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Records with Subject: Energy Policy
Showing records 1 to 25 of 112. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
A Review of Factors Influencing the Cost Development of Electricity Generation Technologies
Sascha Samadi
February 5, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: cost development, economies of scale, electricity generation technologies, literature review, technological learning
This article reviews the literature on the past cost dynamics of various renewable, fossil fuel and nuclear electricity generation technologies. It identifies 10 different factors which have played key roles in influencing past cost developments according to the literature. These 10 factors are: deployment-induced learning, research, development and demonstration (RD&D)-induced learning, knowledge spillovers from other technologies, upsizing, economies of manufacturing scale, economies of project scale, changes in material and labour costs, changes in fuel costs, regulatory changes, and limits to the availability of suitable sites. The article summarises the relevant literature findings for each of these 10 factors and provides an overview indicating which factors have impacted on which generation technologies. The article also discusses the insights gained from the review for a better understanding of possible future cost developments of electricity generation technologies. Finall... [more]
A Detailed Assessment of the Wave Energy Resource at the Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site
Reduan Atan, Jamie Goggins, Stephen Nash
February 5, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), extreme waves, operational waves, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), wave characterisation, wave energy resource, wave power, wave resource variability
Wave characteristic assessments of wave energy test sites provide a greater understanding of prevailing wave conditions and are therefore extremely important to both wave energy test site operators and clients as they can inform wave energy converter design, optimisation, deployment, operation and maintenance. This research presents an assessment of the wave resource at the Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) on the west coast of Ireland based on 12-years of modelled data from January 2004 to December 2015. The primary aim is to provide an assessment of annual and seasonal wave characteristics and resource variability at the two deployment berths which comprise the site. A nested model has been developed using Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) to replicate wave propagations from regional to local scale with a 0.05° resolution model covering the northeast Atlantic and a 0.0027° resolution model covering AMETS. The coarse and fine models have been extensively validated against avail... [more]
The Effect of Biogas Production on Farmland Rental Prices: Empirical Evidences from Northern Italy
Eugenio Demartini, Anna Gaviglio, Marco Gelati, Daniele Cavicchioli
February 5, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: agricultural fixed resource, agricultural land price, bioenergy, biogas, environmental trilemma, farmland rental price, farmland value, land use, rent, social sustainability
In the last decade, increased environmental awareness has prompted the adoption of incentives for exploiting renewable energy sources. Among these, biogas production has received a certain attention in developed countries. Nonetheless, the subsidies provided have posed the problem of an activity (the production of bioenergy) that engages in direct competition with food and feed production for limited resources, like agricultural land. Even if this competition may be softened by allocating marginal land and/or using dedicated non-agricultural crops, empirical evidence shows that biogas plants have been developed in highly-productive agricultural areas, using increasing amounts of maize silage as feedstock. Thus, studies aimed at measuring the effect of biogas production on agricultural activities are needed in order to avoid this socially undesirable outcome. The paper presents an econometric estimation of the impact of biogas plants on farmland rental values of a Northern Italian rural... [more]
Expert Opinion Analysis on Renewable Hydrogen Storage Systems Potential in Europe
Davide Astiaso Garcia, Federica Barbanera, Fabrizio Cumo, Umberto Di Matteo, Benedetto Nastasi
February 5, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: economic aspects, expert opinion analysis, hydrogen storage systems, power to gas, renewable hydrogen
Among the several typologies of storage technologies, mainly on different physical principles (mechanical, electrical and chemical), hydrogen produced by power to gas (P2G) from renewable energy sources complies with chemical storage principle and is based on the conversion of electrical energy into chemical energy by means of the electrolysis of water which does not produce any toxic or climate-relevant emission. This paper aims to pinpoint the potential uses of renewable hydrogen storage systems in Europe, analysing current and potential locations, regulatory framework, governments’ outlooks, economic issues, and available renewable energy amounts. The expert opinion survey, already used in many research articles on different topics including energy, has been selected as an effective method to produce realistic results. The obtained results highlight strategies and actions to optimize the storage of hydrogen produced by renewables to face varying electricity demand and generation-dri... [more]
Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Transportation in Beef Cattle Production
Narayanan Kannan, Ali Saleh, Edward Osei
