Subjects
Records with Subject: Energy Policy
Showing records 1 to 25 of 70. [First] Page: 1 2 3 Last
Insights on Energy Transitions in Mexico from the Analysis of Useful Exergy 1971⁻2009
Zeus Guevara, Tânia Sousa, Tiago Domingos
December 3, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy decoupling, energy transitions, useful exergy
The analysis of useful exergy (UE), which is the minimum amount of work required to produce a given end-use, provides insights on the relationships between structural changes and energy transitions because it focuses on what energy is used for, i.e., energy services, rather than where it comes from, i.e., energy carriers. In this paper, UE was accounted for Mexico in 1971⁻2009. It was found that UE experienced a six-fold growth, led by the increasing share of mechanical drive and electric energy uses. Structural changes such as industrialization and complete electrification mainly drove UE transitions. Technological progress, mainly driven by the industrial sector, and electricity availability caused an improvement in the aggregate final-to-useful efficiency of the economy. In addition, the trend of increasing UE economic intensity shows that Mexico became more dependent on UE per unit of economic output during industrialization. The results suggest that UE trends were more influenced... [more]
A Review of CO₂-Enhanced Oil Recovery with a Simulated Sensitivity Analysis
Mandadige Samintha Anne Perera, Ranjith Pathegama Gamage, Tharaka Dilanka Rathnaweera, Ashani Savinda Ranathunga, Andrew Koay, Xavier Choi
December 3, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: CO2-EOR, effective factors, immiscible recovery, miscible recovery, numerical modelling, review study
This paper reports on a comprehensive study of the CO₂-EOR (Enhanced oil recovery) process, a detailed literature review and a numerical modelling study. According to past studies, CO₂ injection can recover additional oil from reservoirs by reservoir pressure increment, oil swelling, the reduction of oil viscosity and density and the vaporization of oil hydrocarbons. Therefore, CO₂-EOR can be used to enhance the two major oil recovery mechanisms in the field: miscible and immiscible oil recovery, which can be further increased by increasing the amount of CO₂ injected, applying innovative flood design and well placement, improving the mobility ratio, extending miscibility, and controlling reservoir depth and temperature. A 3-D numerical model was developed using the CO₂-Prophet simulator to examine the effective factors in the CO₂-EOR process. According to that, in pure CO₂ injection, oil production generally exhibits increasing trends with increasing CO₂ injection rate and volume (in H... [more]
Energy Transitions in Nigeria: The Evolution of Energy Infrastructure Provision (1800⁻2015)
Norbert Edomah, Chris Foulds, Aled Jones
December 3, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Africa, developing countries, energy demand, Energy Efficiency, energy histories, energy policy, energy transitions
The provision of energy infrastructure is essential for economic growth, social cohesion, and environmental sustainability. Understanding the multiple functions and services it provides us requires firstly a deeper understanding of the factors that influence energy infrastructure itself. This paper focusses on the factors that influence the evolution of energy infrastructure in Nigeria. By studying different eras of energy use according to the technologies that were being implemented, resources that were available, and the political practice of the time it is possible to better frame the drivers of energy infrastructure. The paper explores the transitions of how Nigerians managed to obtain the vast majority of energy from food calories and traditional biomass, to the broad portfolio of energy sources that is in use today.
