Records with Subject: Interdisciplinary
Progress of Space Charge Research on Oil-Paper Insulation Using Pulsed Electroacoustic Techniques
Chao Tang, Bo Huang, Miao Hao, Zhiqiang Xu, Jian Hao, George Chen
October 23, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: insulation oil, insulation paper, moisture content, pulsed electroacoustic technique (PEA), Simulation, space charge, temperature
This paper focuses on the space charge behavior in oil-paper insulation systems used in power transformers. It begins with the importance of understanding the space charge behavior in oil-paper insulation systems, followed by the introduction of the pulsed electrostatic technique (PEA). After that, the research progress on the space charge behavior of oil-paper insulation during the recent twenty years is critically reviewed. Some important aspects such as the environmental conditions and the acoustic wave recovery need to be addressed to acquire more accurate space charge measurement results. Some breakthroughs on the space charge behavior of oil-paper insulation materials by the research team at the University of Southampton are presented. Finally, future work on space charge measurement of oil-paper insulation materials is proposed.
Design and Control of a 3 kW Wireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicles
Zhenshi Wang, Xuezhe Wei, Haifeng Dai
October 22, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: electric vehicle, power regulation, topology analysis, wireless power transfer (WPT)
This paper aims to study a 3 kW wireless power transfer system for electric vehicles. First, the LCL-LCL topology and LC-LC series topology are analyzed, and their transfer efficiencies under the same transfer power are compared. The LC-LC series topology is validated to be more efficient than the LCL-LCL topology and thus is more suitable for the system design. Then a novel q-Zsource-based online power regulation method which employs a unique impedance network (two pairs of inductors and capacitors) to couple the cascaded H Bridge to the power source is proposed. By controlling the shoot-through state of the H Bridge, the charging current can be adjusted, and hence, transfer power. Finally, a prototype is implemented, which can transfer 3 kW wirelessly with ~95% efficiency over a 20 cm transfer distance.
Isoperibolic Titration Calorimetry as a Tool for the Prediction of Thermodynamic Properties of Cyclodextrins
Juan Carlos Moreno-Piraján, Liliana Giraldo
October 15, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Cyclodextrins, Isoperibolic titration calorimetry, Thermodynamic properties
The interaction of guest molecules ranging from pentan-1-ol to octan-1-ol with α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) in water of has been studied calorimetrically at 283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 298.15 and 308.15 K with an isoperibolic titration calorimeter designed in our laboratory. The calorimetric method employed allows the determination of the thermodynamic parameters characterizing the binding process, ΔG°m, ΔH°m, ΔS°mand ΔCp°, namely free energy, enthalpy, and calorific capacity. These results show that in the temperature range investigated, the entropy change increased with chain length. This is in line with what is expected for a hydrophobic dehydration process. However, that effect is not expected to lead to the more pronounced negative CH₂-increment observed for nc > 5 or 6. As for many other ligand binding processes, we can observe a significant enthalpy - entropy compensation for this system, both with respect to temperature and structure.
