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Records with Keyword: Biomass
Synthesis and Characterization of Natural Extracted Precursor Date Palm Fibre-Based Activated Carbon for Aluminum Removal by RSM Optimization
Alfarooq O. Basheer, Marlia M. Hanafiah, Mohammed Abdulhakim Alsaadi, Y. Al-Douri, M.A. Malek, Mustafa Mohammed Aljumaily, Seef Saadi Fiyadh
July 28, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: aluminum removal, Biomass, date palm fibre, Optimization, powder-activated carbon, wastewater treatment
The Powder-Activated Carbon (PAC) under optimum conditions from a new low-cost precursor Date Palm Fibre (DPF) biomass through a carbonization followed by KOH activation has been synthesized by response surface methodology (RSM) combined with central composite design (CCD). The special effects of activation temperature, time, and impregnation ratio on bio-PAC Aluminum (Al3+) removal and uptake capacity were examined. The optimum conditions for synthesized bio-PAC were found to be 99.4% and 9.94 mg·g−1 for Al3+ removal and uptake capacity, respectively at activation temperature 650 °C, activation time 1h and impregnation ratio 1. The optimum bio-PAC was characterized and analyzed using FESEM, FTIR, XRD, TGA, BET, and Zeta potential. RSM-CCD experimental design was used to optimize removal and uptake capacity of Al3+ on bio-PAC. Optimum conditions were found to be at bio-PAC dose of 5 mg with pH 9.48 and contact time of 117 min. Furthermore, at optimized conditions of Al3+ removal, kinet... [more]
Investigation of Ethanol Production Potential from Lignocellulosic Material without Enzymatic Hydrolysis Using the Ultrasound Technique
Manoj Kandasamy, Ihsan Hamawand, Leslie Bowtell, Saman Seneweera, Sayan Chakrabarty, Talal Yusaf, Zaidoon Shakoor, Sattar Algayyim, Friederike Eberhard
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: bagasse, bioethanol, biofuel, Biomass, lignocellulose, pre-treatment
This research investigates ethanol production from waste lignocellulosic material (sugarcane bagasse). The bagasse was first pretreated using chemicals and ultrasound techniques. These pretreatment techniques were applied separately and combined. The pretreated bagasse was then fermented anaerobically for biofuel production without enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed higher ethanol production than those reported in the literature. The maximum ethanol production of 820 mg/L was achieved with a combination of ultrasound (60 amplitude level, 127 W) and acid (3% H₂SO₄ concentration). The combination of two-step pretreatment such as an ultrasound (50 amplitude level, 109 W) with acid (3% H₂SO₄ concentration) and then an ultrasound with alkaline (23% NaOH concentration) generated 911 mg/L of ethanol.
Some Advances in Supercritical Fluid Extraction for Fuels, Bio-Materials and Purification
Yizhak Marcus
July 25, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, contaminant removal, drug particles, fuels, supercritical carbon dioxide, supercritical ethanol, supercritical methanol, supercritical water
Supercritical fluids are used for the extraction of desired ingredients from natural materials, but also for the removal of undesired and harmful ingredients. In this paper, the pertinent physical and chemical properties of supercritical water, methanol, ethanol, carbon dioxide, and their mixtures are provided. The methodologies used with supercritical fluid extraction are briefly dealt with. Advances in the application of supercritical extraction to fuels, the gaining of antioxidants and other useful items from biomass, the removal of undesired ingredients or contaminants, and the preparation of nanosized particles of drugs are described.
