Records with Subject: Energy Policy
Showing records 1 to 25 of 225. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Advances in Biomass Co-Combustion with Fossil Fuels in the European Context: A Review
Miroslav Variny, Augustín Varga, Miroslav Rimár, Ján Janošovský, Ján Kizek, Ladislav Lukáč, Gustáv Jablonský, Otto Mierka
January 24, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: ash, biomass pretreatment, co-combustion, Fossil Fuel, greenhouse gases, oxy-combustion, reburning, synergy
Co-combustion of biomass-based fuels and fossil fuels in power plant boilers, utility boilers, and process furnaces is a widely acknowledged means of efficient heat and power production, offering higher power production than comparable systems with sole biomass combustion. This, in combination with CO2 and other greenhouse gases abatement and low specific cost of system retrofit to co-combustion, counts among the tangible advantages of co-combustion application. Technical and operational issues regarding the accelerated fouling, slagging, and corrosion risk, as well as optimal combustion air distribution impact on produced greenhouse gases emissions and ash properties, belong to intensely researched topics nowadays in parallel with the combustion aggregates design optimization, the advanced feed pretreatment techniques, and the co-combustion life cycle assessment. This review addresses the said topics in a systematic manner, starting with feed availability, its pretreatment, fuel prope... [more]
Biomethanation Potential (BMP) Study of Mesophilic Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Abundant Bio-Wastes in Southern Regions of Tunisia
Mawaheb Mouftahi, Nawel Tlili, Nejib Hidouri, Pietro Bartocci, Khalideh Al bkoor Alrawashdeh, Eid Gul, Federica Liberti, Francesco Fantozzi
September 22, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: anaerobic digestion, bio-methane potential, biogas, organic wastes
Tunisia is a country that suffers from energy demand problems and environmental matters. Thus, Tunisian authorities desire to encourage the development of renewable energy sources, especially from biological processes, like anaerobic digestion. Therefore, this study is focused on the evaluation of biogas and bio-methane yield from the co-digestion of three available and abundant bio-wastes in the southern regions of Tunisia. The three different raw materials are an organic fraction of municipal solid waste, chicken manure, and olive mill wastewater. In this context, experimental work to evaluate the potential of biogas and bio-methane production was carried out at mesophilic temperature 35 °C and batch mode. The present work highlights the possibility of generating biogas from these organic wastes and reducing the amounts of the wastes to dispose of in landfills. The experimental study of the co-digestion process under specific conditions of carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), T, pH, and i... [more]
Inventory of MSWI Fly Ash in Switzerland: Heavy Metal Recovery Potential and Their Properties for Acid Leaching
Wolfgang Zucha, Gisela Weibel, Mirjam Wolffers, Urs Eggenberger
July 29, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: acid leaching, heavy metal recovery, MSWI fly ash, properties of fly ash
From the year 2021 on, heavy metals from Swiss municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash (FA) must be recovered before landfilling. This is predominantly performed by acid leaching. As a basis for the development of defined recovery rates and for the implementation of the recovery process, the authorities and plant operators need information on the geochemical properties of FA. This study provides extended chemical and mineralogical characterization of all FA produced in 29 MSWI plants in Switzerland. Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and metallic aluminum (Al0) were additionally analyzed to estimate the effort for acid leaching. Results show that all FA samples are composed of similar constituents, but their content varies due to differences in waste input and incineration conditions. Based on their geochemical properties, the ashes could be divided into four types describing the leachability: very good (6 FA), good (10 FA), moderate (5 FA), and poor leaching potential (8 FA).... [more]
Renewable Energy Sources in Transport on the Example of Methyl Esters and Bioethanol
Adam Kupczyk, Joanna Mączyńska-Sęczek, Ewa Golisz, Piotr F. Borowski
July 19, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: CO2 emission reduction, mechanical engineering, eco-mobility, esters, processes, renewable energy sources
