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Records with Subject: Energy Management
Showing records 1 to 25 of 35. [First] Page: 1 2 Last
State of Charge-Based Active Power Sharing Method in a Standalone Microgrid with High Penetration Level of Renewable Energy Sources
Yun-Su Kim, Chul-Sang Hwang, Eung-Sang Kim, Changhee Cho
December 3, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: constant frequency (CF), renewable energy source, standalone microgrid, state of charge (SOC)-based active power sharing, zero frequency deviation
Standalone microgrids, which are mainly constructed on island areas have low system inertia, may result large frequency deviations even for small load change. Moreover, increasing penetration level of renewable energy sources (RESs) into standalone microgrids makes the frequency stability problem even worse. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes an active power sharing method with zero frequency deviations. To this end, a battery energy storage system (BESS) is operated as constant frequency (CF) control mode, whereas the other distributed generations (DGs) are operated as an active and reactive power (PQ) control mode. As a result, a state of charge (SOC) of the BESS is changed as the system load varies. Based on the SOC deviation, DGs share the load change. The SOC data is assumed to be sent via communication system, hence the communication time delay is considered. To enhance reliability, controllers of DGs are designed to take account of the failure of communication system.... [more]
Optimal Electric and Heat Energy Management of Multi-Microgrids with Sequentially-Coordinated Operations
Nah-Oak Song, Ji-Hye Lee, Hak-Man Kim
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: cooperative multi-microgrids, energy management system (EMS), energy trading, heat energy, optimal operation, sequential operation
We propose an optimal electric and heat energy management for a cooperative multi-microgrid community. The sequentially-coordinated operation for heat energy is proposed in order to distribute the computational burden as an extension of “Optimal Energy Management of Multi-Microgrids with Sequentially Coordinated Operations” and is following the sequentially-coordinated operations for electric energy in it. This sequentially-coordinated operation for heat energy is mathematically modeled and how to obtain the global heat energy optimization solution in the cooperative multi-microgrid community is presented. The global heat energy optimization is achieved for the cooperative community by adjusting the combined electric and heat energy production amounts of combined heat and power (CHP) generators and the heat energy production amount of heat only boilers (HOBs) which satisfy all heat loads, as well as optimize the external electric energy trading in order to minimize the unnecessary cost... [more]
Variability Characteristics of European Wind and Solar Power Resources—A Review
Ingeborg Graabak, Magnus Korpås
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: solar power production, the future power production in Europe, variable renewable energy, wind power production
This paper reviews the most recent and relevant research into the variability characteristics of wind and solar power resources in Europe. The background for this study is that wind and solar resources will probably constitute major components of the future European power system. Such resources are variable, and EU plans to balance the variability with more grids and demand response. Thus, planning for the future power system requires an in-depth understanding of the variability. Resource variability is a multi-faceted concept best described using a range of distinct characteristics, and this review is structured on the basis of seven of these: Distribution Long-Term (hours to years), Distribution Short-Term (less than one hour), Step Changes, Autocorrelation, Spatial Correlation, Cross Correlation and Predictable Patterns. The review presents simulations and empirical results related to resource variability for each of these characteristics. Results to date reveal that the variability... [more]
Coordination Control Strategy for AC/DC Hybrid Microgrids in Stand-Alone Mode
Dwi Riana Aryani, Hwachang Song
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: battery energy storage system, droop control, hybrid AC/DC microgrid, interlink bidirectional AC/DC converter, power management
Interest in DC microgrids is rapidly increasing along with the improvement of DC power technology because of its advantages. To support the integration process of DC microgrids with the existing AC utility grids, the form of hybrid AC/DC microgrids is considered for higher power conversion efficiency, lower component cost and better power quality. In the system, AC and DC portions are connected through interlink bidirectional AC/DC converters (IC) with a proper control system and power management. In the stand-alone operation mode of AC/DC hybrid microgrids, the control of power injection through the IC is crucial in order to maintain the system security. This paper mainly deals with a coordination control strategy of IC and a battery energy storage system (BESS) converter under stand-alone operation. A coordinated control strategy for the IC, which considers the state of charge (SOC) level of BESS and the load shedding scheme as the last resort, is proposed to obtain better power shar... [more]
