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Records with Subject: Energy Policy
Showing records 1 to 25 of 191. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Measuring the Renewable Energy Efficiency at the European Union Level and Its Impact on CO2 Emissions
Mihail Busu
January 7, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: carbon emissions, energy productivity, EU, GDP, panel data, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Low carbon emissions have a great importance in our life. The increasing importance of carbon emission levels have attracted the interests of researchers and academics in the field. In this article, a panel data econometric model is developed to measure the relationship between renewable energy, energy productivity, population, urbanization, motorization, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita and their impacts on carbon dioxide CO2 emissions. Data used in this study was collected from the European Statistical Office (EUROSTAT) and five statistical hypotheses were tested and validated through a multilinear regression model using the Econometric Views (Eviews) 10.0 statistical software. The Hausman test was used to choose between a model with fixed effects and a model with random effects, and the variance inflection factor (VIF) was used to test the collinearity between the independent variables. The author’s findings indicate that renewable energy at the European Union (EU) level... [more]
A DEA Approach for Assessing the Energy, Environmental and Economic Performance of Top 20 Industrial Countries
Wasim Iqbal, Ali Altalbe, Arooj Fatima, Amjad Ali, Yumei Hou
January 7, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: CO2 emission efficiency, economic-environmental efficiency, energy consumption efficiency, Slack-based DEA, top 20 industrial countries
Due to growing concerns of global warming, reducing carbon emissions has become one of the major tasks for developing countries to meet the national demand for energy policies. The objective of this study is to measure the energy consumption, carbon emission and economic-environmental efficiency in terms of the environmental performance of the top 20 industrial countries by employing a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model from 2013 to 2017. This study used the trilemma of energy efficiency, CO2 emission efficiency, and environmental efficiency, and also the contribution included the quantitative analysis of 20 industrial countries The results show that the energy efficiency of Australia, China, Japan, Saudi Arabia, and Poland are the best performing countries, whereas Mexico, Indonesia, Russia, and Brazil are identified as least efficient among all 20 countries. Furthermore, Russia’s energy intensity has a maximum score while Poland has a minimum score. Additionally, in the case of CO... [more]
Evaluation of Municipal Solid Wastes Based Energy Potential in Urban Pakistan
Muhammad Mobin Siddiqi, Muhammad Nihal Naseer, Yasmin Abdul Wahab, Nor Aliya Hamizi, Irfan Anjum Badruddin, Zaira Zaman Chowdhury, Omid Akbarzadeh, Mohd Rafie Johan, T. M. Yunus Khan, Sarfaraz Kamangar
December 16, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: alternative solid fuel, energy generation, incineration, municipal solid waste management, solid waste to energy, waste management
Solid waste management needs re-evaluating in developing countries like Pakistan, which currently employs landfilling as a first option. Over time, increasing population will result in decreasing space for landfill sites, ultimately increasing the cost of landfilling, while increasing accumulated waste will cause pollution. Locating and preparing a sanitary landfill includes the securing of large sectors and also everyday activity with the end goal to limit potential negative impacts. Energy production from municipal solid waste (MSW) is a perceptive idea for large cities, such as Karachi, as waste, which is an undesirable output that adds to land and air pollution, is transformed into a vital source of energy. The current study strives to provide a destination to solid waste by evaluating the energy potential that waste provides for power generation by the process of incineration. A sustainable energy generation plant based on the Rankine cycle is proposed. This study evaluates the va... [more]
Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Carbon Storage in Response to Urbanization: A Case Study in the Su-Xi-Chang Region, China
Qi Fu, Liangliang Xu, Hongyu Zheng, Jinhua Chen
December 16, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: carbon storage, InVEST model, land-use change, spatiotemporal dynamics, urbanization
Terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage plays an important role in mitigating global warming. Understanding the characteristics and drivers of changes in carbon storage can provide a scientific basis for urban planning and management. The objective of this study was to reveal the ways in which urbanization influences the spatial and temporal variations in carbon storage. In this study, we investigated the changes in carbon storage from 1990−2000, 2000−2010, and 2010−2018 in the Su-Xi-Chang region, which is a typical fast-growing urban agglomeration in China, based on the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) model. Moreover, we analyzed the impacts of urbanization-induced land-use changes on carbon storage. The results showed that in terms of space and time, the greatest loss of carbon storage occurred in developing urban areas and during the rapidly urbanizing stage. Our study revealed that the reduction in cultivated land was the greatest contributor to carbo... [more]