The aim of this article is to show how the situation of domestic biofuels in Poland and the alternative fuels sector is changing. On the basis of our own research and the available literature, changes in the production potential of Poland in the field of alternative fuels/biofuels are examined. Moreover, the reasons for changes in the production structure are analyzed. The flexibility of production potential to changes in legal conditions is assessed, and the value of sectors and their future are determined. This paper discusses legal and market aspects related to selected renewable energy sources used in Polish transport. Based on a review of literature and statistical data, the production and use of methyl esters and bioethanol are characterized in detail. Analysis of legal regulations enables the presentation of targets regarding renewable energy source (RES) use in transport by 2030. The results of studies conducted in 2020 are discussed with regard to the value (attractiveness) of... [more]
Nexus between Energy Usability, Economic Indicators and Environmental Sustainability in Four ASEAN Countries: A Non-Linear Autoregressive Exogenous Neural Network Modelling Approach
Siti Indati Mustapa, Freida Ozavize Ayodele, Bamidele Victor Ayodele, Norsyahida Mohammad
June 21, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: ASEAN, CO2 emissions, economic indicator, energy consumption, gross domestic product, NARX neural network
This study investigates the use of a non-linear autoregressive exogenous neural network (NARX) model to investigate the nexus between energy usability, economic indicators, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in four Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), namely Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Optimized NARX model architectures of 5-29-1, 5-19-1, 5-17-1, 5-13-1 representing the input nodes, hidden neurons and the output units were obtained from the series of models configured. Based on the relationship between the input variables, CO2 emissions were predicted with a high correlation coefficient (R) > 0.9. and low mean square errors (MSE) of 3.92 × 10−21, 4.15 × 10−23, 2.02 × 10−19, 1.32 × 10−20 for Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines, respectively. Coal consumption has the highest level of influence on CO2 emissions in the four ASEAN countries based on the sensitivity analysis. These findings suggest that government policies in the four ASEAN... [more]
Impact of Gas Control Policy on the Gas Accidents in Coal Mine
Wei Ke, Kai Wang
May 25, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: coal mine, control policy, delphi method, gas accident, intervention degree
Coal mine gas accidents pose a serious threat to the safety of coal mines in China. To prevent such accidents, the Chinese government and relevant agencies have issued a number of related control policies, though the effect of these policies on gas accidents is still lacking. In this study, the relevant data of coal mine gas accidents in China from 2003 to 2018 are sorted and analyzed. The analysis results show that the number of coal mine accidents and deaths has decreased significantly. However, gas accidents account for the highest proportion of deaths and pose the largest threat, compared with other types of accidents. Subsequently, the developmental stages of China’s gas control policies are summarized; they are the independent development stage, the promotion stage and the consolidation stage. A method of calculating the intervention degree of the gas control policies is proposed. The results show that the policy intervention degree is the highest, and the number of accidents is... [more]
Carbon Emission Reduction Potential in the Finnish Energy System Due to Power and Heat Sector Coupling with Different Renovation Scenarios of Housing Stock
Ilkka Jokinen, Arslan Ahmad Bashir, Janne Hirvonen, Juha Jokisalo, Risto Kosonen, Matti Lehtonen
May 17, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: borehole heat exchanger, emission reduction, Optimization, power-to-heat, residential building renovation, sector coupling, wind power
In the pursuit of mitigating the effects of climate change the European Union and the government of Finland have set targets for emission reductions for the near future. This study examined the carbon emission reduction potential in the Finnish energy system with power-to-heat (P2H) coupling of the electricity and heat sectors with different housing renovation levels. The measures conducted in the energy system were conducted as follows. Wind power generation was increased in the Finnish power system with 10 increments. For each of these, the operation of hydropower was optimized to maximize the utilization of new wind generation. The excess wind generation was used to replace electricity and heat from combined heat and power production for district heating. The P2H conversion was performed by either 2000 m deep borehole heat exchangers coupled to heat pumps, with possible priming of heat, or with electrode boilers. The housing stock renovated to different levels affected both the elec... [more]