Assessment of Retrofitting Measures for a Large Historic Research Facility Using a Building Energy Simulation Model
Young Tae Chae, Young M. Lee, David Longinott
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: energy conservation measures (ECMs), historic research facility, system retrofitting, whole building energy simulation
A calibrated building simulation model was developed to assess the energy performance of a large historic research building. The complexity of space functions and operational conditions with limited availability of energy meters makes it hard to understand the end-used energy consumption in detail and to identify appropriate retrofitting options for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. An energy simulation model was developed to study the energy usage patterns not only at a building level, but also of the internal thermal zones, and system operations. The model was validated using site measurements of energy usage and a detailed audit of the internal load conditions, system operation, and space programs to minimize the discrepancy between the documented status and actual operational conditions. Based on the results of the calibrated model and end-used energy consumption, the study proposed potential energy conservation measures (ECMs) for the building envelop... [more]
Market Equilibrium and Impact of Market Mechanism Parameters on the Electricity Price in Yunnan’s Electricity Market
Chuntian Cheng, Fu Chen, Gang Li, Qiyu Tu
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Cournot model, electricity price, market equilibrium, market mechanism parameter
In this paper, a two-dimensional Cournot model is proposed to study generation companies’ (GENCO’s) strategic quantity-setting behaviors in the newly established Yunnan’s electricity market. A hybrid pricing mechanism is introduced to Yunnan’s electricity market with the aim to stimulate electricity demand. Market equilibrium is obtained by iteratively solving each GENCO’s profit maximization problem and finding their optimal bidding outputs. As the market mechanism is a key element of the electricity market, impacts of different market mechanism parameters on electricity price and power generation in market equilibrium state should be fully assessed. Therefore, based on the proposed model, we precisely explore the impacts on market equilibrium of varying parameters such as the number of GENCOs, the quantity of ex-ante obligatory-use electricity contracts (EOECs) and the elasticity of demand. Numerical analysis results of Yunnan’s electricity market show that these parameters have nota... [more]
Analysis and Solution for Operations of Overcurrent Relay in Wind Power System
Yeonho Ok, Jaewon Lee, Jaeho Choi
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: coordination of protection relay, malfunction of protection relay, overcurrent relay, wind power system, wind speed
Wind power systems are being integrated increasingly into the power grid because of their large capacity and easy access to the transmission grid. The reliability of wind power plants is very important and the elimination of protective relay’s malfunctions is essential to the mitigation of power quality problems due to the frequent starts and stops of high capacity wind generators. In this study, the problem of frequent false operations of the protective relays are analyzed using real data as line voltages, line currents, and wind speed. A new re-coordination of the overcurrent relay (OCR) based on the wind speed is proposed to avoid frequent operations of relays and tested for a grid-connected wind farm. This study verifies that the false actions by the OCRs that are not accompanied by actual electrical faults in the power grid or wind power system can be solved by the appropriate re-coordination of the OCR.
New Scheme for Seamless Operation for Stand-Alone Power Systems
Hyun-Jun Kim, Yoon-Seok Lee, Byung-Moon Han, Young-Doo Yoon
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: battery energy storage system (BESS), current control, engine generator (EG), phase-locked loop (PLL), photo voltaic (PV) panels, seamless operation, voltage control
On remote islands photovoltaic (PV) panels with battery energy storage systems (BESSs) supply electric power to customers in parallel operation with engine generators (EGs) to reduce fuel consumption and environmental burden. A BESS operates in voltage control mode when it supplies power to loads alone, while it operates in current control mode when it supplies power to loads in parallel with the EG. This paper proposes a smooth mode change of the BESS from current control to voltage control by using initial value at the output of integral part in the voltage controller, and a smooth mode change from voltage control to current control by tracking the EG output voltage to the BESS output voltage using a phase-locked loop (PLL). The feasibility of the proposed scheme was verified through computer simulations and experiments with a scaled prototype.
