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Records with Subject: Energy Policy
Showing records 1 to 25 of 204. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Multi-Criteria Analysis of Electricity Generation Scenarios for Sustainable Energy Planning in Pakistan
Nayyar Hussain Mirjat, Mohammad Aslam Uqaili, Khanji Harijan, Mohd Wazir Mustafa, Md. Mizanur Rahman, M. Waris Ali Khan
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: AHP, electricity crises, Expert Choice, Pakistan, sustainable energy planning
The now over a decade-long electricity crisis in Pakistan has adversely affected the socio-economic development of the country. This situation is mainly due to a lack of sustainable energy planning and policy formulation. In this context, energy models can be of great help but only a handful of such efforts have been undertaken in Pakistan. Two key shortcomings pertaining to energy models lead to their low utilization in developing countries. First, the models do not effectively make decisions, but rather provide a set of alternatives based on modeling parameters; and secondly, the complexity of these models is often poorly understood by the decision makers. As such, in this study, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) methodology of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) has been used for the sustainability assessment of energy modeling results for long-term electricity planning. The four scenario alternatives developed in the energy modeling effort, Reference (REF), Renewable Energy... [more]
Study of Photovoltaics and LED Energy Efficiency: Case Study in Hungary
Gábor Pintér, Nóra Hegedűsné Baranyai, Alec Wiliams, Henrik Zsiborács
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy policy, Hungary, LED street lighting, photovoltaic systems, solar energy
Photovoltaic (PV) energy and energy efficiency have an increasing role in global energy usage. This paper is a study of building photovoltaic systems (PVS) to modernize existing or developed street lighting systems in Hungarian villages of 900⁻1200 inhabitants. The objective of this study is to show the economic questions related to the investments in photovoltaic systems and light emitting diode (LED) street lighting developments under Hungarian regulations. With the help of this study, it may be possible to support local governments to use combined photovoltaic energy for street lighting developments. This article presents the Hungarian regulations regarding photovoltaic systems and shows why local governments are not able to connect their street lighting systems to photovoltaic systems. Three different investment alternatives for local governments are studied with the help of economic indicators. Our conclusion is that investments in photovoltaic street lighting systems can be profi... [more]
Linear and Nonlinear Causality between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: The Case of Mexico 1965⁻2014
Mario Gómez, Aitor Ciarreta, Ainhoa Zarraga
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: causality, economic growth, energy consumption, Mexico, structural breaks
This paper analyzes the causal link between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth in Mexico between 1965 and 2014, with the presence of structural breaks stemming from the series. To that end, unit root with structural breaks, cointegration, and linear and nonlinear causality tests are employed. The results show that there is a long-run relationship between production, capital, labor, and energy, and linear causal links from total and disaggregated energy consumption to economic growth. A nonlinear causality also exists from energy consumption, the transport sector, capital, and labor to output. These results support the growth hypothesis, which maintains that energy is an important input factor for economic activity and that energy conservation policies impact the economic growth in Mexico.
Energy Supply Potentials in the Northern Counties of Finland, Norway and Sweden towards Sustainable Nordic Electricity and Heating Sectors: A Review
Robert Fischer, Erik Elfgren, Andrea Toffolo
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy supply, Nordic countries, potentials, renewable sources
The lands in the northernmost corner of Europe present contradictory aspects in their social and economic development. Urban settlements are relatively few and small-sized, but rich natural resources (minerals, forests, rivers) attract energy-intensive industries. Energy demand is increasing as a result of new investments in mining and industries, while reliable energy supply is threatened by the planned phase out of Swedish nuclear power, the growth of intermittent power supplies and the need to reduce fossil fuel consumption, especially in the Finnish and Norwegian energy sectors. Given these challenges, this paper investigates the potentials of so far unexploited energy resources in the northern counties of Finland, Norway and Sweden by comparing and critically analyzing data from statistic databases, governmental reports, official websites, research projects and academic publications. The criteria for the technical and economic definition of potentials are discussed separately for... [more]
Development of Offshore Wind Power: Contrasting Optimal Wind Sites with Legal Restrictions in Galicia, Spain
Santiago Salvador, Xurxo Costoya, Francisco Javier Sanz-Larruga, Luis Gimeno
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: coastal regions, European context, Iberian Peninsula, legal restrictions, marine environment, marine renewable energies, offshore wind farms, sea users, wind power density
