Records with Subject: Energy Management
Showing records 1 to 25 of 187. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Proactive Energy Optimization in Residential Buildings with Weather and Market Forecasts
Cody R. Simmons, Joshua R. Arment, Kody M. Powell, John D. Hedengren
January 7, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: dynamic optimization, Energy Storage, forecast, HEMS, home energy optimization, Model Predictive Control, moving horizon estimation, solar generation, thermal modeling
This work explores the development of a home energy management system (HEMS) that uses weather and market forecasts to optimize the usage of home appliances and to manage battery usage and solar power production. A Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE) application is used to find the unknown home model parameters. These parameters are then updated in a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) which optimizes and balances competing comfort and economic objectives. Combining MHE and MPC applications alleviates model complexity commonly seen in HEMS by using a lumped parameter model that is adapted to fit a high-fidelity model. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) on/off behaviors are simulated by using Mathematical Program with Complementarity Constraints (MPCCs) and solved in near real time with a non-linear solver. Removing HVAC on/off as a discrete variable and replacing it with an MPCC reduces solve time. The results of this work indicate that energy management optimization significa... [more]
Flexible Energy Storage System—An Introductory Review of Textile-Based Flexible Supercapacitors
Chi-yuen Hui, Chi-wai Kan, Chee-leung Mak, Kam-hong Chau
January 7, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: cyclic chronopotentiometry, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, flexible, polymeric electrolytes, supercapacitors, textile-based
Recently, researchers have become interested in exploring applications of rechargeable battery storage technology in different disciplines, which can help our daily life, such as textile-based supercapacitors. This paper briefly describes this development and classification of supercapacitors. Besides, various types of materials which are commonly used to prepare supercapacitors, such as carbons, metal oxides, alkaline earth metal salts and polymers, are introduced. Moreover, applications and methodology to prepare textile materials with supercapacitors are described. Finally, the commonly used non-destructive measuring methods for textile-based supercapacitors are also introduced.
An Integrated LHS−CD Approach for Power System Security Risk Assessment with Consideration of Source−Network and Load Uncertainties
Shiwei Xia, Liangyun Song, Yi Wu, Zhoujun Ma, Jiangping Jing, Zhaohao Ding, Gengyin Li
January 7, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: integrated LHS–CD approach, power system, security risk assessment, source–network–load uncertainties
Large-scale wind power integrated into power grids brings serious uncertainties and risks for power system safe operation, and it is imperative to evaluate power system security risk pertinent to high-level of uncertainties. In this paper, a comprehensive source−network−load probabilistic model, representing the typical uncertainties penetrated in power generation transmission consumption portion, is firstly set for power system operation. Afterwards an integrated LHS−CD approach based on the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) and Cholesky decomposition (CD) is tailored to effectively conduct the security risk assessment, in which the LHS is utilized to stratified sample the uncertainties of wind power and thermal power, transmission line outage, and load demands, while the CD part is adopted to address the correlations of uncertainties by rearranging the sampled matrix generated by LHS. Moreover, static voltage risk and transmission line overloaded risk index are properly defined for quan... [more]
Game Analysis of Wind Storage Joint Ventures Participation in Power Market Based on a Double-Layer Stochastic Optimization Model
Bin Ma, Shiping Geng, Caixia Tan, Dongxiao Niu, Zhijin He
January 6, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Nash negotiation, power market, Shapely value, wind storage joint ventures
The volatility of a new energy output leads to bidding bias when participating in the power market competition. A pumped storage power station is an ideal method of stabilizing new energy volatility. Therefore, wind power suppliers and pumped storage power stations first form wind storage joint ventures to participate in power market competition. At the same time, middlemen are introduced, constructing an upper-level game model (considering power producers and wind storage joint ventures) that forms equilibrium results of bidding competition in the wholesale and power distribution markets. Based on the equilibrium result of the upper-level model, a lower model is constructed to distribute the profits from wind storage joint ventures. The profits of each wind storage joint venture, wind power supplier, and pumped storage power station are obtained by the Nash negotiation and the Shapely value method. Finally, a case study is conducted. The results show that the wind storage joint ventur... [more]