A Stackelberg Game Theoretic Analysis of Incentive Effects under Perceived Risk for China’s Straw-Based Power Plant Supply Chain
Lingling Wang, Tsunemi Watanabe
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: biomass power plant, perceived risk, stackelberg game theory, Supply Chain
The rapid expansion of the biomass power generation industry has resulted in the conversion of substantial agricultural waste (crop straw) into energy feedstock, thereby increasing the income of farmers and promoting the development of rural areas. However, the promising industry faces financial deficits because of difficulties in collecting straw from farmers. To determine strategies for overcoming the biomass supply problem, we apply Stackelberg game theory in modeling the Chinese biomass supply chain and design incentive scenarios under stakeholder risk perception. We illustrate the proposed methodology through an empirical case study on China and demonstrate the effects of incentives on farmers and middlemen. Results show that with incentives, straw quantity and stakeholder profit are expected to increase. Incentives exert a particularly remarkable effect on farmers, with such inducements producing the highest social welfare. Moreover, perceived risk dramatically affects stakeholde... [more]
Optimal Operation of Network-Connected Combined Heat and Powers for Customer Profit Maximization
Da Xie, Yupu Lu, Junbo Sun, Chenghong Gu, Jilai Yu
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: bidirectional energy flow, combined heat and power (CHP), discrete optimization, profit model, real-time price
Network-connected combined heat and powers (CHPs), owned by a community, can export surplus heat and electricity to corresponding heat and electric networks after community loads are satisfied. This paper proposes a new optimization model for network-connected CHP operation. Both CHPs’ overall efficiency and heat to electricity ratio (HTER) are assumed to vary with loading levels. Based on different energy flow scenarios where heat and electricity are exported to the network from the community or imported, four profit models are established accordingly. They reflect the different relationships between CHP energy supply and community load demand across time. A discrete optimization model is then developed to maximize the profit for the community. The models are derived from the intervals determined by the daily operation modes of CHP and real-time buying and selling prices of heat, electricity and natural gas. By demonstrating the proposed models on a 1 MW network-connected CHP, results... [more]
Online Power Management with Embedded Offline-Optimized Parameters for a Three-Source Hybrid Powertrain with an Experimental Emulation Application
Bedatri Moulik, Dirk Söffker
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: HEV, Optimization, rule-based power management
Real-time power management in the presence of one or more reversible energy storage systems is a current issue with hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). To evaluate the potentials of rule-based power management, optimization with respect to two conflicting objectives, fuel consumption and state of charge (SoC) deviation, is considered in this contribution. A modular structure of power management with decoupled offline and online parts is presented. The online part incorporates look-up tables (LUTs) with parameters from the offline optimization part. This permits an inclusion of more LUTs corresponding to different drive patterns. The goal of this contribution is to combine the real-time applicability of rule-based power management and the multi-objective optimization property of genetic algorithms in a single control strategy. Component aging problems are addressed by suitable design. The influence of sizing is investigated. Finally, an experimental setup consisting of components capable o... [more]
Quantification and Mitigation of Unfairness in Active Power Curtailment of Rooftop Photovoltaic Systems Using Sensitivity Based Coordinated Control
Aadil Latif, Wolfgang Gawlik, Peter Palensky
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: active power curtailment (APC), coordinated control, over-voltage, sensitivity based control
With increasing photovoltaic (PV) penetration in low voltage networks (LVNs), voltage regulation is a challenge. Active power curtailment (APC) is one possible solution for mitigating over voltages resulting from active power injection in LVNs. There is an inherent unfairness in the APC scheme. When generation is high and consumption is low, the voltages at the end of the feeder tend to be the highest. This results in high curtailment of active power output of the inverters located at the end of the feeder and low or even no curtailment for the inverts located closer to the transformer. A secondary voltage controller has been implemented to mitigate this unfairness in APC based voltage support schemes. The focus of this work is to quantify this unfairness and develop methods that enable residential PV owners serviced by the same feeder to participate equally in voltage regulation in the LVN.
