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Records with Keyword: Energy Storage
McMaster University Course Lectures in Energy Systems Engineering
Thomas Alan Adams II
December 17, 2018 (v1)
Lecture slides from the Fall 2018 CHEM ENG 4A03/6A03 Energy System Engineering course at McMaster University are attached. Energy Systems Engineering is a survey course that discusses many ways in which energy products are produced, transported, converted, and consumed in our society today. The lectures correspond to two 50-minute lectures a week for 13 weeks (some slide decks take 2 or 3 lectures to complete). The course cannot cover all energy systems of course, but focus mostly on large-scale or common processes either in use today or currently in development and research. The course takes a chemical engineering perspective so more attention is paid to processes and thermochemical phenomena and less attention is paid to issues related to mechanical engineering or electrical engineering, although there is some intersection.

The lecture slides include the following topics:

1.1. Life Cycle Analysis (basic review)
1.2. Key Metrics in Energy Systems
2.1. Coal Production
2.2. Nat... [more]
Development of Integrally Molded Bipolar Plates for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries
Chih-Hsun Chang, Han-Wen Chou, Ning-Yih Hsu, Yong-Song Chen
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRBs), bipolar plate (BP), Energy Storage, injection molding
All-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs) are potential energy storage systems for renewable power sources because of their flexible design, deep discharge capacity, quick response time, and long cycle life. To minimize the energy loss due to the shunt current, in a traditional design, a flow field is machined on two electrically insulated frames with a graphite plate in between. A traditional bipolar plate (BP) of a VRB consists of many components, and thus, the assembly process is time consuming. In this study, an integrally molded BP is designed and fabricated to minimize the manufacturing cost. First, the effects of the mold design and injection parameters on frame formability were analyzed by simulation. Second, a new graphite plate design for integral molding was proposed, and finally, two integrally molded BPs were fabricated and compared. Results show that gate position significantly affects air traps and the maximum volume shrinkage occurs at the corners of a BP. The volume shr... [more]
An Actuator Control Unit for Safety-Critical Mechatronic Applications with Embedded Energy Storage Backup
Sergio Saponara
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: actuator control unit (ACU), automotive electric actuators, biomedical robotics, Energy Storage, ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) for power systems, mechatronics, power electronics and components
This paper presents an actuator control unit (ACU) with a 450-J embedded energy storage backup to face safety critical mechatronic applications. The idea is to ensure full operation of electric actuators, even in the case of battery failure, by using supercapacitors as a local energy tank. Thanks to integrated switching converter circuitry, the supercapacitors provide the required voltage and current levels for the required time to guarantee actuator operation until the system enters into safety mode. Experimental results are presented for a target application related to the control of servomotors for a robotized prosthetic arm. Mechatronic devices for rehabilitation or assisted living of injured and/or elderly people are available today. In most cases, they are battery powered with lithium-based cells, providing high energy density and low weight, but at the expense of a reduced robustness compared to lead-acid- or nickel-based battery cells. The ACU of this work ensures full operatio... [more]
Distributed Renewable Generation and Storage System Sizing Based on Smart Dispatch of Microgrids
Raji Atia, Noboru Yamada
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: demand response (DR), distributed power generation, energy management, Energy Storage, microgrid (MG), Optimization
This paper considers the contribution of independent owners (IOs) operating within microgrids (MGs) toward green power generation in deregulated energy markets. An optimization scheme is introduced for sizing distributed renewable generation (DRG) and a distributed energy storage system (DESS) based on a novel energy management system (EMS) that accounts for demand response (DR), DESS dispatch and performance degradation, dynamic pricing environments, power distribution loss and irregular renewable generation. The proposed EMS utilizes an iterative Newton-Raphson linear programming algorithm that schedules resources in order to minimize the objective function, to deal with the complicated nonlinear nature of the problem and to enable efficient long-term assessments. The EMS is used to evaluate candidate solutions that are generated by a genetic algorithm (GA) to determine the optimal combination of DRG and DESS. A case study for IEEE 34-bus distribution MG in Okinawa, Japan, is used fo... [more]
