Records with Keyword: Petroleum
Prediction of Refractive Index of Petroleum Fluids by Empirical Correlations and ANN
Georgi Nikolov Palichev, Dicho Stratiev, Sotir Sotirov, Evdokia Sotirova, Svetoslav Nenov, Ivelina Shishkova, Rosen Dinkov, Krassimir Atanassov, Simeon Ribagin, Danail Dichev Stratiev, Dimitar Pilev, Dobromir Yordanov
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: ANN, empirical correlation, intercriteria analysis, Petroleum, refractive index
The refractive index is an important physical property that is used to estimate the structural characteristics, thermodynamic, and transport properties of petroleum fluids, and to determine the onset of asphaltene flocculation. Unfortunately, the refractive index of opaque petroleum fluids cannot be measured unless special experimental techniques or dilution is used. For that reason, empirical correlations, and metaheuristic models were developed to predict the refractive index of petroleum fluids based on density, boiling point, and SARA fraction composition. The capability of these methods to accurately predict refractive index is discussed in this research with the aim of contrasting the empirical correlations with the artificial neural network modelling approach. Three data sets consisting of specific gravity and boiling point of 254 petroleum fractions, individual hydrocarbons, and hetero-compounds (Set 1); specific gravity and molecular weight of 136 crude oils (Set 2); and speci... [more]
Do the True Boiling-Point Distillation Yields of Crude Oil Blends Obey the Additive Blending Rule?
Dicho Stratiev, Ivelina Shishkova, Rosen Dinkov, Sotir Sotirov, Evdokia Sotirova, Krassimir Atanassov, Simeon Ribagin, Radoslava Nikolova, Anife Veli, Georgi Palichev, Danail D. Stratiev
August 2, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: blending, intercriteria analysis, molar excess volume, Petroleum, TBP distillation
Twelve crude oil blends prepared from seven individual crude oils and an imported atmospheric residue were characterized through a true boiling point (TBP) distillation analysis and their density. When comparing the measured TBP fraction yields with those estimated through the application of the additive blending rule, it was found that, for four crude oil blends, the additive blending rule was valid, while for the remaining eight crude oil blends, deviations of the measured TBP yields from the estimated ones were bigger than the TBP analysis’s repeatability limits. By the use of intercriteria analysis evaluation of the data for the deviation of the TBP yields from the additive blending rule and the molar excess volume of the crude oil blends, statistically meaningful relations between the delta TBP yields of light and heavy naphtha, as well as vacuum residue with the molar excess volume, were found. The higher the magnitude of the crude oil blend’s molar excess volume, the bigger the... [more]
Effect of Crude Oil Quality on Properties of Hydrocracked Vacuum Residue and Its Blends with Cutter Stocks to Produce Fuel Oil
Iliyan Kolev, Dicho Stratiev, Ivelina Shishkova, Krassimir Atanassov, Simeon Ribagin, Sotir Sotirov, Evdokia Sotirova, Danail D. Stratiev
July 7, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: blending, hydrocracking, intercriteria analysis, Petroleum, sedimentation, vacuum residue, viscosity modeling
The production of heavy fuel oil from hydrocracked vacuum residue requires dilution of the residue with cutter stocks to reduce viscosity. The hydrocracked residue obtained from different vacuum residue blends originating from diverse crude oils may have divergent properties and interact with the variant cutter stocks in a dissimilar way leading to changeable values of density, sediment content, and viscosity of the obtained fuel oil. H-Oil hydrocracked vacuum residues (VTBs) obtained from different crude blends (Urals, Siberian Light (LSCO), and Basrah Heavy) were diluted with the high aromatic fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) light cycle, heavy cycle, and slurry oil, and the low aromatic fluid catalytic cracking feed hydrotreater diesel cutter stocks and their densities, sediment content, and viscosity of the mixtures were investigated. Intercriteria analysis evaluation of the data generated in this study was performed. It was found that the densities of the blends H-Oil VTB/cutter sto... [more]
Treatment of Motor Oil-Contaminated Soil with Green Surfactant Using a Mobile Remediation System
