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Showing records 1 to 25 of 49. [First] Page: 1 2 Last
Synthesis of Calcium Orthophosphates by Chemical Precipitation in Aqueous Solutions: The Effect of the Acidity, Ca/P Molar Ratio, and Temperature on the Phase Composition and Solubility of Precipitates
Mykola V. Nikolenko, Kateryna V. Vasylenko, Victoria D. Myrhorodska, Andrii Kostyniuk, Blaž Likozar
December 28, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, solubility isotherm, solubility product, wet chemical precipitation
Studies on chemical precipitation of the calcium orthophosphates have shown that their phase compositions do not vary depending on molar ratio Ca/P but are sensitive to solutions acidity and temperature. These are two key factors that determine the phase transformation progress of metastable phases into less soluble precipitates of the phosphates. It was proposed to compare calcium orthophosphates solubility products with calcium cations quantities in their formulas. It was found that there was a linear correlation between calcium orthophosphates specific solubility products and their molar ratios Ca/P if hydroxyapatite and its Ca-deficient forms were excluded from consideration. It was concluded that the relatively large deviations of their solubility products from the found correlation should be thought of as erroneous data. That is why solubility products were changed in accordance with correlation dependence: pKS for hydroxyapatite was 155, pKS for Ca-deficient hydroxyapatites was... [more]
Comparison of Different Extraction Methods for the Recovery of Olive Leaves Polyphenols
Ana Dobrinčić, Maja Repajić, Ivona Elez Garofulić, Lucija Tuđen, Verica Dragović-Uzelac, Branka Levaj
December 28, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: extraction efficiency, heat-reflux extraction, high pressure-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, oleuropein, olive leaves, polyphenols, ultrasound-assisted extraction
In the present study, advanced extraction techniques, microwave (MAE), ultrasound (UAE), and high pressure (HPAE)-assisted extraction, were applied to improve extraction efficiency of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves polyphenols. The effect of sample mass (1.5 and 3 g), MAE—time (2, 8.5, and 15 min) and temperature (45 and 80 °C), UAE—time (7, 14, and 21 min) and amplitude (50 and 100%) and HPAE—time (1, 5.5, and 10 min) and pressure (300 and 500 MPa) on the concentration of each analyzed polyphenol compound was examined. Identified polyphenols were oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, verbascoside, and rutin. All three advanced extraction techniques yielded higher content of total polyphenols when compared to the conventional heat-reflux extraction (CE) along with a significant reduction of extraction time from 60 (CE) to 2, 21, and 5.5 min in MAE, UAE, and HPAE, respectively. The most intensive values of tested parameters in each technique were the ones that pro... [more]
Integrating the Concept of Industry 4.0 by Teaching Methodology in Industrial Engineering Curriculum
Bashir Salah, Sajjad Khan, Muawia Ramadan, Nikola Gjeldum
December 28, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Education
Keywords: engineering education, Industry 4.0, reconfigurable manufacturing systems, smart factory, smart product
The movement to digitally transform Saudi Arabia in all sectors has already begun under the “Vision 2030” program. Consequently, renovating and standardizing production and manufacturing industries to compete with global challenges is essential. The fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) triggered by the development of information and communications technologies (ICT) provides a baseline for smart automation, using decentralized control and smart connectivity (e.g., Internet of Things). Industrial engineering graduates need to have acquaintance with this industrial digital revolution. Several industries where the spirit of Industry 4.0 has been embraced and have already implemented these ideas yielded gains. In this paper, a roadmap containing an academic term course based on the concept of Industry 4.0, which our engineering graduates passed through, is presented. At first, an orientation program to students elaborating on the Industry 4.0 concept, its main pillars, the importanc... [more]
Optimization of Magnetic Properties of Magnetic Microwires by Post-Processing
Valentina Zhukova, Paula Corte-Leon, Lorena González-Legarreta, Ahmed Talaat, Juan Maria Blanco, Mihail Ipatov, Jesus Olivera, Arcady Zhukov
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: hysteresis loops, magnetic anisotropy, magnetic microwires, post-processing
