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Records with Keyword: Carbon Dioxide
The Effect of Carbonyl and Hydroxyl Compounds on Swelling Factor, Interfacial Tension, and Viscosity in CO2 Injection: A Case Study on Aromatic Oils
Asep Kurnia Permadi, Egi Adrian Pratama, Andri Luthfi Lukman Hakim, Doddy Abdassah
December 6, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, IFT, MMP, swelling factor, VIPS, viscosity
A factor influencing the effectiveness of CO2 injection is miscibility. Besides the miscible injection, CO2 may also contribute to oil recovery improvement by immiscible injection through modifying several properties such as oil swelling, viscosity reduction, and the lowering of interfacial tension (IFT). Moreover, CO2 immiscible injection performance is also expected to be improved by adding some solvent. However, there are a lack of studies identifying the roles of solvent in assisting CO2 injection through observing those properties simultaneously. This paper explains the effects of CO2−carbonyl and CO2−hydroxyl compounds mixture injection on those properties, and also the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) experimentally by using VIPS (refers to viscosity, interfacial tension, pressure−volume, and swelling) apparatus, which has a capability of measuring those properties simultaneously within a closed system. Higher swelling factor, lower viscosity, IFT and MMP are observed from a C... [more]
Supplemental Data for “Process Design and Techno-Economic Analysis of Biomass Pyrolysis By-Product Utilization in the Ontario and Aichi Steel Industries”
Jamie Rose, Thomas A. Adams II
November 5, 2021 (v1)
This is supplemental data for a paper submitted to the PSE 2021+ conference. It includes values used to calculate emissions reductions and financial value of biomass pyrolysis by-product utilization.
Valorization of Biomass Pyrolysis By-Products for Heat Production in the Ontario Steel Industry: A Techno-Economic Analysis
Jamie Rose, Thomas A. Adams II
November 5, 2021 (v1)
As part of efforts to reduce carbon emissions in the iron and steel industry, which are especially pertinent in Canada due to rising carbon taxes, Canadian producers have been investigating the effects of replacing coal used in pulverized coal injection with biochar. Although there has been research into the economic value and effect on net life cycle emissions of using the biochar product itself, there are no comprehensive techno-economic analyses which investigate the value and potential uses of the by-products of biomass pyrolysis. These by-products include volatile organic compounds, known collectively as tar or bio-oil, and light gases, which are mainly hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane. Since only 20-30% of the mass of pyrolyzed biomass is actually converted to char, with the rest converted to the by-products, [1] usage of these by-products is likely the key to increasing the value of biochar to a degree that makes up for the market price of biochar currently... [more]
Direct Solid Oxide Electrolysis of Carbon Dioxide: Analysis of Performance and Processes
Severin Foit, Lucy Dittrich, Tobias Duyster, Izaak Vinke, Rüdiger-A. Eichel, L. G. J. (Bert) de Haart
May 24, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, carbon dioxide reduction, carbon dioxide utilization, CO2-electrolysis, high-temperature electrolysis, solid oxide electrolysis
Chemical industries rely heavily on fossil resources for the production of carbon-based chemicals. A possible transformation towards sustainability is the usage of carbon dioxide as a source of carbon. Carbon dioxide is activated for follow-up reactions by its conversion to carbon monoxide. This can be accomplished by electrochemical reduction in solid oxide cells. In this work, we investigate the process performance of the direct high-temperature CO2 electrolysis by current-voltage characteristics (iV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) experiments. Variations of the operation parameters temperature, load, fuel utilization, feed gas ratio and flow rate show the versatility of the procedure with maintaining high current densities of 0.75 up to 1.5 A·cm−2, therefore resulting in high conversion rates. The potential of the high-temperature carbon dioxide electrolysis as a suitable enabler for the activation of CO2 as a chemical feedstock is therefore appointed and shown.
