Records with Subject: Interdisciplinary
Showing records 1 to 25 of 95. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 Last
Lithium-Ion Batteries as Ignition Sources in Waste Treatment Processes—A Semi-Quantitate Risk Analysis and Assessment of Battery-Caused Waste Fires
Thomas Nigl, Mirjam Baldauf, Michael Hohenberger, Roland Pomberger
September 22, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: fire hazards, lithium batteries, portable batteries, risk modelling, waste management
Increasing occurrences of waste fires that are caused by improperly discarded lithium-based portable batteries threaten the whole waste management sector in numerous countries. Studies showed that high quantities of these batteries have been found in several municipal solid waste streams in recent years in Austria. This article reveals the main influence factors on the risk of lithium-based batteries in their end-of-life and it focuses on the quantification of damages to portable batteries during waste treatment processes. Hazards are identified and analysed and potential risks in waste management systems are comprehensively assessed. In two scenarios, the results showed that the potential risks are too high to maintain a sustainable form of waste management. According to the assessment, a small fire in a collection vehicle is located in the risk graph’s yellow region (as low as reasonably practicable, ALARP), while a fully developed fire in a treatment plant has to be classified as an... [more]
Adsorption as a Process for Produced Water Treatment: A Review
Roghayeh Yousef, Hazim Qiblawey, Muftah H. El-Naas
July 29, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Adsorption, oil water, produced water, separation, water treatment
Produced water (PW) is a by-product of oil and gas operations, and its production is foreseen to increase in the upcoming years. Such an increase is justified by various entities through their projection of the expected increase in the demand of oil and gas. The treatment of produced water is a significantly growing challenge for the oil and gas industry that requires serious attention. The first part of this review will present the underlying issue of produced water and relevant practices. With adsorption being defined as the least expensive treatment method, the second part will introduce general adsorption principals. The third part will describe the recent applications of adsorption for the treatment of PW with more focus of categorizing the adsorbents as natural and non-natural adsorbents. The main aim of this review is to shed light on the recent research related to PW treatment using adsorption. This is performed to highlight the shortcomings in PW adsorption research and recomm... [more]
Special Issue on “Hydrogen Production Technologies”
Suttichai Assabumrungrat, Suwimol Wongsakulphasatch, Pattaraporn Lohsoontorn Kim, Alírio E. Rodrigues
April 29, 2021 (v1)
According to energy crisis and environmental concerns, hydrogen has been driven to become one of the most promising alternative energy carriers for power generation and high valued chemical products [...]
A Review of Stereolithography: Processes and Systems
Jigang Huang, Qin Qin, Jie Wang
March 24, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: additive manufacturing, continuous, projection, scanning, stereolithography
Being the earliest form of additive manufacturing, stereolithography (SLA) fabricates 3D objects by selectively solidifying the liquid resin through a photopolymerization reaction. The ability to fabricate objects with high accuracy as well as a wide variety of materials brings much attention to stereolithography. Since its invention in the 1980s, SLA underwent four generations of major technological innovation over the past 40 years. These innovations have thus resulted in a diversified range of stereolithography systems with dramatically improved resolution, throughput, and materials selection for creating complex 3D objects and devices. In this paper, we review the four generations of stereolithography processes, which are scanning, projection, continuous and volumetric stereolithography. For each generation, representative stereolithography system configurations are also discussed in detail. In addition, other derivative technologies, such as scanning−projection, multi-material, an... [more]
Special Issue on “Design and Control of Sustainable Processes”
Sujit S. Jogwar, Xiaonan Wang
February 22, 2021 (v1)
Sustainability has been one of the key drivers for technological innovation in this century [...]