The influence of post-processing conditions on the magnetic properties of amorphous and nanocrystalline microwires has been thoroughly analyzed, paying attention to the influence of magnetoelastic, induced and magnetocrystalline anisotropies on the hysteresis loops of Fe-, Ni-, and Co-rich microwires. We showed that magnetic properties of glass-coated microwires can be tuned by the selection of appropriate chemical composition and geometry in as-prepared state or further considerably modified by appropriate post-processing, which consists of either annealing or glass-coated removal. Furthermore, stress-annealing or Joule heating can further effectively modify the magnetic properties of amorphous magnetic microwires owing to induced magnetic anisotropy. Devitrification of microwires can be useful for either magnetic softening or magnetic hardening of the microwires. Depending on the chemical composition of the metallic nucleus and on structural features (grain size, precipitating phases... [more]
Processes for Bioenergy and Resources Recovery from Biowaste
Elsayed Elbeshbishy, Bipro Ranjan Dhar
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
The increasing quantity of biowaste generation and the requirements governing their ultimate disposal are of serious economic and environmental concern [...]
Methods Used for the Compaction and Molding of Ceramic Matrix Composites Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes
Valerii P. Meshalkin, Alexey V. Belyakov
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: carbon nanotubes, casting, ceramic matrix composites, compaction, green bodies, machinery, molding, plastic molding powders, polymerizable monomers, powder mixtures, slips, solid freeform fabrication
Ceramic matrix composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes are becoming increasingly popular in industry due to their astonishing mechanical properties and taking into account the fact that advanced production technologies make carbon nanotubes increasingly affordable. In the present paper, the most convenient contemporary methods used for the compaction of molding masses composed of either technical ceramics or ceramic matrix composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes are surveyed. This stage that precedes debinding and sintering plays the key role in getting pore-free equal-density ceramics at the scale of mass production. The methods include: compaction in sealed and collector molds, cold isostatic and quasi-isostatic compaction; dynamic compaction methods, such as magnetic pulse, vibration, and ultrasonic compaction; extrusion, stamping, and injection; casting from aqueous and non-aqueous slips; tape and gel casting. Capabilities of mold-free approaches to produce precisely shaped... [more]
Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Citrus aurantium, and Citrus sinensis Essential Oils as Antifungal Activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, and Fusarium culmorum
Wael A.A. Abo Elgat, Ahmed M. Kordy, Martin Böhm, Robert Černý, Ahmed Abdel-Megeed, Mohamed Z.M. Salem
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: antifungal activity, Citrus aurantium, Citrus sinensis, essential oils, Eucalyptus camaldulensis
Several molds are able to colonize wood and many building products or solid wood causing losses for their valuable uses. Essential oils (EOs) from aromatic plants can be used as an ecofriendly biofungicide against the growth of several molds. EOs from Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Citrus aurantium, and C. sinensis have a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. EOs from of E. camaldulensis air-dried aerial parts, C. aurantium leaf and C. sinensis peel, and their combinations (1:1 v/v) were evaluated for their antifungal activity against the growth of four common mold fungi (Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and Fusarium culmorum). The chemical compositions of the EOs were analyzed with GC/MS. The main compounds in EO from E. camaldulensis were spathulenol (20.84%), eucalyptol (12.01%), and sabinene (9.73%); in C. aurantium were linalyl acetate (42.29%), and linalool (29.76%); and in C. sinensis were D-limonene (73.4%) and γ-terpinene (22.6%). At 50 µL/mL, C. sinensis EO showed the hi... [more]
Plasma Agriculture from Laboratory to Farm: A Review
Pankaj Attri, Kenji Ishikawa, Takamasa Okumura, Kazunori Koga, Masaharu Shiratani
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: growth enhancement, non-thermal plasma, plasma agriculture, seed germination
In recent years, non-thermal plasma (NTP) application in agriculture is rapidly increasing. Many published articles and reviews in the literature are focus on the post-harvest use of plasma in agriculture. However, the pre-harvest application of plasma still in its early stage. Therefore, in this review, we covered the effect of NTP and plasma-treated water (PTW) on seed germination and growth enhancement. Further, we will discuss the change in biochemical analysis, e.g., the variation in phytohormones, phytochemicals, and antioxidant levels of seeds after treatment with NTP and PTW. Lastly, we will address the possibility of using plasma in the actual agriculture field and prospects of this technology.