February 5, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: animal trailer, beef-cattle, CO2 equivalent, Energy, gooseneck, greenhouse gas, life cycle analysis (LCA), model, pot belly, transportation
Accounting for transportation is an important part of the life cycle analysis (LCA) of beef cattle production because it is associated with energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper describes the development and application of a model that estimates energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of transport in beef cattle production. The animal transport model is based on the weight and number of animals in each weight category, type of trailer, vehicle, and fuel used. The energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission estimates of animal feed transportation are based on the weight of a truckload and the number of truckloads of feed transported. Our results indicate that a truckload is travelling approximately 326 km in connection with beef cattle production in the study region. The fuel consumption amounts to 24 L of fossil fuel per 1000 kg of boneless beef. The corresponding greenhouse gas emission is 83 kg. It appears from our results that the majority of energy... [more]
Retrofitted Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Swedish Single-Family Houses—Evaluation of a Prototype and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis
Luis Ricardo Bernardo, Henrik Davidsson, Erik Andersson
February 5, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: domestic hot water, life cycle cost, retrofit, single-family houses, Solar Thermal
According to recent technology road maps, system cost reductions and development of standardised plug-and-function systems are some of the most important goals for solar heating technology development. Retrofitting hot water boilers in single-family houses when installing solar collectors has the potential to significantly reduce both material and installation costs. Previous studies have investigated such retrofitting, using theoretical simulations and laboratory tests, but no actual installations were made and tested in practice. This article describes the installation, measured performance and cost effectiveness of a retrofitting solution that converts existing domestic hot water heaters to a solar domestic hot water system. The measured performance is characterised by the monthly and annual solar fractions. The cost effectiveness is evaluated by a life-cycle cost analysis, comparing the retrofitted system to a conventional solar domestic hot water system and the case without any so... [more]
The Recent Change in the Italian Policies for Photovoltaics: Effects on the Energy Demand Coverage of Grid-Connected PV Systems Installed in Urban Contexts
Aldo Orioli, Vincenzo Franzitta, Alessandra Di Gangi, Ferdinando Foresta
February 5, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: feed-in tariff, photovoltaic, tax credit
In July 2013, the Italian photovoltaic (PV) support policies changed the feed-in tariff (FIT) mechanism and turned to a tax credits program, which is currently in force. The aim of this paper is to investigate how such a radical change has influenced the electricity demand coverage of the PV systems installed in urban contexts. A methodology, which connects the economic assessment to a detailed architectural and energy suitability analysis, was applied to some case studies to analyse the relationships between the physical parameters related to multi-storey buildings (roof shapes, number of floors and area of flats) and the most relevant economic and financial features affecting the viability of rooftop PV systems. The study, which considers only the electricity produced by the PV systems that are economically profitable, highlighted that the tax credits scheme is even more effective in covering the electrical consumption of densely urbanised Italian city districts. The results, which a... [more]
Measurement Research on the Decoupling Effect of Industries’ Carbon Emissions—Based on the Equipment Manufacturing Industry in China
Lu Wan, Zi-Long Wang, Jhony Choon Yeong Ng
February 5, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: carbon emission, decoupling effect, economic growth, equipment manufacturing industry
Economic development usually leads to increased energy consumption, which in turn will result in an increase in carbon emissions. To break the relationship between economic development and carbon emissions, scholars have turned their attention to the phenomenon of decoupling. In this paper, we studied the decoupling relationship between carbon emissions and economic growth of the equipment manufacturing industry in China from 2000 to 2014. We adapted the LMDI decomposition method, and we used the Tapio decoupling evaluation model to analyze our data. We found that the decoupling relationship between carbon emissions and economic growth of China’s equipment manufacturing industry is weak, which indicates the industry is experiencing faster economic growth than carbon emission growth. We found the economic output is the factor that has the strongest influence on the industry’s carbon emission, and energy consumption intensity has the strongest relationship with the decoupling of economic... [more]
Comparing Apples to Apples: Why the Net Energy Analysis Community Needs to Adopt the Life-Cycle Analysis Framework
David J. Murphy, Michael Carbajales-Dale, Devin Moeller
February 5, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy return on investment (EROI), Energy Return Ratios (ERRs), function unit, ISO, life cycle assessment (LCA), net energy