Using Real-Time Electricity Prices to Leverage Electrical Energy Storage and Flexible Loads in a Smart Grid Environment Utilizing Machine Learning Techniques
Moataz Sheha, Kody Powell
January 2, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: artificial neural networks, duck curve, dynamic real-time optimization, Energy Storage, Machine Learning, real-time pricing, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, smart grid, smart houses, solar energy
With exposure to real-time market pricing structures, consumers would be incentivized to invest in electrical energy storage systems and smart predictive automation of their home energy systems. Smart home automation through optimizing HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) temperature set points, along with distributed energy storage, could be utilized in the process of optimizing the operation of the electric grid. Using electricity prices as decision variables to leverage electrical energy storage and flexible loads can be a valuable tool to optimize the performance of the power grid and reduce electricity costs both on the supply and demand sides. Energy demand prediction is important for proper allocation and utilization of the available resources. Manipulating energy prices to leverage storage and flexible loads through these demand prediction models is a novel idea that needs to be studied. In this paper, different models for proactive prediction of the energy demand... [more]
A Dispatching Optimization Model for Park Power Supply Systems Considering Power-to-Gas and Peak Regulation Compensation
Yunfu Qin, Hongyu Lin, Zhongfu Tan, Qingyou Yan, Li Li, Shenbo Yang, Gejirifu De, Liwei Ju
December 16, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: ancillary service, park power supply system, peak regulation compensation, power-to-gas, wind/photovoltaic generation consumption
To ensure the stability of park power supply systems and to promote the consumption of wind/photovoltaic generation, this paper proposes a dispatching optimization model for the park power supply system with power-to-gas (P2G) and peak regulation via gas-fired generators. Firstly, the structure of a park power system with P2G was built. Secondly, a dispatching optimization model for the park power supply system was constructed with a peak regulation compensation mechanism. Finally, the effectiveness of the model was verified by a case study. The case results show that with the integration of P2G and the marketized peak regulation compensation mechanism, preferential power energy storage followed by gas storage had the best effect on the park power supply system, which minimized the clean energy curtailment to 11.18% and the total cost by approximately $120.190 and maximized the net profit by approximately $152.005.
Experimental and Numerical Analysis of a Sustainable Farming Compartment with Evaporative Cooling System
M. Sina Mousavi, Siamak Mirfendereski, Jae Sung Park, Jongwan Eun
December 13, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: dynamic numerical simulation, evaporative cooling system, heat transport, humidity, optimized design, temperature, water recycling
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) relies on groundwater as well as desalinated water which are very expensive and energy-concentrated. Despite the lack of water resources, only 54% of wastewater was recycled in the UAE in 2016. In this study, a Sustainable Farming Compartment (SFC) with an evaporative cooling system is investigated as an alternative to reusing wastewater and the optimal design is identified experimentally and numerically. First, the applicability of the SFC was examined to reduce the ambient temperature in the system. A prototype SFC was tested in the environmentally constrained laboratory and field site considering an extreme climate condition (with high temperature and humidity) in Abu Dhabi to evaluate the temperature drop and humidity change of the SFC. The experimental results showed that the temperature of the SFC significantly decreases by 7−15 °C when the initial relative humidity is 50%. For validation, an energy modeling using dynamic numerical simulations was p... [more]
Principal Mismatch Patterns Across a Simplified Highly Renewable European Electricity Network
Mads Raunbak, Timo Zeyer, Kun Zhu, Martin Greiner
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: energy system design, large-scale integration of renewables, principal component analysis, renewable energy networks, solar power, super grid, wind power
Due to its spatio-temporal variability, the mismatch between the weather and demand patterns challenges the design of highly renewable energy systems. A principal component analysis is applied to a simplified networked European electricity system with a high share of wind and solar power generation. It reveals a small number of important mismatch patterns, which explain most of the system’s required backup and transmission infrastructure. Whereas the first principal component is already able to reproduce most of the temporal mismatch variability for a solar dominated system, a few more principal components are needed for a wind dominated system. Due to its monopole structure the first principal component causes most of the system’s backup infrastructure. The next few principal components have a dipole structure and dominate the transmission infrastructure of the renewable electricity network.
