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Records with Keyword: Biomass
Showing records 1 to 25 of 43. [First] Page: 1 2 Last
Torrefaction of Woody and Agricultural Biomass: Influence of the Presence of Water Vapor in the Gaseous Atmosphere
María González Martínez, Estéban Hélias, Gilles Ratel, Sébastien Thiéry, Thierry Melkior
September 21, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, solid mass loss, TGA, torrefaction, water vapor
Biomass preheating in torrefaction at an industrial scale is possible through a direct contact with the hot gases released. However, their high water-content implies introducing moisture (around 20% v/v) in the torrefaction atmosphere, which may impact biomass thermochemical transformation. In this work, this situation was investigated for wheat straw, beech wood and pine forest residue in torrefaction in two complementary experimental devices. Firstly, experiments in chemical regime carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) showed that biomass degradation started from lower temperatures and was faster under a moist atmosphere (20% v/v water content) for all biomass samples. This suggests that moisture might promote biomass components’ degradation reactions from lower temperatures than those observed under a dry atmosphere. Furthermore, biomass inorganic composition might play a role in the extent of biomass degradation in torrefaction in the presence of moisture. Secondly, tor... [more]
Current State of Porous Carbon for Wastewater Treatment
Mongi ben Mosbah, Lassaad Mechi, Ramzi Khiari, Younes Moussaoui
July 29, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: activated carbon, activating agent, Adsorption, applications, Biomass, pollutants, porous materials
Porous materials constitute an attractive research field due to their high specific surfaces; high chemical stabilities; abundant pores; special electrical, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties; and their often higher reactivities. These materials are currently generating a great deal of enthusiasm, and they have been used in large and diverse applications, such as those relating to sensors and biosensors, catalysis and biocatalysis, separation and purification techniques, acoustic and electrical insulation, transport gas or charged species, drug delivery, and electrochemistry. Porous carbons are an important class of porous materials that have grown rapidly in recent years. They have the advantages of a tunable pore structure, good physical and chemical stability, a variable specific surface, and the possibility of easy functionalization. This gives them new properties and allows them to improve their performance for a given application. This review paper intends to understand... [more]
Aspen Plus Simulations of a Lignocellulosic Biomass-to-Butanol Thermochemical Process
Chinedu Okoli, Thomas A Adams II
July 6, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Aspen Plus, Biofuels, Biomass, Butanol, Kinetic Model, Lignocellulosic, Mixed Alcohol Synthesis, Simulation, Thermochemical
Several Aspen Plus simulation files are presented which were used in the research paper by Chinedu Okoli and Thomas A. Adams II: "Design and Assessment of Advanced Thermochemical Plants for Second Generation Biobutanol Production Considering Mixed Alcohols Synthesis Kinetics" published in Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol 56, pp 1543-1558 (2017). Four Aspen Plus V8.4 workbook files are provided AS IS, with no guarantee of accuracy or functionality. They are the original files used in the underlying work and have not been groomed or sanitized.

The four base cases considered in this study are:

1. A "biomass only" process in which the entire plant's energy supply comes from biomass.
2. A "biomass only" process that uses a divided wall column as a part of the distillation sequence
3. A "NG and power import" process in which natural gas and grid electricity are used to provide supplementary power.
4. A "NG import" case in which natural gas (but not grid... [more]
Biosorption: A Review of the Latest Advances
Enrique Torres
June 29, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: bioaccumulation, biocomposite, Biomass, biosorption, dyes, emerging organic contaminants, metals, pollutants
Biosorption is a variant of sorption techniques in which the sorbent is a material of biological origin. This technique is considered to be low cost and environmentally friendly, and it can be used to remove pollutants from aqueous solutions. The objective of this review is to report on the most significant recent works and most recent advances that have occurred in the last couple of years (2019−2020) in the field of biosorption. Biosorption of metals and organic compounds (dyes, antibiotics and other emerging contaminants) is considered in this review. In addition, the use and possibilities of different forms of biomass (live or dead, modified or immobilized) are also considered.