How do we know which energy technologies or resources are worth pursuing and which aren’t? One way to answer that question is to compare the energy return of a certain technology—i.e., how much energy is remaining after accounting for the amount of energy expended in the production and delivery process. Such energy return ratios (the most famous of which is energy return on investment (EROI)) fall within the field of net energy analysis (NEA), and provide an easy way to determine which technology is “better”; i.e., higher Energy Return Ratios (ERRs) are, certeris paribus, better than lower ERRs. Although useful as a broad measure of energy profitability, comparisons can also be misleading, particularly if the units being compared are different. For example, the energy content of electricity produced from a photovoltaic cell is different than the energy content of coal at the mine-mouth, yet these are often compared directly within the literature. These types of inconsistencies are comm... [more]
The Impact and Determinants of Environmental Taxation on Economic Growth Communities in Romania
Jean Andrei, Mihai Mieila, Gheorghe H. Popescu, Elvira Nica, Manole Cristina
January 31, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: development, economic growth, emergent economy, Energy, environment, renewables, taxation
Environmental taxation represents a key influence on sustainable development in post-transition countries. Romania has experienced important transformations of environmental policy, including taxation, due to sustained reliance on traditional energy sources to satisfy its energy needs. The aim of this paper is to show a possible causal relationship between the Romanian GDP and several explanatory variables related to taxation of environmental damage and energy generation and consumption in the country. In order to do this, the authors make use of several statistical tests to verify the existence of a meaningful relationship between economic variables expressed in time series. The study has also attempted to identify the influence of environmental taxation on ensuring green economic development, starting from the premise that for emergent economies these taxes provide both a GDP increase and prevent environmental degradation by decreasing the pollution and environmentally harmful suppli... [more]
Carbon Auction Revenue and Market Power: An Experimental Analysis
Noah Dormady
January 31, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: cap-and-trade, carbon auctions, Clean Air Act, Clean Power Plan, climate change, government revenue, market power
State and regional governments in the U.S. and abroad are looking to market-based approaches to mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the electric sector, and in the U.S. as a compliance approach to meeting the aggressive targets of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s Clean Power Plan. Auction-based approaches, like those used in the Northeast U.S. and California, are both recommended strategies under the Plan and attractive to state governments because they can generate significant revenue from the sale of emissions permits. However, given the nature of imperfect competition in existing electricity markets, particularly at the state and regional level, the issue of market power is a concern at the forefront. This paper provides the results from a controlled laboratory experiment of an auction-based emissions market in the electricity sector. The results show that government revenue from auctioning emissions permits is substantially lower when market concentration is only mo... [more]
Economic Growth, Electricity Consumption, Labor Force and Capital Input: A More Comprehensive Analysis on North China Using Panel Data
Huiru Zhao, Haoran Zhao, Xiaoyu Han, Zhonghua He, Sen Guo
January 31, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: economic growth, electricity consumption, granger causality test, labor force and capital input, panel co-integration test
Over the past three decades, China’s economy has witnessed remarkable growth, with an average annual growth rate over 9%. However, China also faces great challenges to balance this spectacular economic growth and continuously increasing energy use like many other economies in the world. With the aim of designing effective energy and environmental policies, policymakers are required to master the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. Therefore, in the case of North China, a multivariate model employing panel data analysis method based on the Cobb-Douglas production function which introduces electricity consumption as a main factor was established in this paper. The equilibrium relationship and causal relationship between real GDP, electricity consumption, total investment in fixed assets, and the employment were explored using data during the period of 1995⁻2014 for six provinces in North China, including Beijing City, Tianjin City, Hebei Province, Shanxi Province... [more]
Scrap Tyre Management Pathways and Their Use as a Fuel—A Review
Amir Rowhani, Thomas J. Rainey
January 31, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: bio-oil, pyrolysis, recycling, scrap tyre, tyre management
This article provides a review of different methods for managing waste tyres. Around 1.5 billion scrap tyres make their way into the environmental cycle each year, so there is an extreme demand to manage and mitigate the environmental impact which occurs from landfilling and burning. Numerous approaches are targeted to recycle and reuse the tyre rubber in various applications. Among them, one of the most important methods for sustainable environmental stewardship is converting tyre rubber components into bio-oil. In this study, scrap tyre management techniques including landfill, retreading, recycling, combustion, and conversion to liquid fuels was reviewed (including gasification, hydrothermal liquefaction, and pyrolysis). The effects of parameters such as reactor types, pyrolysis temperature, and catalyst on the oil, gas and solid products in pyrolysis process were investigated.