Supercritical Antisolvent Process for Pharmaceutical Applications: A Review
Paola Franco, Iolanda De Marco
December 17, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: biomedical field, coprecipitation, drug delivery, micronization, supercritical antisolvent
The supercritical antisolvent (SAS) technique has been widely employed in the biomedical field, including drug delivery, to obtain drug particles or polymer-based systems of nanometric or micrometric size. The primary purpose of producing SAS particles is to improve the treatment of different pathologies and to better the patient’s compliance. In this context, many active compounds have been micronized to enhance their dissolution rate and bioavailability. Aiming for more effective treatments with reduced side effects caused by drug overdose, the SAS polymer/active principle coprecipitation has mainly been proposed to offer an adequate drug release for specific therapy. The demand for new formulations with reduced side effects on the patient’s health is still growing; in this context, the SAS technique is a promising tool to solve existing issues in the biomedical field. This updated review on the use of the SAS process for clinical applications provides useful information about the ac... [more]
Seawater Desalination: A Review of Forward Osmosis Technique, Its Challenges, and Future Prospects
Aondohemba Aende, Jabbar Gardy, Ali Hassanpour
December 17, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: desalination technologies, draw solutions, forward osmosis, membrane fouling, water desalination, water scarcity
Currently over 845 million people are believed to be living under severe water scarcity, and an estimated 2.8 billion people across the globe are projected to come under serious water scarcity by the year 2025, according to a United Nations (UN) report. Seawater desalination has gained more traction as the solution with the most potential for increasing global freshwater supplies amongst other solutions. However, the economic and energy costs associated with the major desalination technologies are considered intrinsically prohibitive largely due to their humongous energy requirements alongside the requirements of complex equipment and their maintenance in most cases. Whilst forward osmosis (FO) is being touted as a potentially more energy efficient and cost-effective alternative desalination technique, its efficiency is challenged by draw solutes and the draw solutes recovery step in FO applications alongside other challenges. This paper looks at the present situation of global water s... [more]
Editorial on Special Issue Electrolysis Processes
Tanja Vidaković-Koch
July 17, 2020 (v1)
Renewable energies such as solar, hydro or wind power are in principal abundant but subjected to strong fluctuations [...]
Special Issue on "Thin Film Processes"
Hyun Wook Jung
July 17, 2020 (v1)
Thin film processes are significantly incorporated in manufacturing display panels, secondary batteries, fuel/solar cells, catalytic films, membranes, adhesives, and other commodity films [...]
Special Issue “Green Technologies: Bridging Conventional Practices and Industry 4.0”
Pau Loke Show, Suchithra Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Dominic C. Y. Foo
July 7, 2020 (v1)
Green technologies have been globally accepted as efficient and sustainable techniques for the utilization of natural resources [...]
Facilitation Processes and Skills Supporting EcoCity Development
Carmen Antuña-Rozado, Justo García-Navarro, Juana Mariño-Drews
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: capacity building, EcoCity, EcoCity facilitation, local adaptation, Medellín, participation, sustainable urban development, Zambia
Ecocities can provide solutions for the improvement of human settlements around the world and the living conditions therein, but in the authors’ experience, only as long as they are able to address the following questions correctly: How to formulate an ecocity concept that, considering issues of general concern, can be at the same time adapted to different local conditions? What are the instruments supporting the development and implementation of ecocity solutions? VTT’s EcoCity concept for sustainable community and neighbourhood regeneration and development has been designed in response to the first question. Likewise, specific methodologies and effective facilitation processes and skills have been developed in response to the second question. Since the methodologies have been discussed in a previous scientific article, the present one focuses on the facilitation processes and skills, and also on other related, fundamental aspects like participation, adaptation, capacity building, etc... [more]
Special Issue on “Microwave Applications in Chemical Engineering”
Huacheng Zhu, Kama Huang, Junwu Tao
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Microwave heating has been widely used in the chemical industry because of its advantages, such as fast heating rate, selective and controllable heating, increasing reaction rate and reducing by-products in chemical reactions. The Special Issue contains research on microwave applications in chemical engineering.
