the power and transport sectors, and the use of natural gas in the power... [more]
An Indicator-Based Approach for Analyzing the Resilience of Transitions for Energy Regions. Part I: Theoretical and Conceptual Considerations
Claudia R. Binder, Susan Mühlemeier, Romano Wyss
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: connectivity, diversity, energy transition, resilience, social-ecological systems, socio-technical systems
The transition of our current energy system from a fossil-based system to a system based on renewables is likely to be one of the most complex and long-term societal transitions in history. The need for a fundamental system transformation raises the question of how to measure the continuing progress and the resilience of this process over time. This paper aims at developing the conceptualization and operationalization of resilience for energy systems in transition with regard to both social and technical aspects. Based on the resilience concept in social-ecological systems literature, we propose to conceptualize resilience for energy systems building on two core attributes of resilience, namely diversity and connectivity. We present an indicator set to operationalize these key attributes in social and technical systems using: (i) definitions and measurements for three fundamental diversity properties—variety, balance and disparity—and (ii) basic connectivity properties from the social... [more]
An Integrated Delphi-AHP and Fuzzy TOPSIS Approach toward Ranking and Selection of Renewable Energy Resources in Pakistan
Yasir Ahmed Solangi, Qingmei Tan, Nayyar Hussain Mirjat, Gordhan Das Valasai, Muhammad Waris Ali Khan, Muhammad Ikram
June 18, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, Delphi, fuzzy technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution techniques, renewable energy (RE) resources, sustainable energy planning
Pakistan has long relied on fossil fuels for electricity generation. This is despite the fact that the country is blessed with enormous renewable energy (RE) resources, which can significantly diversify the fuel mix for electricity generation. In this study, various renewable resources of Pakistan—solar, hydro, biomass, wind, and geothermal energy—are analyzed by using an integrated Delphi-analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (F-TOPSIS)-based methodology. In the first phase, the Delphi method was employed to define and select the most important criteria for the selection of RE resources. This process identified four main criteria, i.e., economic, environmental, technical, and socio-political aspects, which are further supplemented by 20 sub-criteria. AHP is later used to obtain the weights of each criterion and the sub-criteria of the decision model. The results of this study reveal wind energy as the most feasib... [more]
A Systems Engineering Approach to Performance-Based Maintenance Services Design
Maria Holgado
May 16, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: IDEF0, industrial services, maintenance services, outcome-based services, performance-based services, systems engineering
Traditionally, industrial services have been mainly transaction-based, i.e., the equipment user pays the service provider for getting a job done or providing assistance and support for equipment operations. Recently, a trend has emerged of increasing the relational perspective of these services, which are becoming more oriented towards customer value and service performance levels. Among these emergent industrial services, performance-based services represent an opportunity for equipment manufacturers to transform their service offerings towards more relational and customer-oriented services. The purpose of this work is to study the design of a generic performance-based maintenance service under a novel perspective given by systems engineering. This paper is intended to serve as a starting point to fully understand this type of services and to develop a method that can support equipment manufacturers who wish to advance their service offerings.
Analysis of Influencing Factors of Occupational Safety and Health in Coal Chemical Enterprises Based on the Analytic Network Process and System Dynamics
Kai Yu, Lujie Zhou, Chen Hu, Linlin Wang, Weiqiang Jin
April 15, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: analytic network process, management and control measures, occupational safety and health, Simulation, system dynamics
In the production process of coal chemical enterprises, there are factors such as dust, poisons, as well as toxic and harmful gases, which seriously restrict the safety and health of employees. It is urgent to strengthen research on occupational safety and health (OSH) of coal chemical enterprises. Research on the influencing factors is very important to improve the level of OSH in coal chemical enterprises. Therefore, this paper analyzed the factors affecting OSH of coal chemical enterprises from four aspects: “human⁻machine⁻environment⁻management„. Then, an influencing factor indicator system was constructed. The weights of the indicator were analyzed using the Analytic Network Process (ANP). On this basis, the primary and secondary indicators of the influencing factors were ranked. Subsequently, the weights of ANP were taken as the influence coefficient between variables, and the System Dynamics (SD) model of OSH control measures was established and analyzed. According to the weight... [more]
Revolution 4.0: Industry vs. Agriculture in a Future Development for SMEs
Ilaria Zambon, Massimo Cecchini, Gianluca Egidi, Maria Grazia Saporito, Andrea Colantoni
April 15, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: agriculture 4.0, application research, Industry 4.0, open source, SMEs, Supply Chain
The present review retraces the steps of the industrial and agriculture revolution that have taken place up to the present day, giving ideas and considerations for the future. This paper analyses the specific challenges facing agriculture along the farming supply chain to permit the operative implementation of Industry 4.0 guidelines. The subsequent scientific value is an investigation of how Industry 4.0 approaches can be improved and be pertinent to the agricultural sector. However, industry is progressing at a much faster rate than agriculture. In fact, already today experts talk about Industry 5.0. On the other hand, the 4.0 revolution in agriculture is still limited to a few innovative firms. For this reason, this work deals with how technological development affects different sectors (industry and agriculture) in different ways. In this innovative background, despite the advantages of industry or agriculture 4.0 for large enterprises, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of... [more]
Integration Multi-Model to Evaluate the Impact of Surface Water Quality on City Sustainability: A Case from Maanshan City in China
Zhanbo Chen, Hui Zhang, Mingxia Liao
April 15, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: ensemble learning, MCDM, multi-model evaluation, water pollution
Water pollution is a worldwide problem that needs to be solved urgently and has a significant impact on the efficiency of sustainable cities. The evaluation of water pollution is a Multiple Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) problem and using a MCDM model can help control water pollution and protect human health. However, different evaluation methods may obtain different results. How to effectively coordinate them to obtain a consensus result is the main aim of this work. The purpose of this article is to develop an ensemble learning evaluation method based on the concept of water quality to help policy-makers better evaluate surface water quality. A valid application is conducted to illustrate the use of the model for the surface water quality evaluation problem, thus demonstrating the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed model.