Optimal Power Management Strategy for Energy Storage with Stochastic Loads
Stefano Pietrosanti, William Holderbaum, Victor M. Becerra
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Storage, flywheel, Optimization, power management, RTG crane, stochastic loads
In this paper, a power management strategy (PMS) has been developed for the control of energy storage in a system subjected to loads of random duration. The PMS minimises the costs associated with the energy consumption of specific systems powered by a primary energy source and equipped with energy storage, under the assumption that the statistical distribution of load durations is known. By including the variability of the load in the cost function, it was possible to define the optimality criteria for the power flow of the storage. Numerical calculations have been performed obtaining the control strategies associated with the global minimum in energy costs, for a wide range of initial conditions of the system. The results of the calculations have been tested on a MATLAB/Simulink model of a rubber tyre gantry (RTG) crane equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and subjected to a test cycle, which corresponds to the real operation of a crane in the Port of Felixstowe. The... [more]
Optimal Component Sizing for Peak Shaving in Battery Energy Storage System for Industrial Applications
Rodrigo Martins, Holger C. Hesse, Johanna Jungbauer, Thomas Vorbuchner, Petr Musilek
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Storage, linear programming, battery aging modelling, lithium-ion battery, peak-shaving, Technoeconomic Analysis
Recent attention to industrial peak shaving applications sparked an increased interest in battery energy storage. Batteries provide a fast and high power capability, making them an ideal solution for this task. This work proposes a general framework for sizing of battery energy storage system (BESS) in peak shaving applications. A cost-optimal sizing of the battery and power electronics is derived using linear programming based on local demand and billing scheme. A case study conducted with real-world industrial profiles shows the applicability of the approach as well as the return on investment dependence on the load profile. At the same time, the power flow optimization reveals the best storage operation patterns considering a trade-off between energy purchase, peak-power tariff, and battery aging. This underlines the need for a general mathematical optimization approach to efficiently tackle the challenge of peak shaving using an energy storage system. The case study also compares t... [more]
Complex Heat Pump Operational Mode Identification and Comparison for Use in Electric Vehicles
James Jeffs, Andrew McGordon, Alessandro Picarelli, Simon Robinson, Yashraj Tripathy, Widanalage Dhammika Widanage
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: electric vehicles, energy flow, Energy Storage, heat, heat pumps
Previous research has focused on the use of heat pumps in electric vehicles, with the focus on recuperating heat from, normally, ambient and one thermal source on the vehicle. Here 5 potential thermal sources on a vehicle have been identified and thorough testing on the benefit of each source has been performed. The results presented suggest the motor, a thermal storage device, and cabin exhaust extraction should be used >80% of the time according to the scenarios tested, while battery heating and transmission heat extraction should be used subject to conditions on the ambient temperature and drive cycle.
Direct Steam Generation Concentrated Solar Power Plant with a Decalin/Naphthalene Thermochemical Storage System
Haoxiang Lai, Thomas A. Adams II
June 12, 2018 (v1)
This study presents the design and analysis of a new integrated direct steam generation (DSG) concentrated solar power (CSP) plant with a decalin/naphthalene thermochemical storage system. Model simulations were performed in accordance to historical hourly solar radiation data over a year, using a combination of Aspen Plus v10, MATLAB 2016b, and Microsoft Excel VBA. It was found that the proposed plant feasibly stored and discharged energy, based on the solar radiation and chemical storage availability, to maintain base-load power productions (250 MW or 120 MW) with an overall efficiency of 14.6%. The effectiveness of the designed storage system was found to be comparable to a molten salt storage system which is currently used in existing CSP plants. The proposed integrated DSG CSP plant with a decalin/naphthalene thermochemical storage system shows promise for being an alternative to existing CSP plants.
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