Israel Gonçalves Sales da Silva, Juliano Rodrigues Pappalardo, Nathália Maria Padilha da Rocha e Silva, Attilio Converti, Fabíola Carolina Gomes de Almeida, Leonie Asfora Sarubbo
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: 3D printing, biobased surfactants, biosurfactants, green surfactants, Petroleum, response surface methodology, soil remediation, soil washing
Leak of fuels and lubricants occurring during exploration, distribution, refining and storage operations is the major cause of environmental pollution due to petroderivatives dispersion. The quick use of a series of physicochemical and biological techniques is needed to drastically reduce the magnitude of damage provoked by these pollutants. Among them, soil washing proved to be an effective alternative to the remediation of hydrocarbon-polluted sites, mainly if combined with surfactant utilization. However, the direct use of surfactants can lead to problems related to the toxicity and dispersion of the resulting by-products, as the majority of marketed surfactants are produced from oil derivatives. In this context, green surfactants appear as a promising alternative to their synthetic counterpart. In the present study, two green surfactants, i.e., a chemically synthesized biobased surfactant and a Starmerella bombicola biosurfactant, were applied in soil decontamination tests using a... [more]
Surfactant-Polymer Interactions in a Combined Enhanced Oil Recovery Flooding
Pablo Druetta, Francesco Picchioni
April 11, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: EOR, Petroleum, reservoir simulation, SPI, surfactant-polymer, TVD
The traditional Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes allow improving the performance of mature oilfields after waterflooding projects. Chemical EOR processes modify different physical properties of the fluids and/or the rock in order to mobilize the oil that remains trapped. Furthermore, combined processes have been proposed to improve the performance, using the properties and synergy of the chemical agents. This paper presents a novel simulator developed for a combined surfactant/polymer flooding in EOR processes. It studies the flow of a two-phase, five-component system (aqueous and organic phases with water, petroleum, surfactant, polymer and salt) in porous media. Polymer and surfactant together affect each other’s interfacial and rheological properties as well as the adsorption rates. This is known in the industry as Surfactant-Polymer Interaction (SPI). The simulations showed that optimum results occur when both chemical agents are injected overlapped, with the polymer in the fi... [more]
Gini and Entropy-Based Spread Indexes for Primary Energy Consumption Efficiency and CO2 Emission
Hellinton H. Takada, Celma O. Ribeiro, Oswaldo L. V. Costa, Julio M. Stern
April 3, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: carbon emissions, Coal, energy consumption, fossil fuels, generalized entropy index, Gini index, Natural Gas, non-fossil fuels, Petroleum, technology efficiency
Primary energy consumption is one of the key drivers of global CO2 emissions that, in turn, heavily depends on the efficiency of involved technologies. Either improvement in technology efficiency or the expansion of non-fossil fuel consumption requires large investments. The planning and financing of such investments by global policy makers or global energy firms require, in turn, reliable measures of associated global spread and their evolution in time, at least from the point of view of the principles for responsible investment (PRI). In this paper, our main contribution is the introduction of index measures for accessing global spread (that is, measures of inequality or inhomogeneity in the statistical distribution of a related quantity of interest) of technology efficiency and CO2 emission in primary energy consumption. These indexes are based on the Gini index, as used in economical sciences, and generalized entropy measures. Regarding primary energy sources, we consider petroleum... [more]
Impact of Sloshing on Fossil Fuel Loss during Transport
Hafsa Mir, Tahir Abdul Hussain Ratlamwala, Ghulam Hussain, Mohammed Alkahtani, Mustufa Haider Abidi
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: breather vent valve, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Petroleum, road tanker, sloshing, vapor loss