Measuring Efficiency of Generating Electric Processes
Chia-Nan Wang, Quoc-Chien Luu, Thi-Kim-Lien Nguyen
April 9, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: data envelopment analysis (DEA), Holt–Winters model, productivity efficiency, undesirable model
Electric energy sources are the foundation for supporting for the industrialization and modernization; however, the processes of electricity generation increase CO₂ emissions. This study integrates the Holt⁻Winters model in number cruncher statistical system (NCSS) to estimate the forecasting data and the undesirable model in data envelopment analysis (DEA) to calculate the efficiency of electricity production in 14 countries all over the world from past to future. The Holt⁻Winters model is utilized to estimate the future; then, the actual and forecasting data are applied into the undesirable model to compute the performance. From the principle of an undesirable model, the study determines the input and output factors as follows nonrenewable and renewable fuels (inputs), electricity generation (desirable output), and CO₂ emissions (undesirable output). The empirical results exhibit efficient/inefficient terms over the period from 2011⁻2021 while converting these fuels into electricity... [more]
Time-Based Trend of Carbon Emissions in the Composting Process of Swine Manure in the Context of Agriculture 4.0
Jun-Ho Huh, Ki-Youn Kim
April 8, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Agriculture 4.0, Carbon Dioxide, carbon emission, CH4, composting process, pig production industry, real-time monitoring system, swine farm, swine manure
The widespread raising of swine in farms becomes a serious problem in terms of the emission of carbon dioxide (CO₂) and methane (CH₄). This study aims to measure concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane, which account for the largest percentage of carbon emissions, to temporally estimate the carbon emitted during the pig-manure composting process. The research subject was a farmhouse raising 3000 growing pigs and 100 mother pigs. The capacity of the composting facility for pig manure treatment was 330 m², and the daily treatment was about 6 tons. After the pig manure discharged from the pig farm was delivered to the composting facility, for the 8 days including 6 before mixing and 2 after mixing, the concentrations of CO₂ and CH₄ were measured. The result shows that the CO₂ and CH₄ concentrations in the composting facility were 1208 ± 385 ppm and 95 ± 10 ppm, respectively. In the comparison of concentrations before and after mixing at the composting facility, the values of both CO₂... [more]
An Economic and Policy Analysis of a District Heating System Using Corn Straw Densified Fuel: A Case Study in Nong’an County in Jilin Province, China
Shizhong Song, Pei Liu, Jing Xu, Linwei Ma, Chinhao Chong, Min He, Xianzheng Huang, Zheng Li, Weidou Ni
March 15, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: corn straw, district heating system, economic model, policy influence, solid densified fuel
The development of district heating systems of corn straw densified fuel (CSDF-DHS) is an important option to promote the use of bioenergy on a large scale for sustainable development, especially in China. At present, China’s biomass densified solid fuel (BSDF) development lags behind previously planned target, main barriers of which are economic and policy support problems. Accurate case studies are key to analyze these problems. This manuscript takes Nong’an County in Jilin Province of China as an example to establish a techno-economic model to evaluate the economic performance of a CSDF-DHS under two policy scenarios. It calculates the economic performance under a benchmark market scenario (BMS) and the current policy scenario (CPS) and analyzes the influence of various policy instruments, including subsidies, carbon trading, and preferential taxation. The results indicate that: (1) The CSDF-DHS option is not competitive under the BMS or CPS compared to the traditional energy system... [more]
An Experimental Study of the Impact of Dynamic Electricity Pricing on Consumer Behavior: An Analysis for a Remote Island in Japan
Thoa Thi Kim Nguyen, Koji Shimada, Yuki Ochi, Takuya Matsumoto, Hiroshi Matsugi, Takao Awata
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: dynamic pricing, electric energy demand response, habit formation
The aim of this research was to investigate how consumer behavior changes after application of dynamic electricity pricing and the persistence of those changes. Based on the investigation results, the authors also discuss the policy implications of demand management to shift consumption to days that have more solar radiation, while at the same time reducing overall consumption. The dynamic pricing experiment was implemented on Nushima Island, located in the center of Japan, with the participation of 50 households. The methodologies used in this study are panel analysis with random effects, and the difference in differences method. Several linear regression analyses are performed to predict hourly electricity usage from a number of explanatory variables, such as life-style factors, the frequency of access to the visualization website, control for weather factors (wind speed and temperatures), and other attributes of the households to predict the log of hourly electric energy consumption... [more]
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