Characteristics and Treatment of Wastewater from the Mercaptan Oxidation Process: A Comprehensive Review
Ernesto Pino-Cortés, Silvio Montalvo, César Huiliñir, Francisco Cubillos, Juan Gacitúa
June 10, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: biological processes, electrochemical processes, oxidation processes, Petroleum, phenols, sulfides
Sulfur compounds are removed from petroleum by the addition of sodium hydroxide at a very high concentration. As a result, a residue called spent soda or spent caustic is generated, being extremely aggressive to the environment. In this work, the chemical properties of this residue are described in detail. The sodium hydroxide remains that have not reacted, sulfur compounds, and organic matter are the primary pollutants reported. Additionally, the main characteristics of the methods of treatment used to reduce them are described. This review comes from comprehensive and updated research and bibliographic analysis about the investigation on the topic. The advantages and disadvantages of the different treatment methods are highlighted. We established some criteria to set out when assessing the application of each one of these treatments is considered.
The Profile of the Foreign Investor in the Romanian Chemical Industry
Iulia Iuga, Aniela Danciu, Imola Drigă
May 22, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: chemical industry, factor analysis, foreign direct investments (FDI), the investor profile
The main aim of this study is to build the investor’s profile in the Romanian chemical industry and to highlight the factors that influenced the decision of investing in Romania rather than other Central Eastern European countries. The data collection was performed in June 2019 and the list of the 150 foreign companies from the chemical industry was obtained from The National Trade Register Office. Data used in this research were collected using a questionnaire. Dependent variable represents the probability of investing in Romania, with the option of the other Central and Eastern European countries as reference group. The main part of our analysis focus on this question: “Which were the reasons that made you decide invest in Romania?” For analysis, a number of six main classes are used: Infrastructure, labor force, Agglomeration factors, Knowledge, Market Size and Cost factors (as independent variables). Main results consist in the presence of three factors with a positive impact. The... [more]
Special Issue on Performance Measurement and Optimization for Sustainable Production Processes Improvement
Changhee Kim
May 8, 2020 (v1)
Sustainable production process improvement is very important for all enterprises as its implementation can help them to achieve development plans, scheduling, and reduce costs and pollution [...]
Liquid Biphasic System: A Recent Bioseparation Technology
Kuan Shiong Khoo, Hui Yi Leong, Kit Wayne Chew, Jun-Wei Lim, Tau Chuan Ling, Pau Loke Show, Hong-Wei Yen
March 12, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: aqueous biphasic system, aqueous two-phase system, biomolecules, liquid biphasic system, purification, recovery, separation
A well-known bioseparation technique namely liquid biphasic system (LBS) has attracted many researchers’ interest for being an alternative bioseparation technology for various kinds of biomolecules. The present review begins with an in-depth discussion on the fundamental principle of LBS and this is followed by the discussion on further development of various phase-forming components in LBS. Additionally, the implementation of various advance technologies to the LBS that is beneficial towards the efficiency of LBS for the extraction, separation, and purification of biomolecules was discussed. The key parameters affecting the LBS were presented and evaluated. Moreover, future prospect and challenges were highlighted to be a useful guide for future development of LBS. The efforts presented in this review will provide an insight for future researches in liquid-liquid separation techniques.