Determination of Dissolved CO2 Concentration in Culture Media: Evaluation of pH Value and Mathematical Data
Amir Izzuddin Adnan, Mei Yin Ong, Saifuddin Nomanbhay, Pau Loke Show
May 17, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, culture media, microorganism, Optimization
Carbon dioxide is the most influential gas in greenhouse gasses and its amount in the atmosphere reached 412 µmol/mol in August 2020, which increased rapidly, by 48%, from preindustrial levels. A brand-new chemical industry, namely organic chemistry and catalysis science, must be developed with carbon dioxide (CO2) as the source of carbon. Nowadays, many techniques are available for controlling and removing carbon dioxide in different chemical processes. Since the utilization of CO2 as feedstock for a chemical commodity is of relevance today, this study will focus on how to increase CO2 solubility in culture media used for growing microbes. In this work, the CO2 solubility in a different medium was investigated. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and monoethanolamine (MEA) were added to the culture media (3.0 g/L dipotassium phosphate (K2HPO4), 0.2 g/L magnesium chloride (MgCl2), 0.2 g/L calcium chloride (CaCl2), and 1.0 g/L sodium chloride (NaCl)) for growing microbes in order to observe the dif... [more]
Prediction of the Solubility of CO2 in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids Based on Selective Ensemble Modeling Method
Luyue Xia, Shanshan Liu, Haitian Pan
May 17, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, fuzzy C–means, ionic liquids, Modelling, prediction, selective ensemble, solubility
Solubility data is one of the essential basic data for CO2 capture by ionic liquids. A selective ensemble modeling method, proposed to overcome the shortcomings of current methods, was developed and applied to the prediction of the solubility of CO2 in imidazolium ionic liquids. Firstly, multiple different sub−models were established based on the diversities of data, structural, and parameter design philosophy. Secondly, the fuzzy C−means algorithm was used to cluster the sub−models, and the collinearity detection method was adopted to eliminate the sub−models with high collinearity. Finally, the information entropy method integrated the sub−models into the selective ensemble model. The validation of the CO2 solubility predictions against experimental data showed that the proposed ensemble model had better performance than its previous alternative, because more effective information was extracted from different angles, and the diversity and accuracy among the sub−models were fully inte... [more]
A Comprehensive Energy and Exergoeconomic Analysis of a Novel Transcritical Refrigeration Cycle
Bourhan Tashtoush, Karima Megdouli, Mouna Elakhdar, Ezzedine Nehdi, Lakdar Kairouani
October 6, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, economic and exergy analysis, ejector refrigeration cycle, refrigeration, transcritical cycle, waste heat
A comprehensive energy and exergoeconomic analysis of a novel transcritical refrigeration cycle (NTRC) is presented. A second ejector is introduced into the conventional refrigeration system for the utilization of the gas-cooler waste heat. The thermodynamic properties of the working fluid are estimated by the database of REFPROP 9, and a FORTRAN program is used to solve the system governing equations. Exergy, energy, and exergoeconomic analyses of the two cycles are carried out to predict the exergetic destruction rate and efficiency of the systems. The optimum gas cooler working pressure will be determined for both cycles. A comprehensive comparison is made between the obtained results of the conventional and the new cycles. An enhancement of approximately 30% in the coefficient of performance (COP) of the new cycle was found in comparison to the value of the conventional cycle. In addition, the results of the analysis indicated a reduction in the overall exergy destruction rate and... [more]
A Novel Process of H2/CO2 Membrane Separation of Shifted Syngas Coupled with Gasoil Hydrogenation
Weirong Huang, Xiaobin Jiang, Gaohong He, Xuehua Ruan, Bo Chen, Aazad Khan Nizamani, Xiangcun Li, Xuemei Wu, Wu Xiao
July 17, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, gasoil hydrogenation, Hydrogen, PEO membrane, PI membrane, separation
A novel process of membrane separation for H2/CO2 of shifted syngas coupled with gasoil hydrogenation (NMGH) is proposed. First, a new process, with two-stage CO2-selective and one-stage H2-selective membranes, was developed to substitute the conventional PSA separation devices to remove CO2 and purify H2 in coal gasification refineries to reduce energy consumption and investment costs. Then, the process was coupled with gasoil hydrogenation and the recycled H2 produced by the hydrogenation reactor could be further purified by the H2-selective membrane, which increased the H2 concentration of the hydrogenation reactor inlet by about 11 mol.% compared with the conventional direct recycling process, and the total system pressure was reduced by about 2470 kPa. At the same time, this additional membrane separation and purification prevented the accumulation of CO/CO2 in the recycled H2, which ensured the activity of the catalyst in the reactor and the long-term stable operation of the devi... [more]
Novel Carbon Dioxide-Based Method for Accurate Determination of pH and pCO2 in Mammalian Cell Culture Processes
Christian Klinger, Verena Trinkaus, Tobias Wallocha
July 2, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, cell culture, cell culture, CHO, off-gas measurement, pCO2, pH, reference
In mammalian cell culture, especially in pharmaceutical manufacturing, pH is a critical process parameter that has to be controlled as accurately as possible. Not only does pH directly affect cell culture performance, ensuring a comparable pH is also crucial for scaling and transfer of processes. A sample-based offline pH measurement is commonly used to ensure correct bioreactor pH probe signals after sterilization and as a detection measure for drifts of probe signals. However, the sample-based pH offline measurement does not necessarily deliver required accuracy. Offsets between bioreactor pH and sample pH heavily depend on equipment, local procedures and the offline measurement method that is used. This article adequately describes a novel, non-invasive method to determine pH and pCO2 in sterile bioreactors without the need to sample and measure offline. This method utilizes the chemical correlation between carbon dioxide in the gas phase, dissolved carbon dioxide, bicarbonate and d... [more]
Gas Capture Processes
Zhien Zhang, Tohid N. Borhani, Muftah H. El-Naas, Salman Masoudi Soltani, Yunfei Yan
February 12, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: capture, Carbon Dioxide, gas emission, global warming
The increasing trends in gas emissions have had direct adverse impacts on human health and ecological habitats in the world. A variety of technologies have been deployed to mitigate the release of such gases, including CO2, CO, SO2, H2S, NOx and H2. This special issue on gas-capture processes collects 25 review and research papers on the applications of novel techniques, processes, and theories in gas capture and removal.