A 120 W Class-E Power Module with an Adaptive Power Combiner for a 6.78 MHz Wireless Power Transfer System
Ui-Gyu Choi, Jong-Ryul Yang
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: adaptive power combiner, class-E power amplifier, high efficiency, impedance translation, optimum load condition, wireless power transfer system
In this article, a highly efficient power module is presented with two class-E power amplifiers and an adaptive power combiner for transmitting output powers >100 W at 6.78 MHz in a wireless power transfer system. The losses caused by the combiners and interstage matching circuits or mismatching between the amplifier, and the combiners can significantly reduce the overall efficiency of the power module. To achieve an efficient combination of the output amplifier signals, the adaptive power combiner is proposed based on the consideration of the optimum load impedance characteristics of the power amplifiers. The input impedance of the combiner is designed using series capacitors and resistors between the two input ports of the combiner and the two output signals of the class-E amplifiers at the optimum load condition. The output performances of the proposed module can decrease based on the component mismatch between the two power amplifiers. The proposed power module was implemented on a... [more]
Vibration Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engines Fueled with Blended Petro-Diesel and Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Fuel from Coal Fuels
Tiantian Yang, Tie Wang, Guoxing Li, Jinhong Shi, Xiuquan Sun
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: compression ignition (CI) engine, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel synthesized from coal (CFT), T-F analysis, vibration characteristic
Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel synthesized from coal (CFT) is an alternative fuel that gives excellent emission performance in compression ignition (CI) engines. In order to study the vibration characteristics, which are important for determining the applicability of the fuel, CFT-diesel blends were tested on a CI engine to acquire vibration signals from the engine head and block. Based on the FFT and continuous wavelet transformation (CWT) analysis, the influence of CFT on the vibration was studied. The results showed that the root mean square (RMS) values of the vibration signal decrease as the proportion of CFT in the blends increases. The CWT results indicated that the vibration energy areas motivated by the pressure shock of transient combustion were weak with increasing CFT proportion for the different frequency bands. The blend of 90% pure petro-diesel and 10% CFT registered the largest RMS value for piston side thrust response, and the RMS of high-frequency pressure oscillation re... [more]
Partial Discharge Analysis in High-Frequency Transformer Based on High-Frequency Current Transducer
Jun Jiang, Mingxin Zhao, Chaohai Zhang, Min Chen, Haojun Liu, Ricardo Albarracín
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: high-frequency transformers, partial discharge (PD), partial discharge inception voltage (PDIV), power electronic transformers (PET)
High-frequency transformers are the core components of power electronic transformers (PET), whose insulation is deeply threatened by high voltage (HV) and high frequency (HF). The partial discharge (PD) test is an effective method to assess an electrical insulation system. A PD measurement platform applying different frequencies was set up in this manuscript. PD signals were acquired with a high-frequency current transducer (HFCT). For improving the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of PD pulses, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) was used to increase the SNR by 4 dB. PD characteristic parameters such as partial discharge inception voltage (PDIV) and PD phase, number, and magnitude were all analyzed as frequency dependent. High frequency led to high PDIV and a smaller discharge phase region. PD number and magnitude were first up and then down as the frequency increased. As a result, a suitable frequency for evaluating the insulation of high-frequency transformers is proposed at 8 kHz accordi... [more]
The Influence of Local Environmental, Economic and Social Variables on the Spatial Distribution of Photovoltaic Applications across China’s Urban Areas
Alin Lin, Ming Lu, Pingjun Sun
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: decision-making, influencing variables, solar photovoltaic applications, spatial distribution, urban areas
The capacity of new installed photovoltaic (PV) in China in 2017 was increased to 53.06 GW, reaching a total of 402.5 GW around the world. Photovoltaic applications have a significant role in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and alleviating electricity shortages in the sustainable development process of cities. Research on the factors that influenced the spatial distribution of photovoltaic applications mostly focus on a certain project or a region. However, it is a complicated process for decision-making of photovoltaic installations in urban areas. This study uses zip code level data from 83 cities to investigate the influence of local environmental, economic and social variables on the spatial distribution of photovoltaic applications across China’s urban areas. By analyzing the current situation, the locations of urban photovoltaic applications are collected and presented. Statistical analysis software is used to evaluate the influence of selected variables. In this paper,... [more]
Microgrid as a Cost-Effective Alternative to Rural Network Underground Cabling for Adequate Reliability
Sanna Uski, Erkka Rinne, Janne Sarsama