Initial Energy Logistics Cost Analysis for Stationary, Quasi-Dynamic, and Dynamic Wireless Charging Public Transportation Systems
Young Jae Jang, Seungmin Jeong, Min Seok Lee
December 3, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: alternative fuel vehicles, dynamic wireless charging electric vehicle, electric vehicles, investment cost analysis, road charging vehicle, systems optimization, wireless power transfer
This paper presents an initial investment cost analysis of public transportation systems operating with wireless charging electric vehicles (EVs). There are three different types of wireless charging systems, namely, stationary wireless charging (SWC), in which charging happens only when the vehicle is parked or idle, quasi-dynamic wireless charging (QWC), in which power is transferred when a vehicle is moving slowly or in stop-and-go mode, and dynamic wireless charging (DWC), in which power can be supplied even when the vehicle is in motion. This analysis compares the initial investment costs for these three types of charging systems for a wireless charging-based public transportation system. In particular, this analysis is focused on the energy logistics cost in transportation, which is defined as the cost of transferring and storing the energy needed to operate the transportation system. Performing this initial investment analysis is complicated, because it involves considerable tra... [more]
The Regulatory Noose: Logan City’s Adventures in Micro-Hydropower
Megan Hansen, Randy T. Simmons, Ryan M. Yonk
December 3, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: hydropower, micro-hydropower, regulation, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Recent growth in the renewable energy industry has increased government support for alternative energy. In the United States, hydropower is the largest source of renewable energy and also one of the most efficient. Currently, there are 30,000 megawatts of potential energy capacity through small- and micro-hydro projects throughout the United States. Increased development of micro-hydro could double America’s hydropower energy generation, but micro-hydro is not being developed at the same rate as other renewable sources. Micro-hydro is regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and subject to the same regulation as large hydroelectric projects despite its minimal environmental impact. We studied two cases of micro-hydro projects in Logan, Utah, and Afton, Wyoming, which are both small rural communities. Both cases showed that the web of federal regulation is likely discouraging the development of micro-hydro in the United States by increasing the costs in time and funds for d... [more]
A Natural Analogy to the Diffusion of Energy-Efficient Technologies
José Antonio Moya
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: barriers, diffusion of innovations, energy-efficiency gap, energy-system models
A new mathematical approach to the diffusion of energy-efficient technologies is presented using the diffusion of natural processes as an analogy. This approach is applied to the diffusion of the electric arc furnace in Japan. The main advantage offered by the new approach is the incorporation of an average effect of barriers to, and support measures for, innovation. This approach also incorporates some of the parameters influencing the cost-effectiveness of the investment in the new technology as the main driver for adopting the innovation. The straightforward equivalence between natural phenomena and the diffusion of innovation requires the conceptual abstraction of setting a dimension (and defining) the medium in which the diffusion takes place. This new approach opens new research paths to analysing under what circumstances innovations can take-off, the effect of barriers in the diffusion of energy efficient technologies, or how the diffusion process is incorporated in energy-syste... [more]
Climate Resilient Low-Income Tropical Housing
Arman Hashemi
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Africa, climate change, housing, low-income, refurbishment, resilience, thermal comfort, tropical, Uganda
Located in East Africa, Uganda is one of the most economically deprived countries that is likely to be dramatically affected by climate change. Over 50% of Ugandan families live in single-roomed overcrowded properties and over 60% of the country’s urban population live in slums. Moreover, the gradual shift towards relatively modern and low thermal resistance building materials, in addition to imminent thermal discomfort due to global warming, may considerably affect the health and wellbeing of low-income people, the majority of whom live in low quality homes with very little or no access to basic amenities. This paper evaluates the effects of various construction methods as well as refurbishment strategies on thermal comfort in low-income houses in Uganda. It is aimed at helping low-income populations adapt to climate changes by developing simple, effective and affordable refurbishment strategies that could easily be applied to existing buildings. Dynamic thermal simulations are conduc... [more]
Interdependencies between Biofuel, Fuel and Food Prices: The Case of the Brazilian Ethanol Market
Deborah Bentivoglio, Adele Finco, Mirian Rumenos Piedade Bacchi
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Ethanol, Gasoline, granger causality, prices, sugar, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM)