The region of Galicia, in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, has a high wind potential for the installation of offshore wind farms (OWFs) in many areas of its surrounding marine waters. However, legal restrictions derived from the protection of other interests that converge in the marine environment (such as fishing, navigation, and biodiversity conservation) must be considered, along with technical limitations resulting from water depth. This study is aimed at analysing legal restrictions on the installation of OWFs in Galician waters and at identifying those zones of less conflict where the wind power density (WPD) is greater and the depths and distances from the coast are technically feasible given the current status of technology in Europe. To do this, a legal study was performed of both the strategic environmental assessment of the Spanish coast and the regulations of the different marine sectors at European, international, national, and regional levels. In addition, the WPD... [more]
Institutional Change and Environment: Lessons from the European Emission Trading System
Yolanda Fernández Fernández, María Angeles Fernández López, David González Hernández, Blanca Olmedillas Blanco
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: European emissions trading system, New Institutional Economy, regulatory effect, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
After more than ten years of operation of EU-ETS trading, it is time to analyse the results and draw lessons from the experience. Economic research typically considers emission price as the main explanatory variables when measuring the effects of Emission Trading Systems. The novelty of this work is to analyse whether or not trade alone, as an institutional change, is effective in reducing greenhouse gases emissions. The objective of this paper is to analyse to what extent the EU-ETS as a “regulatory” instrument of the supply of allowances is responsible for the effectiveness of the carbon market as a basic tool in the reduction of emissions. The analysis also includes other overlapping policies aimed at fighting climate change, for example, the promotion of renewables. For the empirical analysis, an econometric model is estimated using panel data for the 28 European Union countries between 1990 and 2014. The econometric model include three dummy variables to measure the effectiveness... [more]
Human Health Impacts of Aviation Biofuel Production: Exploring the Application of Different Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Methods for Biofuel Supply Chains
Zhizhen Wang, Patricia Osseweijer, John A. Posada
March 25, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: aviation biofuel, human health impacts, human toxicity, LCIA method, life cycle assessment, life cycle impacts assessment, sustainability assessment
The life cycle human health (HH) impacts related to aviation biofuels have been understood in a limited way. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods for assessing HH are often associated with a high level of uncertainty and a low level of consensus. As a result, it remains challenging to perform a robust assessment of HH impacts with a suitable LCIA method. This study aims to systematically compare six commonly used LCIA methods for quantifying HH impacts, in order to empirically understand the potential impacts of aviation biofuel production on HH and how the results are affected by the choice of methods. Three aviation biofuel production pathways based on different feedstocks (sugarcane, eucalyptus, and macauba) were analyzed and compared to fossil aviation biofuels, on the basis of a functional unit of 1 MJ aviation fuel. The majority of the LCIA methods suggest that, in respect to midpoint impacts, macauba-based biofuel is associated with the lowest impacts and eucalyptus-based... [more]
A Review of Electric Vehicle Lifecycle Emissions and Policy Recommendations to Increase EV Penetration in India
Rachana Vidhi, Prasanna Shrivastava
February 24, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: electric vehicle, emissions, India, policy, pollution, transportation electrification, vehicle to grid (V2G)
Electric vehicles reduce pollution only if a high percentage of the electricity mix comes from renewable sources and if the battery manufacturing takes place at a site far from the vehicle use region. Industries developed due to increased electric vehicle adoption may also cause additional air pollution. The Indian government has committed to solving New Delhi’s air pollution issues through an ambitious policy of switching 100% of the light duty consumer vehicles to electric vehicles by 2030. This policy is based on vehicle grid interaction and relies on shared mobility through the electric vehicle fleet. There are several human behavioral changes necessary to achieve 100% adoption of electric vehicles. This paper reviews different steps in the lifecycle of an electric vehicle (EV), their impact on environmental emissions, and recommends policies suitable for different socio-economic group that are relevant to the Indian market. To reduce air pollution through adoption of electric vehi... [more]
A Tale of Two Chinese Transit Metropolises and the Implementation of Their Policies: Shenyang and Dalian (Liaoning Province, China)
Rui Mu, Martin de Jong
February 24, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: China, Dalian, policy implementation, Shenyang, transit metropolis, transport policy
