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Records with Subject: Energy Policy
Showing records 1 to 25 of 166. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Sustainable Waste-to-Energy Development in Malaysia: Appraisal of Environmental, Financial, and Public Issues Related with Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste
Zi Jun Yong, Mohammed J.K. Bashir, Choon Aun Ng, Sumathi Sethupathi, Jun Wei Lim, Pau Loke Show
December 9, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: economic, environmental, Malaysia, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Renewable and Sustainable Energy, social, technical, Waste-to-Energy (WTE)
As Malaysia is a fast-developing country, its prospects of sustainable energy generation are at the center of debate. Malaysian municipal solid waste (MSW) is projected to have a 3-5% increase in annual generation rate at the same time an increase of 4-8% for electricity demand. In Malaysia, most of the landfills are open dumpsite and 89% of the collected MSW end up in landfills. Furthermore, huge attention is being focused on converting MSW into energy due to the enormous amount of daily MSW being generated. Sanitary landfill to capture methane from waste landfill gas (LFG) and incineration in a combined heat and power plant (CHP) are common MSW-to-energy technologies in Malaysia. MSW in Malaysia contains 45% organic fraction thus landfill contributes as a potential LFG source. Waste-to-energy (WTE) technologies in treating MSW potentially provide an attractive economic investment since its feedstock (MSW) is collected almost for free. At present, there are considerable issues in WTE... [more]
Energy Model for Long-Term Scenarios in Power Sector under Energy Transition Laws
Gabriela Hernández-Luna, Rosenberg J. Romero, Antonio Rodríguez-Martínez, José María Ponce-Ortega, Jesús Cerezo Román, Guadalupe Diocelina Toledo Vázquez
December 9, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: electricity model, Mexican prospectives, power plants prospectives
High electricity demand, as well as emissions generated from this activity impact directly to global warming. Mexico is paying attention to this world difficulty and it is convinced that sustainable economic growth is possible. For this reason, it has made actions to face this problem like as launching constitutional reforms in the power sector. This paper presents an energy model to optimize the grid of power plants in the Mexican electricity sector (MES). The energy model considers indicators and parameters from Mexican Energy Reforms. Electricity demand is defined as a function of two population models and three electricity consumption per capita. Prospectives are presented as a function of total annual cost of electricity generation, an optimal number of power plants—fossil and clean—as well as CO2eq emissions. By mean of the energy model, optimized grid scenarios are identified to meet the governmental goals (energy and environment) to 2050. In addition, this model could be used a... [more]
Effective Use of Carbon Pricing on Climate Change Mitigation Projects: Analysis of the Biogas Supply Chain to Substitute Liquefied-Petroleum Gas in Mexico
Luis Alberto Díaz-Trujillo, Javier Tovar-Facio, Fabricio Nápoles-Rivera, José María Ponce-Ortega
December 3, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: biogas, carbon emission trading, carbon tax, fossil fuel substitution, Optimization
There is presently an urgent demand for efficient and/or renewable energy technologies to correct global warming. However, these energy technologies are limited mainly by political and economic constraints of high costs and the lack of subsidy. Carbon-pricing strategies, such as carbon-emission taxes and carbon-emission trading schemes, may reduce this gap between sustainable and unsustainable energy technologies. Therefore, this paper seeks to analyze both of these carbon-pricing instruments in the Mexican energy sector to promote upgrading biogas investment and to substitute liquified petroleum gas consumption using an optimization approach. Furthermore, we propose a multi-objective optimization approach to encourage investment in the biogas supply chain supported by an effective use of carbon-pricing schemes. A case study of the central western region of Mexico was made to analyze the performance of the proposed methodologies. The results show that carbon-emission taxes and carbon-e... [more]
The Impact of Authorized Remanufacturing on Sustainable Remanufacturing
Xiqiang Xia, Cuixia Zhang
December 3, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: authorized remanufacturing, game, remanufacturing, sustainability supply chain
Remanufacturing could effectively solve resource shortage and environment crisis and achieve sustainable development of the economy. The original equipment manufacturer (OEM) could not only focus on its core business (i.e., producing new products), but also get profit from remanufacturing through the intellectual property rights. Based on the authorized remanufacturing, the game model between a manufacturer and a remanufacturer was constructed. Based on the game model, the impact of authorized remanufacturing on sustainable remanufacturing is analysed, and the coordination mechanism between manufacturer and remanufacturer is given. The main results are as follows: the OEM could increase its profit and change its unfavourable market competition status by authorizing remanufacturing; a franchise contract could make the sustainability supply chain optimized; when the ratio of the environment effect is greater than a certain threshold, centralized decision-making could not only increase th... [more]