This study attempts to uncover the most common issue of fuel shortage faced by the oil and transportation industry worldwide. In Pakistan, petroleum is transported to the northern areas from the south coast. Currently, this is done using road tankers as a pipeline is still under construction. However, even after the pipeline becomes operative, road tankers would still be used for intra-city transport. Findings from this study can be used to determine the inter-city transport losses faced by oil companies. This study determines the hydrocarbons lost to the environment during inter-city road transport of petroleum. It takes nearly 2−3 days to complete a one-way trip with the fully loaded tank. Much work has been reported worldwide on hydrocarbon emissions, but nearly all of it has been done either for storage tanks/vessels or fuel tanks in rails/cars. The aim of this study was to investigate the actual amount of fuel lost to the environment due to the sloshing of liquid. Also, the result... [more]
Heavy Oil Laminar Flow in Corrugated Ducts: A Numerical Study Using the Galerkin-Based Integral Method
Valdecir Alves dos Santos Júnior, Severino Rodrigues de Farias Neto, Antonio Gilson Barbosa de Lima, Igor Fernandes Gomes, Israel Buriti Galvão, Célia Maria Rufino Franco, João Evangelista Franco do Carmo
March 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: fully developed flow, Galerkin-based integral (GBI) method, Petroleum, Poiseuille number, pressure gradient
Fluid flow in pipes plays an important role in different areas of academia and industry. Due to the importance of this kind of flow, several studies have involved circular cylindrical pipes. This paper aims to study fully developed internal laminar flow through a corrugated cylindrical duct, using the Galerkin-based integral method. As an application, we present a study using heavy oil with a relative density of 0.9648 (14.6 °API) and temperature-dependent viscosities ranging from 1715 to 13000 cP. Results for different fluid dynamics parameters, such as the Fanning friction factor, Reynolds number, shear stress, and pressure gradient, are presented and analyzed based on the corrugation number established for each section and aspect ratio of the pipe.
Investigation of Combustion Properties and Soot Deposits of Various US Crude Oils
Gurjap Singh, Mehdi Esmaeilpour, Albert Ratner
March 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Bakken crude, burning rate, Colorado crude, crude oil, droplet combustion, ignition delay, Pennsylvania crude, Petroleum, soot deposits, Texas crude
The oil boom in the North Dakota oilfields has resulted in improved energy security for the US. Recent estimates of oil production rates indicate that even completion of the Keystone XL pipeline will only fractionally reduce the need to ship this oil by rail. Current levels of oil shipment have already caused significant strain on rail infrastructure and led to crude oil train derailments, resulting in loss of life and property. Treating crude oil as a multicomponent liquid fuel, this work aims to understand crude oil droplet burning and thereby lead to methods to improve train fire safety. Sub-millimeter sized droplets of Pennsylvania, Texas, Colorado, and Bakken crude were burned, and the process was recorded with charge-couple device (CCD) and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) high-speed cameras. The resulting images were post-processed to obtain various combustion parameters, such as burning rate, ignition delay, total combustion time, and microexplosion behavior. The... [more]
Crude Oil Bioremediation: From Bacteria to Microalgae
Rosa Paola Radice, Vincenzo De Fabrizio, Antonietta Donadoni, Antonio Scopa, Giuseppe Martelli
February 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: bioremediation, crude oil, environmental pollution, hydrocarbons, microalgae, Petroleum
Crude oil is one of the major pollutants present. Its extraction and processing generate processing waters contaminated by hydrocarbons which are harmful to both human health and the flora and fauna that come into contact with it. Hydrocarbon contamination can involve soil and water, and several technologies are used for recovery. The most used techniques for the recovery of spilt oil involve chemical-physical methods that can remove most of the pollutants. Among these, must consider the bioremediation by microorganisms, mostly bacterial capable of degrading many of the toxic compounds contained within the petroleum. Microalgae participate in bioremediation indirectly, supporting the growth of degrading bacteria, and directly acting on contaminants. Their direct contribution is based on the activation of various mechanisms ranging from the production of enzymes capable of degrading hydrocarbons, such as lipoxygenases, to the attack through the liberation of free radicals. The following... [more]