To promote sustainable urbanization and combat the economic, environmental, energy and safety issues that go with rapid motorization, the Ministry of Transport in China has introduced the “Transit Metropolis” program with a substantive amount of funds devoted to the implementation of the program in local governments. This represents the largest ever central government-led effort addressing transit metropolis development in the world. How has the program been implemented locally? Have the selected demonstration cities followed the same principle or taken comparable measures to implement their version of the transit metropolis? What is their performance? These questions remain unknown in the current literature. This article answers the above questions through a literature review, interviews and comparative case studies in Shenyang and Dalian, two large cities in Liaoning Province. It shows that both cities have successfully achieved the target levels for building a transit metropolis. Si... [more]
Energy and Material Flows and Carbon Footprint Assessment Concerning the Production of HMF and Furfural from a Cellulosic Biomass
Hannes Schöppe, Peter Kleine-Möllhoff, Rolf Epple
February 12, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, bio-based chemical production, carbon footprint, furfural, HMF, material and energy flows
5-hydroxymethyl-furfural (HMF) and furfural are interesting as potential platform chemicals for a bio-based chemical production economy. Within the scope of this work, the process routes under technical development for the production of these platform chemicals were investigated. For two selected processes, the material and energy flows, as well as the carbon footprint, were examined in detail. The possible production process optimizations, further development potentials, and the research demand against the background of the reduction of the primary energy expenditure were worked out.
Research on Green Power Dispatching Based on an Emergy-Based Life Cycle Assessment
Tao Li, Yi Miao Song, Ang Li, Jing Shen, Chao Liang, Ming Gao
February 12, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: coal-fired power generation, Em-LCA evaluation, environmental impacts, green power dispatching, process management
Environmental protection pressures and green energy strategies have created major challenges for a cleaner production of China’s coal-fired power generation. Although China’s electric power dispatching department has tried to prioritize clean energy, the current dispatching models lack environmental indicators related to coal-fired power generation. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive environmental indicator for the cleanliness evaluation of coal-fired power plants. In this paper, the (Emergy-based Life Cycle Assessment) Em-LCA method is used to measure and analyze environmental related resource consumption, socio-economic investment, and emissions in the whole life cycle of coal-fired power plants. At the same time, based on the above three environmental impacts in the whole life cycle, this paper constructs the (Em-LCA based Cleaner Production Comprehensive Evaluation) ECPCE index to guide a green dispatching plan. By comparing the calculation results of the... [more]
Risk Assessment of Potentially Toxic Elements Pollution from Mineral Processing Steps at Xikuangshan Antimony Plant, Hunan, China
Saijun Zhou, Renjian Deng, Andrew Hursthouse
February 12, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: antimony, mineral processing, pollution characteristics, potentially toxic elements
We evaluated the direct release to the environment of a number of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from various processing nodes at Xikuangshan Antimony Mine in Hunan Province, China. Sampling wastewater, processing dust, and solid waste and characterizing PTE content (major elements Sb, As, Zn, and associated Hg, Pb, and Cd) from processing activities, we extrapolated findings to assess wider environmental significance using the pollution index and the potential ecological risk index. The Sb, As, and Zn in wastewater from the antimony benefication industry and a wider group of PTEs in the fine ore bin were significantly higher than their reference values. The content of Sb, As, and Zn in tailings were relatively high, with the average value being 2674, 1040, and 590 mg·kg−1, respectively. The content of PTEs in the surface soils surrounding the tailings was similar to that in tailings, and much higher than the background values. The results of the pollution index evaluation of the de... [more]
Use of Gasoline, LPG and LPG-HHO Blend in SI Engine: A Comparative Performance for Emission Control and Sustainable Environment
Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Farooq, Muhammad Naqvi, Muhammad Wajid Saleem, Jafar Hussain, Salman Raza Naqvi, Shahzaib Jahangir, Hafiz Muhammad Jazim Usama, Saad Idrees, Anthony Anukam
February 3, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: emissions, engine performance, hydroxy gas, LPG, SI engine, weibull distribution
