Records with Subject: Interdisciplinary
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Towards the Grand Unification of Process Design, Scheduling, and Control—Utopia or Reality?
Baris Burnak, Nikolaos A. Diangelakis, Efstratios N. Pistikopoulos
September 23, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: integration, process control, process design, Scheduling
As a founder of the Process Systems Engineering (PSE) discipline, Professor Roger W.H. Sargent had set ambitious goals for a systematic new generation of a process design paradigm based on optimization techniques with the consideration of future uncertainties and operational decisions. In this paper, we present a historical perspective on the milestones in model-based design optimization techniques and the developed tools to solve the resulting complex problems. We examine the progress spanning more than five decades, from the early flexibility analysis and optimal process design under uncertainty to more recent developments on the simultaneous consideration of process design, scheduling, and control. This formidable target towards the grand unification poses unique challenges due to multiple time scales and conflicting objectives. Here, we review the recent progress and propose future research directions.
Adsorptive Removal of Pyridine in Simulation Wastewater Using Coke Powder
Qieyuan Gao, Lei Wang, Zhipeng Li, Yaqi Xie, Qiongqiong He, Yongtian Wang
September 23, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: adsorbent, adsorption thermodynamics, coke powder, pyridine
Pyridine is a toxic component in industrial wastewater, which is difficult to remove using conventional methods. In this study, the cost-effective coke powder was used to remove pyridine from a pyridine simulation wastewater. The removal efficiency and adsorption capacity of pyridine reached up to 67.32% and 0.4488 mg/g, respectively, at a coke powder concentration of 60 mg/L and an adsorption time of 30 min. The pyridine removal efficiency and adsorption capacity of coke powder reached saturation when the initial concentration was 40 mg/L. The pH of 2−12 in the solution was found to have little effect on the pyridine adsorption process of coke powder, while the coke powder with lower ash content was of better adsorbability for pyridine. The coke powder was regenerated by heat treatment, and reused for pyridine adsorption. It was found that the pyridine removal efficiency slightly decreased after nine times of reuse, in addition to a small cumulative weight loss rate of coke powder. Ad... [more]
Selective Cesium Adsorptive Removal on Using Crosslinked Tea Leaves
Dan Yu, Shintaro Morisada, Hidetaka Kawakita, Keisuke Ohto, Katsutoshi Inoue, Ximing Song, Guolin Zhang
September 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: adsorptive removal, biomass wastes, cesium selectivity, ion-exchange
To remove the radioactive cesium from the polluted environment, tea leaves were chosen as cheap, and abundantly available environment-friendly bio-adsorbents to investigate the alkali metals adsorption. Fresh and used tea leaves (FT and UT) were found to have high efficiency and selectivity for cesium adsorption, after the crosslinking with concentrated sulfuric acid. Calculation of the proton-exchanged amount suggested adsorption mechanism of three alkali metals on crosslinked tea leaves involve a cationic exchange with a proton from the hydroxyl groups of the crosslinked tea leaves, as well as coordination with ethereal oxygen atoms to form the chelation. Further, considering the practical application of the polluted water treatment, the competitive adsorption of Cs+ and Na+ ions was investigated by the batch-wise method and column chromatography separation. Unlike the conventional ion exchange and chelate resins with less selectivity for Cs+ coexisting cations, both crosslinked fres... [more]
Coffee Pulp: A Sustainable Alternative Removal of Cr (VI) in Wastewaters
Dora Luz Gómez Aguilar, Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda, Javier Andrés Esteban Muñoz, Jhon Fredy Betancur P.