Mitigation Emission Strategy Based on Resonances from a Power Inverter System in Electric Vehicles
Li Zhai, Xinyu Zhang, Natalia Bondarenko, David Loken, Thomas P. Van Doren, Daryl G. Beetner
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: electric vehicles (EVs), electromagnetic interference (EMI), mitigation emission, power inverter, resonance
Large dv/dt and di/dt outputs of power devices in the DC-fed motor power inverter can generate conducted and/or radiated emissions through parasitics that interfere with low voltage electric systems in electric vehicles (EVs) and nearby vehicles. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters, ferrite chokes, and shielding added in the product process based on the “black box” approach can reduce the emission levels in a specific frequency range. However, these countermeasures may also introduce an unexpected increase in EMI noises in other frequency ranges due to added capacitances and inductances in filters resonating with elements of the power inverter, and even increase the weight and dimension of the power inverter system in EVs with limited space. In order to predict the interaction between the mitigation techniques and power inverter geometry, an accurate model of the system is needed. A power inverter system was modeled based on series of two-port network measurements to study t... [more]
Development of a PEM Fuel Cell City Bus with a Hierarchical Control System
Siliang Cheng, Liangfei Xu, Jianqiu Li, Chuan Fang, Junming Hu, Minggao Ouyang
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: city bus, hierarchical control, performance analysis, the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell
The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system is considered to be an ideal alternative for the internal combustion engine, especially when used on a city bus. Hybrid buses with fuel cell systems and energy storage systems are now undergoing transit service demonstrations worldwide. A hybrid PEM fuel cell city bus with a hierarchical control system is studied in this paper. Firstly, the powertrain and hierarchical control structure is introduced. Secondly, the vehicle control strategy including start-stop strategy, energy management strategy, and fuel cell control strategy, including the hydrogen system and air system control strategies, are described in detail. Finally, the performance of the fuel cell was analyzed based on road test data. Results showed that the different subsystems were well-coordinated. Each component functioned in concert in order to ensure that both safety and speed requirements were satisfied. The output current of the fuel cell system changed slowly an... [more]
A Design Alternative to Improve the Interconnection Capability of New Distributed-Generation Installations into Existing Griddle
José Agüero-Rubio, Javier López-Martínez, José Ignacio Rojas-Sola, Ángel Jesús Callejón-Ferre
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: distributed generation, distribution grids, grid-connected, installation efficiency, low voltage feeders, sustainable cities
Most distributed-generation facilities are performed on pre-built distribution grids. The design conditions of these existing grids may limit the ability of new users to get a connection due to technical and/or cost constraints. This work proposes a simple solution, adjusted to the relevant regulations and embodied in a radial distribution grid of Spanish low voltage, to improve the interconnection of distributed generation, usually grid connected photovoltaic systems. The proposed solution, based on increasing the section of the neutral line, achieves a capacity of increasing the length of the supply grid by more than 20%.
Development of a Novel Bidirectional DC/DC Converter Topology with High Voltage Conversion Ratio for Electric Vehicles and DC-Microgrids
Ching-Ming Lai
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: bidirectional dc/dc converter (BDC), dc-microgrid, electric vehicle (EV), high voltage conversion ratio
The main objective of this paper was to study a bidirectional direct current to direct current converter (BDC) topology with a high voltage conversion ratio for electric vehicle (EV) batteries connected to a dc-microgrid system. In this study, an unregulated level converter (ULC) cascaded with a two-phase interleaved buck-boost charge-pump converter (IBCPC) is introduced to achieve a high conversion ratio with a simpler control circuit. In discharge state, the topology acts as a two-stage voltage-doubler boost converter to achieve high step-up conversion ratio (48 V to 385 V). In charge state, the converter acts as two cascaded voltage-divider buck converters to achieve high voltage step-down conversion ratio (385 V to 48 V). The features, operation principles, steady-state analysis, simulation and experimental results are made to verify the performance of the studied novel BDC. Finally, a 500 W rating prototype system is constructed for verifying the validity of the operation principl... [more]
Performance Comparison on Repowering of a Steam Power Plant with Gas Turbines and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Masoud Rokni
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: CO2 emission, combined cycles (CC), hybrid cycles, repowering, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)