Rainwater Harvesting Potential and Utilization for Artificial Recharge of Groundwater Using Recharge Wells
Fiaz Hussain, Riaz Hussain, Ray-Shyan Wu, Tanveer Abbas
November 24, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: artificial recharge wells, Lahore city, RWH, urban inundation
This study devised a practical solution to mitigate urban inundation and artificial recharge of groundwater using recharge wells which is the most viable surface runoff rainwater harvesting (RWH) technique in urban areas. The Rainwater Harvesting Pilot Project at Gaddafi Stadium Lahore was established to deal with urban flooding, artificial recharge of groundwater, and to avoid the mixing of rainwater in municipal sewerage. The study showed that Lahore city has great RWH potential from critical ponding roads that can be utilized to recharge the Lahore aquifer. With that ratio of recharge, the groundwater level can rise to 3.54 ft after every monsoon period if the same recharge wells structure are used, which is a key to groundwater sustainability in Lahore city. Moreover, the maximum recharging capacity of wells was 29.32 m3/h with satisfactory performance. Both recharge wells cleared the ponding volume within 3 to 3.5 h after the rainfall stopped. The filter media performance was also... [more]
The Biomass Potential and GHG (Greenhouse Gas) Emissions Mitigation of Straw-Based Biomass Power Plant: A Case Study in Anhui Province, China
Hui Li, Xue Min, Mingwei Dai, Xinju Dong
November 24, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Anhui, biomass resource, GHG emission mitigation, power plant
Anhui Province (AHP), a typical agriculture-based province in China, has a significant amount of biomass resources for the development of biomass power plants. By the end of 2016, 23 straw based biomass power plants were established in AHP, aggregating to 6560 MW capacity, which is now ranked second in China. This paper presents the current development status and GHG (Greenhouse Gas) mitigation effect of the straw based biomass power plants in Anhui Province. Total biomass production in 2016 was calculated as 41.84 million tons. Although there is huge biomass potential in AHP, the distribution is heterogeneous with a gradually decreasing trend from north to south. Furthermore, the installed capacity of power generation is also unmatched with the biomass resources. Based on a calculation made in 2016, approximately 3.44 million tons of CO2-eq were mitigated from the biomass power plants in AHP. The large-scale development of biomass power plants remains a challenge for the future, espec... [more]
Multiple Scenarios Forecast of Electric Power Substitution Potential in China: From Perspective of Green and Sustainable Development
Jing Wu, Zhongfu Tan, Gejirifu De, Lei Pu, Keke Wang, Qingkun Tan, Liwei Ju
November 24, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: CSO-ELM, electric power substitution, green sustainable development, potential forecasting
To achieve sustainable social development, the Chinese government conducts electric power substitution strategy as a green move. Traditional fuels such as coal and oil could be replaced by electric power to achieve fundamental transformation of energy consumption structure. In order to forecast and analyze the developing potential of electric power substitution, a forecasting model based on a correlation test, the cuckoo search optimization (CSO) algorithm and extreme learning machine (ELM) method is constructed. Besides, China’s present situation of electric power substitution is analyzed as well and important influencing factors are selected and transmitted to the CSO-ELM model to carry out the fitting analysis. The results showed that the CSO-ELM model has great forecasting accuracy. Finally, combining with the cost, policy supports, subsidy mechanism and China’s power consumption data in the past 21 years, four forecasting scenarios are designed and the forecasting results of 2019−... [more]
Impact of Fractionation Process on the Technical and Economic Viability of Corn Dry Grind Ethanol Process
Chinmay Kurambhatti, Deepak Kumar, Vijay Singh
November 24, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: corn fiber, corn processing, dry fractionation, dry grind, Ethanol, Technoeconomic Analysis, wet fractionation
Use of corn fractionation techniques in dry grind process increases the number of coproducts, enhances their quality and value, generates feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production and potentially increases profitability of the dry grind process. The aim of this study is to develop process simulation models for eight different wet and dry corn fractionation techniques recovering germ, pericarp fiber and/or endosperm fiber, and evaluate their techno-economic feasibility at the commercial scale. Ethanol yields for plants processing 1113.11 MT corn/day were 37.2 to 40 million gal for wet fractionation and 37.3 to 31.3 million gal for dry fractionation, compared to 40.2 million gal for conventional dry grind process. Capital costs were higher for wet fractionation processes ($92.85 to $97.38 million) in comparison to conventional ($83.95 million) and dry fractionation ($83.35 to $84.91 million) processes. Due to high value of coproducts, ethanol production costs in most fractionation proc... [more]
Performance and Economic Analysis of Concentrated Solar Power Generation for Pakistan
Mujeeb Iqbal Soomro, Abdullah Mengal, Yasir Aftab Memon, Muhammad Waris Ali Khan, Qadir Nawaz Shafiq, Nayyar Hussain Mirjat
