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Records with Subject: Process Operations
Comparison of the Stator Step Skewed Structures for Cogging Force Reduction of Linear Flux Switching Permanent Magnet Machines
Wenjuan Hao, Yu Wang
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: cogging force, flux-switching permanent magnet machine, linear machine, step skewed stator
Linear flux switching permanent magnetic (LFSPM) machines, with the armature windings and magnets both on the mover in addition to a robust stator, are a good choice for long stoke applications, however, a large cogging force is also inevitable due to the double salient structure, and will worsen the system performance. Skewing methods are always employed for the rotary machines to reduce the cogging torque, and the rotor step-skewed method is a low-cost approximation of regular skewing. The step skewed method can also be applied to the linear machines, namely, the stator step skewed. In this paper, three stator step skewed structures, which are a three-step skewed stator, a two-step skewed stator and an improved two-step skewed stator, are employed for the cogging force reduction of two types of LFSPM machines. The three structures are analyzed and compared with emphasize on the influence of the skewed displacement on the cogging force and the average thrust force. Based on finite ele... [more]
The Impact of Pulse Charging Parameters on the Life Cycle of Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries
J. M. Amanor-Boadu, A. Guiseppi-Elie, E. Sánchez-Sinencio
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: battery impedance, constant current constant voltage, design of experiments, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Li-ion polymer battery, life cycle, pulse charging, Taguchi orthogonal arrays
The pulse charging algorithm is seen as a promising battery charging technique to satisfy the needs of electronic device consumers to have fast charging and increased battery charge and energy efficiencies. However, to get the benefits of pulse charging, the pulse charge current parameters have to be chosen carefully to ensure optimal battery performance and also extend the life cycle of the battery. The impact of pulse charge current factors on the life cycle and battery characteristics are seldom investigated. This paper seeks to evaluate the impact of pulse charge current factors, such as frequency and duty cycle, on the life cycle and impedance parameters of lithium-ion polymer batteries (LiPo) while using a design of experiments approach, Taguchi orthogonal arrays. The results are compared with the benchmark constant current-constant voltage (CC-CV) charging algorithm and it is observed that by using a pulse charger at optimal parameters, the cycle life of a LiPo battery can be in... [more]
Power Transfer Efficiency Analysis for Omnidirectional Wireless Power Transfer System Using Three-Phase-Shifted Drive
Zhaohong Ye, Yue Sun, Xiufang Liu, Peiyue Wang, Chunsen Tang, Hailin Tian
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: mutual inductance coupling, omnidirectional wireless power, power transfer efficiency, three-phase-shifted drive, wireless power transfer (WPT)
In order to implement the omnidirectional wireless power transfer (WPT), a novel three-phase-shifted drive omnidirectional WPT system is proposed. This system is comprised of three independent phase-adjusted excitation sources, three orthogonal transmitting coils, and one planar receiving coil. Based on the mutual coupling theory, the power transfer efficiency is derived and the corresponding control mechanism for maximizing this efficiency is presented. This control mechanism only depends on the currents’ root-mean-square (RMS) values of the three transmitting coils and simple calculations after each location and/or posture change of the receiving coil, which provides the real-time possibility to design an omnidirectional WPT system comparing with the other omnidirectional systems. In aid of computer emulation technique, the efficiency characteristic versus the omnidirectional location and posture of the receiving coil is analyzed, and the analytical results verify the validity of the... [more]
Reconfiguration of a Multilevel Inverter with Trapezoidal Pulse Width Modulation
Nataraj Prabaharan, V. Arun, Padmanaban Sanjeevikumar, Lucian Mihet-Popa, Frede Blaabjerg
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: FPGA, inverter, multi-carrier pulse width modulation, multilevel inverter, trapezoidal pulse width modulation
This paper presents different multi-carrier unipolar trapezoidal pulse width modulation strategies for a reduced switch asymmetrical multilevel inverter. The different strategies are phase disposition, alternative phase opposition and disposition, and carrier overlapping and variable frequency that involve triangular waves as carriers with a unipolar trapezoidal wave as a reference. The reduced switch, asymmetrical multilevel inverter operation was examined for generating the seven-level output voltage using Matlab/Simulink 2009b and the results were verified with a real-time laboratory-based experimental setup using a field-programmable gate array. Different parameter analyses, such as total harmonic distortion, fundamental root mean square voltage, and distortion factor, were analyzed with different modulation indices to investigate the performance of the selected topology. Unipolar trapezoidal pulse width modulation provides a higher root mean square voltage value.