September 5, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: agricultural residues, coffee pulp (CP), heavy metals, hexavalent chromium, industrial wastewater (IWW), plantain pseudo stem (PP), Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)
Currently, agricultural waste is proposed as a sustainable alternative in the removal of heavy metals present in industrial wastewater, to fulfill some of the goals proposed in the Sustainable Development Goals stated for the 2030 Agenda, in particular in Sections 3.9 and 6.9. Considering this context, the coffee pulp (Castilla variety) of Caldas municipality (Colombia) was used in study for the removal of one of the most toxic chemical species of chromium: Cr (VI). Therefore, the agricultural residue was subjected to a bromatological characterization, determination of the lignocellulosic composition and elucidation of characteristic organic functional groups by IR spectrophotometry. Additionally, the optimal parameters for contaminant removal were identified, regarding particle size, biomass quantity, optimum pH, stirring time, temperature, adsorption kinetics, zero charge potential (pHpzc) and adsorption isotherms, to analyze the kinetic model that fitted the process, the explanation... [more]
Advances in Energy Systems Engineering and Process Systems Engineering in China—A Review Starting from Sargent’s Pioneering Work
Wenhan Qian, Pei Liu, Zheng Li
August 8, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: energy systems engineering, nonlinear programming, Optimization, process design, process systems engineering
Process systems engineering (PSE), after being proposed by Sargent and contemporary researchers, has been fast developing in various domains and research communities around the world in the last couple of decades, with energy systems engineering featuring a typical yet still fast propagating domain, and the Chinese PSE community featuring a typical community with its own unique challenges for applying PSE theory and methods. In this paper, development of energy systems engineering and process systems engineering in China is discussed, and Sargent’s impacts on these two fields are the main focus. Pioneering work conducted by Sargent is firstly discussed. Then, a venation on how his work and thoughts have motivated later researchers and led to progressive advances is reviewed and analyzed. It shows that Sargent’s idea of optimum design and his work on nonlinear programming and superstructure modelling have resulted in well-known methods that are widely adopted in energy systems engineeri... [more]
Artificial Neural Networks Approach for a Multi-Objective Cavitation Optimization Design in a Double-Suction Centrifugal Pump
Wenjie Wang, Majeed Koranteng Osman, Ji Pei, Xingcheng Gan, Tingyun Yin
July 28, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: artificial neural network, cavitation optimization, Computational Fluid Dynamics, multi-objective optimization, NPSHr prediction
Double-suction centrifugal pumps are widely used in industrial and agricultural applications since their flow rate is twice that of single-suction pumps with the same impeller diameter. They usually run for longer, which makes them susceptible to cavitation, putting the downstream components at risk. A fast approach to predicting the Net Positive Suction Head required was applied to perform a multi-objective optimization on the double-suction centrifugal pump. An L32 (84) orthogonal array was designed to evaluate 8 geometrical parameters at 4 levels each. A two-layer feedforward neural network and genetic algorithm was applied to solve the multi-objective problem into pareto solutions. The results were validated by numerical simulation and compared to the original design. The suction performance was improved by 7.26%, 3.9%, 4.5% and 3.8% at flow conditions 0.6Qd, 0.8Qd, 1.0Qd and 1.2Qd respectively. The efficiency increased by 1.53% 1.0Qd and 1.1% at 0.8Qd. The streamline on the blade... [more]
Hybrid Modulation of Bidirectional Three-Phase Dual-Active-Bridge DC Converters for Electric Vehicles
Yen-Ching Wang, Fu-Ming Ni, Tzung-Lin Lee
July 25, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: DAB, EV charger, LiFePO4 battery
Bidirectional power converters for electric vehicles (EVs) have received much attention recently, due to either grid-supporting requirements or emergent power supplies. This paper proposes a hybrid modulation of the three-phase dual-active bridge (3ΦDAB) converter for EV charging systems. The designed hybrid modulation allows the converter to switch its modulation between phase-shifted and trapezoidal modes to increase the conversion efficiency, even under light-load conditions. The mode transition is realized in a real-time manner according to the charging or discharging current. The operation principle of the converter is analyzed in different modes and thus design considerations of the modulation are derived. A lab-scaled prototype circuit with a 48V/20Ah LiFePO₄ battery is established to validate the feasibility and effectiveness.
Some Advances in Supercritical Fluid Extraction for Fuels, Bio-Materials and Purification
Yizhak Marcus
July 25, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, contaminant removal, drug particles, fuels, supercritical carbon dioxide, supercritical ethanol, supercritical methanol, supercritical water
Supercritical fluids are used for the extraction of desired ingredients from natural materials, but also for the removal of undesired and harmful ingredients. In this paper, the pertinent physical and chemical properties of supercritical water, methanol, ethanol, carbon dioxide, and their mixtures are provided. The methodologies used with supercritical fluid extraction are briefly dealt with. Advances in the application of supercritical extraction to fuels, the gaining of antioxidants and other useful items from biomass, the removal of undesired ingredients or contaminants, and the preparation of nanosized particles of drugs are described.