November 24, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: concentrated solar power, CSP plants, economic analyses, Pakistan, performance analyses, site assessment, system advisor model
In Pakistan, the utilization of renewable energy sources is increasing in order to reduce the electricity supply and demand gap. However, concentrated solar power (CSP) generation has not been considered in the country even though it has gained considerable attention worldwide. This study, as such, investigates the potential, performance, and economic analyses of four CSP technologies for different locations in Pakistan. Initially, an assessment of CSP sites, including solar resource, land, and water availability, was undertaken. Then, performance simulations of CSP technologies for four different locations of Pakistan, namely Quetta, Hyderabad, Multan, and Peshawar, were examined. For all cases, highest energy production was achieved in summers and lowest in winters, and CSP plants with evaporative cooling were found to be efficient compared to air cooling. The results also revealed that the Quetta and Hyderabad regions were promising for CSP development while parabolic tough (PT) and... [more]
Large-Scale Green Supplier Selection Approach under a Q-Rung Interval-Valued Orthopair Fuzzy Environment
Limei Liu, Wenzhi Cao, Biao Shi, Ming Tang
November 24, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: clustering method, large-scale green supplier selection, q-RIVOF-MULTIMOORA method, q-rung interval-valued orthopair fuzzy set
As enterprises pay more and more attention to environmental issues, the green supply chain management (GSCM) mode has been extensively utilized to guarantee profit and sustainable development. Green supplier selection (GSS), which is a key segment of GSCM, has been investigated to put forward plenty of GSS approaches. At present, enterprises prefer to construct the large-scale teams of decision makers to obtain the more reasonable ranking results during GSS process. However, the existing methods pay little attention to the large-scale GSS procedure. To investigate the GSS issue with a large-scale group of decision makers, a new GSS approach under a q-rung interval-valued orthopair fuzzy environment is developed. The q-rung interval-valued orthopair fuzzy numbers are introduced to describe the evaluation information of green suppliers. Combined with a clustering approach and several clustering principles, the large-scale decision makers are divided into several subgroups. Next, the simi... [more]
Research on Ecological Efficiency for the Remanufacturing Process Considering Optimization and Evaluation
Hong Peng, Zhigang Jiang, Han Wang
November 24, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: ecological efficiency, evaluation, process optimization, remanufacturing
The ecological efficiency (EE) of the remanufacturing process occupies an important position in the whole index system of remanufacturing because it will directly affect the economic and environmental benefits of remanufacturing. Therefore, in order to study the EE of the remanufacturing process, a method is proposed to optimize and evaluate the EE of the remanufacturing process. In this method, firstly, the original remanufacturing sub-schemes of used components are designed according to the extracted fault characteristics; secondly, a set of optional process schemes are integrated by using directed graph (DG) to reduce the process schemes; thirdly, the objective function of EE is established, and then an ant colony algorithm with elite strategy (ES-ACO) is proposed to optimize the process schemes. After obtaining the optimal value of EE, the quality coefficient of used components can be calculated, and then numerical simulations (NS) are used to analyze the correlation between the qu... [more]
Improving the Performance of Entities in the Mining Industry by Optimizing Green Business Processes and Emission Inventories
Ionica Oncioiu, Sorinel Căpuşneanu, Dana-Maria Oprea Constantin, Mirela Cătălina Türkeș, Dan Ioan Topor, Florentina Raluca Bîlcan, Anca Gabriela Petrescu
November 5, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: business process optimization, economic sustainability, green activities, mining industry, performance, suspended and sedimental powders
Due to environmental considerations, environmental sustainability has become the main target of contemporary organizations, which has a direct influence on increasing their performance. The purpose of this study was to present the efficiency of green business process optimization for the performances of mining entities. Quantitative research was carried out on a sample of 209 people in an economic entity in the mining industry. The results of the study indicated real possibilities to achieve the objectives set in the research undertaken. Using business process management, the authors examined how green business processes can be optimized in a Romanian mining entity. The main results determined the degree of pollution from suspended and sedimentary dust particles due to coal production from the mining entity that was studied. Moreover, the present research proved that certain key environmental indicators underlie the performance and optimization of green business processes. The practica... [more]
Determination of the Potential Impact of Domestic Anaerobic Digester Systems: A Community Based Research Initiative in Rural Bangladesh
Khondokar M. Rahman, Lynsey Melville, David J. Edwards, David Fulford, Wellington Didibhuku Thwala
October 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: anaerobic digestion, Bangladesh, biogas, Energy, feedstock, impact