On Hybrid Energy Utilization in Wireless Sensor Networks
Mohammad Tala’t, Chih-Min Yu, Meng-Lin Ku, Kai-Ten Feng
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: hybrid energy source, Markov decision process, wireless sensor network
In a wireless sensor network (WSN), many applications have limited energy resources for data transmission. In order to accomplish a better green communication for WSN, a hybrid energy scheme can supply a more reliable energy source. In this article, hybrid energy utilization—which consists of constant energy source and solar harvested energy—is considered for WSN. To minimize constant energy usage from the hybrid source, a Markov decision process (MDP) is designed to find the optimal transmission policy. With a finite packet buffer and a finite battery size, an MDP model is presented to define the states, actions, state transition probabilities, and the cost function including the cost values for all actions. A weighted sum of constant energy source consumption and a packet dropping probability (PDP) are adopted as the cost value, enabling us to find the optimal solution for balancing the minimization of the constant energy source utilization and the PDP using a value iteration algorit... [more]
The Fuzzy Logic Method to Efficiently Optimize Electricity Consumption in Individual Housing
Sébastien Bissey, Sébastien Jacques, Jean-Charles Le Bunetel
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: demand side management, electricity consumption prediction and management, fuzzy logic algorithm, individual housing
Electricity demand shifting and reduction still raise a huge interest for end-users at the household level, especially because of the ongoing design of a dynamic pricing approach. In particular, end-users must act as the starting point for decreasing their consumption during peak hours to prevent the need to extend the grid and thus save considerable costs. This article points out the relevance of a fuzzy logic algorithm to efficiently predict short term load consumption (STLC). This approach is the cornerstone of a new home energy management (HEM) algorithm which is able to optimize the cost of electricity consumption, while smoothing the peak demand. The fuzzy logic modeling involves a strong reliance on a complete database of real consumption data from many instrumented show houses. The proposed HEM algorithm enables any end-user to manage his electricity consumption with a high degree of flexibility and transparency, and “reshape” the load profile. For example, this can be mainly a... [more]
A New Platform for Automatic Bottom-Up Electric Load Aggregation
Alfredo Bartolozzi, Salvatore Favuzza, Mariano Giuseppe Ippolito, Diego La Cascia, Eleonora Riva Sanseverino, Gaetano Zizzo
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: active demand (AD), energy market, loads aggregation, loads clustering
In this paper, a new virtual framework for load aggregation in the context of the liberalized energy market is proposed. Since aggregation is managed automatically through a dedicated platform, the purchase of energy can be carried out without intermediation as it happens in peer-to-peer energy transaction models. Differently from what was done before, in this new framework, individual customers can join a load aggregation program through the proposed aggregation platform. Through the platform, their features are evaluated and they are clustered according to their reliability and to the width of range of regulation allowed. The simulations show the deployment of an effective clustering and the possibility to meet the target power demand at a given hour according to each customer’s availability.
Acquisition System Verification for Energy Efficiency Analysis of Building Materials
Natalia Cid, Ana Ogando, M. A. Gómez
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: acquisition system, concrete, cubicles, phase change material (PCM)
Climate change and fossil fuel depletion foster interest in improving energy efficiency in buildings. There are different methods to achieve improved efficiency; one of them is the use of additives, such as phase change materials (PCMs). To prove this method’s effectiveness, a building’s behaviour should be monitored and analysed. This paper describes an acquisition system developed for monitoring buildings based on Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and with a 1-wire bus network as the communication system. The system is empirically tested to prove that it works properly. With this purpose, two experimental cubicles are made of self-compacting concrete panels, one of which has a PCM as an additive to improve its energy storage properties. Both cubicles have the same dimensions and orientation, and they are separated by six feet to avoid shadows. The behaviour of the PCM was observed with the acquisition system, achieving results that illustrate the differences between th... [more]
Multivalued Coefficient Prestorage and Block Parallel Method for Real-Time Simulation of Microgrid on FRTDS
Bingda Zhang, Dan Zhao, Zhao Jin, Yanjie Wu
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: field programmable gate array-based real-time digital simulation (FRTDS), local iterative calculation, microgrid, multiport hybrid equivalent, multivalued coefficient prestorage, network partitioning, real-time simulation
The microgrid containing a large amount of high frequency power switches and nonlinear components has put forward high requirements for power system real-time simulation technology. Multivalued coefficient prestorage can reduce the calculation steps in real-time simulation. In order to reduce the storage pressure of the multivalued coefficients, the whole network is divided into multiple subnetworks that can be simulated in parallel, and only the parameters for computing input variables and internal variables are prestored. The multiport hybrid equivalent is performed to reduce the number of simultaneous network equations. The input variables are tied to state variables of the circuit so that the iterative calculation is limited to the local network. The devised methodology is validated through simulation of a low-voltage microgrid on a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based real-time digital simulation (FRTDS) platform at a 5 μs time step. Comparison with a power systems computer... [more]