Process Strategies for the Transition of 1G to Advanced Bioethanol Production
Ana Susmozas, Raquel Martín-Sampedro, David Ibarra, María E. Eugenio, Raquel Iglesias, Paloma Manzanares, Antonio D. Moreno
April 30, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: bioeconomy, bioethanol, Biomass, integrated biorefineries, retrofitting
Nowadays, the transport sector is one of the main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution in cities. The use of renewable energies is therefore imperative to improve the environmental sustainability of this sector. In this regard, biofuels play an important role as they can be blended directly with fossil fuels and used in traditional vehicles’ engines. Bioethanol is the most used biofuel worldwide and can replace gasoline or form different gasoline-ethanol blends. Additionally, it is an important building block to obtain different high added-value compounds (e.g., acetaldehyde, ethylene, 1,3-butadiene, ethyl acetate). Today, bioethanol is mainly produced from food crops (first-generation (1G) biofuels), and a transition to the production of the so-called advanced ethanol (obtained from lignocellulosic feedstocks, non-food crops, or industrial waste and residue streams) is needed to meet sustainability criteria and to have a better GHG balance. This work gives an ov... [more]
The Challenges of a Biodiesel Implementation Program in Malaysia
Zulqarnain, Mohd Hizami Mohd Yusoff, Muhammad Ayoub, Norwahyu Jusoh, Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah
April 27, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: biodiesel implementation, oleo chemical, palm oil
The palm biodiesel industry is facing many challenges implementing biodiesel program in Malaysia. This paper addresses the importance of the B10 blend (10% biodiesel, 90% petroleum diesel), global challenges of palm oil import and export, and protective measures for continuous positive growth of the palm oil sector. Palm oil is the backbone of Malaysia’s economy, covering more than 5% of its gross domestic product (GDP). The key steps taken by the Malaysian government for the successful implementation of the B10 program are discussed in this review study. Till now, B5 and B7 biodiesel programs have been successfully implemented in Malaysia. The B10 biodiesel program is attractive because of the developed local palm oil sector. The B10 biodiesel program will increase the use of renewable energy sources, and is expected to increase the productivity of palm oil and biodiesel implementation in the country. Despite successful B5 and B7 programs, Malaysia is facing challenges for the impleme... [more]
Drag Effect of Carbon Emissions on the Urbanisation Process: Evidence from China’s Province Panel Data
Jiajia Li, Jiangang Shi, Heng Li, Kaifeng Duan, Rui Zhang, Quanwei Xu
April 16, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: carbon emission, drag effect, panel cointegration, urban development
This study attempts to measure the drag effect of carbon emissions on China’s economic growth by incorporating carbon emissions as an endogenous variable into an economic growth model and by relaxing the assumption that the size of the economy will remain unchanged. The drag effect of carbon emissions on the process of urbanisation is derived based on the intrinsic relationship between economic growth and urban development. Then, unit root and cointegration tests are performed using panel data from 30 provincial regions in Mainland China from 2003 to 2016 to prove and estimate the resistance caused by carbon emission in the process of urbanisation. Results show that the drag effect of carbon emission between 2003 and 2016 has a certain negative impact on the process of urbanisation in China. Due to the constraints of carbon emissions, the growth rate of China’s economic growth and urbanization level is 0.74% and 4.96% lower than that without constraints, respectively. Therefore, in the... [more]
Special Issue on “Energy, Economy and Environment for Industrial Production Processes”
Wei Cai, Guangdong Tian, MengChu Zhou, Fu Zhao, Jorge Cunha
March 14, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Facing significant natural resource consumption, environmental degradation, and climate warming, governments and international organizations have increased their focus on ecological modernization, green growth, and low carbon development, with various sustainable development strategies [...]