Techno-economic and environmental analyses of a novel, sustainable process for production of liquid fuels using helium heat transfer
Leila Hoseinzade, Thomas A Adams II
June 25, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, Carbonless heat, Dimethyl Ether, Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Gasification, Methane Reforming, Negative emissions
In this paper, several new processes are proposed which co-generate electricity and liquid fuels (such as diesel, gasoline, or dimethyl ether) from biomass, natural gas and heat from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This carbonless heat provides the required energy to drive an endothermic steam methane reforming process, which yields H2-rich syngas (H2/CO > 6) with lower greenhouse gas emissions than traditional steam methane reforming processes. Since downstream Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethyl ether synthesis processes require an H2/CO ratio of around 2, biomass gasification is integrated into the process. Biomass-derived syngas is sufficiently H2-lean such that blending it with the steam methane reforming derived syngas yields a syngas of the appropriate H2/CO ratio of around 2. In a prior work, we also demonstrated that integrating carbonless heat with combined steam and CO2 reforming of methane is a promising option to produce a syngas with proper H2/CO ratio for Fisch... [more]
Analysis of Micronized Charcoal for Use in a Liquid Fuel Slurry
John M. Long, Michael D. Boyette
March 26, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: biochar, biofuel, Biomass, charcoal, Diesel, slurry
Yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) was chosen as the woody biomass for the production of charcoal for use in a liquid fuel slurry. Charcoal produced from this biomass resulted in a highly porous structure similar to the parent material. Micronized particles were produced from this charcoal using a multi-step milling process and verified using a scanning electron microscope and laser diffraction system. Charcoal particles greater than 50 µm exhibited long needle shapes much like the parent biomass while particles less than 50 µm were produced with aspect ratios closer to unity. Laser diffraction measurements indicated D10, D50, and D90 values of 4.446 µm, 15.83 µm, and 39.69 µm, respectively. Moisture content, ash content, absolute density, and energy content values were also measured for the charcoal particles produced. Calculated volumetric energy density values for the charcoal particles exceeded the No. 2 diesel fuel that would be displaced in a liquid fuel slurry.
Assessment of the Agronomic Feasibility of Bioenergy Crop Cultivation on Marginal and Polluted Land: A GIS-Based Suitability Study from the Sulcis Area, Italy
Giuseppe Pulighe, Guido Bonati, Stefano Fabiani, Tommaso Barsali, Flavio Lupia, Silvia Vanino, Pasquale Nino, Pasquale Arca, Pier Paolo Roggero
January 31, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: agronomic feasibility, Biomass, geographic information system (GIS), land suitability, marginal land, spatial analysis
In the context of environmental sustainability there has been an increasing interest in bioenergy production from renewable resources, and is expected that European biofuel production from energy crops will increase as a consequence of the achievement of policy targets. The aim of this paper is to assess the agronomic feasibility of biomass crop cultivation to provide profitable renewable feedstocks in a marginal and heavy-metal polluted area located in the Sulcis district, Sardinia (Italy). Results from literature review and unpublished data from field trials carried out in Sardinia were analysed to establish the main agronomic traits of crops (e.g., yield potential and input requirements). A Geographical Information System (GIS)-based procedure with remotely sensed data is also used to evaluate the land suitability and the actual land use/cover, considering a future scenario of expansion of energy crops on these marginal areas avoiding potential conflicts with food production. The re... [more]
Sustainable New Brick and Thermo-Acoustic Insulation Panel from Mineralization of Stranded Driftwood Residues
Anna Laura Pisello, Claudia Fabiani, Nastaran Makaremi, Veronica Lucia Castaldo, Gianluca Cavalaglio, Andrea Nicolini, Marco Barbanera, Franco Cotana
January 7, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: bio-based composite, Biomass, building envelope, energy efficiency in buildings, environmental sustainability, stranded driftwood residues, thermal and acoustical properties
There is considerable interest recently in by-products for application in green buildings. These materials are widely used as building envelope insulators or blocks. In this study, an experimental study was conducted to test stranded driftwood residues as raw material for possible thermo-acoustic insulation panel and environmentally sustainable brick. The thermal and acoustic characteristics of such a natural by-product were examined. Part of samples were mineralized by means of cement-based additive to reinforce the material and enhance its durability as well as fire resistance. Several mixtures with different sizes of ground wood chips and different quantities of cement were investigated. The thermo-acoustic in-lab characterization was aimed at investigating the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, volumetric specific heat, and acoustic transmission loss. All samples were tested before and after mineralization. Results from this study indicate that it is possible to use strande... [more]
An Innovative Agro-Forestry Supply Chain for Residual Biomass: Physicochemical Characterisation of Biochar from Olive and Hazelnut Pellets
Ilaria Zambon, Fabrizio Colosimo, Danilo Monarca, Massimo Cecchini, Francesco Gallucci, Andrea Rosario Proto, Richard Lord, Andrea Colantoni
January 7, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: biochar, Biomass, hazelnut, olive, soil fertiliser