A Smart Forecasting Approach to District Energy Management
Baris Yuce, Monjur Mourshed, Yacine Rezgui
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: ANN, demand forecasting, district energy management, MRA, PCA, smart cities, smart grid
This study presents a model for district-level electricity demand forecasting using a set of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) (parallel ANNs) based on current energy loads and social parameters such as occupancy. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis is conducted to select the inputs of the ANN by considering external weather conditions, occupancy type, main income providers’ employment status and related variables for the fuel poverty index. Moreover, a detailed parameter tuning is conducted using various configurations for each individual ANN. The study also demonstrates the strength of the parallel ANN models in different seasons of the years. In the proposed district level energy forecasting model, the training and testing stages of parallel ANNs utilise dataset of a group of six buildings. The aim of each individual ANN is to predict electricity consumption and the aggregated demand in sub-hourly time-steps. The inputs of each ANN are determined using Principal Component Analysis... [more]
Hybrid Photovoltaic Systems with Accumulation—Support for Electric Vehicle Charging
Petr Mastny, Jan Moravek, Martin Vojtek, Jiri Drapela
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: accumulation, electric vehicle, fast charging stations, hybrid energy system, Matlab
The paper presents the concept of a hybrid power system with additional energy storage to support electric vehicles (EVs) charging stations. The aim is to verify the possibilities of mutual cooperation of individual elements of the system from the point of view of energy balances and to show possibilities of utilization of accumulation for these purposes using mathematical modeling. The description of the technical solution of the concept is described by a mathematical model in the Matlab Simulink programming environment. Individual elements of the assembled model are described in detail, together with the algorithm of the control logic of charging the supporting storage system. The resulting model was validated via an actual small-scale hybrid system (HS). Within the outputs of the mathematical model, two simulation scenarios are presented, with the aid of which the benefits of the concept presented were verified.
Break-Even Points of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Peak Shaving Applications
Claudia Rahmann, Benjamin Mac-Clure, Vijay Vittal, Felipe Valencia
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: distributed power generation, energy storage systems, peak shaving
In the last few years, several investigations have been carried out in the field of optimal sizing of energy storage systems (ESSs) at both the transmission and distribution levels. Nevertheless, most of these works make important assumptions about key factors affecting ESS profitability such as efficiency and life cycles and especially about the specific costs of the ESS, without considering the uncertainty involved. In this context, this work aims to answer the question: what should be the costs of different ESS technologies in order to make a profit when considering peak shaving applications? The paper presents a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the interaction between the profitability of an ESS project and some key parameters influencing the project performance. The proposed approach determines the break-even points for different ESSs considering a wide range of life cycles, efficiencies, energy prices, and power prices. To do this, an optimization algorithm for the sizing of... [more]
Power Quality and Energy Efficiency in the Pre-Evaluation of an Outdoor Lighting Renewal with Light-Emitting Diode Technology: Experimental Study and Amortization Analysis
Manuel Jesús Hermoso-Orzáez, Alfonso Gago-Calderón, José Ignacio Rojas-Sola
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: amortization analysis, break-even point (BEP), LED luminaires, power quality, street lighting, total harmonic distortion (THD)
In this work, a practical methodology is proposed to analyze, before undertaking a large investment, an outdoor lighting installation renewal with light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires. The main problems found in many of the luminaires tested are associated with inrush peak currents in cold start (which may cause ignition problems with random shutdowns), the harmonic distortions caused by their AC/DC associated electronic nature driver, and their working and efficiency dependency on the ambient temperature. All these issues have been tested in the context of a large metal halide (MH) to LED luminaires lighting point renewal where six commercial LED projectors have been analyzed with the above considerations. This research has isolated a single-phase circuit powered with constant stabilized 230 VAC voltage source in a real public lighting installation. All of them have been sequentially installed and their main electrical and power-quality parameters measured and recorded. The results i... [more]
Seasonal Thermal-Energy Storage: A Critical Review on BTES Systems, Modeling, and System Design for Higher System Efficiency
Michael Lanahan, Paulo Cesar Tabares-Velasco
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: borehole thermal energy storage, BTES, component modeling, diurnal storage, EnergyPlus, ground source heat pump (GSHP) transient system simulation tool (TRNSYS), seasonal thermal energy storage, Solar Thermal, solar-coupled GSHP, system modeling