Investment Decisions of Fired Power Plants on Carbon Utilization under the Imperfect Carbon Emission Trading Schemes in China
Weiwei Zhang, Linlin Liu
December 16, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: carbon emission trading scheme, carbon utilization, investment decision, real option
Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) is one of the most effective technologies to reduce CO2 emissions and has attracted wide attention all over the world. This paper proposes a real option model to analyze the investment decisions of a coal-fired power plant on CCUS technologies under imperfect carbon emission trading schemes in China. Considering multiple uncertainties, which include carbon trading price volatility, carbon utilization revenue fluctuation, and changes in carbon transport and storage cost, the least squares Monte Carlo simulation method is used to solve the problems of path dependence. The research results show that the independent effects of carbon trading mechanisms on investment stimulation and emission reduction are limited. The utilization ratio of captured CO2 has significant impacts on the net present value and investment value of the CCUS project. Moreover, the investment threshold is highly sensitive to the utilization proportion of food grade CO2 w... [more]
Determination of the Least Impactful Municipal Solid Waste Management Option in Harare, Zimbabwe
Trust Nhubu, Edison Muzenda
December 16, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: acidification, eutrophication, global warming, Harare, human health, life cycle assessment, life cycle impacts, life cycle stages, municipal solid waste management, Zimbabwe
Six municipal solid waste management (MSWM) options (A1−A6) in Harare were developed and analyzed for their global warming, acidification, eutrophication and human health impact potentials using life cycle assessment methodology to determine the least impactful option in Harare. Study findings will aid the development of future MSWM systems in Harare. A1 and A2 considered the landfilling and incineration, respectively, of indiscriminately collected MSW with energy recovery and byproduct treatment. Source-separated biodegradables were anaerobically treated with the remaining non-biodegradable fraction being incinerated in A3 and landfilled in A4. A5 and A6 had the same processes as in A3 and A4, respectively, except the inclusion of the recovery of 20% of the recoverable materials. The life cycle stages considered were collection and transportation, materials recovery, anaerobic digestion, landfilling and incineration. A5 emerged as the best option. Materials recovery contributed to imp... [more]
Additive Manufacturing for Repair and Restoration in Remanufacturing: An Overview from Object Design and Systems Perspectives
Rahito, D. A. Wahab, A. H. Azman
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: additive manufacturing, circular economy, direct energy deposition, remanufacturing, repair, restoration
Repair and restoration is an important step in remanufacturing as it ensures end-of-life products are returned to as-new condition before entering the subsequent life cycle. Currently, such processes are carried out manually by skilled workers. The advent of additive manufacturing (AM) has encouraged researchers to investigate its potential in automated repair and restoration, thus rendering it as a more effective method for remanufacturing. However, the application of this widespread technology for repair and restoration in remanufacturing is still new. This paper provides an overview of the principles and capabilities offered by the existing metal AM technology for object repair and restoration namely, direct energy deposition, powder bed fusion, and cold spray technology. Their applications in the repair and restoration of remanufacturable components are presented and discussed along with issues requiring attention from the perspectives of object design and process systems capabilit... [more]
Evaluating Production Process Efficiency of Provincial Greenhouse Vegetables in China Using Data Envelopment Analysis: A Green and Sustainable Perspective
Yuhu Liang, Xu Jing, Yanan Wang, Yan Shi, Junhu Ruan
December 11, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: data envelopment analysis, efficiency evaluation, greenhouse vegetables, production process, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The evaluation of vegetable production process efficiency is of great significance for energy saving and waste reduction in production processes. However, few studies have considered the effect of greenhouse vegetable production process efficiency on energy saving and waste reduction. In this paper, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to analyze the production process efficiency and the effective use of input elements of greenhouse vegetables at the provincial level in China. The results reveal that many chemical fertilizers, farmyard manure, and pesticides in China are inefficient. On the other hand, the pure technical efficiency of greenhouse tomatoes and cucumbers is low in most areas of China. Meanwhile, the scale efficiency of greenhouse eggplants and greenhouse peppers is low in most areas of China. In order to save energy and develop green sustainable agriculture, we put forward some suggestions to improve the production efficiency of greenhouse vegetables in different provi... [more]