Brazil is currently the world’s largest sugar producer and exporter, as well as the world’s largest producer and consumer of sugarcane ethanol as a transportation fuel. The growth of this market originates from a combination of government policies and technological change, in both the sugarcane ethanol processing sector and the manufacture of flex-fuel vehicles. In recent years however, ethanol production has been questioned due to its possible impact on food prices. The present paper aims to explore the impact of Brazilian ethanol prices on sugar and gasoline prices. The relationships between a times series of these prices are investigated using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), supported by Granger Causality tests. In addition, Impulse Response Functions (IRFs) and Forecast Error Variance Decompositions (FEVD) are computed in order to investigate the dynamic interrelationships within these series. Our results suggest that ethanol prices are affected by both food and fuel prices... [more]
Empirical Operational Energy Analysis of Downtown High-Rise vs. Suburban Low-Rise Lifestyles: A Chicago Case Study
Peng Du, Antony Wood, Brent Stephens
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Chicago, high-rise, infrastructure, life style, low-rise, operational energy, transportation
It is widely accepted that the concentration of people living in high-density city centers offers greater operational energy efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions than lower-density expanded suburbs. The prevailing assumption is that lower-density suburbs are dominated by larger low-rise buildings that have higher building energy use requirements and greater per-person automobile travel requirements than high-density city centers dominated by medium- and high-rise buildings located in close proximity to a variety of public transit systems. However, very few studies to date have utilized empirical data at an individual household scale to evaluate differences in the operational energy (OE) footprints for both building and transportation energy end-uses between high-rise urban and low-rise suburban households. Therefore, this work collects empirical data on building and transportation OE consumption by individuals and households living in two economically similar groups: existing... [more]
The Influence of Environmental Constraints on the Water Value
Ignacio Guisández, Juan I. Pérez-Díaz, José R. Wilhelmi
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: maximum ramping rates, minimum environmental flows, mixed integer linear programming, stochastic dynamic programming, water value
The establishment of more severe hydrological environmental constraints, usually as seasonal minimum flows (ϕ) and maximum ramping rates (ρ), on hydropower operation is a growing trend. This paper presents a study on the influence of ϕ and ρ on the water values (WV) of a real hydropower plant that participates in the Spanish day-ahead electricity market. For this purpose, a master-slave algorithm, based on stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) and deterministic mixed integer linear programming (DMILP), is used on a real hydropower plant. The master module, based on SDP, has a yearly planning period with weekly time steps and considers three state variables: stored water volume in the reservoir at the beginning of each week; weekly water inflow; and average weekly energy price. The slave module, based on DMILP, has a weekly planning period with hourly time steps and considers many features of the hydropower plant operation, such as: start-up costs, evaporation, wear and tear costs, etc.... [more]
How Expensive Is Expensive Enough? Opportunities for Cost Reductions in Offshore Wind Energy Logistics
Thomas Poulsen, Charlotte Bay Hasager
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: LCoE (levelized cost of energy), levelized cost of energy, logistics, logistics innovation, offshore wind, organization
This paper reveals that logistics may conservatively amount to 18% of the levelized cost of energy for offshore wind farms. This is the key finding from an extensive case study carried out within the organization of the world’s leading offshore wind farm developer and operator. The case study aimed to, and produced, a number of possible opportunities for offshore wind cost reductions through logistics innovation; however, within the case study company, no company-wide logistics organization existed to focus horizontally on reducing logistics costs in general. Logistics was not well defined within the case study company, and a logistics strategy did not exist. With full life-cycle costs of offshore wind farms still high enough to present a political challenge within the European Union in terms of legislation to ensure offshore wind diffusion beyond 2020, our research presents logistics as a next frontier for offshore wind constituencies. This important area of the supply chain is ripe t... [more]
Life Cycle Assessment of a HYSOL Concentrated Solar Power Plant: Analyzing the Effect of Geographic Location
Blanca Corona, Diego Ruiz, Guillermo San Miguel
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: biomethane, Chile, environment, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Mexico, Natural Gas, solar energy, South Africa, Spain
Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technology is developing in order to achieve higher energy efficiency, reduced economic costs, and improved firmness and dispatchability in the generation of power on demand. To this purpose, a research project titled HYSOL has developed a new power plant, consisting of a combined cycle configuration with a 100 MWe steam turbine and an 80 MWe gas-fed turbine with biomethane. Technological developments must be supported by the identification, quantification, and evaluation of the environmental impacts produced. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the environmental performance of a CSP plant based on HYSOL technology using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology while considering different locations. The scenarios investigated include different geographic locations (Spain, Chile, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Mexico, and South Africa), an alternative modelling procedure for biomethane, and the use of natural gas as an alternative fuel. Results indicate that... [more]