Concerns about climate change and food productivity have spurred interest in biochar, a form of charred organic material typically used in agriculture to improve soil productivity and as a means of carbon sequestration. An innovative approach in agriculture is the use of agro-forestry waste for the production of soil fertilisers for agricultural purposes and as a source of energy. A common agricultural practice is to burn crop residues in the field to produce ashes that can be used as soil fertilisers. This approach is able to supply plants with certain nutrients, such as Ca, K, Mg, Na, B, S, and Mo. However, the low concentration of N and P in the ashes, together with the occasional presence of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, Se, Al, etc.), has a negative effect on soil and, therefore, crop productivity. This work describes the opportunity to create an innovative supply chain from agricultural waste biomass. Olive (Olea europaea) and hazelnut (Corylus avellana) pruning residues represent a... [more]
Model for Energy Analysis of Miscanthus Production and Transportation
Alessandro Sopegno, Efthymios Rodias, Dionysis Bochtis, Patrizia Busato, Remigio Berruto, Valter Boero, Claus Sørensen
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: Biomass, biomass logistics, operations analysis
A computational tool is developed for the estimation of the energy requirements of Miscanthus x giganteus on individual fields that includes a detailed analysis and account of the involved in-field and transport operations. The tool takes into account all the individual involved in-field and transport operations and provides a detailed analysis on the energy requirements of the components that contribute to the energy input. A basic scenario was implemented to demonstrate the capabilities of the tool. Specifically, the variability of the energy requirements as a function of field area and field-storage distance changes was shown. The field-storage distance highly affects the energy requirements resulting in a variation in the efficiency if energy (output/input ratio) from 15.8 up to 23.7 for the targeted cases. Not only the field-distance highly affects the energy requirements but also the biomass transportation system. Based on the presented example, different transportation systems a... [more]
Quantifying the Impact of Feedstock Quality on the Design of Bioenergy Supply Chain Networks
Krystel K. Castillo-Villar, Hertwin Minor-Popocatl, Erin Webb
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: bioenergy, bioethanol, Biomass, logging residues, logistics, Optimization, quality costing, supply chain network design
Logging residues, which refer to the unused portions of trees cut during logging, are important sources of biomass for the emerging biofuel industry and are critical feedstocks for the first-type biofuel facilities (e.g., corn-ethanol facilities). Logging residues are under-utilized sources of biomass for energetic purposes. To support the scaling-up of the bioenergy industry, it is essential to design cost-effective biofuel supply chains that not only minimize costs, but also consider the biomass quality characteristics. The biomass quality is heavily dependent upon the moisture and the ash contents. Ignoring the biomass quality characteristics and its intrinsic costs may yield substantial economic losses that will only be discovered after operations at a biorefinery have begun. This paper proposes a novel bioenergy supply chain network design model that minimizes operational costs and includes the biomass quality-related costs. The proposed model is unique in the sense that it suppor... [more]
Catalytic Flash Pyrolysis of Biomass Using Different Types of Zeolite and Online Vapor Fractionation
Ali Imran, Eddy A. Bramer, Kulathuiyer Seshan, Gerrit Brem
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, catalytic pyrolysis, fractionation, zeolites
Bio-oil produced from conventional flash pyrolysis has poor quality and requires expensive upgrading before it can be used as a transportation fuel. In this work, a high quality bio-oil has been produced using a novel approach where flash pyrolysis, catalysis and fractionation of pyrolysis vapors using two stage condensation are combined in a single process unit. A bench scale unit of 1 kg/h feedstock capacity is used for catalytic pyrolysis in an entrained down-flow reactor system equipped with two-staged condensation of the pyrolysis vapor. Zeolite-based catalysts are investigated to study the effect of varying acidities of faujasite Y zeolites, zeolite structures (ZSM5), different catalyst to biomass ratios and different catalytic pyrolysis temperatures. Low catalyst/biomass ratios did not show any significant improvements in the bio-oil quality, while high catalyst/biomass ratios showed an effective deoxygenation of the bio-oil. The application of zeolites decreased the organic liq... [more]
Recent Advances in Direct Coal Liquefaction
Hengfu Shui, Zhenyi Cai, Chunbao Xu
October 22, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, catalysts, co-liquefaction, coal pre-treatment, direct coal liquefaction (DCL), influencing factors, processes
The growing demand for petroleum, accompanied by the declining petroleum reserves and the concerns over energy security, has intensified the interest in direct coal liquefaction (DCL), particularly in countries such as China which is rich in coal resources, but short of petroleum. In addition to a general introduction on the mechanisms and processes of DCL, this paper overviews some recent advances in DCL technology with respect to the influencing factors for DCL reactions (temperature, solvent, pressure, atmospheres, etc.), the effects of coal pre-treatments for DCL (swelling, thermal treatment, hydrothermal treatment, etc.), as well as recent development in multi-staged DCL processes, DCL catalysts and co-liquefaction of coal with biomass.