Microwave-Assisted Pyrolysis of Pine Wood Sawdust Mixed with Activated Carbon for Bio-Oil and Bio-Char Production
Anissa Khelfa, Filipe Augusto Rodrigues, Mohamed Koubaa, Eugène Vorobiev
May 26, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: activated carbon, Biomass, microwave absorber, pine wood sawdust, pyrolysis
Pyrolysis of pine wood sawdust was carried out using microwave-heating technology in the presence of activated carbon (AC). Experimental conditions were of 20 min processing time, 10 wt.% of AC, and a microwave power varying from 100 to 800 W. The results obtained showed that the microwave absorber allowed increasing the bio-oil yield up to 2 folds by reducing the charcoal fraction. The maximum temperature reached was 505 °C at 800 W. The higher heating values (HHV) of the solid residues ranged from 17.6 to 30.3 MJ/kg. The highest HHV was obtained for the sample heated at 800 W with 10 wt.% of AC, which was 33% higher than the non-charged sample heated at the same power. Furthermore, the addition of AC allowed showing the probable catalytic effect of the AC in the charged sample pyrolysis bio-oils.
Comparative Performances of Microalgal-Bacterial Co-Cultivation to Bioremediate Synthetic and Municipal Wastewaters Whilst Producing Biodiesel Sustainably
Wai Hong Leong, Kunlanan Kiatkittipong, Worapon Kiatkittipong, Yoke Wang Cheng, Man Kee Lam, Rashid Shamsuddin, Mardawani Mohamad, Jun Wei Lim
May 25, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: biodiesel, Biomass, lipid, microalgal-bacterial cultures, wastewater treatment
The potentiality of a microalgal-bacterial culture system was explored in bioremediating wastewater while generating biomass for biodiesel production. A pre-determined optimal activated sludge and microalgal ratio was adopted and cultivation performance was evaluated in both synthetic and municipal wastewater media for nitrogen removal along with biomass and lipid generation for biodiesel production. The microalgal-bacterial consortium grown in the municipal wastewater medium produced higher biomass and lipid yields than those in the synthetic wastewater medium. The presence of trace elements in the municipal wastewater medium, e.g., iron and copper, contributed to the upsurge of biomass, thereby leading to higher lipid productivity. Both the microbial cultures in the synthetic and municipal wastewater media demonstrated similar total nitrogen removal efficiencies above 97%. However, the nitrification and assimilation rates were relatively higher for the microbial culture in the munici... [more]
Gasification Applicability of Korean Municipal Waste Derived Solid Fuel: A Comparative Study
Sang Yeop Lee, Md Tanvir Alam, Gun Ho Han, Dong Hyuk Choi, Se Won Park
May 17, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, Coal, gasification, municipal solid waste, solid recovered fuel, Syngas
Gaining energy independence by utilizing new and renewable energy resources has become imperative for Korea. Energy recovery from Korean municipal solid waste (MSW) could be a promising option to resolve the issue, as Korean MSW is highly recyclable due to its systematic separation, collection and volume-based waste disposal system. In this study, gasification experiments were conducted on Korean municipal waste-derived solid fuel (SRF) using a fixed bed reactor by varying the equivalence ratio (ER) to assess the viability of syngas production. Experiments were also conducted on coal and biomass under similar conditions to compare the experimental results, as the gasification applicability of coal and biomass are long-established. Experimental results showed that Korean SRF could be used to recover energy in form of syngas. In particular, 50.94% cold gas efficiency and 54.66% carbon conversion ratio with a lower heating value of 12.57 MJ/Nm3 can be achieved by gasifying the SRF at 0.4... [more]
Process Strategies for the Transition of 1G to Advanced Bioethanol Production
Ana Susmozas, Raquel Martín-Sampedro, David Ibarra, María E. Eugenio, Raquel Iglesias, Paloma Manzanares, Antonio D. Moreno
April 30, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: bioeconomy, bioethanol, Biomass, integrated biorefineries, retrofitting