Life Cycle Assessment and Economic Analysis of Biomass Energy Technology in China: A Brief Review
Shuangyin Chen, He Feng, Jun Zheng, Jianguo Ye, Yi Song, Haiping Yang, Ming Zhou
March 14, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: biomass power generation, economic evaluation, environment load, life cycle assessment
This study describes the technological processes and characteristics of biomass direct combustion power generation, biomass gasification power generation, biomass mixed combustion power generation, and biomass biogas power generation in terms of their importance and application in China. Under the perspective of environmental and economic sustainability, the life cycle assessment (LCA) method and dynamic analysis method based on time value are used to simulate and evaluate the environmental loads and economic benefits of different power generation processes. By comparing with coal-fired power generation systems, the environmental and economic benefits of different biomass power generation technologies are illustrated. The results shows that biomass gasification power generation has the best environmental benefits, with a total load of 1.05 × 10−5, followed by biomass biogas power generation (9.21 × 10−5), biomass direct combustion power generation (1.23 × 10−4), and biomass mixed combu... [more]
Simulation Data of Regional Economic Analysis of OTEC for Applicable Area
Lim Seungtaek, Lee Hosaeng, Moon Junghyun, Kim Hyeonju
March 1, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: closed cycle, internal rate of return, net present value, ocean thermal energy conversion, open cycle
To mitigate the power shortage problem in the South Pacific island nations and the equatorial area, we studied the development characteristics of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) using abundant clean ocean energy. Through the simulation of open- and closed-cycle OTEC, the generation amount and its economic efficiency were compared, and the application characteristics of the power generation cycle according to the seawater temperature distribution were compared by applying various seawater temperature conditions. According to the characteristics of seawater heat sources in the region, the power generation output was about 883.2 kW in Samoa, and the average power generation by region was about 650.5 kW for the open-cycle OTEC model. Regional revenue up to approximately $8,487,000 was generated in Kiribati, driven by the higher electricity tariff of $0.327/kWh and high water costs of $5.86/ton. With the spread of 50 MW commercial plants, Kiribati had a high net present value of $1,9... [more]
The Role of Technological Innovation in a Dynamic Model of the Environmental Supply Chain Curve: Evidence from a Panel of 102 Countries
Muhammad Khalid Anser, Muhammad Azhar Khan, Usama Awan, Rubeena Batool, Khalid Zaman, Muhammad Imran, Sasmoko, Yasinta Indrianti, Aqeel Khan, Zainudin Abu Bakar
February 22, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: carbon damages, differenced panel GMM, economic growth, green supply chain management, logistics performance indices, technological factors
Advancing smart production systems for green production remains a crucial priority for manufacturers, while the vision to achieve green supply chain management process (GSCMP) remains obstructed due to using less fuel-efficient technologies. This study suggested an intelligent logistics design that infused technological indicators with logistics performance indices (LPIs) to minimize carbon damages in a panel of 102 countries. The study used patent applications and trademark applications to analyze the technological progress, whereas LPIs—i.e., LPI-1 for assessing quality and competence services, and LPI-2 for trade and transport infrastructure—are used to determine supply chain management process across countries. The results show that carbon damages follow a U-shaped structure with technology-induced LPIs (TI-LPIs) and GDP per capita. The country’s GDP per capita and TI-LPIs decrease carbon damages up to US$15,000,000, while the moderation of patents application (and trademark applic... [more]
Processes for Bioenergy and Resources Recovery from Biowaste
Elsayed Elbeshbishy, Bipro Ranjan Dhar
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
The increasing quantity of biowaste generation and the requirements governing their ultimate disposal are of serious economic and environmental concern [...]
An Overview of Household Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Iran
Omeid Rahmani, Shahabaldin Rezania, Amin Beiranvand Pour, Shahram M. Aminpour, Mohammad Soltani, Yousef Ghaderpour, Bahareh Oryani
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: CO2 emissions, energy consumption, household, Iran
This review tends to obtain a deeper understanding of the methods used in household energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Iran. Issues relating to energy consumption and CO2 emissions are very complex. This complexity arises from the fact that energy demand and energy consumption in Iran are influenced by many factors, such as income, household size, age, and gender. In Iran, the relevant energy sources mostly include liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity, which are used for different sectors, such as transportation, industry, and residential. This overview looks at both the theories and empirical studies of household energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Iran. Since energy consumption typically results in air pollution, it is often used as an indicator of environmental degradation. Although Iran is recently faced to energy efficiency improvement from all sectors, household energy requirements have been significantly increased. In Iran, a prime motivator ha... [more]
Technical Aspects of Biofuel Production from Different Sources in Malaysia—A Review
Shahabaldin Rezania, Bahareh Oryani, Jinwoo Cho, Farzaneh Sabbagh, Parveen Fatemeh Rupani, Amirreza Talaiekhozani, Negar Rahimi, Majid Lotfi Ghahroud
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: biodiesel, bioethanol, biofuel production, biogas, biohydrogen, Malaysia
Due to the depletion of fossil fuels, biofuel production from renewable sources has gained interest. Malaysia, as a tropical country with huge resources, has a high potential to produce different types of biofuels from renewable sources. In Malaysia, biofuels can be produced from various sources, such as lignocellulosic biomass, palm oil residues, and municipal wastes. Besides, biofuels are divided into two main categories, called liquid (bioethanol and biodiesel) and gaseous (biohydrogen and biogas). Malaysia agreed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 45% by 2030 as they signed the Paris agreement in 2016. Therefore, we reviewed the status and potential of Malaysia as one of the main biofuel producers in the world in recent years. The role of government and existing policies have been discussed to analyze the outlook of the biofuel industries in Malaysia.