On the Use of Starch in Emulsion Polymerizations
Shidan Cummings, Yujie Zhang, Niels Smeets, Michael Cunningham, Marc A. Dubé
July 17, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: emulsion, graft, polymerization, polysaccharide, Starch
The substitution of petroleum-based synthetic polymers in latex formulations with sustainable and/or bio-based sources has increasingly been a focus of both academic and industrial research. Emulsion polymerization already provides a more sustainable way to produce polymers for coatings and adhesives, because it is a water-based process. It can be made even more attractive as a green alternative with the addition of starch, a renewable material that has proven to be extremely useful as a filler, stabilizer, property modifier and macromer. This work provides a critical review of attempts to modify and incorporate various types of starch in emulsion polymerizations. This review focusses on the method of initiation, grafting mechanisms, starch feeding strategies and the characterization methods. It provides a needed guide for those looking to modify starch in an emulsion polymerization to achieve a target grafting performance or to incorporate starch in latex formulations for the replacem... [more]
Response Surface Method in the Optimization of a Rotary Pan-Equipped process for Increased Efficiency of Slow-Release Coated Urea
Farahnaz Eghbali Babadi, Robiah Yunus, Ali Abbasi, Salman Masoudi Soltani
July 5, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: coated urea, design of experiments, process optimisation, slow-release urea
The high solubility of urea in water and its consequent leaching into the soil adversely prevents its full assimilation by plants. An improved slow-release process could effectively minimise the loss of fertilizer material and thus mitigate the associated environmental pollution. In this study, the effects of the operational variables on the efficiency of the urea coating process in a rotary pan have been systematically analysed. A mixture of gypsum-sulphur was used as the coating material with refined water as a binder. In order to comprehensively investigate the impact of each process variable on the efficiency and any potential interactions between them, the effects of particle size, coating material percentage, rotational speed of the pan, spray flow rate and the amount of sprayed water were investigated and analysed via a central composite design of experiments (DoE). The second-order polynomial model provided the best correlation for the experimental data. The predictive model wa... [more]
Data Science-Enabled Molecular-to-Systems Engineering for Sustainable Water Treatment
Elvis Eugene, William Phillip, Alexander Dowling
October 11, 2019 (v3)
Keywords: Bayesian optimization, design of experiments, fit-for-purpose water, inverse materials design, materials informatics, superstructure optimization, uncertainty quantification
Growing social and economic pressures demand technological innovations that enable the widespread usage of unconventional sources of water. These challenges motivate the emerging fit-for-purpose paradigm, wherein water is provided at the precise quality level of the intended application. Unfortunately, to date, fundamental advances in materials and nanotechnology have been slow to advance this paradigm. Using examples from membrane science and engineering, we highlight the critical need to bridge research at the molecular and nano-scales with development at the device and systems-scales to fully realize sustainable fit-for-purpose water technology. Specifically, we present four opportunities for computing and data science to accelerate convergence of sustainable water research: materials informatics and inverse design, model-based design of experiments, superstructure optimization, and uncertainty quantification. As such, we highlight opportunities to collaboratively revolutionize mole... [more]
Mixing Efficiency Analysis on Droplet Formation Process in Microchannels by Numerical Methods
Jin-yuan Qian, Xiao-juan Li, Zhi-xin Gao, Zhi-jiang Jin
April 15, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: disperse phase fraction, junction configuration, mixing efficiency, VOF method
Liquid⁻liquid two-phase flow in microchannels has attracted much attention, due to the superiority of mass transfer enhancement. One of the biggest unresolved challenges is the low mixing efficiency at the microscale. Suitable mixing efficiency is important to promote the mass transfer of two-phase flow in microchannels. In this paper, the mixing efficiency in three junction configurations, including a cross-shaped junction, a cross-shaped T-junction, and a T-junction, is investigated by the volume of fluid (VOF) method coupled with user-defined scalar (UDS) model. All three junction configurations are designed with the same hydraulic diameter of 100 μm. Mixing components are distributed in the front and back parts of the droplet. The mixing efficiency in the droplet forming stage and the droplet moving stage are compared quantitatively. Results show that different junction configurations create very different mixing efficiencies, and the cross-shaped T-junction performs best, with rel... [more]