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: battery energy storage system (BESS), distribution network, islanded operation, micro combined heat and power (micro-CHP), microgrid, network outage, photovoltaics (PV), reliability, underground cable
Microgrids can be used for securing the supply of power during network outages. Underground cabling of distribution networks is another effective but conventional and expensive alternative to enhance the reliability of the power supply. This paper first presents an analysis method for the determination of microgrid power supply adequacy during islanded operation and, second, presents a comparison method for the overall cost calculation of microgrids versus underground cabling. The microgrid power adequacy during a rather long network outage is required in order to indicate high level of reliability of the supply. The overall cost calculation considers the economic benefits and costs incurred, combined for both the distribution network company and the consumer. Whereas the microgrid setup determines the islanded-operation power adequacy and thus the reliability of the supply, the economic feasibility results from the normal operations and services. The methods are illustrated by two typ... [more]
Increase in Robustness against Effects of Coil Misalignment on Electrical Parameters Using Magnetic Material Layer in Planar Coils of Wireless Power Transfer Transformer
Joao Victor Pinon Pereira Dias, Masafumi Miyatake
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: light rail transit, misalignment, planar coil, wireless power transfer
Utilization of wireless power transfer in light rail transits is seen as one solution for electrification of lines. The main advantage of this supply system is the reduction of installation; moreover, the alignment between the transmitter coil in the track and the receiver coil in the train should be perfect in order not to affect the power transfer. To reduce the effects of misalignment on the input and output electric parameters of the system, a new planar core and coil design, called hybrid intercore coil, is proposed. The proposed design uses a magnetic material layer between the windings in the inner half of the coil to create a non-uniform magnetic field distribution, which makes the system more robust against the effects of coil misalignment on the system current and voltage. Simulations with finite element method software were conducted to compare designs. The results show that the proposed design is less susceptible to the effects of misalignment and is more efficient. Prototy... [more]
A Review on Recent Advances and Future Trends of Transformerless Inverter Structures for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems
Kamran Zeb, Imran Khan, Waqar Uddin, Muhammad Adil Khan, P. Sathishkumar, Tiago Davi Curi Busarello, Iftikhar Ahmad, H. J. Kim
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: renewable energy resources, single-phase grid-connected, Solar Photovoltaic, transformerless inverter
°CThe research significance of various scientific aspects of photovoltaic (PV) systems has increased over the past decade. Grid-tied inverters the vital elements for the effective interface of Renewable Energy Resources (RER) and utility in the distributed generation system. Currently, Single-Phase Transformerless Grid-Connected Photovoltaic (SPTG-CPV) inverters (1⁻10 kW) are undergoing further developments, with new designs, and interest of the solar market. In comparison to the transformer (TR) Galvanic Isolation (GI)-based inverters, its advantageous features are lower cost, lighter weight, smaller volume, higher efficiency, and less complexity. In this paper, a review of SPTG-CPV inverters has been carried out. The basic operational principles of all SPTG-CPV inverters are presented in details for positive, negative, and zero cycles. A comprehensive analysis of each topology has been deliberated. A comparative assessment is also performed based on weaknesses, strengths, component r... [more]
Voltage Support Experimental Analysis of a Low-Voltage Ride-Through Strategy Applied to Grid-Connected Distributed Inverters
Miguel Garnica, Luís García de Vicuña, Jaume Miret, Antonio Camacho, Ramón Guzmán
September 20, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: active and reactive current injection, distributed generation, low-voltage ride-through, multiple inverters, voltage sags, voltage support
In recent decades, different control strategies have been designed for the increasing integration of distributed generation systems. These systems, most of them based on renewable energies, use electronic converters to exchange power with the grid. Capabilities such as low-voltage ride-through and reactive current injection have been experimentally explored and reported in many research papers with a single inverter; however, these capabilities have not been examined in depth in a scenario with multiple inverters connected to the grid. Only few simulation works that include certain methods of reactive power control to solve overvoltage issues in low voltage grids can be found in the literature. Therefore, the overall objective of the work presented in this paper is to provide an experimental analysis of a low-voltage ride-through strategy applied to distributed power generation systems to help support the grid during voltage sags. The amount of reactive power will depend on the capabil... [more]
Impacts of Low-Carbon Fuel Standards in Transportation on the Electricity Market
Ahmad Karnama, João Abel Peças Lopes, Mauro Augusto da Rosa
September 20, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: agent-based modelling, electric vehicles, electricity market, low-carbon fuel standard, policy analysis