Evaluation of Different Treatment Processes for Landfill Leachate Using Low-Cost Agro-Industrial Materials
Tawfiq J. H. Banch, Marlia M. Hanafiah, Abbas F. M. Alkarkhi, Salem S. A. Amr, Nurul U. M. Nizam
February 12, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: coagulation, heavy metals, landfill, leachate treatment, removal efficiency, tannin
Leachate is a complex liquid that is often produced from landfills, and it contains hazardous substances that may endanger the surrounding environment if ineffectively treated. In this work, four leachate treatment applications were examined: combined leachate/palm oil mill effluent (POME) (LP), leachate/tannin (LT), pre-(leachate/tannin) followed by post-(leachate/POME) (LT/LP), and pre-(leachate/POME) followed by post-(leachate/tannin) (LP/LT). The aim of this work is to evaluate and compare the performance of these treatment applications in terms of optimizing the physicochemical parameters and removing heavy metals from the leachate. The highest efficiency for the optimization of the most targeted physicochemical parameters and the removal of heavy metals was with the LP/LT process. The results are indicative of three clusters. The first cluster involves raw leachate (cluster 1), the second contains LP and LP/LT (cluster 2), and the third also consists of two treatment applications... [more]
Gas Capture Processes
Zhien Zhang, Tohid N. Borhani, Muftah H. El-Naas, Salman Masoudi Soltani, Yunfei Yan
February 12, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: capture, Carbon Dioxide, gas emission, global warming
The increasing trends in gas emissions have had direct adverse impacts on human health and ecological habitats in the world. A variety of technologies have been deployed to mitigate the release of such gases, including CO2, CO, SO2, H2S, NOx and H2. This special issue on gas-capture processes collects 25 review and research papers on the applications of novel techniques, processes, and theories in gas capture and removal.
Model-Based Tools for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Processes
René Schenkendorf, Dimitrios I. Gerogiorgis, Seyed Soheil Mansouri, Krist V. Gernaey
February 12, 2020 (v1)
Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are highly valuable, highly sensitive products resulting from production processes with strict quality control specifications and regulations that are required for the safety of patients [...]
Bio-Resin Production through Ethylene Unsaturated Carbon Using Vegetable Oils
Farah Ezzah A. Latif, Zurina Zainal Abidin, Francisco Cardona, Dayang R. Awang Biak, Khalina Abdan, Paridah Mohd Tahir, Liew Kan Ern
February 12, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: bio-fuel, bio-products, bio-resins, epoxidation, epoxy, vegetable oil
Bio-resins are bio-based materials derived from vegetable resources, especially from vegetable seed oils. It is widely known that bio-resources are renewable, highly available, and sustainable. Resins and most polymers are largely derived from petroleum-based sources that are known to pose chemical risks. Resins have practical applications in printing inks, plasticisers and diluents, as well as in coating materials. Vegetable oils possess a large number of oxirane groups, which are essential for epoxidation to occur, resulting in the production of bio-resins. This undeniably serves as a promising candidate for competing with fossil-fuel-derived petroleum-based products. Thus, the aim of this review paper is to highlight aspects related to the production of bio-resins, including the chemical route of vegetable oil epoxidation process and its influencing factors, the reaction kinetics, bio-resins and the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of bio-resins, along with their applicati... [more]
A Novel Concept for Three-Phase Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Topologies
Md Mubashwar Hasan, A. Abu-Siada, Syed M. Islam, S. M. Muyeen
January 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: cascaded inverter, conventional three-phase inverter, device counts reduction, multilevel inverters
One of the key challenges in multilevel inverters (MLIs) design is to reduce the number of components used in the implementation while maximising the number of output voltage levels. This paper proposes a new concept that facilitates a device count reduction technique of existing cascaded MLIs. Moreover, the proposed concept can be utilised to extend existing single phase cascaded MLI topologies to three-phase structure without tripling the number of semiconductor components and input dc-supplies as per the current practice. The new generalized concept involves two stages; namely, cascaded stage and phase generator stage. The phase generator stage is a combination of a conventional three-phase two level inverter and three bi-directional switches while the cascaded stage can employ any existing cascaded topology. A laboratory prototype model is built and extensive experimental analyses are conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed cascaded MLI concept.