Efficient Removal of Ni(II) from Aqueous Solution by Date Seeds Powder Biosorbent: Adsorption Kinetics, Isotherm and Thermodynamics
Abubakr Elkhaleefa, Ismat H. Ali, Eid I. Brima, A. B. Elhag, Babiker Karama
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Adsorption, date seeds, isotherm, kinetics, thermodynamics
Adsorption investigations in batch approaches were performed to explore the biosorption of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solutions on date seeds powder. The effects of pH, particle size, initial concentration of Ni(II) ions, adsorbent mass, temperature, and contact on the adsorption efficacy were studied. The maximum removal obtained was 90% for an original Ni(II) ion solution concentration of 50 ppm was attained at pH 7 after 30 min and with 0.30 g of an added adsorbent. The four adsorption models, namely Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubinin−Radushkevich (D−R), and Temkin were examined to fit the experimental findings. The adsorption system obeys the Freundlich model. The system was found to follow the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Thermodynamic factors; entropy (ΔS°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and Gibbs free energy (ΔG°) changes were also assessed. Results proved that adsorption of Ni(II) ions is exothermic and spontaneous. Sticking probability value was found to be less than unity, concluding that t... [more]
Evaluation of Volatile Compounds during Ageing with Oak Chips and Oak Barrel of Muscat Ottonel Wine
Anamaria Călugăr, Teodora Emilia Coldea, Carmen Rodica Pop, Tiberia Ioana Pop, Anca Cristina Babeș, Claudiu Ioan Bunea, Mihail Manolache, Emese Gal
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: ageing process, extraction methods, Muscat Ottonel, volatile compounds
The aim of this work was to compare the variations of alcohols compounds in white wine Muscat Ottonel variety aged in the presence of untoasted oak chips, toasted oak chips and untoasted barrel, considering three ageing periods—30, 60, and 90 days. The liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry were used to compare the concentrations of the volatile constituents of Muscat Ottonel wines. A total of 51 volatile compounds were quantified. Alcohols, terpenic and carboxylic acids decreased with ageing time, whereas esters, lactones, and phenolic compounds increased due esterification processes. The chips toast level, method, and duration of ageing, significantly influenced the content of aromatic compounds. Partial least squares regression (PLS-R) clearly discriminated the initial wine and also the wines aged with toasted and untoasted medium. The compounds (alcohols and terpenes) that impart distinctive aroma of Muscat Ottonel were enhanced by untoasted me... [more]
Process Optimization for Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Indonesian Medicinal Plant Extracts
Kartini Kartini, Amarisa Alviani, Dia Anjarwati, Adinda Finna Fanany, Johan Sukweenadhi, Christina Avanti
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Curcuma longa, green synthesis, Orthosiphon stamineus, Phyllanthus niruri, silver nanoparticles
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an interesting metal nanoparticle that can be incorporated into pharmaceutical products, including for diabetic foot ulcers as an antimicrobial agent. Green synthesis of AgNPs using plant extracts has been drawing much attention as it is simple, eco-friendly, stable, and cost-effective. This present study was performed to evaluate the potential of three Indonesian medicinal plant extracts, namely Phyllanthus niruri (PN), Orthosiphon stamineus (OS), and Curcuma longa (CL), as reducing and capping agents in the green synthesis of AgNPs, and to optimize their concentrations. Based on the yields and characteristics of the formed nanoparticles, which were analyzed using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer, particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscope, and X-ray diffractometer, Phyllanthus niruri extract at a concentration of 0.5% was concluded as the best extract in the green synthesis of AgNPs. It is thereby a prospective reducing and capping agent for furth... [more]