PLL-Less Three-Phase Four-Wire SAPF with STF-dq0 Technique for Harmonics Mitigation under Distorted Supply Voltage and Unbalanced Load Conditions
Yap Hoon, Mohd Amran Mohd Radzi
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: dq0 principle, harmonics filtering, neutral current, reference current generation, synchronization phase, unbalanced load, voltage source inverter
This paper presents a non-iterative technique that generates reference current to manage operation of a three-phase four-wire shunt active power filter which employs a three-leg split capacitor voltage source inverter (VSI) topology. The proposed technique integrates together a self-tuning-filter (STF) and direct-quadrature-zero (dq0) principle (referred here as STF-dq0), allowing the controlled shunt active power filter (SAPF) to perform effectively under distorted source voltages and unbalanced load conditions. Unlike the previous technique developed based on the standard dq0 principle, the proposed technique does not require any service from a phase-locked loop (PLL) where two STFs are applied to separate harmonic and fundamental elements for the purpose of generating synchronization phases and reference current, respectively. Simulation work which includes connection of the SAPF circuits, design of control techniques and all the necessary assessments are conducted in MATLAB-Simulin... [more]
The Effect of a Wave Energy Farm Protecting an Aquaculture Installation
Dina Silva, Eugen Rusu, C. Guedes Soares
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: aquaculture, nearshore protection, sheltering effect, SWAN, wave energy farm
This paper assesses the impact of a farm of wave energy converters on a nearby offshore aquaculture installation and on the nearshore dynamics. The coastal area targeted is Aguçadoura, located in the north of Portugal, where the world’s first wave farm operated in 2008. The study is focused mainly on the evaluation of the sheltering effect provided by the wave farm to the aquaculture cages. Furthermore, the possible impact on the coastal wave climate of such an energy park is also evaluated. These objectives are accomplished by performing simulations, corresponding to the wave conditions, which are more often encountered in that coastal environment. The SWAN model (Simulating WAves Nearshore) was adopted for this. Various transmission scenarios are considered to account for the impact of different types of wave converter farms on the downwave conditions. The results show that such a wave energy park might have a clear positive impact on the wave conditions fish farm installed downwave... [more]
Partial Redesign of an Accelerator Driven System Target for Optimizing the Heat Removal and Minimizing the Pressure Drops
Guglielmo Lomonaco, Giacomo Alessandroni, Walter Borreani
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: ADS, ANSYS-FLUENT, bayonet tube heat exchanger, Computational Fluid Dynamics, target
Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) seem to be a good solution for safe nuclear waste transmutation. One of the most important challenges for this kind of machine is the target design, particularly for what concerning the target cooling system. In order to optimize this component a CFD-based approach has been chosen. After the definition of a reference design (Be target cooled by He), some parameters have been varied in order to optimize the thermal-fluid-dynamic features. The final optimized target design has an increased security margin for what regarding Be melting and reduces the maximum coolant velocity (and consequently even more the pressure drops).
Effect of Zonal Hydraulics on Energy Consumption and Boom Structure of a Micro-Excavator
Abinab Niraula, Shuzhong Zhang, Tatiana Minav, Matti Pietola
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: direct driven hydraulics, efficiency, electric drives, energy consumption, finite element analysis, hydraulic drives, hydraulic excavator, losses, off-road mobile machinery, zonal hydraulics
This paper investigates the effect of extra weight caused by the Direct Driven Hydraulics (DDH) in a micro-excavator. These projects are investigating the implementation of zonal or decentralized hydraulics for non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) and stationary industrial applications. The benefit of DDH is the combination of electric and hydraulic technologies in a compact package compared to conventional hydraulics, which enables a reduction of potential leakage points, flexible tubing, and boosting of the system efficiency due to switching to direct pump control instead of a loss-generating conventional valve-based control. In order to demonstrate these benefits for the excavator case, this paper proposes a system model approach to assess and predict energy consumption of the zonal hydraulics approach implemented with DDH in various working cycles, complemented by a structural analysis. The finite element analysis utilized for this demonstrated that the extra weight and selected locati... [more]
Evaluation of SF₆ Leakage from Gas Insulated Equipment on Electricity Networks in Great Britain
Phillip Widger, Abderrahmane (Manu) Haddad