Electric Vehicles (EVs) are increasing the interdependence of transportation policies and the electricity market dimension. In this paper, an Electricity Market Model with Electric Vehicles (EMMEV) was developed, exploiting an agent-based model that analyzes how carbon reduction policy in transportation may increase the number of Electric Vehicles and how that would influence electricity price. Agents are Energy Service Providers (ESCOs) which can distribute fuels and their objective is to maximize their profit. In this paper, the EMMEV is used to analyze the impacts of the Low-Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS), a performance-based policy instrument, on electricity prices and EV sales volume. The agents in EMMEV are regulated parties in LCFS should meet a certain Carbon Intensity (CI) target for their distributed fuel. In case they cannot meet the target, they should buy credits to compensate for their shortfall and if they exceed it, they can sell their excess. The results, considering the... [more]
The Selection of Wind Power Project Location in the Southeastern Corridor of Pakistan: A Factor Analysis, AHP, and Fuzzy-TOPSIS Application
Yasir Ahmed Solangi, Qingmei Tan, Muhammad Waris Ali Khan, Nayyar Hussain Mirjat, Ifzal Ahmed
September 20, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: AHP, factor analysis, fuzzy TOPSIS, Pakistan, wind project site selection
Pakistan has sufficient wind energy potential across various locations of the country. However, so far, wind energy development has not attained sufficient momentum matching its potential. Amongst various other challenges, the site selection for wind power development has always been a primary concern of the decision-makers. Principally, wind project site selection decisions are driven by various multifaceted criteria. As such, in this study, a robust research framework comprising of factor analysis (FA) of techno-economic and socio-political factors, and a hybrid analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS) have been used for the prioritization of sites in the southeastern region of Pakistan. The results of this study reveal economic and land acquisition as the most significant criteria and sub-criteria, respectively. From the eight different sites considered, Jamshoro has been prioritized as the most suitable... [more]
Multi-Port Zero-Current Switching Switched-Capacitor Converters for Battery Management Applications
Yat Chi Fong, Ka Wai Eric Cheng, S. Raghu Raman, Xiaolin Wang
September 19, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: battery management system (BMS), energy storage system, switched-capacitor (SC), voltage balance
A novel implementation of multi-port zero-current switching (ZCS) switched-capacitor (SC) converters for battery management applications is presented. In addition to the auto-balancing feature offered by the SC technique, the proposed SC converter permits individual control of the charging or discharging current of the series-connected energy storage elements, such as the battery or super-capacitor cells. This approach enables advanced state control and accelerates the equalizing process by coordinated operation with the battery management system (BMS) and an adjustable voltage source, which can be implemented by a DC-DC converter interfaced to the energy storage string. Different configurations, including the single-input multi-output (SIMO), multi-input single-output (MISO) SC converters, and the corresponding altered circuits for string-to-cells, cells-to-string, as well as cells-to-cells equalizers, are discussed with a circuit analysis and derivation of the associated mathematical... [more]
Effects of Foreign Metal Object on Soft-Switching Conditions of Class-E Inverter in WPT
Wenxun Xiao, Ruigeng Shen, Bo Zhang, Dongyuan Qiu, Yanfeng Chen, Tian Li
September 19, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Class-E inverter, foreign metal object, soft-switching conditions, wireless power transfer
A foreign metal object will deteriorate the performance of wireless power transfer (WPT) systems and cause insecurity issues. Therefore, the influence principles and rules of foreign metal objects on soft-switching conditions of Class-E inverters and the performance of WPT systems are developed in this paper. The effects of different metal materials on coil parameters at different frequencies and positions are analyzed first, then the effects of foreign metal objects on soft-switching conditions of Class-E inverters and the power transfer capability of WPT systems are investigated. Principle analyses and simulation results demonstrate that there are significantly different effects on the soft-switching conditions and power transfer when a foreign metal object is placed near the transmitter coil or the receiver coil. In addition, the monotonicity of the variation in power transfer also depends on the position of the foreign metal object. Finally, a WPT experimental prototype with a Clas... [more]
Multi-Load Mode Analysis for Electric Vehicle Wireless Supply System
Cheng Jiang, Yue Sun, Zhihui Wang, Chunsen Tang
September 19, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: electric vehicle, magnetic coupler, multi-load, wireless power transfer
When electric vehicles (EVs) run on the wireless power supply coils, the multi-load working mode will appear, showing that that more than one EV is collecting energy from one coil. Aiming at the stability problem of multi-load mode, this paper mainly analyzes how the number of loads influences the system stability and defines the boundary condition of the load quantity. Meanwhile, an L-shaped coil structure and the T-shaped magnetic core structure are proposed to solve the problem of coil breakdown for high-power supply situations. The proposed structures effectively reduce the supply coils’ self-inductance on the premise of guaranteeing the power transfer, and ensure the security of the multi-load system. At last, the validity of theoretical analysis is verified by simulations and experiments.