Prediction of Molecular Weight of Petroleum Fluids by Empirical Correlations and Artificial Neuron Networks
Dicho Stratiev, Sotir Sotirov, Evdokia Sotirova, Svetoslav Nenov, Rosen Dinkov, Ivelina Shishkova, Iliyan Venkov Kolev, Dobromir Yordanov, Svetlin Vasilev, Krassimir Atanassov, Stanislav Simeonov, Georgi Nikolov Palichev
February 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: artificial neural network, empirical correlation, Modelling, molecular weight, nonlinear regression, Petroleum
The exactitude of petroleum fluid molecular weight correlations affects significantly the precision of petroleum engineering calculations and can make process design and trouble-shooting inaccurate. Some of the methods in the literature to predict petroleum fluid molecular weight are used in commercial software process simulators. According to statements made in the literature, the correlations of Lee−Kesler and Twu are the most used in petroleum engineering, and the other methods do not exhibit any significant advantages over the Lee−Kesler and Twu correlations. In order to verify which of the proposed in the literature correlations are the most appropriate for petroleum fluids with molecular weight variation between 70 and 1685 g/mol, 430 data points for boiling point, specific gravity, and molecular weight of petroleum fluids and individual hydrocarbons were extracted from 17 literature sources. Besides the existing correlations in the literature, two different techniques, nonlinear... [more]
Correlations of HTSD to TBP and Bulk Properties to Saturate Content of a Wide Variety of Crude Oils
Dicho Stratiev, Rosen Dinkov, Mariana Tavlieva, Ivelina Shishkova, Georgi Nikolov Palichev, Simeon Ribagin, Krassimir Atanassov, Danail D. Stratiev, Svetoslav Nenov, Dimitar Pilev, Sotir Sotirov, Evdokia Sotirova, Stanislav Simeonov, Viktoria Boyadzhieva
February 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: characterization, correlation, crude oil, HTSD, intercriteria analysis, Petroleum, regression, SARA, TBP
Forty-eight crude oils with variations in specific gravity (0.782 ≤ SG ≤ 1.002), sulphur content (0.03 ≤ S ≤ 5.6 wt.%), saturate content (23.5 ≤ Sat. ≤ 92.9 wt.%), asphaltene content (0.1 ≤ As ≤ 22.2 wt.%), and vacuum residue content (1.4 ≤ VR ≤ 60.7 wt.%) were characterized with HTSD, TBP, and SARA analyses. A modified SARA analysis of petroleum that allows for the attainment of a mass balance ≥97 wt.% for light crude oils was proposed, a procedure for the simulation of petroleum TBP curves from HTSD data using nonlinear regression and Riazi’s distribution model was developed, and a new correlation to predict petroleum saturate content from specific gravity and pour point with an average absolute deviation of 2.5 wt.%, maximum absolute deviation of 6.6 wt.%, and bias of 0.01 wt.% was developed. Intercriteria analysis was employed to evaluate the presence of statistically meaningful relations between the different petroleum properties and to evaluate the extent of similarity between th... [more]
Challenges in Petroleum Characterization—A Review
Ivelina Shishkova, Dicho Stratiev, Iliyan Venkov Kolev, Svetoslav Nenov, Dimitar Nedanovski, Krassimir Atanassov, Vitaly Ivanov, Simeon Ribagin
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: asphaltenes, characterization, crude oil, ICrA, Modelling, Petroleum, SARA, TBP
252 literature sources and about 5000 crude oil assays were reviewed in this work. The review has shown that the petroleum characterization can be classified in three categories: crude oil assay; SARA characterization; and molecular characterization. It was found that the range of petroleum property variation is so wide that the same crude oil property cannot be measured by the use of a single standard method. To the best of our knowledge for the first time the application of the additive rule to predict crude oil asphaltene content from that of the vacuum residue multiplied by the vacuum residue TBP yield was examined. It was also discovered that a strong linear relation between the contents of C5-, and C7-asphaltenes in crude oil and derived thereof vacuum residue fraction exists. The six parameter Weibull extreme function showed to best fit the TBP data of all crude oil types, allowing construction of a correct TBP curve and detection of measurement errors. A new SARA reconstitution... [more]