This research examines the potential impact of domestic anaerobic digester (AD) systems adopted in Bangladesh and similar developing countries. Cattle dung and poultry litter feed stocks were specifically investigated, because these were freely available and plentiful to people living within agricultural areas of rural Bangladesh. Data was collected to ascertain whether these two representative AD facility types provide tangible social, economic and environmental impact that benefits homeowners. Primary quantitative and qualitative data was obtained by field data collection, and meeting with expert groups and stakeholders. Empirical analysis conducted revealed that variations were found in the biomass feedstocks available on different sites but also differences were apparent in terms of the operations and maintenance (O and M) systems of the biogas plants operated. The biogas and methane yield variation was also measured, and variations were found in the cattle dung and poultry litter... [more]
Investigating the Dynamic Impact of CO2 Emissions and Economic Growth on Renewable Energy Production: Evidence from FMOLS and DOLS Tests
Muhammad Waris Ali Khan, Shrikant Krupasindhu Panigrahi, Khamis Said Nasser Almuniri, Mujeeb Iqbal Soomro, Nayyar Hussain Mirjat, Eisa Salim Alqaydi
September 30, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: carbon emissions, dynamic panel cointegration model, economic growth, Energy, Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square (FMOLS), Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Understanding the dynamic nexus between CO2 emissions and economic growth in the sustainable environment helps the economies in developing resources and formulating apposite energy policies. In the recent past, various studies have explored the nexus between CO2 emissions and economic growth. This study, however, investigates the nexus between renewable energy production, CO2 emissions, and economic growth over the period from 1995 to 2016 for seven Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square (FMOLS) and Dynamic Ordinary Least Square (DOLS) methodologies were used to estimate the long- and short-run relationships. The panel results revealed that renewable energy production has a significant long term effect on CO2 emissions for Vietnam (t = −2.990), Thailand (t = −2.505), and Indonesia (t = −2.515), and economic growth impact for Malaysia (t = 2.050), Thailand (t = −2.001), and the Philippines (t = −2.710). It is, therefore, vital that... [more]
Evaluation for the Leaching of Cr from Coal Gangue Using Expansive Soils
Yan Zhang, Hassan Baaj, Rong Zhao
September 30, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: coal gangue, expansive soil, heavy metal, leaching, unconfined compressive strength
Coal gangue can cause significant heavy metal pollution in mining areas, which would have a negative impact on the environment and human health. The objective of this research is to investigate the relationship between expansive soil amount and the leaching behavior of Chromium from coal gangue and the engineering properties of coal gangue used as building materials. The leaching behavior of Chromium from coal gangue was observed using atomic absorption spectrometry. A column leaching experiment was conducted to examine the impact of leaching time and heavy metal concentration. Furthermore, the unconfined compressive strength test was employed to evaluate the engineering properties of coal gangue with expansive soil. The results of the study demonstrate that pH of leachate solutions, leaching time, and expansive soil amounts in mixtures have important influence on Chromium concentration. The leachate solutions, which behave like alkaline, provide a positive environment for adsorbing Cr... [more]
A Review on Energy Consumption, Energy Efficiency and Energy Saving of Metal Forming Processes from Different Hierarchies
Mengdi Gao, Kang He, Lei Li, Qingyang Wang, Conghu Liu
August 8, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy consumption, Energy Efficiency, energy-saving, metal forming process, press
Energy efficiency improvement and environmental impact reduction are emerging issues in the manufacturing industry. Aside from cutting, metal forming is also an important process in manufacturing. Metal forming is energy intensive because of the low energy efficiency of the used metal forming press. Although many literature reviews focused on the energy reduction and energy efficiency of machine tools, a comprehensive literature review of metal forming processes remains lacking because of the great difference between cutting machines and forming equipment. In addition, methods for energy efficiency and energy-saving still need to be promoted in metal forming. In this review, a novel hierarchy of the metal forming system was presented to describe the relationship among the equipment, process, and manufacturing system, providing a guideline of methods for energy efficiency and saving in metal forming. Then, existing energy consumption modeling and estimation theories and methods were dis... [more]
Applied Research Towards Industry 4.0: Opportunities for SMEs
Ilaria Zambon, Gianluca Egidi, Fabiano Rinaldi, Sirio Cividino
August 8, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: industrial processes, Industry 4.0, job safety, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, SMEs, sustainable development, technologies