The Influence of Viscosity on the Static and Dynamic Properties of PS-PEO Covered Emulsion Drops
Damith P. Rozairo, Andrew B. Croll
July 30, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: coalescence, dynamics, emulsion, PS-PEO, sessile, slip, static, surface tension
Polymer stabilized emulsions are commonplace in industries ranging from cosmetics and foods to pharmaceuticals. Understanding the physical properties of emulsions is of critical importance to the rapid advancement of industrial applications. In this work, we use a sessile drop geometry to examine the effects of viscosity changes of the surrounding glycerine/water solution on polystyrene-b-polyethylene oxide (PS-PEO) covered toluene droplets. In the experiment, emulsion drops are driven by the buoyant force into a smooth mica surface. The drops buckle as they approach the mica, trapping some of the outer fluid which slowly drains out over time. The characteristic time of the drainage process as well as the surface tension was measured as a function of glycerine/water concentration. The surface tension is found to have a minimum at a glycerine concentration of approximately 50% (by weight to water) and the drainage rate is shown to be well described by a recent model. The simple experime... [more]
Crystallization in Emulsions: A Thermo-Optical Method to Determine Single Crystallization Events in Droplet Clusters
Serghei Abramov, Patrick Ruppik, Heike Petra Schuchmann
July 30, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: crystallization index, emulsion crystallization, melt emulsification, thermo-optical colloid analysis
Delivery systems with a solid dispersed phase can be produced in a melt emulsification process. For this, dispersed particles are melted, disrupted, and crystallized in a liquid continuous phase (melt emulsification). Different to bulk crystallization, droplets in oil-in-water emulsions show individual crystallization behavior, which differs from droplet to droplet. Therefore, emulsion droplets may form liquid, amorphous, and crystalline structures during the crystallization process. The resulting particle size, shape, and physical state influence the application properties of these colloidal systems and have to be known in formulation research. To characterize crystallization behavior of single droplets in micro emulsions (range 1 µm to several hundred µm), a direct thermo-optical method was developed. It allows simultaneous determination of size, size distribution, and morphology of single droplets within droplet clusters. As it is also possible to differentiate between liquid, amorp... [more]
Development of Chemical Process Design and Control for Sustainability
Shuyun Li, Gaurav Mirlekar, Gerardo J. Ruiz-Mercado, Fernando V. Lima
July 30, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: fermentation process, GREENSCOPE, process control, process modeling, sustainability
This contribution describes a novel process systems engineering framework that couples advanced control with sustainability evaluation for the optimization of process operations to minimize environmental impacts associated with products, materials and energy. The implemented control strategy combines a biologically-inspired method with optimal control concepts for finding more sustainable operating trajectories. The sustainability assessment of process operating points is carried out by using the U.S. EPA’s Gauging Reaction Effectiveness for the ENvironmental Sustainability of Chemistries with a multi-Objective Process Evaluator (GREENSCOPE) tool that provides scores for the selected indicators in the economic, material efficiency, environmental and energy areas. The indicator scores describe process performance on a sustainability measurement scale, effectively determining which operating point is more sustainable if there are more than several steady states for one specific product m... [more]
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