Nowadays, the transport sector is one of the main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution in cities. The use of renewable energies is therefore imperative to improve the environmental sustainability of this sector. In this regard, biofuels play an important role as they can be blended directly with fossil fuels and used in traditional vehicles’ engines. Bioethanol is the most used biofuel worldwide and can replace gasoline or form different gasoline-ethanol blends. Additionally, it is an important building block to obtain different high added-value compounds (e.g., acetaldehyde, ethylene, 1,3-butadiene, ethyl acetate). Today, bioethanol is mainly produced from food crops (first-generation (1G) biofuels), and a transition to the production of the so-called advanced ethanol (obtained from lignocellulosic feedstocks, non-food crops, or industrial waste and residue streams) is needed to meet sustainability criteria and to have a better GHG balance. This work gives an ov... [more]
Microwave-Assisted Pyrolysis of Biomass Waste: A Mini Review
Saleem Ethaib, Rozita Omar, Siti Mazlina Mustapa Kamal, Dayang Radiah Awang Biak, Salah L. Zubaidi
April 16, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: bio-char, bio-oil, Biomass, microwave-assisted pyrolysis, operating parameters
The utilization of biomass waste as a raw material for renewable energy is a global concern. Pyrolysis is one of the thermal treatments for biomass wastes that results in the production of liquid, solid and gaseous products. Unfortunately, the complex structure of the biomass materials matrix needs elevated heating to convert these materials into useful products. Microwave heating is a promising alternative to conventional heating approaches. Recently, it has been widely used in pyrolysis due to easy operation and its high heating rate. This review tries to identify the microwave-assisted pyrolysis treatment process fundamentals and discusses various key operating parameters which have an effect on product yield. It was found that several operating parameters govern this process such as microwave power and the degree of temperature, microwave absorber addition and its concentration, initial moisture content, initial sweep gas flow rate/residence time. Moreover, this study highlighted t... [more]
Determination of Hemicellulose, Cellulose, and Lignin Content in Different Types of Biomasses by Thermogravimetric Analysis and Pseudocomponent Kinetic Model (TGA-PKM Method)
David Díez, Ana Urueña, Raúl Piñero, Aitor Barrio, Tarja Tamminen
February 22, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pseudocomponent kinetic model, TGA
The standard method for determining the biomass composition, in terms of main lignocellulosic fraction (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) contents, is by chemical method; however, it is a slow and expensive methodology, which requires complex techniques and the use of multiple chemical reagents. The main objective of this article is to provide a new efficient, low-cost and fast method for the determination of the main lignocellulosic fraction contents of different types of biomasses from agricultural by-products to softwoods and hardwoods. The method is based on applying deconvolution techniques on the derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) pyrolysis curves obtained by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) through a kinetic approach based on a pseudocomponent kinetic model (PKM). As a result, the new method (TGA-PKM) provides additional information regarding the ease of carrying out their degradation in comparison with other biomasses. The results obtained show a good agreement between exper... [more]
Recent Insights into Lignocellulosic Biomass Pyrolysis: A Critical Review on Pretreatment, Characterization, and Products Upgrading
Zahra Echresh Zadeh, Ali Abdulkhani, Omar Aboelazayem, Basudeb Saha
October 26, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: bio-oil, biofuel, Biomass, catalytic upgrading, pyrolysis
Pyrolysis process has been considered to be an efficient approach for valorization of lignocellulosic biomass into bio-oil and value-added chemicals. Bio-oil refers to biomass pyrolysis liquid, which contains alkanes, aromatic compounds, phenol derivatives, and small amounts of ketone, ester, ether, amine, and alcohol. Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable and sustainable energy resource for carbon that is readily available in the environment. This review article provides an outline of the pyrolysis process including pretreatment of biomass, pyrolysis mechanism, and process products upgrading. The pretreatment processes for biomass are reviewed including physical and chemical processes. In addition, the gaps in research and recommendations for improving the pretreatment processes are highlighted. Furthermore, the effect of feedstock characterization, operating parameters, and types of biomass on the performance of the pyrolysis process are explained. Recent progress in the identificat... [more]