Repowering is a process for transforming an old power plant for greater capacity and/or higher efficiency. As a consequence, the repowered plant is characterized by higher power output and less specific CO₂ emissions. Usually, repowering is performed by adding one or more gas turbines into an existing steam cycle which was built decades ago. Thus, traditional repowering results in combined cycles (CC). High temperature fuel cells (such as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)) could also be used as a topping cycle, achieving even higher global plant efficiency and even lower specific CO₂ emissions. Decreasing the operating temperature in a SOFC allows the use of less complex materials and construction methods, consequently reducing plant and the electricity costs. A lower working temperature makes it also suitable for topping an existing steam cycle, instead of gas turbines. This is also the target of this study, repowering of an existing power plant with SOFC as well as gas turbines. Different... [more]
Electrical Market Management Considering Power System Constraints in Smart Distribution Grids
Poria Hasanpor Divshali, Bong Jun Choi
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: demand side management (DSM), electrical vehicle (EV), micro-grid (MG), power market, power stability, smart grid (SG), source side management (SSM)
Rising demand, climate change, growing fuel costs, outdated power system infrastructures, and new power generation technologies have made renewable distribution generators very attractive in recent years. Because of the increasing penetration level of renewable energy sources in addition to the growth of new electrical demand sectors, such as electrical vehicles, the power system may face serious problems and challenges in the near future. A revolutionary new power grid system, called smart grid, has been developed as a solution to these problems. The smart grid, equipped with modern communication and computation infrastructures, can coordinate different parts of the power system to enhance energy efficiency, reliability, and quality, while decreasing the energy cost. Since conventional distribution networks lack smart infrastructures, much research has been recently done in the distribution part of the smart grid, called smart distribution grid (SDG). This paper surveys contemporary l... [more]
The Applicability of Traditional Protection Methods to Lines Emanating from VSC-HVDC Interconnectors and a Novel Protection Principle
Shimin Xue, Jingyue Yang, Yanxia Chen, Cunping Wang, Zhe Shi, Miao Cui, Botong Li
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: distance protection, fault resistance, fault ride through (FRT), pilot protection, VSC-HVDC interconnector
Voltage source converter (VSC)-based high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) interconnectors can realize accurate and fast control of power transmission among AC networks, and provide emergency power support for AC networks. VSC-HVDC interconnectors bring exclusive fault characteristics to AC networks, thus influencing the performance of traditional protections. Since fault characteristics are related to the control schemes of interconnectors, a fault ride-through (FRT) strategy which is applicable to the interconnector operating characteristic of working in four quadrants and capable of eliminating negative-sequence currents under unbalanced fault conditions is proposed first. Then, the additional terms of measured impedances of distance relays caused by fault resistances are derived using a symmetrical component method. Theoretical analysis shows the output currents of interconnectors are controllable after faults, which may cause malfunctions in distance protections installed on line... [more]
Exploring the Spatial Heterogeneity of Individual Preferences for Ambient Heating Systems
Cristiano Franceschinis, Riccardo Scarpa, Mara Thiene, John Rose, Michele Moretto, Raffaele Cavalli
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: ambient heating systems choices, mixed logit model, spatial variables, willingness to pay
The estimation and policy use of spatially explicit discrete choice models has yet to receive serious attention from practitioners. In this study we aim to analyze how geographical variables influence individuals’ sensitivity to key features of heating systems, namely investment cost and CO₂ emissions. This is of particular policy interest as heating systems are strongly connected to two major current environmental issues: emissions of pollutants and increased use of renewable resources. We estimate a mixed logit model (MXL) to spatially characterize preference heterogeneity in the mountainous North East of Italy. Our results show that geographical variables are significant sources of variation of individual’s sensitivity to the investigated attributes of the system. We generate maps to show how the willingness to pay to avoid CO₂ emissions varies across the region and to validate our estimates ex-post. We discuss why this could be a promising approach to inform applied policy decision... [more]
Energy Optimization and Management of Demand Response Interactions in a Smart Campus
Antimo Barbato, Cristiana Bolchini, Angela Geronazzo, Elisa Quintarelli, Andrei Palamarciuc, Alessandro Pitì, Cristina Rottondi, Giacomo Verticale
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: energy management system, renewable energy sources (RESes), smart city, smart grid
The proposed framework enables innovative power management in smart campuses, integrating local renewable energy sources, battery banks and controllable loads and supporting Demand Response interactions with the electricity grid operators. The paper describes each system component: the Energy Management System responsible for power usage scheduling, the telecommunication infrastructure in charge of data exchanging and the integrated data repository devoted to information storage. We also discuss the relevant use cases and validate the framework in a few deployed demonstrators.