Diffusion in Nanoporous Materials: Novel Insights by Combining MAS and PFG NMR
Jörg Kärger, Dieter Freude, Jürgen Haase
April 8, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Adsorption, diffusion, hierarchical host materials, MAS, NMR, PFG
Pulsed field gradient (PFG) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) allows recording of molecular diffusion paths (notably, the probability distribution of molecular displacements over typically micrometers, covered during an observation time of typically milliseconds) and has thus proven to serve as a most versatile means for the in-depth study of mass transfer in complex materials. This is particularly true with nanoporous host materials, where PFG NMR enabled the first direct measurement of intracrystalline diffusivities of guest molecules. Spatial resolution, i.e., the minimum diffusion path length experimentally observable, is limited by the time interval over which the pulsed field gradients may be applied. In “conventional„ PFG NMR measurements, this time interval is determined by a characteristic quantity of the host-guest system under study, the so-called transverse nuclear magnetic relaxation time. This leads, notably when considering systems with low molecular mobilities, to severe... [more]
Facile Fabrication of Recyclable, Superhydrophobic, and Oleophilic Sorbent from Waste Cigarette Filters for the Sequestration of Oil Pollutants from an Aqueous Environment
Augustine O. Ifelebuegu, Egetadobobari E. Lale, Fredrick U. Mbanaso, Stephen C. Theophilus
April 8, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Adsorption, cigarette filters, hydrophobicity, oil/water separation, recyclability
The oil industry is plagued with regular incidences of spills into the environment, causing environmental damage to flora and fauna, especially in marine environments where spills easily travel long distances from their sources. This study was carried out to investigate a simple two-step process for the conversion of waste cigarette filters into a superhydrophobic and oleophilic sorbent for application in oil/water separation and spill clean-up. Ultrasonically cleaned filters were surface modified by chemical vapour deposition using methyltrichlorosilane. The results show that the functionalised waste filters achieved superhydrophobic properties with a water contact angle of 154 ± 3.5°, adsorbing 16 to 26 times their weights in various oils, which is a better oil sorption performance than those of commercially available non-woven polypropylene adsorbents. Also, the sorption capacity did not significantly deteriorate after 20 cycles of reuse, with up to 75% sorption capacity retained. T... [more]
Experimental and Numerical Study of the Radiant Induction-Unit and the Induction Radiant Air-Conditioning System
Qiang Si, Xiaosong Zhang
March 26, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: air-conditioning system, experimental validation, induction ventilation, modeling method, radiation
In this paper we proposed the novel air-conditioning system which combined induction ventilation and radiant air-conditioning. The indoor terminal device is the radiant induction-unit (RIDU). The RIDU is the induction unit combined with the pore radiant panel on which the copper pipes with rigid aluminum diffusion fins are installed. The two-stage evaporator chiller with the non-azeotropic mixture refrigerant is utilized in the system to reduce the initial investment in equipment. With the performance test and the steady state heat transfer model based on the theory of radiative heat transfer, the relationship between the induction ratio of the RIDU and the characteristic of the air supply was studied. Based on this, it is verified that the RIDU has a lower dew-point temperature and better anti-condensation performance than a traditional plate-type radiant panel. The characteristics of the radiation and convection heat transfer of the RIDU were studied. The total heat exchange of the R... [more]
Decoupling Design and Verification of a Free-Piston Linear Generator
Peng Sun, Chi Zhang, Jinhua Chen, Fei Zhao, Youyong Liao, Guilin Yang, Chinyin Chen
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: decoupling design, free-piston, linear generator, power and efficiency distribution
This paper proposes a decoupling design approach for a free-piston linear generator (FPLG) constituted of three key components, including a combustion chamber, a linear generator and a gas spring serving as rebounding device. The approach is based on the distribution of the system power and efficiency, which provides a theoretical design method from the viewpoint of the overall power and efficiency demands. The energy flow and conversion processes of the FPLG are analyzed, and the power and efficiency demands of the thermal-mechanical and mechanical-electrical energy conversion are confirmed. The energy and efficiency distributions of the expansion and compression strokes within a single stable operation cycle are analyzed and determined. Detailed design methodologies of crucial geometric dimensions and operational parameters of each key component are described. The feasibility of the proposed decoupling design approach is validated through several design examples with different output... [more]