The Evolution of Biodiesel Policies in China over the Period 2000−2019
Chao-chen Chung, Yapeng Zhang, Lina Liu, Yixuan Wang, Ziji Wei
December 17, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: biodiesel, China, content analysis, policy, policy transitions
The Chinese government launched policies supporting biodiesel production and innovation to meet sustainable energy demands under rapid economic and social development. This study systematically investigates the dynamic transitions of biodiesel policies in China regarding policy contents and policy networks. We performed a content analysis in this study and used NVivo12 software to support the analysis process. The results highlighted some issues. First, the Chinese government supported the development of biodiesel from multiple policy objectives and adopted various policy instruments, eventually transforming biodiesel in China from the first- to second-generation. Second, the State Council was the main institution to promote biodiesel policies, and the National Development and Reform Commission under the State Council burdened most of the responsibilities of policy implementation. Most of the policies were issued at a lower level of administration rather than a higher level of decision... [more]
Analyzing Renewable Energy Sources of a Developing Country for Sustainable Development: An Integrated Fuzzy Based-Decision Methodology
Yasir Ahmed Solangi, Cheng Longsheng, Syed Ahsan Ali Shah, Ahmed Alsanad, Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Azeem Akbar, Abdu Gumaei, Sharafat Ali
November 9, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Delphi, fuzzy AHP, fuzzy WASPAS, multi-criteria decision analysis, renewable energy sources, sustainable development
Global human pollutant activities have raised greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which have directly affected the climate. Fossil fuel-based energy has brought a negative impact on the environment and is considered one of the largest sources of GHG emissions. It is envisaged that GHG emissions will increase in the future due to rapid population growth and industrialization. Thus, it is imperative to mitigate climate variability and reduce GHGs by adopting renewable energy (RE) sources for electricity generation. In this regard, the multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) process would serve the purpose of framing out energy policy to analyze these environmentally friendly energy sources. This study uses an integrated decision methodology—a combination of Delphi, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP), and the fuzzy weighted aggregated sum product assessment (FWASPAS)—for the adoption of RE sources for electricity generation in Turkey. Initially, the study identified five main criteria... [more]
Technical Potential for Energy and GWP Reduction in Chemical−Pharmaceutical Industry in Germany and EU—Focused on Biologics and Botanicals Manufacturing
Axel Schmidt, Lukas Uhlenbrock, Jochen Strube
November 9, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: biologics, chemical–pharmaceutical industries, energy change, global warming potential, green technologies, natural drugs
European policy demands climate neutrality by the year 2050. Therefore, any manufacturing optimization needs to be achieved in the well-known pareto of global warming potential (GWP) reduction combined with cost of goods (COG) reduction at increasing product amounts, while still being able to compete in the world market. The chemical−pharmaceutical industry is one of the most energy-intensive industries. The pharmaceutical industry operates with low batch sizes, but high margins. This study analyzes, based on the literature and Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWi; English: Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy)-funded project results, the technical potentials for energy and GWP reduction, while focusing on biologics and botanicals, because those are already widely based on natural raw material resources. The potential impact for green technologies is pointed out in relation to climate-neutral manufacturing.
Greening the Gas Grid—Evaluation of the Biomethane Injection Potential from Agricultural Residues in Austria
Bernhard Stürmer
July 17, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: agricultural residues, biogas, biomethane potential, green gas
In order to implement the Paris Climate Agreement, the current Austrian coalition government has included trend-setting targets in its policy statement. “Green gas” plays a key role in this context, as the natural gas grid shall also gradually become renewable. This article analyses the technical biomethane injection potential for agricultural residues based on Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS) data on a municipal level. While a technical biogas potential of 16.2 TWhCH4 from catch crops, farm manure, straw and beet leaves is available, only about half of it can be fed into the gas grid because of technical and economic reasons. Austria’s biomethane injection potential of 7.4 TWhCH4 is mainly produced in arable farming regions. In order to further increase this potential, the investment costs of biogas upgrading plants must be reduced, the use of biogenic waste and energy crops must be further promoted and an investor-friendly legal framework must be created.