Exploring Marine Energy Potential in the UK Using a Whole Systems Modelling Approach
Anna Stegman, Adrian de Andres, Henry Jeffrey, Lars Johanning, Stuart Bradley
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: economics, tidal stream energy, Wave Energy, whole systems modelling
The key market drivers for marine energy are to reduce carbon emissions, and improve the security and sustainability of supply. There are other technologies that also meet these requirements, and therefore the marine energy market is dependent on the technology being cost effective, and competitive. The potential UK wave and tidal stream energy market is assessed using ETI’s energy systems modelling environment (ESME) which uses a multi-vector approach including energy generation, demand, heat, transport, and infrastructure. This is used to identify scenarios where wave and tidal energy form part of the least-cost energy system for the UK by 2050, and will assess what Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE) reductions are required to improve the commercialization rate. The results indicate that an installed capacity of 4.9 GW of wave and 2.5 GW of tidal stream could be deployed by 2050 if the LCOE is within 4.5 and 7 p/kWh for each respective technology. If there is a step reduction to the LCO... [more]
The Importance of Government Effectiveness for Transitions toward Greater Electrification in Developing Countries
Rohan Best, Paul J. Burke
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: developing countries, electricity transitions, government effectiveness
Electricity is a vital factor underlying modern living standards, but there are many developing countries with low levels of electricity access and use. We seek to systematically identify the crucial elements underlying transitions toward greater electrification in developing countries. We use a cross-sectional regression approach with national-level data up to 2012 for 135 low- and middle-income countries. The paper finds that the effectiveness of governments is the most important governance attribute for encouraging the transition to increased electrification in developing countries, on average. The results add to the growing evidence on the importance of governance for development outcomes. Donors seeking to make more successful contributions to electrification may wish to target countries with more effective governments.
The Effect of Embodied Impact on the Cost-Optimal Levels of Nearly Zero Energy Buildings: A Case Study of a Residential Building in Thessaloniki, Greece
Panagiotis Chastas, Theodoros Theodosiou, Karolos J. Kontoleon, Dimitrios Bikas
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: CO2 emissions, cost-optimal levels, embodied impact, EPBD recast, nZEB
Considering the nearly zero energy building (nZEB) and the increased measures for the improvement of the energy efficiency, the international literature indicates an extended use of specialized materials and technical installations. An increase in the embodied energy follows that use, with a final share between 74% and 100% in the total life cycle energy of residential nZEBs. The current energy efficiency legislation considers only the impact from the operational phase and ignores the embodied impact from the remaining life cycle phases of the building. Nevertheless, the delegated regulation 244 of 2012 acknowledges the incompleteness of this assessment and provides an optional consideration of the embodied (“grey”) energy. The current study applies this option through the macroeconomic global cost calculations and the cost-optimal levels of nZEBs. The results indicate a limited effect of the embodied impact on the cost-optimal levels and in specific on extended calculation periods and... [more]
China’s Energy Transition in the Power and Transport Sectors from a Substitution Perspective
Shangfeng Han, Baosheng Zhang, Xiaoyang Sun, Song Han, Mikael Höök
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: clean energy, cost-emission efficiency, energy substitution, energy transition
Facing heavy air pollution, China needs to transition to a clean and sustainable energy system, especially in the power and transport sectors, which contribute the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The core of an energy transition is energy substitution and energy technology improvement. In this paper, we forecast the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for power generation in 2030 in China. Cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles is also calculated in this study. The results indicate that solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind power will be cost comparative in the future. New energy vehicles are more expensive than conventional vehicles due to their higher manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP). The cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles would be $96.7/ton or $114.8/ton. Gasoline prices, taxes, and vehicle insurance will be good directions for policy implem... [more]
A Cost Optimized Fully Sustainable Power System for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim
Ashish Gulagi, Dmitrii Bogdanov, Christian Breyer
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: 100% renewable energy, Australia, economics, energy system optimization, grid integration, Southeast Asia, storage
In this paper, a cost optimal 100% renewable energy based system is obtained for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim region for the year 2030 on an hourly resolution for the whole year. For the optimization, the region was divided into 15 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current grid connections. The results obtained for a total system levelized cost of electricity showed a decrease from 66.7 €/MWh in a decentralized scenario to 63.5 €/MWh for a centralized grid connected scenario. An integrated scenario was simulated to show the benefit of integrating additional demand of industrial gas and desalinated water which provided the system the required flexibility and increased the efficiency of the usage of storage technologies. This was reflected in the decrease of system cost by 9.5% and the total electricity generation by 5.1%. According to the results, grid integration on a larger scale decreases the total system cost and le... [more]
Green and Sustainable Cellular Base Stations: An Overview and Future Research Directions
Mohammed H. Alsharif, Jeong Kim, Jin Hong Kim
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: cellular BSs, cost effectiveness, green BSs, renewable-energy-powered BSs, sustainable BSs
Energy efficiency and renewable energy are the main pillars of sustainability and environmental compatibility. This study presents an overview of sustainable and green cellular base stations (BSs), which account for most of the energy consumed in cellular networks. We review the architecture of the BS and the power consumption model, and then summarize the trends in green cellular network research over the past decade. As its major contribution, this study highlights the uses of renewable energy in cellular communication by: (i) investigating the system model and the potential of renewable energy solutions for cellular BSs; (ii) identifying the potential geographical locations for renewable-energy-powered BSs; (iii) performing case studies on renewable-energy-powered cellular BSs and suggesting future research directions based on our findings; (iv) examining the present deployment of sustainable and green BSs; and (v) studying the barriers that prevent the widespread use of renewable-e... [more]
A Solar Energy Solution for Sustainable Third Generation Mobile Networks
Mohammed H. Alsharif
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy consumption, energy harvesting, green mobile networks, power management, smart grid, solar energy, sustainable wireless networks
The energy consumption of cellular networks has become increasingly important to cellular network operators, due to the significant economic and ecological influence of these networks in the future. The development of alternative energy technologies has resulted in the consideration of a solar powered base station (BS) as a long-term solution for the mobile cellular network industry, to reduce the operational expenditures and CO₂ footprints of cellular networks. This study addresses the deployment and operational issues of a solar powered universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS; a third generation mobile cellular system) BS (i.e., Node B) that is currently deployed (i.e., UMTS Node B 2/2/2 and UMTS Node B 4/4/4). In addition, this study employs a hybrid optimization model for an electric renewable software simulator developed by the American National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Four key aspects are discussed in this study: optimal solar system architecture, energy production,... [more]
The EU Electricity Security Decision-Analytic Framework: Status and Perspective Developments
Gianluca Fulli, Marcelo Masera, Catalin Felix Covrig, Francesco Profumo, Ettore Bompard, Tao Huang
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: electricity security, Energy Union, integrated analyses, policy decision making, reliability, vulnerability
Electricity security, generally referring to a system’s capability to provide electricity to its users, is a multi-faceted problem attracting mounting attention from policy makers and scientists around the world. Electricity security encompasses largely different properties based upon the time/geographical scales of the factors affecting electricity delivery; it is challenged by threats surfacing in spheres far beyond the physical one; it involves a myriad of stakeholders spanning manifold disciplines and with considerably different expectations from the electricity commodity or services; it can be studied as a complicated techno-economic problem or as a complex socio-economic problem. All the above reasons, in a framework of changing European Union (EU) and global energy scenarios, render electricity security ever more challenging to assess and critical to safeguard. Against this background, this work presents recommendations to bring science and policy making closer towards evaluatin... [more]
Wind Energy Potential and Power Law Indexes Assessment for Selected Near-Coastal Sites in Malaysia
Aliashim Albani, Mohd Zamri Ibrahim
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: capacity factor, Malaysia, power law index, wind atlas, wind energy