The rising global warming concerns and explosive degradation of the environment requires the mainstream utilization of alternative fuels, such as hydroxy gas (HHO) which presents itself as a viable substitute for extracting the benefits of hydrogen. Therefore, an experimental study of the performance and emission characteristics of alternative fuels in contrast to conventional gasoline was undertaken. For experimentation, a spark ignition engine was run on a multitude of fuels comprising of gasoline, Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and hybrid blend of HHO with LPG. The engine was operated at 60% open throttle with engine speed ranging from 1600 rpm to 3400 rpm. Simultaneously, the corresponding performance parameters including brake specific fuel consumption, brake power and brake thermal efficiency were investigated. Emission levels of CO, CO2, HC and NOx were quantified in the specified speed range. To check the suitability of the acquired experimental data, it was subjected to a Weibu... [more]
Measuring the Renewable Energy Efficiency at the European Union Level and Its Impact on CO2 Emissions
Mihail Busu
January 7, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: carbon emissions, energy productivity, EU, GDP, panel data, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Low carbon emissions have a great importance in our life. The increasing importance of carbon emission levels have attracted the interests of researchers and academics in the field. In this article, a panel data econometric model is developed to measure the relationship between renewable energy, energy productivity, population, urbanization, motorization, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita and their impacts on carbon dioxide CO2 emissions. Data used in this study was collected from the European Statistical Office (EUROSTAT) and five statistical hypotheses were tested and validated through a multilinear regression model using the Econometric Views (Eviews) 10.0 statistical software. The Hausman test was used to choose between a model with fixed effects and a model with random effects, and the variance inflection factor (VIF) was used to test the collinearity between the independent variables. The author’s findings indicate that renewable energy at the European Union (EU) level... [more]
A DEA Approach for Assessing the Energy, Environmental and Economic Performance of Top 20 Industrial Countries
Wasim Iqbal, Ali Altalbe, Arooj Fatima, Amjad Ali, Yumei Hou
January 7, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: CO2 emission efficiency, economic-environmental efficiency, energy consumption efficiency, Slack-based DEA, top 20 industrial countries
Due to growing concerns of global warming, reducing carbon emissions has become one of the major tasks for developing countries to meet the national demand for energy policies. The objective of this study is to measure the energy consumption, carbon emission and economic-environmental efficiency in terms of the environmental performance of the top 20 industrial countries by employing a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model from 2013 to 2017. This study used the trilemma of energy efficiency, CO2 emission efficiency, and environmental efficiency, and also the contribution included the quantitative analysis of 20 industrial countries The results show that the energy efficiency of Australia, China, Japan, Saudi Arabia, and Poland are the best performing countries, whereas Mexico, Indonesia, Russia, and Brazil are identified as least efficient among all 20 countries. Furthermore, Russia’s energy intensity has a maximum score while Poland has a minimum score. Additionally, in the case of CO... [more]
Evaluation of Municipal Solid Wastes Based Energy Potential in Urban Pakistan
Muhammad Mobin Siddiqi, Muhammad Nihal Naseer, Yasmin Abdul Wahab, Nor Aliya Hamizi, Irfan Anjum Badruddin, Zaira Zaman Chowdhury, Omid Akbarzadeh, Mohd Rafie Johan, T. M. Yunus Khan, Sarfaraz Kamangar
December 16, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: alternative solid fuel, energy generation, incineration, municipal solid waste management, solid waste to energy, waste management
Solid waste management needs re-evaluating in developing countries like Pakistan, which currently employs landfilling as a first option. Over time, increasing population will result in decreasing space for landfill sites, ultimately increasing the cost of landfilling, while increasing accumulated waste will cause pollution. Locating and preparing a sanitary landfill includes the securing of large sectors and also everyday activity with the end goal to limit potential negative impacts. Energy production from municipal solid waste (MSW) is a perceptive idea for large cities, such as Karachi, as waste, which is an undesirable output that adds to land and air pollution, is transformed into a vital source of energy. The current study strives to provide a destination to solid waste by evaluating the energy potential that waste provides for power generation by the process of incineration. A sustainable energy generation plant based on the Rankine cycle is proposed. This study evaluates the va... [more]
Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Carbon Storage in Response to Urbanization: A Case Study in the Su-Xi-Chang Region, China
Qi Fu, Liangliang Xu, Hongyu Zheng, Jinhua Chen
December 16, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: carbon storage, InVEST model, land-use change, spatiotemporal dynamics, urbanization
Terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage plays an important role in mitigating global warming. Understanding the characteristics and drivers of changes in carbon storage can provide a scientific basis for urban planning and management. The objective of this study was to reveal the ways in which urbanization influences the spatial and temporal variations in carbon storage. In this study, we investigated the changes in carbon storage from 1990−2000, 2000−2010, and 2010−2018 in the Su-Xi-Chang region, which is a typical fast-growing urban agglomeration in China, based on the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) model. Moreover, we analyzed the impacts of urbanization-induced land-use changes on carbon storage. The results showed that in terms of space and time, the greatest loss of carbon storage occurred in developing urban areas and during the rapidly urbanizing stage. Our study revealed that the reduction in cultivated land was the greatest contributor to carbo... [more]
Investment Decisions of Fired Power Plants on Carbon Utilization under the Imperfect Carbon Emission Trading Schemes in China
Weiwei Zhang, Linlin Liu
December 16, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: carbon emission trading scheme, carbon utilization, investment decision, real option
Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) is one of the most effective technologies to reduce CO2 emissions and has attracted wide attention all over the world. This paper proposes a real option model to analyze the investment decisions of a coal-fired power plant on CCUS technologies under imperfect carbon emission trading schemes in China. Considering multiple uncertainties, which include carbon trading price volatility, carbon utilization revenue fluctuation, and changes in carbon transport and storage cost, the least squares Monte Carlo simulation method is used to solve the problems of path dependence. The research results show that the independent effects of carbon trading mechanisms on investment stimulation and emission reduction are limited. The utilization ratio of captured CO2 has significant impacts on the net present value and investment value of the CCUS project. Moreover, the investment threshold is highly sensitive to the utilization proportion of food grade CO2 w... [more]
Determination of the Least Impactful Municipal Solid Waste Management Option in Harare, Zimbabwe
Trust Nhubu, Edison Muzenda
December 16, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: acidification, eutrophication, global warming, Harare, human health, life cycle assessment, life cycle impacts, life cycle stages, municipal solid waste management, Zimbabwe
Six municipal solid waste management (MSWM) options (A1−A6) in Harare were developed and analyzed for their global warming, acidification, eutrophication and human health impact potentials using life cycle assessment methodology to determine the least impactful option in Harare. Study findings will aid the development of future MSWM systems in Harare. A1 and A2 considered the landfilling and incineration, respectively, of indiscriminately collected MSW with energy recovery and byproduct treatment. Source-separated biodegradables were anaerobically treated with the remaining non-biodegradable fraction being incinerated in A3 and landfilled in A4. A5 and A6 had the same processes as in A3 and A4, respectively, except the inclusion of the recovery of 20% of the recoverable materials. The life cycle stages considered were collection and transportation, materials recovery, anaerobic digestion, landfilling and incineration. A5 emerged as the best option. Materials recovery contributed to imp... [more]
Additive Manufacturing for Repair and Restoration in Remanufacturing: An Overview from Object Design and Systems Perspectives
Rahito, D. A. Wahab, A. H. Azman
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: additive manufacturing, circular economy, direct energy deposition, remanufacturing, repair, restoration
Repair and restoration is an important step in remanufacturing as it ensures end-of-life products are returned to as-new condition before entering the subsequent life cycle. Currently, such processes are carried out manually by skilled workers. The advent of additive manufacturing (AM) has encouraged researchers to investigate its potential in automated repair and restoration, thus rendering it as a more effective method for remanufacturing. However, the application of this widespread technology for repair and restoration in remanufacturing is still new. This paper provides an overview of the principles and capabilities offered by the existing metal AM technology for object repair and restoration namely, direct energy deposition, powder bed fusion, and cold spray technology. Their applications in the repair and restoration of remanufacturable components are presented and discussed along with issues requiring attention from the perspectives of object design and process systems capabilit... [more]
Evaluating Production Process Efficiency of Provincial Greenhouse Vegetables in China Using Data Envelopment Analysis: A Green and Sustainable Perspective
Yuhu Liang, Xu Jing, Yanan Wang, Yan Shi, Junhu Ruan
December 11, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: data envelopment analysis, efficiency evaluation, greenhouse vegetables, production process, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The evaluation of vegetable production process efficiency is of great significance for energy saving and waste reduction in production processes. However, few studies have considered the effect of greenhouse vegetable production process efficiency on energy saving and waste reduction. In this paper, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to analyze the production process efficiency and the effective use of input elements of greenhouse vegetables at the provincial level in China. The results reveal that many chemical fertilizers, farmyard manure, and pesticides in China are inefficient. On the other hand, the pure technical efficiency of greenhouse tomatoes and cucumbers is low in most areas of China. Meanwhile, the scale efficiency of greenhouse eggplants and greenhouse peppers is low in most areas of China. In order to save energy and develop green sustainable agriculture, we put forward some suggestions to improve the production efficiency of greenhouse vegetables in different provi... [more]