Industry 4.0 designates the recent digital revolution in the industrial sector, evolving from the comprehensive networking and automation of all the productive areas. Equipment, machinery, materials and products permit to (i) distinguish dealing out environmental settings and current status via sensors; (ii) join them through fixed software; and (iii) progress production procedures in an exclusive method. Additionally, Industry 4.0 exposes new trials to enterprises, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Firms should advance approaches to (i) achieve chances of innovation and digitalization; (ii) expand their processes; and (iii) define innovative business models. Based on these premises, a well-organized political, legal and infrastructural outline is essential to build up a business having an Industry 4.0 approach. Though bigger firms can get ahead through innovation processes and predicting the potential digitalization risks for their business models, SMEs may be in t... [more]
Measuring Energy Efficiency and Environmental Performance: A Case of South Asia
Yumei Hou, Wasim Iqbal, Ghulam Muhammad Shaikh, Nadeem Iqbal, Yasir Ahmad Solangi, Arooj Fatima
August 5, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, energy efficiency indicators, environmental performance, South Asia region
When assessing energy efficiency, most studies have frequently ignored environmental aspects even though the concept has been widely used in the past. This study evaluates the energy efficiency and environmental performance of South Asia by using DEA (data envelopment analysis) like mathematical composite indicator. We construct a comprehensive set of indicators, including an energy self-sufficiency ratio, energy production over consumption ratio, energy imports, diversification index of energy imports, energy reserve ratio, GDP productivity, energy intensity, per capita energy consumption index, carbon emission index, carbon emission index per unit of energy consumption and share of renewable energy in order to develop an energy efficiency and environmental performance index. Unlike other studies, this study first examines each indicator and then estimates a combined score for each country. The results reveal that Bhutan as a more secure country and Pakistan showed a decreasing trend,... [more]
Assessment of the Governance System Regarding Adoption of Energy Efficient Appliances by Households in Nigeria
James A. Gana, Thomas Hoppe
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, governance, household electrical appliances, Nigeria, policy
The adoption of energy efficient electrical appliances by households has a great potential to reduce electricity consumption in Nigeria. A well-formulated and implemented policy (mix) to spur adoption is said to be required to drive this process. This article presents an assessment of policies that aim to spur adoption among households, and the related governance system. The analytical framework used for this analysis is the Governance Assessment Tool (GAT). Data collection involved semi-structured interviews, a review of policy documents, and secondary quantitative data. The results show that policies in Nigeria had little effect in meeting pre-set goals. The governance system was found to be weakly developed due to a lack of policy, the overlapping work of different governmental organizations, a lack of appropriate resources, and a lack of householders’ involvement in agenda-setting and decision-making processes. Current actions mostly depend on local programmes that run via donor ai... [more]
Exploring the Feasibility of Low-Carbon Scenarios Using Historical Energy Transitions Analysis
Tamaryn Napp, Dan Bernie, Rebecca Thomas, Jason Lowe, Adam Hawkes, Ajay Gambhir
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: decarbonisation, energy systems modelling, energy transition, low-carbon
The scenarios generated by energy systems models provide a picture of the range of possible pathways to a low-carbon future. However, in order to be truly useful, these scenarios should not only be possible but also plausible. In this paper, we have used lessons from historical energy transitions to create a set of diagnostic tests to assess the feasibility of an example 2 °C scenario (generated using the least cost optimization model, TIAM-Grantham). The key assessment criteria included the rate of deployment of low carbon technologies and the rate of transition between primary energy resources. The rates of deployment of key low-carbon technologies were found to exceed the maximum historically observed rate of deployment of 20% per annum. When constraints were added to limit the scenario to within historically observed rates of change, the model no longer solved for 2 °C. Under these constraints, the lowest median 2100 temperature change for which a solution was found was about 2.1 °... [more]
Towards Nearly Zero Energy Buildings in Europe: A Focus on Retrofit in Non-Residential Buildings
Delia D’Agostino, Paolo Zangheri, Luca Castellazzi
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy policy, energy requirements, nearly zero energy buildings (NZEBs), non-residential buildings, retrofit
Buildings are the focus of European (EU) policies aimed at a sustainable and competitive low-carbon economy by 2020. Reducing energy consumption of existing buildings and achieving nearly zero energy buildings (NZEBs) are the core of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) and the recast of the Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD). To comply with these requirements, Member States have to adopt actions to exploit energy savings from the building sector. This paper describes the differences between deep, major and NZEB renovation and then it provides an overview of best practice policies and measures to target retrofit and investment related to non-residential buildings. Energy requirements defined by Member States for NZEB levels are reported comparing both new and existing residential and non-residential buildings. The paper shows how the attention given to refurbishment of NZEBs increased over the last decade, but the achievement of a comprehensive implementation of retrofit... [more]