Multi-Criteria Analysis of Electricity Generation Scenarios for Sustainable Energy Planning in Pakistan
Nayyar Hussain Mirjat, Mohammad Aslam Uqaili, Khanji Harijan, Mohd Wazir Mustafa, Md. Mizanur Rahman, M. Waris Ali Khan
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: AHP, electricity crises, Expert Choice, Pakistan, sustainable energy planning
The now over a decade-long electricity crisis in Pakistan has adversely affected the socio-economic development of the country. This situation is mainly due to a lack of sustainable energy planning and policy formulation. In this context, energy models can be of great help but only a handful of such efforts have been undertaken in Pakistan. Two key shortcomings pertaining to energy models lead to their low utilization in developing countries. First, the models do not effectively make decisions, but rather provide a set of alternatives based on modeling parameters; and secondly, the complexity of these models is often poorly understood by the decision makers. As such, in this study, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) methodology of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) has been used for the sustainability assessment of energy modeling results for long-term electricity planning. The four scenario alternatives developed in the energy modeling effort, Reference (REF), Renewable Energy... [more]
Study of Photovoltaics and LED Energy Efficiency: Case Study in Hungary
Gábor Pintér, Nóra Hegedűsné Baranyai, Alec Wiliams, Henrik Zsiborács
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy policy, Hungary, LED street lighting, photovoltaic systems, solar energy
Photovoltaic (PV) energy and energy efficiency have an increasing role in global energy usage. This paper is a study of building photovoltaic systems (PVS) to modernize existing or developed street lighting systems in Hungarian villages of 900⁻1200 inhabitants. The objective of this study is to show the economic questions related to the investments in photovoltaic systems and light emitting diode (LED) street lighting developments under Hungarian regulations. With the help of this study, it may be possible to support local governments to use combined photovoltaic energy for street lighting developments. This article presents the Hungarian regulations regarding photovoltaic systems and shows why local governments are not able to connect their street lighting systems to photovoltaic systems. Three different investment alternatives for local governments are studied with the help of economic indicators. Our conclusion is that investments in photovoltaic street lighting systems can be profi... [more]
Linear and Nonlinear Causality between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: The Case of Mexico 1965⁻2014
Mario Gómez, Aitor Ciarreta, Ainhoa Zarraga
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: causality, economic growth, energy consumption, Mexico, structural breaks
This paper analyzes the causal link between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth in Mexico between 1965 and 2014, with the presence of structural breaks stemming from the series. To that end, unit root with structural breaks, cointegration, and linear and nonlinear causality tests are employed. The results show that there is a long-run relationship between production, capital, labor, and energy, and linear causal links from total and disaggregated energy consumption to economic growth. A nonlinear causality also exists from energy consumption, the transport sector, capital, and labor to output. These results support the growth hypothesis, which maintains that energy is an important input factor for economic activity and that energy conservation policies impact the economic growth in Mexico.
Energy Supply Potentials in the Northern Counties of Finland, Norway and Sweden towards Sustainable Nordic Electricity and Heating Sectors: A Review
Robert Fischer, Erik Elfgren, Andrea Toffolo
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy supply, Nordic countries, potentials, renewable sources
The lands in the northernmost corner of Europe present contradictory aspects in their social and economic development. Urban settlements are relatively few and small-sized, but rich natural resources (minerals, forests, rivers) attract energy-intensive industries. Energy demand is increasing as a result of new investments in mining and industries, while reliable energy supply is threatened by the planned phase out of Swedish nuclear power, the growth of intermittent power supplies and the need to reduce fossil fuel consumption, especially in the Finnish and Norwegian energy sectors. Given these challenges, this paper investigates the potentials of so far unexploited energy resources in the northern counties of Finland, Norway and Sweden by comparing and critically analyzing data from statistic databases, governmental reports, official websites, research projects and academic publications. The criteria for the technical and economic definition of potentials are discussed separately for... [more]
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