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: distribution, emissions, environment, gas insulated line (GIL), gas insulated switchgear (GIS), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), transmission
This paper examines the data collected from the power industry over the last six years of actual reported emissions of sulphur hexafluoride (SF₆) and the potential impact. The SF₆ emissions have been collated from the 14 different regions in England, Scotland, and Wales (Great Britain) from the six distribution network operators. The emissions of SF₆ due to the transmission network of Great Britain have also been collated from the three different transmission network operators. By collecting this SF₆ emissions data from the power industry, in both the distribution and transmission networks, an overall view of the scale of SF₆ emissions in Great Britain can be evaluated. Data from the power industry also shows the inventory of SF₆ power equipment in use over the last six years in Great Britain and shows the calculated percentage leakage rate of all of this equipment. In this paper, these figures, as reported by the electrical power industry to the UK government, have been used to estima... [more]
Stability Analysis of Deadbeat-Direct Torque and Flux Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives with Respect to Parameter Variations
Jae Suk Lee
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: DB-DTFC (deadbeat-direct torque and flux control), PMSM (permanent magnet synchronous motor), stability, torque control
This paper presents a stability analysis and dynamic characteristics investigation of deadbeat-direct torque and flux control (DB-DTFC) of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) drives with respect to machine parameter variations. Since a DB-DTFC algorithm is developed based on a machine model and parameters, stability with respect to machine parameter variations should be evaluated. Among stability evaluation methods, an eigenvalue (EV) migration is used in this paper because both the stability and dynamic characteristics of a system can be investigated through EV migration. Since an IPMSM drive system is nonlinear, EV migration cannot be directly applied. Therefore, operating point models of DB-DTFC and CVC (current vector control) IPMSM drives are derived to obtain linearized models and to implement EV migration in this paper. Along with DB-DTFC, current vector control (CVC), one of the widely used control algorithms for motor drives, is applied and evaluated at the sam... [more]
Pilot Protection Based on Amplitude of Directional Travelling Wave for Voltage Source Converter-High Voltage Direct Current (VSC-HVDC) Transmission Lines
Lingtong Jiang, Qing Chen, Wudi Huang, Lei Wang, Yu Zeng, Pu Zhao
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: directional pilot protection, phase-mode transformation, stationary wavelet transform, time difference, VSC-MTDC
This paper presents a novel pilot protection scheme of DC cable line in voltage-source-converter (VSC) based multi-terminal DC (MTDC) grids, which utilizes a novel phase-mode transformation to decouple the bipolar DC cable current into six mode and it uses the stationary wavelet transform to extract the modulus maxima of fault initial traveling waves current (FITWC). With accurate amplitude and polarities of the FITWC being collected from the fault-detection devices located at each terminal, the proposed scheme can correctly determine the faulty segment and the faulty pole. In this paper, the ratio of amplitudes between sixth mode forward and backward travelling wave currents is used to judge the faulty segment and the polarity of fifth mode forward travelling wave current is used to identify the faulty pole. A four-terminal VSC-based MTDC grid was built in PSCAD/EMTDC to evaluate the performance of the fault-protection scheme. Simulation results for different cases demonstrate that th... [more]
Establishment of an Improved Material-Drilling Power Model to Support Energy Management of Drilling Processes
Shun Jia, Qingwen Yuan, Wei Cai, Qinghe Yuan, Conghu Liu, Jingxiang Lv, Zhongwei Zhang
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: drilling process, energy management, material-drilling power
Drilling processes, as some of the most widely used machining processes in the manufacturing industry, play an important role in manufacturing process energy-saving programs. However, research focus on energy modeling of drilling processes, especially for the modeling of material-drilling power, are really scarce. To bridge this gap, an improved material-drilling power model is proposed in this paper. The obtained material-drilling power model can improve the accuracy of the material-drilling power and lay a good foundation for energy modeling and optimization of drilling processes. Finally, experimental studies were carried out on an XHK-714F CNC machining center (Hangzhou HangJi Machine Tool Co., Ltd., Hangzhou, China) and a JTVM6540 CNC milling machine (Jinan Third Machine Tool Co., Ltd., Jinan, China). The results showed that predictive accuracies with the proposed model are generally higher than 96% for all the test cases.