Determination of a Bubble Drag Coefficient during the Formation of Single Gas Bubble in Upward Coflowing Liquid
Przemysław Luty, Mateusz Prończuk
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: bubble diameter, bubble formation, concurrently flowing liquid, drag coefficient, force balance
Bubble flow is present in many processes that are the subject of chemical engineering research. Many correlations for determination of the equivalent bubble diameter can be found in the scientific literature. However, there are only few describing the formation of gas bubbles in flowing liquid. Such a phenomenon occurs for instance in airlift apparatuses. Liquid flowing around the gas bubble creates a hydraulic drag force that leads to reduction of the formed bubble diameter. Usually the value of the hydraulic drag coefficient, cD, for bubble formation in the flowing liquid is assumed to be equal to the drag coefficient for bubbles rising in the stagnant liquid, which is far from the reality. Therefore, in this study, to determine the value of the drag coefficient of bubbles forming in flowing liquid, the diameter of the bubbles formed at different liquid velocity was measured using the shadowgraphy method. Using the balance of forces affecting the bubble formed in the coflowing liquid... [more]
Evaluation of the Turbulence Model Influence on the Numerical Simulation of Cavitating Flow with Emphasis on Temperature Effect
Yilin Deng, Jian Feng, Fulai Wan, Xi Shen, Bin Xu
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: cavitating flow, thermal effect, thermosensitive fluid, turbulence model
The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of different turbulence models (k−ε, RNG k−ε, and SST k−ω) on the numerical simulation of cavitating flow in thermosensitive fluid. The filter-based model and density correction method were employed to correct the turbulent viscosity of the three turbulence models. Numerical results obtained were compared to experimental ones which were conducted on the NACA0015 hydrofoil at different temperatures. The applicability of the numerical solutions of different turbulence model was studied in detail. The modified RNG k−ε model has higher accuracy in the calculation of cavitating flow at different temperatures.
Targeting Collagen Type III in Proteinuric Kidney Disease: Informing Drug Potential Using the Jaccard−Tanimoto Index
Michelle Liu, Anoushka Dalvi, Sony Dalapati, Natalia Prakash, Zhijian Hu, Ping Zhou, Kai Jiang, Anthony Pellicano, Itzhak D. Goldberg, Prakash Narayan
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: collagen type III, discovery, drug, glomerulus, kidney, medicine, precision, proteinuria, transcriptomic
Collagenofibrotic glomerulopathy, a collagen type III kidney disease, is associated with proteinuria and accumulation ofcollagen type III in the glomerulus specifically the mesangium and/or capillary walls. The puromcyin aminonucleoside (PAN) nephropathy model was evaluated to examine the relation between COL3A1 mRNA and proteinuria. In Wistar rats administered PAN, a robust increase in proteinuria was accompanied by glomerular hypertrophy and expansion of both the Bowman’s capsule and Bowman’s space. An ~4-fold increase in renal COL3A1 mRNA was observed in the PAN cohort with urine protein exhibiting a direct (r = 0.8) and significant correlation with kidney COL3A1 mRNA level. Both Picrosirius red polarized microscopy and immunohistochemical analysis showed localization of collagen type III to the glomerular mesangium. Gene ontology-driven transcriptomic analysis reveals a robust COL3A1 network in the glomerular compartment.
Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Heavy Crude Oil Samples and Their SARA Fractions with 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Ilfat Rakhmatullin, Sergey Efimov, Vladimir Tyurin, Marat Gafurov, Ameen Al-Muntaser, Mikhail Varfolomeev, Vladimir Klochkov
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: 13C NMR spectroscopy, aromaticity, crude oil, oil fraction, quantitative composition, SARA
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) approaches have unique advantages in the analysis of crude oil because they are non-destructive and provide information on chemical functional groups. Nevertheless, the correctness and effectiveness of NMR techniques for determining saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes (SARA analysis) without oil fractioning are still not clear. In this work we compared the measurements and analysis of high-resolution 13C NMR spectra in B0 ≈ 16.5 T (NMR frequency of 175 MHz) with the results of SARA fractioning for four various heavy oil samples with viscosities ranging from 100 to 50,000 mPa·s. The presence of all major hydrocarbon components both in crude oil and in each of its fractions was established quantitatively using NMR spectroscopy. Contribution of SARA fractions in the aliphatic (10−60 ppm) and aromatic (110−160 ppm) areas of the 13C NMR spectra were identified. Quantitative fractions of aromatic molecules and oil functional groups were determined.... [more]
An Overview of Household Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Iran
Omeid Rahmani, Shahabaldin Rezania, Amin Beiranvand Pour, Shahram M. Aminpour, Mohammad Soltani, Yousef Ghaderpour, Bahareh Oryani
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: CO2 emissions, energy consumption, household, Iran
This review tends to obtain a deeper understanding of the methods used in household energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Iran. Issues relating to energy consumption and CO2 emissions are very complex. This complexity arises from the fact that energy demand and energy consumption in Iran are influenced by many factors, such as income, household size, age, and gender. In Iran, the relevant energy sources mostly include liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity, which are used for different sectors, such as transportation, industry, and residential. This overview looks at both the theories and empirical studies of household energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Iran. Since energy consumption typically results in air pollution, it is often used as an indicator of environmental degradation. Although Iran is recently faced to energy efficiency improvement from all sectors, household energy requirements have been significantly increased. In Iran, a prime motivator ha... [more]
Technical Aspects of Biofuel Production from Different Sources in Malaysia—A Review
Shahabaldin Rezania, Bahareh Oryani, Jinwoo Cho, Farzaneh Sabbagh, Parveen Fatemeh Rupani, Amirreza Talaiekhozani, Negar Rahimi, Majid Lotfi Ghahroud
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: biodiesel, bioethanol, biofuel production, biogas, biohydrogen, Malaysia
Due to the depletion of fossil fuels, biofuel production from renewable sources has gained interest. Malaysia, as a tropical country with huge resources, has a high potential to produce different types of biofuels from renewable sources. In Malaysia, biofuels can be produced from various sources, such as lignocellulosic biomass, palm oil residues, and municipal wastes. Besides, biofuels are divided into two main categories, called liquid (bioethanol and biodiesel) and gaseous (biohydrogen and biogas). Malaysia agreed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 45% by 2030 as they signed the Paris agreement in 2016. Therefore, we reviewed the status and potential of Malaysia as one of the main biofuel producers in the world in recent years. The role of government and existing policies have been discussed to analyze the outlook of the biofuel industries in Malaysia.
Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Improved Design for Profiled Freezing-tube of FSPR
Yin Duan, Chuanxin Rong, Hua Cheng, Haibing Cai, Zongjin Wang, Zhishu Yao
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: freeze-sealing pipe roof method, freezing tube, improved design, numerical simulation, scaled model test, temperature field
The freeze-sealing pipe roof (FSPR) method, which combines the pipe roof method (PRM) with the artificial ground freezing (AGF) method, has been successfully utilized for the first time in the Gongbei Tunnel Project in China. During the construction process, there have been practical problems such as difficulty in welding of the profiled freezing-tube, easy leakage of refrigerant, and working environment pollution, which bring difficulties to the tunnel construction and may affect the further promotion of this new method in the future. To address these problems, a method of placing double circular freezing-tubes on the inner wall of the hollow pipe and wrapped with cement mortar was put forward to replace the welding profiled freezing-tube in the actual project. By designing a scaled model test, the feasibility and freezing effect of this improved design were verified. The corresponding numerical calculation model was established to study the distribution characteristics and difference... [more]
The Effect of Wettability and Flow Rate on Oil Displacement Using Polymer-Coated Silica Nanoparticles: A Microfluidic Study
Mohamed Omran, Salem Akarri, Ole Torsaeter
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: EOR, microfluidics, nano-silica, nanoflooding, nanotechnology, wettability alteration
Polymer-coated silica nanoparticles (PSiNPs) have been experimentally investigated in core- and micro-scale studies for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability and flow rate have a considerable effect on oil displacement in porous media. This work investigates the efficiency of PSiNPs for oil recovery on micro-scale at three wettability states (water-wet, intermediate-wet, and oil-wet). In addition, a cluster mobilization regime is considered in all experiments. A microfluidic approach was utilized to perform flooding experiments with constant experimental settings such as flowrate, pore-structure, initial oil topology, porosity, and permeability. In this study, the wettability of the microfluidic chips was altered to have three states of wettability. Firstly, a micro-scale study (brine-oil-glass system) of each wettability condition effect on flow behavior was conducted via monitoring dynamic changes in the oleic phase. Secondly, the obtained results were used as a basis to understan... [more]
Performance, Emissions, Combustion and Vibration Analysis of a CI Engine Fueled with Coconut and Used Palm Cooking Oil Methyl Ester
Yew Heng Teoh, Heoy Geok How, Navaneetha Krishnan Balakrishnan, Thanh Danh Le, Huu Tho Nguyen
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: coconut, combustion, emissions, non-edible oil, vibration, waste cooking oil
Biodiesels from coconut and palm cooking oil are viable alternatives to diesel fuel due to their environmental sustainability and similar physicochemical properties compared to diesel. In the present study, these fuels were tested separately in a diesel engine by blending with fossil diesel in proportions of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% by volume. Experiments were conducted under a constant brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) of 400 kPa and at 2000 rpm. The results revealed similarities in engine performance, emissions, combustion and engine block vibration for used palm cooking oil methyl ester (UPME) fuel blends and coconut methyl ester (CME) fuel blends. Most blends resulted in slight improvements in brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE). A maximum reduction of 54%, 89% and 16.8% in pollutant emissions of brake specific hydrocarbons (BSHC), brake specific carbon monoxide (BSCO) and brake specific nitrogen oxides (BSNOx), respectively, was observed wit... [more]
Tetracycline Induces the Formation of Biofilm of Bacteria from Different Phases of Wastewater Treatment
Tereza Stachurová, Kateřina Malachová, Jaroslav Semerád, Meta Sterniša, Zuzana Rybková, Sonja Smole Možina
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: biofilm, tetracycline, tetracycline resistance bacteria, tetracycline resistance genes, wastewater treatment plant
The study monitored the effect of tetracycline on bacterial biofilm formation and compared biofilm formation by resistant bacterial strains in different phases of the wastewater treatment process in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The crystal violet staining method was used to evaluate the biofilm formation. Biofilm-related bacterial properties were characterized by hydrophobicity, autoaggregation and motility tests. The relative abundance of tetracycline resistance genes (tetW, tetM, tetO, tetA and tetB) in wastewaters were subsequently quantified using qPCR. The results show that the isolates from the nitrification tank produce biofilm with up to 10 times greater intensity relative to the isolates from the sedimentation tank. In isolates of Aeromonas sp. from the nitrification tank, increased biofilm production in the occurrence of tetracycline from a concentration of 0.03125 µg/mL was observed. The tetW gene showed the highest relative abundance out of all the tested genes. From... [more]
Application of Novel Techniques for Monitoring Quality Changes in Meat and Fish Products during Traditional Processing Processes: Reconciling Novelty and Tradition
Abdo Hassoun, María Guðjónsdóttir, Miguel A. Prieto, Paula Garcia-Oliveira, Jesus Simal-Gandara, Federico Marini, Francesca Di Donato, Angelo Antonio D’Archivio, Alessandra Biancolillo
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: control, curing, drying, Fermentation, muscle foods, preservation, process optimization, spectroscopy
In this review, we summarize the most recent advances in monitoring changes induced in fish and other seafood, and meat and meat products, following the application of traditional processing processes by means of conventional and emerging advanced techniques. Selected examples from the literature covering relevant applications of spectroscopic methods (i.e., visible and near infrared (VIS/NIR), mid-infrared (MIR), Raman, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and fluorescence) will be used to illustrate the topics covered in this review. Although a general reluctance toward using and adopting new technologies in traditional production sectors causes a relatively low interest in spectroscopic techniques, the recently published studies have pointed out that these techniques could be a powerful tool for the non-destructive monitoring and process optimization during the production of muscle food products.