Characterizing a Newly Designed Steel-Wool-Based Household Filter for Safe Drinking Water Provision: Hydraulic Conductivity and Efficiency for Pathogen Removal
Raoul Tepong-Tsindé, Arnaud Igor Ndé-Tchoupé, Chicgoua Noubactep, Achille Nassi, Hans Ruppert
January 19, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: biosand filter, household filter, pathogen removal, permeability loss, zero-valent iron
This study characterizes the decrease of the hydraulic conductivity (permeability loss) of a metallic iron-based household water filter (Fe0 filter) for a duration of 12 months. A commercial steel wool (SW) is used as Fe0 source. The Fe0 unit containing 300 g of SW was sandwiched between two conventional biological sand filters (BSFs). The working solution was slightly turbid natural well water polluted with pathogens (total coliform = 1950 UFC mL−1) and contaminated with nitrate ([NO3−] = 24.0 mg L−1). The system was monitored twice per month for pH value, removal of nitrate, coliforms, and turbidity, the iron concentration, as well as the permeability loss. Results revealed a quantitative removal of coliform (>99%), nitrate (>99%) and turbidity (>96%). The whole column effluent depicted drinking water quality. The permeability loss after one year of operation was about 40%, and the filter was still producing 200 L of drinking water per day at a flow velocity of 12.5 L h−1. A progress... [more]
Plant and Biomass Extraction and Valorisation under Hydrodynamic Cavitation
Zhilin Wu, Daniele F. Ferreira, Daniele Crudo, Valentina Bosco, Livio Stevanato, Annalisa Costale, Giancarlo Cravotto
January 19, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: biomass treatment, hydrodynamic cavitation, plant extraction, Process Intensification, rotor/stator hydrodynamic rector
Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) is a green technology that has been successfully used to intensify a number of process. The cavitation phenomenon is responsible for many effects, including improvements in mass transfer rates and effective cell-wall rupture, leading to matrix disintegration. HC is a promising strategy for extraction processes and provides the fast and efficient recovery of valuable compounds from plants and biomass with high quality. It is a simple method with high energy efficiency that shows great potential for large-scale operations. This review presents a general discussion of the mechanisms of HC, its advantages, different reactor configurations, its applications in the extraction of bioactive compounds from plants, lipids from algal biomass and delignification of lignocellulosic biomass, and a case study in which the HC extraction of basil leftovers is compared with that of other extraction methods.
Interception Characteristics and Pollution Mechanism of the Filter Medium in Polymer-Flooding Produced Water Filtration Process
Xingwang Wang, Xiaoxuan Xu, Wei Dang, Zhiwei Tang, Changchao Hu, Bei Wei
January 7, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: filter medium pollution, filtration, interception characteristics, polymer-flooding produced water
Polymer flooding enhances oil recovery, but during the application of this technology, it also creates a large amount of polymer-contained produced water that poses a threat to the environment. The current processing is mainly focused on being able to meet the re-injection requirements. However, many processes face the challenges of purifying effect, facilities pollution, and economical justification in the field practice. In the present work, to fully understand the structure and principle of the oil field filter tank, and based on geometric similarity and similar flow, a set of self-designed filtration simulation devices is used to study the treatment of polymer-contained produced water in order to facilitate the satisfaction of the water injection requirements for medium- and low-permeability reservoirs. The results show that, due to the existence of polymers in oil field produced water, a stable colloidal system is formed on the surface of the filter medium, which reduces the adsor... [more]
A Market-Based Analysis on the Main Characteristics of Gearboxes Used in Onshore Wind Turbines
Cristina Vázquez-Hernández, Javier Serrano-González, Gabriel Centeno
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: drive train, gearboxes, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, wind turbines
Even though wind energy is one of the most mature renewable technologies, it is in continuous development not only because of the trend towards larger wind turbines but also because of the development of new technological solutions. The gearbox is one of the components of the drive train in which the industry is concentrating more effort on research and development. Larger rotor blades lead to more demanding requirements for this component as a consequence of a higher mechanical torque and multiplication ratio (due to lower rotational speed of blades while the rotational speed on the generator side remains at similar values). In addition, operating conditions become increasingly demanding in terms of reliability, performance, and compactness. This paper analyses the different gearbox arrangements that are implemented by manufacturers of onshore wind turbines, as well as their market penetration (including different aspects that affect the design of the gearbox, such as drive train conf... [more]
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