Energy Efficiency Strategies for Ecological Greenhouses: Experiences from Murcia (Spain)
Hilario Becerril, Ignacio de los Rios
January 31, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: conventional agriculture (CA), ecological agriculture (EA), fossil fuels, greenhouses, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Transformational Agricultural Society
There has been a continuous growth in ecological agriculture (EA) in recent years. It is recognized as a production system with rational energy use and low demand for fossil fuels. There are many studies relating to this subject, in contrast to the few studies regarding the use of energy and its impact on the environment in ecological greenhouses. This article analyzes the strategies adopted by a Transformational Agricultural Society (Sociedad Agraria de Transformación) in order to improve energy efficiency in ecological greenhouses, with regards to the use of fossil fuels. The methodology is based on the Working With People (WWP) Model, which involves social learning processes over 30 years in one of the largest regions of ecological crops in Spain. The results show that the measures taken to manage the greenhouses have achieved a decrease of over 80% in terms of fossil fuel consumption. The experience demonstrates that EA, as opposed to conventional agriculture (CA), is a system with... [more]
Quantification of the Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Nuclear Power Generation Systems
Akhil Kadiyala, Raghava Kommalapati, Ziaul Huque
January 31, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: enrichment, greenhouse gas emissions, lifecycle assessment, nuclear energy, power generation, reactors
This paper statistically quantifies the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from six distinct reactor-based (boiling water reactor (BWR), pressurized water reactor (PWR), light water reactor (LWR), heavy-water-moderated reactor (HWR), gas-cooled reactor (GCR), fast breeder reactor (FBR)) nuclear power generation systems by following a two-step approach that included (a) performing a review of the lifecycle assessment (LCA) studies on the reactor-based nuclear power generation systems; and (b) statistically evaluating the lifecycle GHG emissions (expressed in grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt hour, gCO₂e/kWh) for each of the reactor-based nuclear power generation systems to assess the role of different types of nuclear reactors in the reduction of the lifecycle GHG emissions. Additionally, this study quantified the impacts of fuel enrichment methods (centrifuge, gaseous diffusion) on GHG emissions. The mean lifecycle GHG emissions resulting from the use of BWR (sample... [more]
The Solarevolution: Much More with Way Less, Right Now—The Disruptive Shift to Renewables
Ron Swenson
January 31, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: design science, disruptive, energy chain, energy return on energy invested (EROEI), energy return on investment (EROI), more with less, net energy, renewables, solarevolution
Renewable energy resources and technologies are sufficient to meet all of humanity’s energy requirements, provided that the transition to renewables is accompanied in parallel by intense, disciplined initiatives to design, fabricate, and distribute ubiquitously an emerging class of ultra-efficient energy consuming devices. Renewables can thereby power devices which are disruptively more energy-efficient in the delivery of fundamental energy services (food production, cooking, heating, cooling, mobility, logistics, lighting, industrial processes, information systems, etc.). Rather than substituting new energy sources to directly power legacy devices that were originally designed on the basis of fossil fuels, designers will develop these novel devices to deliver superior performance in all respects: cleaner, safer, more durable, more convenient, and more economical. This Solarevolution, like the Industrial Revolution two hundred years ago, is about transforming the artifacts of human soc... [more]
A Critical Study of Stationary Energy Storage Policies in Australia in an International Context: The Role of Hydrogen and Battery Technologies
Jason Moore, Bahman Shabani
January 31, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Australia, battery, electrical energy storage, Hydrogen, policy, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
This paper provides a critical study of current Australian and leading international policies aimed at supporting electrical energy storage for stationary power applications with a focus on battery and hydrogen storage technologies. It demonstrates that global leaders such as Germany and the U.S. are actively taking steps to support energy storage technologies through policy and regulatory change. This is principally to integrate increasing amounts of intermittent renewable energy (wind and solar) that will be required to meet high renewable energy targets. The relevance of this to the Australian energy market is that whilst it is unique, it does have aspects in common with the energy markets of these global leaders. This includes regions of high concentrations of intermittent renewable energy (Texas and California) and high penetration rates of residential solar photovoltaics (PV) (Germany). Therefore, Australian policy makers have a good opportunity to observe what is working in an i... [more]