Image-Based Model for Assessment of Wood Chip Quality and Mixture Ratios
Thomas Plankenbühler, Sebastian Kolb, Fabian Grümer, Dominik Müller, Jürgen Karl
September 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, biomass power plant, fuel quality, image analysis, Machine Learning, regression modeling
This article focuses on fuel quality in biomass power plants and describes an online prediction method based on image analysis and regression modeling. The main goal is to determine the mixture fraction from blends of two wood chip species with different qualities and properties. Starting from images of both fuels and different mixtures, we used two different approaches to deduce feature vectors. The first one relied on integral brightness values while the latter used spatial texture information. The features were used as input data for linear and non-linear regression models in nine training classes. This permitted the subsequent prediction of mixture ratios from prior unknown similar images. We extensively discuss the influence of model and image selection, parametrization, the application of boosting algorithms and training strategies. We obtained models featuring predictive accuracies of R2 > 0.9 for the brightness-based model and R2 > 0.8 for the texture based one during the valid... [more]
Optimizing Yield and Quality of Bio-Oil: A Comparative Study of Acacia tortilis and Pine Dust
Gratitude Charis, Gwiranai Danha, Edison Muzenda
July 7, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Acacia tortilis, biofuel, Biomass, pine dust, pyrolysis
We collected pine dust and Acacia tortilis samples from Zimbabwe and Botswana, respectively. We then pyrolyzed them in a bench-scale plant under varying conditions. This investigation aimed to determine an optimum temperature that will give result to maximum yield and quality of the bio-oil fraction. Our experimental results show that we obtain the maximum yield of the oil fraction at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 °C for the acacia and at 500 °C for the pine dust. Our results also show that we obtain an oil fraction with a heating value (HHV) of 36.807 MJ/kg using acacia as the feed material subject to a primary condenser temperature of 140 °C. Under the same pyrolysis temperature, we obtain an HHV value of 15.78 MJ/kg using pine dust as the raw material at a primary condenser temperature of 110 °C. The bio-oil fraction we obtain from Acacia tortilis at these condensation temperatures has an average pH value of 3.42 compared to that of 2.50 from pine dust. The specific gravity of the... [more]
Characterizations of Biomasses for Subsequent Thermochemical Conversion: A Comparative Study of Pine Sawdust and Acacia Tortilis
Gratitude Charis, Gwiranai Danha, Edison Muzenda
July 7, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: bioenergy, Biomass, characterization, lignocellulosic
The bioenergy production potential from biomasses is dependent on their characteristics. This study characterized pine sawdust samples from Zimbabwe and acacia tortilis samples from Botswana using conventional and spectrometry techniques. The ultimate analysis results for pine were 45.76% carbon (C), 5.54% hydrogen (H), 0.039% nitrogen (N), 0% sulphur (S) and 48.66% oxygen (O) and, for acacia, were 41.47% C, 5.15% H, 1.23% N, 0% S and 52.15% O. Due to the low N and S in the biomasses, they promise to provide cleaner energy than fossil-based sources. Proximate analysis results, on a dry basis, for acacia were 3.90% ash, 15.59% fixed carbon and 76.51% volatiles matter and 0.83%, 20% and 79.16%, respectively, for pine. A calorific value of 17.57 MJ/kg was obtained for pine, compared with 17.27 MJ/kg for acacia, suggesting they are good thermochemical feedstocks. Acacia’s bulk energy density is five times that of pine, making it excellent for compressed wood applications. Though the ash co... [more]