Joint Operation between a PSO-Based Global MPP Tracker and a PV Module Array Configuration Strategy under Shaded or Malfunctioning Conditions
Pi-Yun Chen, Kuei-Hsiang Chao, Bo-Jyun Liao
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: configuration strategy, maximum power point tracker, Particle Swarm Optimization, photovoltaic module array, shaded or malfunctioning
This paper aims to present a smart, particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based, real time configuration strategy for a photovoltaic (PV) module array in the event of shadow cast on a PV module(s) and/or module failure as an effective approach to power generation efficiency elevation. At the first step, the respective maximum output power levels provided by a normal operating array at various levels of irradiation and module surface temperatures are measured and entered as references into a database. Subsequently, the maximum output power (MPP) level, tracked by a MPP tracker, is feedbacked for a comparison with an aforementioned reference as a way to tell whether there is either a shadow or a malfunction event on a PV module(s). Once an abnormal operation is detected, the presented smart configuration algorithm is performed to reconfigure the PV module array such that the array is operated at the global MPP as intended. Furthermore, by use of a PIC microcontroller that is a family of micr... [more]
Assessment and Performance Evaluation of a Wind Turbine Power Output
Akintayo Temiloluwa Abolude, Wen Zhou
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: effective power curve, estimation errors, power output fluctuations, turbine power curve
Estimation errors have constantly been a technology bother for wind power management, often time with deviations of actual power curve (APC) from the turbine power curve (TPC). Power output dispersion for an operational 800 kW turbine was analyzed using three averaging tine steps of 1-min, 5-min, and 15-min. The error between the APC and TPC in kWh was about 25% on average, irrespective of the time of the day, although higher magnitudes of error were observed during low wind speeds and poor wind conditions. The 15-min averaged time series proved more suitable for grid management and energy load scheduling, but the error margin was still a major concern. An effective power curve (EPC) based on the polynomial parametric wind turbine power curve modeling technique was calibrated using turbine and site-specific performance data. The EPC reduced estimation error to about 3% in the aforementioned time series during very good wind conditions. By integrating statistical wind speed forecasting... [more]
A Cost-Effective Redundant Digital Excitation Control System and Test Bed Experiment for Safe Power Supply for Process Industry 4.0
Hoon-Gi Lee, Jun-Ho Huh
July 31, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Android application, Computer architecture, digital excitation control system, excitation system, job safety, Process industry 4.0, synchronous generator, system architecture
Recently, the energy demand and supply situation in the Republic of Korea (ROK) has been largely affected by the fluctuations in the energy markets around the world. Such a situation has provided a basis for requiring improvements to power plant facilities. The automatic generator voltage control systems in large-scale power plants are adopting a rapid-response static excitation method to improve the transient stability. A domestic commercially developed large-scale triple-redundant excitation system is currently operated by the 1000 MW-class nuclear power plant and its efficiency has been verified at the same site. However, such a system is too costly for smaller power plants so that a reliable and low-cost redundant digital excitation control system was developed and introduced in this study to resolve the cost problem. The system has improved its stability and reliability at the same time through double (redundant) configuration. Additionally, the system’s performance was put to the... [more]
Using Field Data for Energy Efficiency Based on Maintenance and Operational Optimisation. A Step towards PHM in Process Plants
Micaela Demichela, Gabriele Baldissone, Behnoush Darabnia
July 31, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: conservation supply curve, Energy Efficiency, maintenance optimization
Energy saving is an important issue for any industrial sector; in particular, for the process industry, it can help to minimize both energy costs and environmental impact. Maintenance optimization and operational procedures can offer margins to increase energy efficiency in process plants, even if they are seldom explicitly taken into account in the predictive models guiding the energy saving policies. To ensure that the plant achieves the desired performance, maintenance operations and maintenance results should be monitored, and the connection between the inputs and the outcomes of the maintenance process, in terms of total contribution to manufacturing performance, should be explicit. In this study, a model for the energy efficiency analysis was developed, based on cost and benefits balance. It is aimed at supporting the decision making in terms of technical and operational solutions for energy efficiency, through the optimization of maintenance interventions and operational procedu... [more]
Industrial Process Monitoring in the Big Data/Industry 4.0 Era: from Detection, to Diagnosis, to Prognosis
Marco S. Reis, Geert Gins
July 31, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: equipment health, fault detection and diagnosis, industrial process monitoring, process health, prognosis
We provide a critical outlook of the evolution of Industrial Process Monitoring (IPM) since its introduction almost 100 years ago. Several evolution trends that have been structuring IPM developments over this extended period of time are briefly referred, with more focus on data-driven approaches. We also argue that, besides such trends, the research focus has also evolved. The initial period was centred on optimizing IPM detection performance. More recently, root cause analysis and diagnosis gained importance and a variety of approaches were proposed to expand IPM with this new and important monitoring dimension. We believe that, in the future, the emphasis will be to bring yet another dimension to IPM: prognosis. Some perspectives are put forward in this regard, including the strong interplay of the Process and Maintenance departments, hitherto managed as separated silos.