Theoretical Framework of Organizational Intelligence: A Managerial Approach to Promote Renewable Energy in Rural Economies
Nicolae Istudor, Minodora Ursacescu, Cleopatra Sendroiu, Ioan Radu
January 30, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: business strategy, economic intelligence, entropy process, knowledge management, organizational innovation, organizational intelligence, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The companies involved in the energy sector must reinvent themselves to be innovative and adaptable to contemporary environmental changes. The promotion of renewable energy in rural communities is a great challenge for these companies. They should focus on improving the environment scanning actions and the knowledge management (KM) system and enhancing the collective intelligence to avoid the loss of information, to foster innovation, and to maintain a competitive advantage. To achieve these goals, energy companies require appropriate management tools and practices. The purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical framework of organizational intelligence (OI) supported by a cross-perspective analysis of various aspects: economic intelligence (EI) and KM practices, entropy processes, and organizational enablers. A pilot investigation for testing the framework in the case of Transelectrica S.A. has been elaborated. The findings reveal that the elements of the OI framework are embedd... [more]
Estimation of Total Transport CO₂ Emissions Generated by Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (MHDVs) in a Sector of Korea
Jigu Seo, Junhong Park, Yunjung Oh, Sungwook Park
January 30, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: carbon dioxide emission inventory, carbon dioxide emissions, medium and heavy-duty vehicle (MHDV), vehicle simulation
In order to mitigate carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions, policy action that addresses vehicle emissions is essential. While many previous studies have focused on light-duty vehicles (LDV), little is known about medium- and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDV). This study lays the groundwork for future MHDV investigations in the Republic of Korea by developing an MHDV CO₂ emissions inventory. The bottom-up approach was used to calculate national CO₂ emissions. Simulation methods that calculated the CO₂ emissions of each vehicle and statistical data, such as vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and the number of registered vehicles were used to predict CO₂ emissions. The validity of this simulation model was examined by comparing it with the chassis dynamometer test results. The results of this study showed that the CO₂ emissions of MHDV in 2015 were 24.47 million tons, which was 25.5% of the total road transportation CO₂ emissions, despite only comprising 4.2% of the total vehicles. Trucks emitted 69.6% and... [more]
TBM/MTM for HTS-FNSF: An Innovative Testing Strategy to Qualify/Validate Fusion Technologies for U.S. DEMO
Laila El-Guebaly, Arthur Rowcliffe, Jonathan Menard, Thomas Brown
January 30, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: fusion nuclear testing facility, high temperature superconducting magnets, materials testing module, spherical tokamak, testing blanket module, testing strategy
The qualification and validation of nuclear technologies are daunting tasks for fusion demonstration (DEMO) and power plants. This is particularly true for advanced designs that involve harsh radiation environment with 14 MeV neutrons and high-temperature operating regimes. This paper outlines the unique qualification and validation processes developed in the U.S., offering the only access to the complete fusion environment, focusing on the most prominent U.S. blanket concept (the dual cooled PbLi (DCLL)) along with testing new generations of structural and functional materials in dedicated test modules. The venue for such activities is the proposed Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), which is viewed as an essential element of the U.S. fusion roadmap. A staged blanket testing strategy has been developed to test and enhance the DCLL blanket performance during each phase of FNSF D-T operation. A materials testing module (MTM) is critically important to include in the FNSF as well to... [more]
Methodologies Developed for EcoCity Related Projects: New Borg El Arab, an Egyptian Case Study
Carmen Antuña-Rozado, Justo García-Navarro, Francesco Reda, Pekka Tuominen
January 30, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: CO2 emissions, EcoCity, EcoCity methodologies, Egypt, Energy Efficiency, energy survey, feasibility study, roadmap, sustainability scenarios