This paper investigated the wind energy potential by analysing a certain amount of gathered 10-min measured data at four stations located at coastal sites in Malaysia, i.e., Kudat, Mersing, Kijal, and Langkawi. The wind data are collected from a total of four new wind measurement masts with sensors mounted at various heights on the tower. The measured data have enabled the establishment of wind resource maps and the power law indexes (PLIs) analysis. In addition, the dependence of PLI upon surface temperature and terrain types is studied, as they are associated to the form of exponential fits. Moreover, the accuracy of exponential fits is assessed by comparing the results with the 1/7 law via the capacity factor (CF) discrepancies. In order to do so, the wind turbine with a hub-height similar to the maximum height of the measured data at each site is selected to simulate energy production. Accordingly, the discrepancy of CF based on the extrapolated data by employing 1/7 laws and expon... [more]
Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Leaf Litter Designated for Combustion
Meike Nitsche, Nodirjon Nurmatov, Frank Hensgen, Michael Wachendorf
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: bioenergy, contamination, leaves, municipal, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Vast amounts of leaf litter have to be disposed of by city administrations. This biomass has the potential for energy conversion, but contamination with pollutants can adversely affect this usage. We investigated leaf litter samples from the city of Kassel by analyzing their heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. Leaf samples were indeed contaminated with heavy metals and PAHs and contamination was influenced by provenience and collection technique. A simple cleaning system of washing and subsequent mechanical dewatering significantly reduced heavy metal concentration. Regression models were developed for contamination with heavy metals which showed that contamination could be successfully estimated using the total ash content of the sample as a predictor, with an R² of up to 0.77. It can be concluded that leaf litter from cities is a possible feedstock for energetic conversion, provided a cleaning step is applied.
Sustainability of the Renewable Energy Extraction Close to the Mediterranean Islands
Vincenzo Franzitta, Domenico Curto
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Mediterranean Sea, Pantelleria Island, point absorber, wave energy conversion
The aim of this work is to explore the possibility of transitioning a fuel powered island to a renewable powered one. This transition is analyzed for the real MV/LV distribution system of the island of Pantelleria, in the Mediterranean Sea. Particularly, this work is focused on a renewable source nowadays totally unused: wave energy. Thanks to the innovative generator prototype designed by Department of Energy of University of Palermo (Italy), wave energy is able to represent a primary source for the production of electric energy in the Mediterranean islands. The procedures applied in the present article, as well as the main equations used, are the result of previous applications made in different technical fields that show a good replicability.
On Long-Term Transmission Rights in the Nordic Electricity Markets
Petr Spodniak, Mikael Collan, Mari Makkonen
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: electricity area price differentials (EPAD), financial transmission rights (FTR), hedging, Nordic electricity markets, risk management
In vein with the new energy market rules drafted in the EU this paper presents and discusses two contract types for hedging the risks connected to long-term transmission rights, the financial transmission right (FTR) and the electricity price area differentials (EPAD) that are used in the Nordic electricity markets. The possibility to replicate the FTR contracts with a combination of EPAD contracts is presented and discussed. Based on historical evidence and empirical analysis of ten Nordic interconnectors and twenty bidding areas, we investigate the pricing accuracy of the replicated FTR contracts by quantifying ex-post forward risk premia. The results show that the majority of the studied FTR contain a negative risk premium, especially the monthly and the quarterly contracts. Reverse flow (unnatural) pricing was identified for two interconnectors. From a theoretical policy point of view the results imply that it may be possible to continue with the EPAD-based system by using EPAD Com... [more]
The Business Model Evaluation Tool for Smart Cities: Application to SmartSantander Use Cases
Raimundo Díaz-Díaz, Luis Muñoz, Daniel Pérez-González
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: business models, IoT, measurement, performance, public service, smart city
New technologies open up the door to multiple business models applied to public services in smart cities. However, there is not a commonly adopted methodology for evaluating business models in smart cities that can help both practitioners and researchers to choose the best option. This paper addresses this gap introducing the Business Model Evaluation Tool for Smart Cities. This methodology is a simple, organized, flexible and the transparent system that facilitates the work of the evaluators of potential business models. It is useful to compare two or more business models and take strategic decisions promptly. The method is part of a previous process of content analysis and it is based on the widely utilized Business Model Canvas. The evaluation method has been assessed by 11 experts and, subsequently it has been validated applying it to the case studies of Santander’s waste management and street lighting systems, which take advantage of innovative technologies commonly used in smart... [more]