Operator Training Simulator for an Industrial Bioethanol Plant
Inga Gerlach, Sören Tholin, Volker C. Hass, Carl-Fredrik Mandenius
July 30, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: bio-refinery, bioprocess industry, operator training, OTS
Operator training simulators (OTS) are software tools for training process operators in large-scale industrial applications. Here, we describe the development, implementation and training of an OTS for a large-scale industrial plant for bioethanol production. The design of the OTS is based on conceptual analysis (previously reported by us in this journal) of various configuration alternatives and training procedures at the plant. In this article, we report on how the conceptual design is used in simulation models and graphical user interfaces and how the design is applied for training of operators in the real plant environment. The results imply that OTS would be time- and cost-efficient tools for application in the biotechnological industry.
Combining On-Line Characterization Tools with Modern Software Environments for Optimal Operation of Polymerization Processes
Navid Ghadipasha, Aryan Geraili, Jose A. Romagnoli, Carlos A. Castor Jr, Michael F. Drenski, Wayne F. Reed
July 30, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: dynamic optimization, free radical polymerization, molar mass distribution, online monitoring, parameter estimation
This paper discusses the initial steps towards the formulation and implementation of a generic and flexible model centric framework for integrated simulation, estimation, optimization and feedback control of polymerization processes. For the first time it combines the powerful capabilities of the automatic continuous on-line monitoring of polymerization system (ACOMP), with a modern simulation, estimation and optimization software environment towards an integrated scheme for the optimal operation of polymeric processes. An initial validation of the framework was performed for modelling and optimization using literature data, illustrating the flexibility of the method to apply under different systems and conditions. Subsequently, off-line capabilities of the system were fully tested experimentally for model validations, parameter estimation and process optimization using ACOMP data. Experimental results are provided for free radical solution polymerization of methyl methacrylate.
Application of a Two-Level Rolling Horizon Optimization Scheme to a Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell and Compressed Air Energy Storage Plant for the Optimal Supply of Zero-Emissions Peaking Power
Jake Nease, Nina Monteiro, Thomas A. Adams II
June 19, 2018 (v1)
We present a new two-level rolling horizon optimization framework applied to a zero-emissions coal-fueled solid-oxide fuel cell power plant with compressed air energy storage for peaking applications. Simulations are performed where the scaled hourly demand for the year 2014 from the Ontario, Canada market is met as closely as possible. It was found that the proposed two-level strategy, by slowly adjusting the SOFC stack power upstream of the storage section, can improve load-following performance by 86% compared to the single-level optimization method proposed previously. A performance analysis indicates that the proposed approach uses the available storage volume to almost its maximum potential, with little improvement possible without changing the system itself. Further improvement to load-following is possible by increasing storage volumes, but with diminishing returns. Using an economically-focused objective function can improve annual revenue generation by as much as 6.5%, but no... [more]
Technical challenges in operating an SOFC in fuel flexible gas turbine hybrid systems: Coupling effects of cathode air mass flow
Nor Farida Harun, David Tucker, Thomas A. Adams II
June 19, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Cathode air mass flow, Cyber-physical simulations, Fuel cell gas turbine hybrid, Fuel composition changes, Open loop characterization, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Considering the limited turndown potential of gasification technologies, supplementing a fuel cell turbine hybrid power system with natural gas provides flexibility that could improve economic viability. The dynamic characterization of fuel composition transients is an essential first step in completing the system identification required for controls development. In this work, both open loop and closed loop transient responses of the fuel cell in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) gas turbine (GT) hybrid system to fuel composition changes were experimentally investigated using a cyber-physical fuel cell system. A transition from methane lean syngas to methane rich gases with no turbine speed control was studied. The distributed performance of the fuel cell was analyzed in detail with temporal and spatial resolution across the cell.

Dramatic changes in fuel cell system post combustor thermal output or “thermal effluent” resulting from anode composition changes drove turbine transients th... [more]
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