Design, Modeling and Control of Magnetic Bearings for a Ring-Type Flywheel Energy Storage System
Chow-Shing Toh, Shyh-Leh Chen
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: flywheel battery, Halbach array, magnetic bearing, nonlinear control
This study is concerned with the magnetic force models of magnetic bearing in a flywheel energy storage system (FESS). The magnetic bearing is of hybrid type, with axial passive magnetic bearing (PMB) and radial hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB). For the PMB, a pair of ring-type Halbach arrays of permanent magnets are arranged vertically to support the rotor weight. For the HMB, a set of ring-type Halbach array is placed on the rotor side, which corresponds to coil sets on the stator side. The HMB can produce both attraction and repulsion forces on the radial direction, depending on the direction of the coil currents. It is found that the ring-type configuration and the differential winding scheme for coil sets can yield linear magnetic force models for both PMB and HMB. Based on the obtained magnetic force model, an integral sliding mode controller is designed for the stable rotor levitation in the radial direction. The experimental results show that the rotor can be stabilized to the bea... [more]
Exergy Accounting: A Quantitative Comparison of Methods and Implications for Energy-Economy Analysis
Jack Miller, Timothy J. Foxon, Steve Sorrell
February 5, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: decoupling, economic growth, Energy, Energy Efficiency, Exergy
Assessments of the feasibility of decoupling energy consumption from economic growth could benefit from an improved understanding of the size, nature and value of different energy flows. This understanding may be enhanced by focusing upon so-called “useful exergy”—a measure of both the quantity and “quality” of energy (defined here as its thermodynamic ability to perform physical work) at the “useful” stage of the energy conversion chain. Useful exergy flows within national economies are increasingly being quantified and their role in economic activity explored. However, this so-called “exergy economics” field currently lacks a consistent methodology. This paper contributes to the development of a more consistent approach. By constructing a “useful exergy account” for the United Kingdom covering the period 1960⁻2012, we explore how different methodological choices influence estimates of useful exergy for different categories of end-use as well as estimates of total national useful exer... [more]
Comparison of Degradation on Aluminum Reflectors for Solar Collectors due to Outdoor Exposure and Accelerated Aging
Johannes Wette, Florian Sutter, Aránzazu Fernández-García, Stefan Ziegler, Reinhard Dasbach
February 5, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: accelerated aging, aluminum solar reflector, concentrated solar power, corrosion, degradation, durability
Reflectors for concentrated solar thermal technologies need to withstand 20 or even 30 years of outdoor exposure without significant loss of solar specular reflectance. In order to test the durability of innovative reflectors within a shorter period of time, an accelerated aging methodology is required. The problem with accelerated testing is that poor correlation between laboratory and field test results has been achieved in the past. This is mainly because unrealistic degradation mechanisms are accelerated in the weathering chambers. In order to define a realistic testing procedure, a high number of accelerated aging tests have been performed on differently coated aluminum reflectors. The degradation mechanisms of the accelerated tests have been classified and systematically compared to samples that have been exposed at nine different exposure sites outdoors. Besides the standardized aging tests, innovative aging procedures have been developed in such way that the agreement to the de... [more]
Promise and Challenges of High-Voltage SiC Bipolar Power Devices
Tsunenobu Kimoto, Kyosuke Yamada, Hiroki Niwa, Jun Suda
January 31, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: (merged pin-Schottky) diodes, carrier lifetime, conductivity modulation, power device, silicon carbide
Although various silicon carbide (SiC) power devices with very high blocking voltages over 10 kV have been demonstrated, basic issues associated with the device operation are still not well understood. In this paper, the promise and limitations of high-voltage SiC bipolar devices are presented, taking account of the injection-level dependence of carrier lifetimes. It is shown that the major limitation of SiC bipolar devices originates from band-to-band recombination, which becomes significant at a high-injection level. A trial of unipolar/bipolar hybrid operation to reduce power loss is introduced, and an 11 kV SiC hybrid (merged pin-Schottky) diodes is experimentally demonstrated. The fabricated diodes with an epitaxial anode exhibit much better forward characteristics than diodes with an implanted anode. The temperature dependence of forward characteristics is discussed.