Experimental and Numerical Study of Double-Pipe Evaporators Designed for CO2 Transcritical Systems
Junlan Yang, Shuying Ning
November 5, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, double-pipe evaporator, experimental study, heat transfer, Simulation
The performance of a CO2 double-pipe evaporator was studied through experiments and a simulation model that was established by the steady-state distribution parameter method and experimentally verified while using a CO2 transcritical water‒water heat pump system. The effects of different operating parameters on heat transfer performance were studied over a range of evaporation temperatures (−5 to 5 °C), mass velocity (100‒600 kg/m2s), and heat flux (5000‒15,000 W/m2). It was found that the dryout quality increased at a small evaporation temperature, a large mass velocity, and a small heat flux. The simulation yield means relative error (RE) of heat transfer for the evaporation temperature and that of the CO2 pressure drop for the chilled water inlet temperature were 5.21% and 3.78%, respectively. The effect of tube diameter on the performance of CO2 double-pipe evaporator is probed through simulations. At the same time, this paper defines a parameter α , which is the proportio... [more]
Prediction of CO2 Solubility in Ionic Liquids Based on Multi-Model Fusion Method
Luyue Xia, Jiachen Wang, Shanshan Liu, Zhuo Li, Haitian Pan
July 29, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, ionic liquids, multi-model fusion, prediction, solubility
Reducing the emissions of greenhouse gas is a worldwide problem that needs to be solved urgently for sustainable development in the future. The solubility of CO2 in ionic liquids is one of the important basic data for capturing CO2. Considering the disadvantages of experimental measurements, e.g., time-consuming and expensive, the complex parameters of mechanism modeling and the poor stability of single data-driven modeling, a multi-model fusion modeling method is proposed in order to predict the solubility of CO2 in ionic liquids. The multiple sub-models are built by the training set. The sub-models with better performance are selected through the validation set. Then, linear fusion models are established by minimizing the sum of squares of the error and information entropy method respectively. Finally, the performance of the fusion model is verified by the test set. The results showed that the prediction effect of the linear fusion models is better than that of the other three optima... [more]
High Nitrate and Phosphate Ions Reduction in Modified Low Salinity Fresh Water through Microalgae Cultivation
Ahmad Rozaimee Mustaffa, Ku Halim Ku Hamid, Mohibah Musa, Juferi Idris, Roslina Ramli
July 11, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: biodiesel, Carbon Dioxide, fresh water, low salinity, nitrate ions, phosphate ions, Spirogyra sp., Tetraspora sp.
The treatment of nitrate and phosphate ions in fresh water such as streams, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands through biological treatment has been getting more crucial and popular in recent years. This paper reports the reduction of nitrate and phosphate ions in modified low salinity fresh water via the cultivation of a microalgae strain, e.g., Tetraspora sp. and Spirogyra sp. The low salinity fresh water (9054 to 9992 ppm) was modified with the addition of organic fertiliser (VermiCompost Tea) and used as the cultivation medium to grow microalgae. The microalgae strains were grown under controlled conditions in an indoor laboratory for 14 days. The initial concentrations of nitrate and phosphate ions in the modified fresh water sample were 1.17 mg/L and 0.10 mg/L, respectively. The reduction of nitrate and phosphate ions associated with the effect of cultivation of Tetraspora sp. and Spirogyra sp. in ambient air (0.03% of CO2) and 15% of CO2 was investigated. In ambient air, th... [more]
Reaction Kinetics of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Blends of N-Methyldiethanolamine and L-Arginine Using the Stopped-Flow Technique
Nafis Mahmud, Abdelbaki Benamor, Mustafa Nasser, Muftah H. El-Naas, Paitoon Tontiwachwuthikul
June 8, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, kinetics, L-Arginine, N-methyldiethanolamine, Reaction, stopped flow technique
Reduction of carbon dioxide emission from natural and industrial flue gases is paramount to help mitigate its effect on global warming. Efforts are continuously deployed worldwide to develop efficient technologies for CO₂ capture. The use of environment friendly amino acids as rate promoters in the present amine systems has attracted the attention of many researchers recently. In this work, the reaction kinetics of carbon dioxide with blends of N-methyldiethanolamine and L-Arginine was investigated using stopped flow technique. The experiments were performed over a temperature range of 293 to 313 K and solution concentration up to one molar of different amino acid/amine ratios. The overall reaction rate constant (kov) was found to increase with increasing temperature and amine concentration as well as with increased proportion of L-Arginine concentration in the mixture. The experimental data were fitted to the zwitterion and termolecular mechanisms using a nonlinear regression techniqu... [more]
Approaches to Suppress CO₂-Induced Plasticization of Polyimide Membranes in Gas Separation Applications
Moli Zhang, Liming Deng, Dongxiao Xiang, Bing Cao, Seyed Saeid Hosseini, Pei Li
April 15, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, gas separation, membrane, plasticization, polyimide
Polyimides with excellent physicochemical properties have aroused a great deal of interest as gas separation membranes; however, the severe performance decay due to CO₂-induced plasticization remains a challenge. Fortunately, in recent years, advanced plasticization-resistant membranes of great commercial and environmental relevance have been developed. In this review, we investigate the mechanism of plasticization due to CO₂ permeation, introduce effective methods to suppress CO₂-induced plasticization, propose evaluation criteria to assess the reduced plasticization performance, and clarify typical methods used for designing anti-plasticization membranes.