The aim of the methodologies described here is to propose measures and procedures for developing concepts and technological solutions, which are adapted to the local conditions, to build sustainable communities in developing countries and emerging economies. These methodologies are linked to the EcoCity framework outlined by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. for sustainable community and neighbourhood regeneration and development. The framework is the result of a long experience in numerous EcoCity related projects, mainly Nordic and European in scope, which has been reformulated in recent years to respond to the local needs in the previously mentioned countries. There is also a particular emphasis on close collaboration with local partners and major stakeholders. In order to illustrate how these methodologies can support EcoCity concept development and implementation, results from a case study in Egypt will be discussed. The referred case study relates to the transformatio... [more]
Perspectives on Near ZEB Renovation Projects for Residential Buildings: The Spanish Case
Faustino Patiño-Cambeiro, Julia Armesto, Faustino Patiño-Barbeito, Guillermo Bastos
January 30, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: buildings, cost-optimal, Energy Efficiency, nZEB, renovation
EU regulations are gradually moving towards policies that reduce energy consumption and its environmental impact. To reach this goal, improving energy efficiency in residential buildings is a key action line. The European Parliament adopted the Near Zero-Energy Building (nZEB) as the energy efficiency paradigm through Directive 2010/31/EU, but a common technical and legislative framework for energy renovations is yet to be established. In this paper, the nZEB definition by COHERENO was adopted to evaluate several energy renovation packages in a given building, which is also representative of the Spanish building stock. Global costs are calculated for all of them following EPBD prescriptions. Two economic scenarios are analysed: with entirely private funding and with the current public financial incentives, respectively. The results show the divergence between optimum solutions in terms of costs and of minimum CO₂ footprint and maximum energy saving. Moreover, in the absence of enough i... [more]
The Energy and Environmental Performance of Ground-Mounted Photovoltaic Systems—A Timely Update
Enrica Leccisi, Marco Raugei, Vasilis Fthenakis
January 7, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS), crystalline Si (c-Si), energy pay-back time (EPBT), energy return on investment (EROI), environmental performance, life cycle assessment (LCA), net energy analysis (NEA), photovoltaic (PV)
Given photovoltaics’ (PVs) constant improvements in terms of material usage and energy efficiency, this paper provides a timely update on their life-cycle energy and environmental performance. Single-crystalline Si (sc-Si), multi-crystalline Si (mc-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) systems are analysed, considering the actual country of production and adapting the input electricity mix accordingly. Energy pay-back time (EPBT) results for fixed-tilt ground mounted installations range from 0.5 years for CdTe PV at high-irradiation (2300 kWh/(m²·yr)) to 2.8 years for sc-Si PV at low-irradiation (1000 kWh/(m²·yr)), with corresponding quality-adjusted energy return on investment (EROIPE-eq) values ranging from over 60 to ~10. Global warming potential (GWP) per kWhel averages out at ~30 g(CO₂-eq), with lower values (down to ~10 g) for CdTe PV at high irradiation, and up to ~80 g for Chinese sc-Si PV at low irradiation. In general, results point to CdTe... [more]
Contribution of Geothermal Resources to Energy Autonomy: Evaluation and Management Methodology
Liliana Topliceanu, Gabriel Petru Puiu
January 7, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy autonomy, geothermal, heating, methodology, Romania
The development of renewable energy is one of the aspirations of the European Union energy policy, being generated by the struggle against climatic changes and by the intention of achieving a high rate of energy autonomy. In this context, geothermal energy is a viable solution which has been little exploited so far. Analysing the EU’s dependence on imported energy, the paper provides a short review of the utilization of geothermal energy, of the advantages and of the problems raised by the exploitation of this resource. It also analyzes the availability of this resource in Romania and the contribution it can have towards the energy autonomy of local communities. The paper presents a particular methodology for calculating the energy autonomy. Using this methodology, one can obtain an energetic overview of the community or the area analyzed, can calculate the degree of energy autonomy and, based on the results achieved, a sustainable development strategy can be designed. The low enthalpy... [more]
City Carbon Footprint Networks
Guangwu Chen, Thomas Wiedmann, Michalis Hadjikakou, Hazel Rowley
January 7, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: carbon accounting, carbon footprint (CF), cities, city carbon map, multi-region input-output modelling, urban greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF) networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business cons... [more]
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