Economic Impacts of Increased U.S. Exports of Natural Gas: An Energy System Perspective
Kemal Sarıca, Wallace E. Tyner
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: MARket ALlocation (MARKAL)-Macro, U.S. natural gas export policy
With the recent shale gas boom, the U.S. is expected to have very large natural gas resources. In this respect, the key question is would it be better to rely completely on free market resource allocations which would lead to large exports of natural gas or to limit natural gas exports so that more could be used in the U.S.. After accounting for the cost of liquefying the natural gas and shipping it to foreign markets, the current price difference leaves room for considerable profit to producers from exports. In addition, there is a large domestic demand for natural gas from various sectors such as electricity generation, industrial applications, and the transportation sector etc. A hybrid modeling approach has been carried out using our version of the well-known MARket ALlocation (MARKAL)-Macro model to keep bottom-up model richness with macro effects to incorporate price and gross domestic product (GDP) feedbacks. One of the conclusion of this study is that permitting higher natural... [more]
Comparative Study of the Subsurface Thermal Structure in Northern Honshu, Japan, Based on Normalized Temperature Data and Solute Geothermometers
Yota Suzuki, Seiichiro Ioka, Hirofumi Muraoka
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: activity index, geothermal database, geothermal energy, geothermal exploration, geothermal mapping, geothermometry, volcanic front
To promote geothermal development in Aomori Prefecture, Japan, this study compiled a database of the geothermal resources of the prefecture, which included chemical data for 786 hot springs, temperature data for 26 natural springs, and subsurface temperature data for 35 wells. A map of the activity index distribution for the entire prefecture was also developed using the Aomori Prefecture Geothermal Resource database, and its efficiency was discussed by comparison with the distribution of Quaternary volcanoes and the temperature distribution map calculated using quartz and Na-K solute geothermometers. The activity index distribution map for the entire prefecture showed a good fit with both the distribution map of a region with a sharp eastern edge of low-velocity zones in the mantle wedge and the volcanic front, as well as the temperature distribution map calculated using the quartz and Na-K geothermometers. This reflected the effectiveness of the developed map, which indicated the Hak... [more]
How Much Detail Should We Use to Compute Societal Aggregated Exergy Efficiencies?
Miguel Palma, Tânia Sousa, Zeus Guevara
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: efficiency, Energy, energy carriers, energy use, Exergy, useful exergy
The current method used for calculating societal aggregated exergy efficiencies is reviewed. Cooling is introduced as an end-use category; conversion efficiencies for heating processes are obtained for each energy carrier; and electricity shares per end-use are retrieved for each sector, improving the accuracy of the estimated values of aggregated exergy efficiencies. We show that: (1) cooling uses are a relevant end-use in Portugal and that their introduction decreased overall efficiency by 3.4% in 2009; and (2) disaggregating the heating second law efficiencies for each energy carrier has a significant effect on the aggregated efficiencies of the country, decreasing aggregated efficiency by 1.3% in 2009. We studied two other factors that showed no significant impact on aggregated exergy efficiency: a technological lag of 10 years in the efficiency of stationary mechanical drive devices and the use of a year-specific ambient temperature to compute exergy efficiencies of heating proces... [more]
Hydropower Production in Future Climate Scenarios: The Case for Kwanza River, Angola
Byman H. Hamududu, Ånund Killingtveit
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Africa, Angola, climate change, hydrology, hydropower production, impacts, Kwanza, water resources
Climate change is altering hydrological processes with varying degrees in various regions of the world and remains a threat to water resources projects in southern Africa. The likely negative impacts of changes in Africa may be worse than in most other regions of the world. This study is an evaluation of the possible impacts of climate change on water resources and hydropower production potential in Kwanza River Basin, Angola. The regional climate data, the basis for future climate scenarios, is used in the hydrological model HBV to assess climate change impacts on water resources in the Kwanza River Basin. Evaluation of changes in hydropower production potential is carried out using an energy model. The simulations show that annual rainfall in 2080 would increase by approximately 16% with increasing inter-annual variability of rainfall and dry season river flow and later onset of the rainy season. The simulation results show that for the Kwanza River Basin the effects as a result of c... [more]
LED (Light-Emitting Diode) Road Lighting in Practice: An Evaluation of Compliance with Regulations and Improvements for Further Energy Savings
Annika K. Jägerbrand
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, luminance, pedestrian and bicycle paths, roads, uniformity