Where Diffusion of Clean Technologies and Barriers to Innovation Clash: Application to the Global Diffusion of the Electrical Arc Furnace
José Antonio Moya
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: barriers, diffusion of innovations, energy efficiency gap, energy-system models, industrial energy efficiency
This paper analyses the role of barriers preventing the worldwide take-up of a clean technology: the electrical arc furnace. It also identifies which barriers affect a parameter that summarises the combined effect of all of them. The first step, determination of the combined effect of the barriers, is carried out using a novel approach to model the diffusion of innovations. This new approach is composed only by terms that account for the driver of innovations and the parameter that summarises the effect of barriers. The objective quantification of the effect of barriers in the diffusion of innovations opens up new opportunities for designing policies to overcome the barriers identified as the most relevant, for identifying the effect of existing policies, for relating innovation indicators with those barriers or for better incorporating the effect of barriers in bottom-up models that forecast the technological evolution of the economy.
Barriers to Energy Efficiency in Swedish Non-Energy-Intensive Micro- and Small-Sized Enterprises—A Case Study of a Local Energy Program
Fredrik Backman
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: barriers, Energy Efficiency, municipal, Swedish local enterprises
Improved energy efficiency has become a strategic issue and represents a priority for European competitiveness. Countries adopt various energy policies on local and national levels where energy audit programs are the most common energy end-use efficiency policy for industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). However, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, which can be explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates how Swedish municipalities can support local micro- and small-sized enterprises with improved energy efficiency and the existence of different barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency. Relating this empirical case study to the theoretical barriers outlined in the text, this study found that the major explanatory factors related to non-implementation of cost-effective energy efficiency measures among micro- and small-sized industrial enterprises were bounded ratio... [more]
The Economy-Carbon Nexus in China: A Multi-Regional Input-Output Analysis of the Influence of Sectoral and Regional Development
Xin Yan, Jianping Ge
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: China, CO2 emission, economic growth, multi-regional input-output
China has become the world’s largest carbon dioxide (CO₂) emitter. Sectoral production activities promote economic development while also adding considerably to national CO₂ emissions. Due to their different sectoral structures, each region shows different levels of economic development and CO₂ emissions. The Chinese government hopes to achieve the dual objectives of economic growth and CO₂ emissions reduction by encouraging those sectors that have high economic influence and low environmental influence. Based on the above background, this study constructed an inter-regional sectoral economic influence coefficient (REIC) and a CO₂ emissions influence coefficient (RCIC) based on the basic multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model to analyse the economy-carbon nexus of 17 sectors in 30 regions in China in 2010. The results showed that most Chinese sectors and regions had low CO₂ emissions influences in 2010. However, some sectors showed negative environmental influences. Specifically, the... [more]
Assessing the Feasibility of Global Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios
Ajay Gambhir, Laurent Drouet, David McCollum, Tamaryn Napp, Dan Bernie, Adam Hawkes, Oliver Fricko, Petr Havlik, Keywan Riahi, Valentina Bosetti, Jason Lowe
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: climate change mitigation, low-carbon scenarios, mitigation feasibility
This study explores the critical notion of how feasible it is to achieve long-term mitigation goals to limit global temperature change. It uses a model inter-comparison of three integrated assessment models (TIAM-Grantham, MESSAGE-GLOBIOM and WITCH) harmonized for socio-economic growth drivers using one of the new shared socio-economic pathways (SSP2), to analyse multiple mitigation scenarios aimed at different temperature changes in 2100, in order to assess the model outputs against a range of indicators developed so as to systematically compare the feasibility across scenarios. These indicators include mitigation costs and carbon prices, rates of emissions reductions and energy efficiency improvements, rates of deployment of key low-carbon technologies, reliance on negative emissions, and stranding of power generation assets. The results highlight how much more challenging the 2 °C goal is, when compared to the 2.5⁻4 °C goals, across virtually all measures of feasibility. Any delay i... [more]
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