Distributed Optimization for Active Distribution Network Considering the Balance of Multi-Stakeholder
Yang Liu, Sanming Liu, Zhuangzhuang Niu
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: active distribution network, alternating direction method of multipliers, bi-level model, distributed dispatching, multi-stakeholder
Nowadays, distributed power generation is highly valued and fully developed since the energy crisis is worsening. At the same time, the distribution system operator is becoming a new stakeholder to take part in the dispatch of the active distribution network (ADN) with the power market being further reformed. Some new challenges to the dispatching of the ADN are brought by these distribution system operators (DSO), which break the traditional requirement of the lowest operating cost. In this paper, the relationship between the maximum revenue and the minimum operating cost of the ADN is fully considered, and the model of the bi-level distributed ADN considering the benefits and privacy protection of multi-stakeholder is established precisely. Further, the model is solved by using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) in which the safety and economy of the ADN are fully considered. Finally, the validity of the model and the feasibility of the algorithm are verified by u... [more]
Magnetic Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Decorated with Novel Functionalities: Synthesis and Application as Adsorbents for Lead Removal from Aqueous Medium
Ghadir Hanbali, Shehdeh Jodeh, Othman Hamed, Roland Bol, Bayan Khalaf, Asma Qdemat, Subhi Samhan, Omar Dagdag
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Adsorption, isotherm, kinetics, lead, magnetic multiwall carbon nanotube, thermodynamic
Water pollution is one of the major challenges facing modern society because of industrial development and urban growth. This study is directed towards assessing the use of multiwall carbon nanotube, after derivatization and magnetization, as a new and renewable absorbent, to remove toxic metal ions from waste streams. The adsorbents were prepared by, first oxidation of multiwall carbon nanotube, then derivatizing the oxidized product with hydroxyl amine, hydrazine and amino acid. The adsorbents were characterized by various techniques. The adsorption efficiency of the multiwall carbon nanotube adsorbents toward Pb(II) was investigated. The effect of adsorbent’s dose, temperature, pH, and time on the adsorption efficiency were studied and the adsorption parameters that gave the highest efficiency were determined. The derivatives have unique coordination sites that included amine, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups, which are excellent chelating agents for metal ions. The thermodynamic and k... [more]
Flow and Noise Characteristics of Centrifugal Fan in Low Pressure Environment
Xilong Zhang, Yongliang Zhang, Chenggang Lu
December 22, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: centrifugal fan, negative pressure, noise characteristics, power consumption, sound pressure
The influence of low-pressure environment on centrifugal fan’s flow and noise characteristics was studied experimentally and numerically. A testbed was established to conduct the experimental test on the performance of a centrifugal fan, and the characteristic curve and power consumption curve of the fan under different pressure were obtained. Then the simulation model of the centrifugal fan was established, which was used to simulate the working process of centrifugal fan under different negative pressures. The results showed that the total pressure and static pressure of the fan decrease with the decrease of the ambient pressure. The total and static pressures of the fan under 60 kPa pressure condition decreased by 42.3% and 38.3%, respectively, compared with those of fan under the normal pressure. The main reason for this phenomenon is that the decrease of the environmental pressure leads to the decrease of air density. Besides, with the drop of environmental pressure, the sound pre... [more]
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