The Impact of Shale Gas on the Cost and Feasibility of Meeting Climate Targets—A Global Energy System Model Analysis and an Exploration of Uncertainties
Sheridan Few, Ajay Gambhir, Tamaryn Napp, Adam Hawkes, Stephane Mangeon, Dan Bernie, Jason Lowe
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: climate change mitigation, energy economics, energy scenarios, energy system analysis, fugitive methane emissions, Natural Gas, shale gas, supply curves, TIMES Integrated Assessment Model (TIAM)
There exists considerable uncertainty over both shale and conventional gas resource availability and extraction costs, as well as the fugitive methane emissions associated with shale gas extraction and its possible role in mitigating climate change. This study uses a multi-region energy system model, TIAM (TIMES integrated assessment model), to consider the impact of a range of conventional and shale gas cost and availability assessments on mitigation scenarios aimed at achieving a limit to global warming of below 2 °C in 2100, with a 50% likelihood. When adding shale gas to the global energy mix, the reduction to the global energy system cost is relatively small (up to 0.4%), and the mitigation cost increases by 1%⁻3% under all cost assumptions. The impact of a “dash for shale gas”, of unavailability of carbon capture and storage, of increased barriers to investment in low carbon technologies, and of higher than expected leakage rates, are also considered; and are each found to have t... [more]
Improvement of Wind Energy Production through HVDC Systems
Morris Brenna, Federica Foiadelli, Michela Longo, Dario Zaninelli
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: HVDC transmission system, Italian power system, renewables integration, wind curtailment
Variable and non-programmable resources, such as solar and wind, have undergone a stunning growth in recent years and are likely to gain even more importance in the future. Their strong presence in the national electricity mix has created issues in many countries regarding the secure operation of the power system. In order to guarantee the stability of the system, several TSOs have resorted to wind energy curtailment, which represents a waste of clean energy and an economic loss. In order to analyze this issue, a model of the Italian power system was developed, a program able to simulate the electricity dispatching mechanism. The model was, then, used to evaluate possible solutions to reduce wind curtailment. In particular, a proposal for the construction of an HVDC line linking Southern and Northern Italy was studied.
A System Dynamics Analysis of Investment, Technology and Policy that Affect Natural Gas Exploration and Exploitation in China
Jianzhong Xiao, Jinhua Cheng, Jun Shen, Xiaolin Wang
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: China, exploitation and exploration, natural gas industry, system dynamics modeling
Natural gas has an increasing role in Chinese energy transformation. We present a system dynamics model of the natural gas industry in China. A new system dynamics model for natural gas companies based on reserve exploration and well construction as well as investment dynamics is proposed. The contribution of the paper is to analyze the influence of technology, investment and policy factors on the natural gas industry. We found that the dynamics of the main variables, including gas policy, cost of investment, accounting depreciation and exploitation technology, are sensitive to the sustainable development of resources. The simulations and results presented here will be helpful for government to reform policies, and for upstream companies to make decisions.
Conversion Technologies: Evaluation of Economic Performance and Environmental Impact Analysis for Municipal Solid Waste in Malaysia
Rabiatul Adawiyah Ali, Nik Nor Liyana Nik Ibrahim, Hon Loong Lam
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: municipal solid waste conversion technology, Optimization, P-graph
The generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is increasing globally every year, including in Malaysia. Approaching the year 2020, Malaysia still has MSW disposal issues since most waste goes to landfills rather than being utilized as energy. Process network synthesis (PNS) is a tool to optimize the conversion technologies of MSW. This study optimizes MSW conversion technologies using a PNS tool, the “process graph” (P-graph). The four highest compositions (i.e., food waste, agriculture waste, paper, and plastics) of MSW generated in Malaysia were optimized using a P-graph. Two types of conversion technologies were considered, biological conversion (anaerobic digestion) and thermal conversion (pyrolysis and incinerator), since limited data were available for use as optimization input. All these conversion technologies were compared with the standard method used: landfilling. One hundred feasible structure were generated using a P-graph. Two feasible structures were selected from nine,... [more]
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