Exploring Marine Energy Potential in the UK Using a Whole Systems Modelling Approach
Anna Stegman, Adrian de Andres, Henry Jeffrey, Lars Johanning, Stuart Bradley
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: economics, tidal stream energy, Wave Energy, whole systems modelling
The key market drivers for marine energy are to reduce carbon emissions, and improve the security and sustainability of supply. There are other technologies that also meet these requirements, and therefore the marine energy market is dependent on the technology being cost effective, and competitive. The potential UK wave and tidal stream energy market is assessed using ETI’s energy systems modelling environment (ESME) which uses a multi-vector approach including energy generation, demand, heat, transport, and infrastructure. This is used to identify scenarios where wave and tidal energy form part of the least-cost energy system for the UK by 2050, and will assess what Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE) reductions are required to improve the commercialization rate. The results indicate that an installed capacity of 4.9 GW of wave and 2.5 GW of tidal stream could be deployed by 2050 if the LCOE is within 4.5 and 7 p/kWh for each respective technology. If there is a step reduction to the LCO... [more]
The Importance of Government Effectiveness for Transitions toward Greater Electrification in Developing Countries
Rohan Best, Paul J. Burke
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: developing countries, electricity transitions, government effectiveness
Electricity is a vital factor underlying modern living standards, but there are many developing countries with low levels of electricity access and use. We seek to systematically identify the crucial elements underlying transitions toward greater electrification in developing countries. We use a cross-sectional regression approach with national-level data up to 2012 for 135 low- and middle-income countries. The paper finds that the effectiveness of governments is the most important governance attribute for encouraging the transition to increased electrification in developing countries, on average. The results add to the growing evidence on the importance of governance for development outcomes. Donors seeking to make more successful contributions to electrification may wish to target countries with more effective governments.
The Effect of Embodied Impact on the Cost-Optimal Levels of Nearly Zero Energy Buildings: A Case Study of a Residential Building in Thessaloniki, Greece
Panagiotis Chastas, Theodoros Theodosiou, Karolos J. Kontoleon, Dimitrios Bikas
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: CO2 emissions, cost-optimal levels, embodied impact, EPBD recast, nZEB
Considering the nearly zero energy building (nZEB) and the increased measures for the improvement of the energy efficiency, the international literature indicates an extended use of specialized materials and technical installations. An increase in the embodied energy follows that use, with a final share between 74% and 100% in the total life cycle energy of residential nZEBs. The current energy efficiency legislation considers only the impact from the operational phase and ignores the embodied impact from the remaining life cycle phases of the building. Nevertheless, the delegated regulation 244 of 2012 acknowledges the incompleteness of this assessment and provides an optional consideration of the embodied (“grey”) energy. The current study applies this option through the macroeconomic global cost calculations and the cost-optimal levels of nZEBs. The results indicate a limited effect of the embodied impact on the cost-optimal levels and in specific on extended calculation periods and... [more]
China’s Energy Transition in the Power and Transport Sectors from a Substitution Perspective
Shangfeng Han, Baosheng Zhang, Xiaoyang Sun, Song Han, Mikael Höök
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: clean energy, cost-emission efficiency, energy substitution, energy transition
Facing heavy air pollution, China needs to transition to a clean and sustainable energy system, especially in the power and transport sectors, which contribute the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The core of an energy transition is energy substitution and energy technology improvement. In this paper, we forecast the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for power generation in 2030 in China. Cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles is also calculated in this study. The results indicate that solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind power will be cost comparative in the future. New energy vehicles are more expensive than conventional vehicles due to their higher manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP). The cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles would be $96.7/ton or $114.8/ton. Gasoline prices, taxes, and vehicle insurance will be good directions for policy implem... [more]
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