Thermal Biomass Conversion: A Review
Witold M. Lewandowski, Michał Ryms, Wojciech Kosakowski
July 2, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, gasification, pyrolysis, thermal conversion, torrefaction
In this paper, the most important methods of thermal conversion of biomass, such as: hydrothermal carbonization (180−250 °C), torrefaction (200−300 °C), slow pyrolysis (carbonization) (300−450 °C), fast pyrolysis (500−800 °C), gasification (800−1000 °C), supercritical steam gasification, high temperature steam gasification (>1000 °C) and combustion, were gathered, compared and ranked according to increasing temperature. A comprehensive model of thermal conversion as a function of temperature, pressure and heating rate of biomass has been provided. For the most important, basic process, which is pyrolysis, five mechanisms of thermal decomposition kinetics of its components (lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose) were presented. The most important apparatuses and implementing devices have been provided for all biomass conversion methods excluding combustion. The process of combustion, which is energy recycling, was omitted in this review of biomass thermal conversion methods for two reasons.... [more]
Energy Requirements for Biomass Harvest and Densification
Kevin Shinners, Joshua Friede
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: bales, Biomass, density, Energy, processing
This research quantified the unit and bulk density of several biomass crops across a variety of harvest and processing methods, as well as the energy and fuel requirements for these operations. A load density of approximately 240 kg·m−3 is needed to reach the legal weight limit of most transporters. Of the three types of balers studied, only the high density (HD) large square baler achieved this target density. However, the specific energy and fuel requirements increased exponentially with bale density, and at the maximum densities for corn stover and switchgrass, the dry basis energy and fuel requirements ranged from 4.0 to 5.0 kW·h·Mg−1 and 1.2 to 1.4 L·Mg−1, respectively. Throughputs of tub grinders when grinding bales was less than any other harvesting or processing methods investigated, so specific energy and fuel requirements were high and ranged from 13 to 32 kW·h·Mg−1 and 5.0 to 11.3 L·Mg−1, respectively. Gross size-reduction by pre-cutting at baling increased bale density by l... [more]
Temperature Distribution Estimation in a Dwight−Lloyd Sinter Machine Based on the Combustion Rate of Charcoal Quasi-Particles
Ziming Wang, Ko-ichiro Ohno, Shunsuke Nonaka, Takayuki Maeda, Kazuya Kunitomo
June 10, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, charcoal combustion rate, coke combustion rate, iron ore sintering process, quasi-particle, temperature distribution
The coke combustion rate in an iron ore sintering process is one of the most important determining factors of quality and productivity. Biomass carbon material is considered to be a coke substitute with a lower CO2 emission in the sintering process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combustion rate of a biomass carbon material and to use a sintering simulation model to calculate its temperature profile. The samples were prepared using alumina powder and woody biomass powder. To simplify the experimental conditions, alumina powder, which cannot be reduced, was prepared as a substitute of iron ore. Combustion experiments were carried out in the open at 1073 K~1523 K. The results show that the combustion rates of the biomass carbon material were higher than that of coke. The results were analyzed using an unreacted core model with one reaction interface. The kinetic analysis found that the kc of charcoal was higher than that of coke. It is believed that the larger surface a... [more]
Hydrothermal Polymerization Catalytic Process Effect of Various Organic Wastes on Reaction Time, Yield, and Temperature
Alexis F. Mackintosh, Taesung Shin, Hyunik Yang, Kangil Choe
May 18, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: biofuel, Biomass, HTP catalytic process, hydrothermal carbonization, organic waste