Buildings consume approximately ¾ of the total electricity generated in the United States, contributing significantly to fossil fuel emissions. Sustainable and renewable energy production can reduce fossil fuel use, but necessitates storage for energy reliability in order to compensate for the intermittency of renewable energy generation. Energy storage is critical for success in developing a sustainable energy grid because it facilitates higher renewable energy penetration by mitigating the gap between energy generation and demand. This review analyzes recent case studies—numerical and field experiments—seen by borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) in space heating and domestic hot water capacities, coupled with solar thermal energy. System design, model development, and working principle(s) are the primary focus of this analysis. A synopsis of the current efforts to effectively model BTES is presented as well. The literature review reveals that: (1) energy storage is most effective... [more]
Electricity Production by the Application of a Low Voltage DC-DC Boost Converter to a Continuously Operating Flat-Plate Microbial Fuel Cell
Young Eun Song, Hitesh C. Boghani, Hong Suck Kim, Byung Goon Kim, Taeho Lee, Byong-Hun Jeon, Giuliano C. Premier, Jung Rae Kim
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: DC-DC boost converter, energy efficient wastewater treatment, LTC3108, microbial fuel cell, power quality
An ultra-low voltage customized DC-DC booster circuit was developed using a LTC3108 converter, and used continuously on a flat-plate microbial fuel cell (FPM) system. The boost converter successfully stepped up the microbial fuel cell (MFC) voltage from ~0.5 V to 3.3 and 5.0 V of outputs. The designed circuit and system displayed the dynamic variations of the source FPM as well as the output voltage through the designed three connection points within the booster circuit. The source MFC voltage was interrelated with the booster circuit and its performance, and it adapted to the set points of the booster dynamically. The maximum output power density of the MFC with the DC-DC booster circuit was 8.16 W/m³ compared to the maximum source FPM input power of 14.27 W/m³ at 100 Ω, showing a conversion efficiency of 26⁻57%, but with a 10-fold higher output than that of the source voltage. The combined LTC3108 with FPM supplied power for electronic devices using synthetic and real domestic wastew... [more]
Structured Literature Review of Electricity Consumption Classification Using Smart Meter Data
Alexander Martin Tureczek, Per Sieverts Nielsen
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: classification, consumption classification, data analysis, electricity consumption classification, review, smart meter
Smart meters for measuring electricity consumption are fast becoming prevalent in households. The meters measure consumption on a very fine scale, usually on a 15 min basis, and the data give unprecedented granularity of consumption patterns at household level. A multitude of papers have emerged utilizing smart meter data for deepening our knowledge of consumption patterns. This paper applies a modification of Okoli’s method for conducting structured literature reviews to generate an overview of research in electricity customer classification using smart meter data. The process assessed 2099 papers before identifying 34 significant papers, and highlights three key points: prominent methods, datasets and application. Three important findings are outlined. First, only a few papers contemplate future applications of the classification, rendering papers relevant only in a classification setting. Second; the encountered classification methods do not consider correlation or time series analy... [more]
China Building Energy Consumption: Definitions and Measures from an Operational Perspective
Wei Wei, Ling-Yun He
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: building energy consumption, China, life cycle, operation
China building energy consumption (BEC) has been gradually derived and also sparked attention. However, something worth discussing is estimating the BEC based on the definition of life cycle or building operation. In addition, there exists discrepancy in the previous studies and the real status of BEC has not been known well. In order to settle the disputes over the calculation of BEC, this paper establishes an appropriate accounting method of building energy to present the BEC situation in China and lays the foundation for policymakers to develop appropriate energy saving policies. Meanwhile, this study attempts to clarify the BEC to help policymakers assess the effect of environmental policies. Using the method in this document, we find that the energy consumption of buildings just accounts for 15%⁻16% of the final total energy consumption in China; by contrast, the previous studies usually have double accounting through a top-down approach if central heat supply of buildings was tak... [more]
A Review of Smart Cities Based on the Internet of Things Concept
Saber Talari, Miadreza Shafie-khah, Pierluigi Siano, Vincenzo Loia, Aurelio Tommasetti, João P. S. Catalão
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: cloud platform, demand response, Internet of Things (IoT), smart city
With the expansion of smart meters, like the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), and the Internet of Things (IoT), each smart city is equipped with various kinds of electronic devices. Therefore, equipment and technologies enable us to be smarter and make various aspects of smart cities more accessible and applicable. The goal of the current paper is to provide an inclusive review on the concept of the smart city besides their different applications, benefits, and advantages. In addition, most of the possible IoT technologies are introduced, and their capabilities to merge into and apply to the different parts of smart cities are discussed. The potential application of smart cities with respect to technology development in the future provides another valuable discussion in this paper. Meanwhile, some practical experiences all across the world and the key barriers to its implementation are thoroughly expressed.