Opportunities for a Bio-based Economy in the Netherlands
Johan Sanders, Diederik Van der Hoeven
October 15, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: agriculture, Biobased economy, Biomass, chemical industry, logistics, policy
The shift to a bio-based economy for the Netherlands is not only required because of climate change, but also for industrial strategy reasons. Traditional strongholds of the Dutch economy like the Rotterdam harbour, the agricultural sector (including the greenhouse sector, and food and feed industries) and the petrochemical industry will be affected by the new economic realities, and it is precisely to these sectors that a bio-based economy will offer new opportunities.
Corn and Cellulosic Ethanol Cause Major Problems
David Pimentel, Marcia Pimentel
October 15, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: bioethanol, Biofuels, Biomass
Crops for biofuels squanders cropland, water, and energy resources vital for food production needed for people.
BioEnergy and BioChemicals Production from Biomass and Residual Resources
Dimitar Karakashev, Yifeng Zhang
October 4, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Biochemicals, Bioenergy, Biomass, Residual Resources
(no abstract)
Combustion of Flax Shives, Beech Wood, Pure Woody Pseudo-Components and Their Chars: A Thermal and Kinetic Study
Nourelhouda Boukaous, Lokmane Abdelouahed, Mustapha Chikhi, Abdeslam-Hassen Meniai, Chetna Mohabeer, Taouk Bechara
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, combustion, kinetic parameters, thermal characteristics, thermogravimetric analysis
Thermogravimetric analysis was employed to investigate the combustion characteristics of flax shives, beech wood, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and their chars. The chars were prepared from raw materials in a fixed-bed reactor at 850 °C. In this study, the thermal behavior based on characteristic temperatures (ignition, maximum, and final temperatures), burnout time and maximum rate was investigated. The kinetic parameters for the combustion of different materials were determined based on the Coats-Redfern approach. The results of our study revealed that the combustion of pure pseudo-components behaved differently from that of biomass. Indeed, principal component analysis showed that the thermal behavior of both biomasses was generally similar to that of pure hemicellulose. However, pure cellulose and lignin showed different behaviors compared to flax shives, beech wood, and hemicellulose. Hemicellulose and cellulose chars had almost the same behaviors, while being different from b... [more]
The Influence of Char Preparation and Biomass Type on Char Steam Gasification Kinetics
Tilia Dahou, Françoise Defoort, Sébastien Thiéry, Maguelone Grateau, Matthieu Campargue, Simona Bennici, Mejdi Jeguirim, Capucine Dupont
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, characteristic time analysis, kinetics, pyrolysis conditions, steam gasification, thermogravimetric analysis
A study was conducted to investigate the parameter that has influence on steam gasification kinetics between the biomass type and char preparation. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was carried out on steam gasification of seven biomass samples as well as chars from three of these samples. Chars were prepared using three different sets of low heating rate (LHR) pyrolysis conditions including temperature and biomass bed geometry. It was shown by a characteristic time analysis that these pyrolysis conditions were not associated with a chemical regime in a large amount of devices. However, it has been shown experimentally that conditions used to prepare the char had a much lower influence on steam gasification kinetics than the biomass type.