The purpose of this study is to optimize the processing conditions (temperature, pressure, process time, yield rate) for the conversion of biomass to a high-energy density biofuel. The hydrothermal polymerization (HTP) catalytic process has been developed for production of biofuel via hydrothermal processing using an acid-based catalyst. This study has shown that the HTP catalytic process for a reference feedstock lowered the temperature by 10 to 40 °C, reduced the pressure requirement by 1 to 2 MPa, increased the rate of yield by 22%, and shortened the total processing time by up to 3 h when compared to the conventional hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process. FTIR spectrum analysis of the HTP catalytic biofuel has shown that lignin in the biomass is preserved, while the pure HTC process destroyed the lignin in the biomass. GC/MS analysis of the process liquid determined the changes of the intermediate soluble components as a function of time. By measuring the 2,5-hydroxymethyl furfu... [more]
Syngas Production Improvement of Sugarcane Bagasse Conversion Using an Electromagnetic Modified Vacuum Pyrolysis Reactor
Muhammad Djoni Bustan, Sri Haryati, Fitri Hadiah, Selpiana Selpiana, Adri Huda
April 14, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, conversion, electromagnetic field, pyrolysis technology, syngas production
The trends and challenges of pyrolysis technology nowadays have shifted to low-temperature pyrolysis, which provides low-cost processes but high-yield conversion, with suitable H2/CO ratios for performing gas-to-liquid technology in the future. The present study has developed a modified vacuum pyrolysis reactor to convert sugarcane bagasse to gas products, including H2, CO2, CH4, and CO in the low-temperature process. The experimental design includes the effects of pyrolysis time, pyrolysis temperature, and applying a current as a function of the electromagnetic field. The result showed that 0.12 ng/µL, 0.85 ng/µL, and 0.31 ng/µL of hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) gases, respectively, started forming in the first 20 min at 210 °C for the pyrolysis temperature, and the gas product accumulated in the increase of pyrolysis time and temperature. In the absence of electromagnetic field, the optimum condition was obtained at 60 min and 290 °C of pyrolysis time a... [more]
Synergistic Effect on the Non-Oxygenated Fraction of Bio-Oil in Thermal Co-Pyrolysis of Biomass and Polypropylene at Low Heating Rate
Dijan Supramono, Adithya Fernando Sitorus, Mohammad Nasikin
February 12, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, co-pyrolysis, corn cobs, heat transfer, polypropylene, synergistic effect
Biomass pyrolysis and polypropylene (PP) pyrolysis in a stirred tank reactor exhibited different heat transfer phenomena whereby heat transfer in biomass pyrolysis was driven predominantly by heat radiation and PP pyrolysis by heat convection. Therefore, co-pyrolysis could exhibit be expected to display various heat transfer phenomena depending on the feed composition. The objective of the present work was to determine how heat transfer, which was affected by feed composition, affected the yield and composition of the non-polar fraction. Analysis of heat transfer phenomena was based on the existence of two regimes in the previous research in which in regime 1 (the range of PP composition in the feeds is 0−40%), mass ejection from biomass particles occurred without biomass particle swelling, while in regime 2 (the range of PP composition in the feeds is 40−100%), mass ejection was preceded by biomass particle swelling. The co-pyrolysis was carried out in a stirred tank reactor with heat... [more]
Effects of Syngas Cooling and Biomass Filter Medium on Tar Removal
Sunil Thapa, Prakashbhai R. Bhoi, Ajay Kumar, Raymond L. Huhnke
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, dry filter, gasification, syngas cleaning, tar
Biomass gasification is a proven technology; however, one of the major obstacles in using product syngas for electric power generation and biofuels is the removal of tar. The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate effectiveness of tar removal methods by cooling the syngas and using wood shavings as filtering media. The performance of the wood shavings filter equipped with an oil bubbler and heat exchanger as cooling systems was tested using tar-laden syngas generated from a 20-kW downdraft gasifier. The tar reduction efficiencies of wood shavings filter, wood shavings filter with heat exchanger, and wood shavings filter with oil bubbler were 10%, 61%, and 97%, respectively.