Stability Analysis of DC Distribution Systems with Droop-Based Charge Sharing on Energy Storage Devices
Despoina I. Makrygiorgou, Antonio T. Alexandridis
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: DC distribution systems, DC microgrids, DC/DC converters, droop control, stability analysis, storage devices
Direct current (DC) distribution systems and DC microgrids are becoming a reliable and efficient alternative energy system, compatible with the DC nature of most of the distributed energy resources (DERs), storage devices and loads. The challenging problem of redesigning an autonomous DC-grid system in view of using energy storage devices to balance the power produced and absorbed, by applying simple decentralized controllers on the electronic power interfaces, is investigated in this paper. To this end, a complete nonlinear DC-grid model has been deployed that includes different DC-DERs, two controlled parallel battery branches, and different varying DC loads. Since many loads in modern distribution systems are connected through power converters, both constant power loads and simple resistive loads are considered in parallel. Within this system, suitable cascaded controllers on the DC/DC power converter interfaces to the battery branches are proposed, in a manner that ensures stabilit... [more]
Optimal Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Road Grade Information
Yonggang Liu, Jie Li, Ming Ye, Datong Qin, Yi Zhang, Zhenzhen Lei
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: energy management strategy, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, road grade, state of charge
Energy management strategies (EMSs) are critical for the improvement of fuel economy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). However, conventional EMSs hardly consider the influence of uphill terrain on the fuel economy and battery life, leaving vehicles with insufficient battery power for continuous uphill terrains. Hence, in this study, an optimal control strategy for a PHEV based on the road grade information is proposed. The target state of charge (SOC) is estimated based on the road grade information as well as the predicted driving cycle on uphill road obtained from the GPS/GIS system. Furthermore, the trajectory of the SOC is preplanned to ensure sufficient electricity for the uphill terrain in the charge depleting (CD) and charge sustaining (CS) modes. The genetic algorithm is applied to optimize the parameters of the control strategy to maintain the SOC of battery in the CD mode. The pre-charge mode is designed to charge the battery in the CS mode from a reasonable distan... [more]
Robust Operation of Energy Storage System with Uncertain Load Profiles
Jangkyum Kim, Yohwan Choi, Seunghyoung Ryu, Hongseok Kim
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: battery wear-out cost, energy storage system (ESS), load uncertainty, peak load control, robust optimization
In this paper, we propose novel techniques to reduce total cost and peak load of factories from a customer point of view. We control energy storage system (ESS) to minimize the total electricity bill under the Korea commercial and industrial (KCI) tariff, which both considers peak load and time of use (ToU). Under the KCI tariff, the average peak load, which is the maximum among all average power consumptions measured every 15 min for the past 12 months, determines the monthly base cost, and thus peak load control is extremely critical. We aim to leverage ESS for both peak load reduction based on load prediction as well as energy arbitrage exploiting ToU. However, load prediction inevitably has uncertainty, which makes ESS operation challenging with KCI tariff. To tackle it, we apply robust optimization to minimize risk in a real environment. Our approach significantly reduces the peak load by 49.9% and the total cost by 10.8% compared to the case that does not consider load uncertaint... [more]
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