Light-emitting diode (LED) road lighting has been widely implemented in recent years, but few studies have evaluated its performance after installation. This study investigated whether LED road lighting complies with minimum regulations in terms of traffic safety and whether improvements for energy efficiency are possible. Average road surface luminance (L), overall luminance uniformity (Uo), longitudinal luminance uniformity (UI), power density (PD) and normalised power density (PN) were evaluated for 14 roads (seven designed for vehicular traffic and seven for pedestrians and bicycles). Energy savings were calculated as the percentage reduction to the minimum level of the existing lighting class or a lower lighting class and by applying a dimming schedule. The results showed that LED road lighting for vehicular traffic roads generally fulfilled the requirements, whereas that for pedestrian and bicycle roads generally corresponded to the lowest lighting class for L, and often did not... [more]
Market Suitability and Performance Tradeoffs Offered by Commercial Wind Turbines across Differing Wind Regimes
Souma Chowdhury, Ali Mehmani, Jie Zhang, Achille Messac
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: capacity factor, cost of energy, turbine selection, wind farm layout optimization, wind map
The suitability of turbine configurations to different wind resources has been traditionally restricted to considering turbines operating as standalone entities. In this paper, a framework is thus developed to investigate turbine suitability in terms of the minimum cost of energy offered when operating as a group of optimally-micro-sited turbines. The four major steps include: (i) characterizing the geographical variation of wind regimes in the onshore U.S. market; (ii) determining the best performing turbines for different wind regimes through wind farm layout optimization; (iii) developing a metric to quantify the expected market suitability of available turbine configurations; and (iv) exploring the best tradeoffs between the cost and capacity factor yielded by these turbines. One hundred thirty one types of commercial turbines offered by major global manufacturers in 2012 are considered for selection. It is found that, in general, higher rated power turbines with medium tower heigh... [more]
Energy Research in Airports: A Review
Sergio Ortega Alba, Mario Manana
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: airports, Combined heat and power (CHP) plants, energy benchmarking, energy building, energy conservation, energy consumption, Energy Efficiency, energy modeling, energy simulation, renewable sources
The main function of an airport is to provide access to air transport both for passengers and cargo. The number of air operations over the past 20 years has increased rapidly, and this has led to a rise in the energy needs of airports to satisfy this demand. As a consequence, the cost of energy supply for airport managers has escalated. At the same time, global energy consumption has soared due to the needs of emerging countries like China and India, with the consequent environmental impact. This complex scenario of environmental and economic factors has made airport managers become aware of the need to reduce energy consumption as well as a more efficient use of it. The aim of this article is to analyze the main behaviors and energy trends at airports in more recent research, starting with the description of the main energy sources and consumers, the application of energy conservation and energy efficiency measures, the establishment of energy indicators and benchmarking between airpo... [more]
Assessment of Air-Pollution Control Policy’s Impact on China’s PV Power: A System Dynamics Analysis
Xiaodan Guo, Dongxiao Niu, Bowen Xiao
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: China’s photovoltaic power, full electricity price subsidy, national incentive policy, system dynamics
Recently, China has brought out several air-pollution control policies, which indicate the prominent position that PV power hold in improving atmosphere environment. Under this policy environment, the development of China’s PV power will be greatly affected. Firstly, after analyzing the influencing path of air-pollution control policies on PV power, this paper built a system dynamics model, which can be used as a platform for predicting China’s PV power development in every policy scenario during 2015⁻2025. Secondly, different model parameters are put into the SD model to simulate three scenarios of air-pollution control policies. Comparisons between the simulated results of different policy scenarios measure the air-pollution control policy’s impact on China’s PV power in the aspect of generation, installed capacity, power curtailment and so on. This paper points out the long-term development pattern of China’s PV power under latest incentive policies, and provides reference for the p... [more]
Forecasting the Allocative Efficiency of Carbon Emission Allowance Financial Assets in China at the Provincial Level in 2020
Shihong Zeng, Yan Xu, Liming Wang, Jiuying Chen, Qirong Li
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: carbon emission allowance, efficiency, iteration, non-fossil fuels, zero sum gains data envelopment analysis (ZSG-DEA)