Time-Based Trend of Carbon Emissions in the Composting Process of Swine Manure in the Context of Agriculture 4.0
Jun-Ho Huh, Ki-Youn Kim
April 8, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Agriculture 4.0, Carbon Dioxide, carbon emission, CH4, composting process, pig production industry, real-time monitoring system, swine farm, swine manure
The widespread raising of swine in farms becomes a serious problem in terms of the emission of carbon dioxide (CO₂) and methane (CH₄). This study aims to measure concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane, which account for the largest percentage of carbon emissions, to temporally estimate the carbon emitted during the pig-manure composting process. The research subject was a farmhouse raising 3000 growing pigs and 100 mother pigs. The capacity of the composting facility for pig manure treatment was 330 m², and the daily treatment was about 6 tons. After the pig manure discharged from the pig farm was delivered to the composting facility, for the 8 days including 6 before mixing and 2 after mixing, the concentrations of CO₂ and CH₄ were measured. The result shows that the CO₂ and CH₄ concentrations in the composting facility were 1208 ± 385 ppm and 95 ± 10 ppm, respectively. In the comparison of concentrations before and after mixing at the composting facility, the values of both CO₂... [more]
Regional Energy, CO₂, and Economic and Air Quality Index Performances in China: A Meta-Frontier Approach
Ying Li, Yung-Ho Chiu, Liang Chun Lu
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: AQI, Carbon Dioxide, energy use efficiency, meta-frontier, Non-radial Directional Distance Function
Rapid economic development has resulted in a significant increase in energy consumption and pollution such as carbon dioxide (CO₂), particulate matter (PM2.5), particulate matter 10 (PM10), SO₂, and NO₂ emissions, which can cause cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Therefore, to ensure a sustainable future, it is essential to improve economic efficiency and reduce emissions. Using a Meta-frontier Non-radial Directional Distance Function model, this study took energy consumption, the labor force, and fixed asset investments as the inputs, Gross domestic product (GDP) as the desirable output, and CO₂ and the Air Quality Index (AQI) scores as the undesirable outputs to assess energy efficiency and air pollutant index efficiency scores in China from 2013⁻2016 and to identify the areas in which improvements was necessary. It was found that there was a large gap between the western and eastern cities in China. A comparison of the CO₂ and AQI in 31 Chinese cities showed a significant dif... [more]
Experimental Study of Mixed Gas Hydrates from Gas Feed Containing CH₄, CO₂ and N₂: Phase Equilibrium in the Presence of Excess Water and Gas Exchange
Ludovic Nicolas Legoix, Livio Ruffine, Christian Deusner, Matthias Haeckel
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, CH4, gas exchange, gas hydrates, high-pressure experiments, N2, phase equilibrium
This article presents gas hydrate experimental measurements for mixtures containing methane (CH₄), carbon dioxide (CO₂) and nitrogen (N₂) with the aim to better understand the impact of water (H₂O) on the phase equilibrium. Some of these phase equilibrium experiments were carried out with a very high water-to-gas ratio that shifts the gas hydrate dissociation points to higher pressures. This is due to the significantly different solubilities of the different guest molecules in liquid H₂O. A second experiment focused on CH₄-CO₂ exchange between the hydrate and the vapor phases at moderate pressures. The results show a high retention of CO₂ in the gas hydrate phase with small pressure variations within the first hours. However, for our system containing 10.2 g of H₂O full conversion of the CH₄ hydrate grains to CO₂ hydrate is estimated to require 40 days. This delay is attributed to the shrinking core effect, where initially an outer layer of CO₂-rich hydrate is formed that effectively s... [more]
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