Electrical Power and Energy Systems for Transportation Applications
Paul Stewart, Chris Bingham
January 7, 2019 (v1)
This book contains the successful invited submissions [1⁻25] to a Special Issue of Energies on the subject area of “Electrical Power and Energy Systems for Transportation Applications”.
An Experimental Study of Pile-Supported OWC-Type Breakwaters: Energy Extraction and Vortex-Induced Energy Loss
Fang He, Mingjia Li, Zhenhua Huang
January 7, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: experimental study, orifice characteristics, oscillating water column, pile-supported breakwater, pneumatic damping, vortex-induced energy loss, wave energy dissipation, wave energy extraction
Integrating wave energy converters with breakwaters is a promising concept for wave energy utilization. On the basis of fulfilling the wave protection demands, pile-supported Oscillating Water Column (OWC)-type breakwaters can also meet the local needs of electricity far from the lands. In the present study, the wave energy extraction and vortex-induced energy loss of pile-supported OWC-type breakwaters were analyzed based on a two-point measurement method. The importance of energy extraction and vortex-induced energy loss on the wave energy dissipation of pile-supported OWC-type breakwaters were experimentally investigated. It was found that the trends of energy extraction and vortex-induced energy loss were generally correlated. The effects of the pneumatic damping induced by top opening affected the vortex-induced energy loss more than the energy extraction. Results showed that a larger pneumatic damping was preferable for the purpose of increasing energy extraction, whereas for a s... [more]
Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash
Zhiliang Chen, Shengyong Lu, Qiongjing Mao, Alfons Buekens, Wei Chang, Xu Wang, Jianhua Yan
January 7, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: ball milling, heavy metals, MSWI fly ash, stabilization, water washing
Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization) of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb) loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a signi... [more]
Progress of the Plasma Centerpost for the PROTO-SPHERA Spherical Tokamak
Alessandro Lampasi, Giuseppe Maffia, Franco Alladio, Luca Boncagni, Federica Causa, Edmondo Giovannozzi, Luigi Andrea Grosso, Alessandro Mancuso, Paolo Micozzi, Valerio Piergotti, Giuliano Rocchi, Alessandro Sibio, Benedetto Tilia, Vincenzo Zanza
January 7, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: nuclear fusion, pinch, plasma physics, power converters and inverters, power plants, power supply, spherical tokamak, sustainable energy sources
Plasma properties can be useful in a wide spectrum of applications. Experimental projects on controlled nuclear fusion are the most challenging of these applications and, at the same time, the best way to approach plasma science. Since nuclear fusion reactors can ensure a large-scale, safe, environmentally-friendly and virtually inexhaustible source of energy, several fusion-oriented megaprojects and innovative companies are appearing all over the world. PROTO-SPHERA (Spherical Plasma for HElicity Relaxation Assessment) is the first plasma project with a simply connected configuration, namely not requiring additional objects inside the plasma volume. This is obtained by a plasma arc, shaped as a screw pinch, acting as the centerpost of a spherical torus with minimal aspect ratio. Due to its intrinsic physical, engineering and economic advantages, this new approach is attractive also on an industrial scale and with several developments that still needs to be explored. This paper present... [more]
Determination of Fracture Initiation Locations during Cross-Measure Drilling for Hydraulic Fracturing of Coal Seams
Yiyu Lu, Yugang Cheng, Zhaolong Ge, Liang Cheng, Shaojie Zuo, Jianyu Zhong
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: acoustic emissions, crack propagation, hydraulic fracturing (HF), initiation location
When drilling coal-bearing sequences to enhance coal seam permeability by hydraulic fracturing (HF), the location where fractures are initiated is important. To date, most research on fracture initiation has studied the problem in two dimensions. In this study, a three-dimensional model to assess initiation location is developed. The model analyzes the stress state of both the borehole wall and the coal-rock interface and the model shows that the fracture initiation location is affected by in situ stress, the dip of the coal seam, and the angle between the borehole and the coal seam. How the initiation location changes near different types of geological faults is calculated by assuming typical in situ stresses for the faults. Following these calculations, physical experiments were carried out to emulate cross-measure hydraulic fracturing under stress conditions equivalent to those in the Chongqing Tonghua coal mine, China. Fracture initiation during the experiments was monitored by an... [more]
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