Dynamic Energy Management of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems with a Hierarchical Structure
Chang Ye, Shihong Miao, Qi Lei, Yaowang Li
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: energy management, hierarchical storage structure, hybrid system
In power system control unicontrol with single storage units or centralized control with multiple storage units to meet different level targets is challenging. Considering the charge and discharge characteristics of storage devices, this paper proposes a hierarchical configuration structure of a battery and supercapacitor mixed storage scenario, and develops a convenient control method for accessing various DC loads and can central manage mass batteries in one place. Aiming at the optimal management of large scale battery storage, the paper proposes a three-layer battery hierarchical control structure and the control objects and control circuits are discussed. Simulation studies are used to verify the control effect of the hierarchical storage system and the results show that the strategy can effectively decrease photovoltaic output fluctuation.
A Wavelet-Based Unified Power Quality Conditioner to Eliminate Wind Turbine Non-Ideality Consequences on Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems
Bijan Rahmani, Weixing Li, Guihua Liu
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: active series filter (SF), advanced generalized theory of instantaneous power (A-GTIP) theory, DC-link, load-terminal voltage, low–pass filter (LPF), phase locked loop (PLL), source current, synchronous reference frame (SRF) theory, unified power quality conditioner (UPQC), wavelet
The integration of renewable power sources with power grids presents many challenges, such as synchronization with the grid, power quality problems and so on. The shunt active power filter (SAPF) can be a solution to address the issue while suppressing the grid-end current harmonics and distortions. Nonetheless, available SAPFs work somewhat unpredictably in practice. This is attributed to the dependency of the SAPF controller on nonlinear complicated equations and two distorted variables, such as load current and voltage, to produce the current reference. This condition will worsen when the plant includes wind turbines which inherently produce 3rd, 5th, 7th and 11th voltage harmonics. Moreover, the inability of the typical phase locked loop (PLL) used to synchronize the SAPF reference with the power grid also disrupts SAPF operation. This paper proposes an improved synchronous reference frame (SRF) which is equipped with a wavelet-based PLL to control the SAPF, using one variable such... [more]
A Study on Price-Based Charging Strategy for Electric Vehicles on Expressways
Lixing Chen, Zhong Chen, Xueliang Huang, Long Jin
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: electric vehicles (EVs), expressway, price-based charging, queueing algorithm
With the large-scale adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) on expressways, the exploration of a guiding-based charging method to effectively adjust interactions between EVs and the fast charging stations (CSs) is urgently needed. This paper proposes a status-of-use (SOU) price-based charging strategy that can motivate users to charge in advance. A queuing model for a CS cluster was established to verify the effectiveness of the strategy, and then a simulation of traveling and charging conditions of 12,000 pure EVs on the road network from 0:00 to 24:00 was performed according to the related data and using the Monte Carlo method, the Floyd-Warshall algorithm, and the queuing algorithm proposed in this paper. Compared to unordered charging (UC), SOU price-based charging can not only reduce the charging cost and waiting time for users, but also increase the utilization ratio of charging facilities in a CS cluster and thus lower their influence on the power grid and expressway traffic. SOU p... [more]
An Event-Triggered Online Energy Management Algorithm of Smart Home: Lyapunov Optimization Approach
Wei Fan, Nian Liu, Jianhua Zhang
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: energy management, event triggering, Lyapunov optimization, smart home
As an important component of the smart grid on the user side, a home energy management system is the core of optimal operation for a smart home. In this paper, the energy scheduling problem for a household equipped with photovoltaic devices was investigated. An online energy management algorithm based on event triggering was proposed. The Lyapunov optimization method was adopted to schedule controllable load in the household. Without forecasting related variables, real-time decisions were made based only on the current information. Energy could be rapidly regulated under the fluctuation of distributed generation, electricity demand and market price. The event-triggering mechanism was adopted to trigger the execution of the online algorithm, so as to cut down the execution frequency and unnecessary calculation. A comprehensive result obtained from simulation shows that the proposed algorithm could effectively decrease the electricity bills of users. Moreover, the required computational... [more]
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