As the result of climate change and deteriorating global environmental quality, nations are under pressure to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases per unit of GDP. China has announced that it is aiming not only to reduce carbon emission per unit of GDP, but also to consume increased amounts of non-fossil energy. The carbon emission allowance is a new type of financial asset in each Chinese province and city that also affects individual firms. This paper attempts to examine the allocative efficiency of carbon emission reduction and non-fossil energy consumption by employing a zero sum gains data envelopment analysis (ZSG-DEA) model, given the premise of fixed CO₂ emissions as well as non-fossil energy consumption. In making its forecasts, the paper optimizes allocative efficiency in 2020 using 2010 economic and carbon emission data from 30 provinces and cities across China as its baseline. An efficient allocation scheme is achieved for all the provinces and cities using the ZSG-DE... [more]
Methodology to Calculate the Costs of a Floating Offshore Renewable Energy Farm
Laura Castro-Santos, Elson Martins, C. Guedes Soares
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: floating offshore renewable energy, levelized cost of energy (LCOE), life-cycle cost, marine renewable energy, Wave Energy, wind energy
This paper establishes a general methodology to calculate the life-cycle cost of floating offshore renewable energy devices, applying it to wave energy and wind energy devices. It is accounts for the contributions of the six main phases of their life-cycle: concept definition, design and development, manufacturing, installation, exploitation and dismantling, the costs of which have been defined. Moreover, the energy produced is also taken into account to calculate the Levelized Cost of Energy of a floating offshore renewable energy farm. The methodology proposed has been applied to two renewable energy devices: a floating offshore wave energy device and a floating offshore wind energy device. Two locations have been considered: Aguçadoura and São Pedro de Moel, both in Portugal. Results indicate that the most important cost in terms of the life-cycle of a floating offshore renewable energy farm is the exploitation cost, followed by the manufacturing and the installation cost. In additi... [more]
Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction in China’s Power Sector: Alternative Scenarios Up to 2020
Jiahai Yuan, Chunning Na, Zheng Hu, Ping Li
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: China, emissions reduction, energy conservation, power sector
This paper discusses energy conservation and emissions reduction (ECER) in China’s power sector. To better understand China’s successes and failures on energy conservation in the electricity industry, first it is important to know the status of China’s power sector, and the key energy conservation actions, as well as the achievements in the past years. Second, two ECER scenarios are constructed to probe the 2020 energy conservation potential. Results show that the potential is estimated to be more than 240 million tons of coal equivalent (Mtce). Third, the improvement of coal power operations, structures and technologies, and ambitious deployment of energy conservation measures are proposed to fully explore the potential of China’s power industry. Fourth, great challenges for China’s ECER and some suggested policies are summed up. The lessons learnt from China will provide a valuable reference and useful inputs for other emerging economies.
Effects of Climate Change and LUCC on Terrestrial Biomass in the Lower Heihe River Basin during 2001⁻2010
Haiming Yan, Jinyan Zhan, Feng Wu, Huicai Yang
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: biomass accumulation, climate change, energy flux, fractional vegetation change (FVCC), net primary productivity (NPP), water diversion
Ecosystem services are tightly coupled with availability of solar energy and its partition into energy fluxes, and biomass accumulation, which represents the energy flux in ecosystems, is a key aspect of ecosystem services. This study analyzed the effects of climate change and land use and land cover change (LUCC) on the biomass accumulation change in the Lower Heihe River Basin during 2001⁻2010. Biomass accumulation was represented with net primary productivity (NPP), which was estimated with the C-Fix model, and scenario analysis was carried out to investigate effects of climate change and LUCC on biomass accumulation change in a spatially explicit way. Results suggested climate change had an overall positive effect on biomass accumulation, mainly owning to changes in CO₂ concentration and temperature. LUCC accounted for 70.61% of biomass accumulation change, but primarily owning to fractional vegetation change (FVCC) rather than land conversion, and there is a negative interactive e... [more]
Towards Highly Energy-Efficient Roadway Lighting
Adam Sȩdziwy, Leszek Kotulski
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: computational intelligence, Energy Efficiency, large-scale photometric computations, lighting design, smart grid
The reports presented by consulting firms show that annual energy costs generated by 340 million streetlights are expected to reach $23.9 to $42.5 billion by 2025. Those numbers reveal a motivation behind the research aiming at optimizing outdoor lighting energy efficiency. They show that even a small unit improvement can yield large benefits due to the effect of scale. The development of solid state lighting solutions enables highly effective modernization of street lighting installations. It allows obtaining power saving not only by replacing high pressure lamps with LEDs but also by improving a design quality and by introducing a dynamic street lighting control. Both methods, however, are not feasible for industry-standard software tools due to the significant complexity related to a configuration optimization, especially for large-scale projects. The goal of this article is presenting the workaround to the complexity issue, which is based on application of graph methods. They enabl... [more]
Showing records 1 to 25 of 70. [First] Page: 1 2 3 Last
[Show All Subjects]