Synthesis and Characterization of Natural Extracted Precursor Date Palm Fibre-Based Activated Carbon for Aluminum Removal by RSM Optimization
Alfarooq O. Basheer, Marlia M. Hanafiah, Mohammed Abdulhakim Alsaadi, Y. Al-Douri, M.A. Malek, Mustafa Mohammed Aljumaily, Seef Saadi Fiyadh
July 28, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: aluminum removal, Biomass, date palm fibre, Optimization, powder-activated carbon, wastewater treatment
The Powder-Activated Carbon (PAC) under optimum conditions from a new low-cost precursor Date Palm Fibre (DPF) biomass through a carbonization followed by KOH activation has been synthesized by response surface methodology (RSM) combined with central composite design (CCD). The special effects of activation temperature, time, and impregnation ratio on bio-PAC Aluminum (Al3+) removal and uptake capacity were examined. The optimum conditions for synthesized bio-PAC were found to be 99.4% and 9.94 mg·g−1 for Al3+ removal and uptake capacity, respectively at activation temperature 650 °C, activation time 1h and impregnation ratio 1. The optimum bio-PAC was characterized and analyzed using FESEM, FTIR, XRD, TGA, BET, and Zeta potential. RSM-CCD experimental design was used to optimize removal and uptake capacity of Al3+ on bio-PAC. Optimum conditions were found to be at bio-PAC dose of 5 mg with pH 9.48 and contact time of 117 min. Furthermore, at optimized conditions of Al3+ removal, kinet... [more]
Investigation of Ethanol Production Potential from Lignocellulosic Material without Enzymatic Hydrolysis Using the Ultrasound Technique
Manoj Kandasamy, Ihsan Hamawand, Leslie Bowtell, Saman Seneweera, Sayan Chakrabarty, Talal Yusaf, Zaidoon Shakoor, Sattar Algayyim, Friederike Eberhard
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: bagasse, bioethanol, biofuel, Biomass, lignocellulose, pre-treatment
This research investigates ethanol production from waste lignocellulosic material (sugarcane bagasse). The bagasse was first pretreated using chemicals and ultrasound techniques. These pretreatment techniques were applied separately and combined. The pretreated bagasse was then fermented anaerobically for biofuel production without enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed higher ethanol production than those reported in the literature. The maximum ethanol production of 820 mg/L was achieved with a combination of ultrasound (60 amplitude level, 127 W) and acid (3% H₂SO₄ concentration). The combination of two-step pretreatment such as an ultrasound (50 amplitude level, 109 W) with acid (3% H₂SO₄ concentration) and then an ultrasound with alkaline (23% NaOH concentration) generated 911 mg/L of ethanol.
Some Advances in Supercritical Fluid Extraction for Fuels, Bio-Materials and Purification
Yizhak Marcus
July 25, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, contaminant removal, drug particles, fuels, supercritical carbon dioxide, supercritical ethanol, supercritical methanol, supercritical water
Supercritical fluids are used for the extraction of desired ingredients from natural materials, but also for the removal of undesired and harmful ingredients. In this paper, the pertinent physical and chemical properties of supercritical water, methanol, ethanol, carbon dioxide, and their mixtures are provided. The methodologies used with supercritical fluid extraction are briefly dealt with. Advances in the application of supercritical extraction to fuels, the gaining of antioxidants and other useful items from biomass, the removal of undesired ingredients or contaminants, and the preparation of nanosized particles of drugs are described.
Techno-economic and environmental analyses of a novel, sustainable process for production of liquid fuels using helium heat transfer
Leila Hoseinzade, Thomas A Adams II
September 26, 2019 (v2)
Keywords: Biomass, Carbonless heat, Dimethyl Ether, Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Gasification, Methane Reforming, Negative emissions
In this paper, several new processes are proposed which co-generate electricity and liquid fuels (such as diesel, gasoline, or dimethyl ether) from biomass, natural gas and heat from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This carbonless heat provides the required energy to drive an endothermic steam methane reforming process, which yields H2-rich syngas (H2/CO > 6) with lower greenhouse gas emissions than traditional steam methane reforming processes. Since downstream Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethyl ether synthesis processes require an H2/CO ratio of around 2, biomass gasification is integrated into the process. Biomass-derived syngas is sufficiently H2-lean such that blending it with the steam methane reforming derived syngas yields a syngas of the appropriate H2/CO ratio of around 2. In a prior work, we also demonstrated that integrating carbonless heat with combined steam and CO2 reforming of methane is a promising option to produce a syngas with proper H2/CO ratio for Fisch... [more]
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