Flotation in Water and Wastewater Treatment
George Z. Kyzas, Kostas A. Matis
August 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, dispersed-air flotation, metals, particles, separation
Flotation constitutes a separation process that originated from mineral processing. Nowadays, wider applications have been found and compared to flotation for water and wastewater treatment. Stress in the present review paper was mainly applied to heavy metal ions recovery by flotation and the respective mechanism followed, being either ion, precipitate, or sorptive flotation. In the latter case, the use of adsorbents is included (such as powdered activated carbon, zeolites, and goethite), as well as various biosorbents. The flotation of the following metals was reviewed: copper, zinc, nickel, lead, iron, chromium, arsenic, gold, and others. The bubble generation method could be applied for typical dispersed-air flotation column, electroflotation, or dissolved-air flotation; the latter being the most appropriate established technique in water treatment. The role of particle size (for example, studying flotation of salt-type mineral fines) was also examined.
Combining Biomass, Natural Gas, Carbonless Heat to produce liquid fuels
Leila Hoseinzade, Thomas A Adams II
August 15, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, Carbonless Heat, Natural Gas, Polygeneration
In this study, a new Biomass-Gas-Nuclear heat-To-Liquid fuel (BGNTL) process is presented which uses high-temperature nuclear heat as the heat source for steam methane reforming (SMR). This process co-produces liquid fuels (Fischer-Tropsch liquids, methanol and DME) and power. The BGNTL process was simulated using a combination of different software packages including gPROMS, MATLAB, ProMax, and Aspen Plus. This included the use of a rigorous multi-scale model for the nuclear-heat-powered SMR reactor which was developed in a prior work in gPROMS. Energy efficiency and cradle-to-grave life cycle inventory and life-cycle impact analyses of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were accomplished to analyze the environmental impacts of the BGNTL system. Plant performance was compared with a base case Biomass-Gas-To-Liquid (BGTL) process at the same size. In both processes, a carbon capture and storage (CCS) option is considered. It has been found that both processes result in negative total life... [more]
Aspen Plus Simulation of Biomass-Gas-and-Nuclear-To-Liquids (BGNTL) Processes (Using CuCl Route)
James Alexander Scott, Thomas Alan Adams II
August 7, 2018 (v1)
These are Aspen Plus simulation files for a Biomass-Gas-and-Nuclear-To-Liquids chemical plant (a conceptional design), which uses the Copper-Chloride route for hydrogen production. This is a part of a larger work (see linked LAPSE record for pre-print and associated publication in Canadian J Chem Eng). Process sections and major units in this simulation include: Gasification, Integrated-Gasification-Methane-Reforming, Pre-Reforming, Water Gas Shift, Autothermal Reforming, Syngas Blending and Upgrading, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power islands, Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Methanol Synthesis, Dimethyl Ether Synthesis, Heat Recovery and Steam Generation, CO2 Compression for Sequestration, Cooling Towers, and various auxiliary units for heat and pressure management. See the linked work for a detailed description of the model.
Biomass-Gas-and-Nuclear-To-Liquids (BGNTL) Processes Part I: Model Development and Simulation
James Alexander Scott, Thomas Alan Adams II
August 7, 2018 (v1)
New polygeneration processes for the co-production of liquid fuels (Fischer-Tropsch liquids, methanol, and dimethyl ether) and electricity are presented. The processes use a combination of biomass, natural gas, and nuclear energy as primary energy feeds. Chemical process models were created and used to simulate candidate versions of the process, using combinations of models ranging from complex multi- scale models to standard process flowsheet models. The simulation results are presented for an Ontario, Canada case study to obtain key metrics such as efficiency and product conversions. Sample Aspen Plus files are provided in the supplementary material to be used by others.
Biomass-Gas-and-Nuclear-To-Liquids Aspen Plus Simulations
Leila Hoseinzade, Thomas A. Adams II
December 7, 2018 (v2)
In this paper, several new processes are proposed which co-generate electricity and liquid fuels (such as diesel, gasoline, or dimethyl ether) from biomass, natural gas and heat from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This carbonless heat provides the required energy to drive an endothermic steam methane reforming process, which yields H2-rich syngas (H2/CO>6) with lower greenhouse gas emissions than traditional steam methane reforming processes. Since downstream Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethyl ether synthesis processes require an H2/CO ratio of around 2, biomass gasification is integrated into the process. Biomass-derived syngas is sufficiently H2-lean such that blending it with the steam methane reforming derived syngas yields a syngas of the appropriate H2/CO ratio of around 2. In a prior work, we also demonstrated that integrating carbonless heat with combined steam and CO2 reforming of methane is a promising option to produce a syngas with proper H2/CO ratio for Fischer... [more]
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