Crude Slate, FCC Slurry Oil, Recycle, and Operating Conditions Effects on H-Oil® Product Quality
Dicho Stoyanov Stratiev, Ivelina Kostova Shishkova, Rosen Kocev Dinkov, Ivan Petrov Petrov, Iliyan Venkov Kolev, Dobromir Yordanov, Sotir Sotirov, Evdokia Nikolaeva Sotirova, Vassia Krassimirova Atanassova, Simeon Ribagin, Krassimir Todorov Atanassov, Danail Dichev Stratiev, Svetoslav Nenov
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: atmospheric residue, ebullated bed hydrocracking, H-Oil® product properties, intercriteria analysis, Petroleum, vacuum residue
This paper evaluates the influence of crude oil (vacuum residue) properties, the processing of fluid catalytic cracking slurry oil, and recycle of hydrocracked vacuum residue diluted with fluid catalytic cracking heavy cycle oil, and the operating conditions of the H-Oil vacuum residue hydrocracking on the quality of the H-Oil liquid products. 36 cases of operation of a commercial H-Oil® ebullated bed hydrocracker were studied at different feed composition, and different operating conditions. Intercriteria analysis was employed to define the statistically meaningful relations between 135 parameters including operating conditions, feed and products characteristics. Correlations and regression equations which related the H-Oil® mixed feed quality and the operating conditions (reaction temperature, and reaction time (throughput)) to the liquid H-Oil® products quality were developed. The developed equations can be used to find the optimal performance of the whole refinery considering that... [more]
Application of Green Surfactants in the Remediation of Soils Contaminated by Hydrocarbons
Israel Gonçalves Sales da Silva, Fabíola Carolina Gomes de Almeida, Nathália Maria Padilha da Rocha e Silva, Joaquim Teodoro Romão de Oliveira, Attilio Converti, Leonie Asfora Sarubbo
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: biobased surfactant, biodegradation, bioremediation, biosurfactant, green surfactant, Petroleum, Starmerella bombicola
Among the innovative technologies utilized for the treatment of contaminated soils, the use of green surfactants appears to be a biocompatible, efficient, and attractive alternative, since the cleaning processes that normally use synthetic surfactants as additives cause other problems due to toxicity and the accumulation of by-products. Three green surfactants, i.e., two biobased (biobased 1 and biobased 2) surfactants produced by chemical synthesis and a microbial surfactant produced from the yeast Starmerella bombicola ATCC 22214, were used as soil remediation agents and compared to a synthetic surfactant (Tween 80). The three surfactants were tested for their ability to emulsify, disperse, and remove different hydrophobic contaminants. The biosurfactant, which was able to reduce the water surface tension to 32.30 mN/m at a critical micelle concentration of 0.65 g/L, was then used to prepare a commercial formulation that showed lower toxicity to the tested environmental bioindicators... [more]
Characteristics and Treatment of Wastewater from the Mercaptan Oxidation Process: A Comprehensive Review
Ernesto Pino-Cortés, Silvio Montalvo, César Huiliñir, Francisco Cubillos, Juan Gacitúa
June 10, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: biological processes, electrochemical processes, oxidation processes, Petroleum, phenols, sulfides
Sulfur compounds are removed from petroleum by the addition of sodium hydroxide at a very high concentration. As a result, a residue called spent soda or spent caustic is generated, being extremely aggressive to the environment. In this work, the chemical properties of this residue are described in detail. The sodium hydroxide remains that have not reacted, sulfur compounds, and organic matter are the primary pollutants reported. Additionally, the main characteristics of the methods of treatment used to reduce them are described. This review comes from comprehensive and updated research and bibliographic analysis about the investigation on the topic. The advantages and disadvantages of the different treatment methods are highlighted. We established some criteria to set out when assessing the application of each one of these treatments is considered.
[Show All Keywords]