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Records with Keyword: Energy Storage
CFD Modeling and Experimental Validation of an Alkaline Water Electrolysis Cell for Hydrogen Production
Jesús Rodríguez, Ernesto Amores
July 26, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: alkaline water electrolysis, CFD analysis, Energy Storage, green hydrogen, numerical simulation, polarization curve, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, void fraction
Although alkaline water electrolysis (AWE) is the most widespread technology for hydrogen production by electrolysis, its electrochemical and fluid dynamic optimization has rarely been addressed simultaneously using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. In this regard, a two-dimensional (2D) CFD model of an AWE cell has been developed using COMSOL® software and then experimentally validated. The model involves transport equations for both liquid and gas phases as well as equations for the electric current conservation. This multiphysics approach allows the model to simultaneously analyze the fluid dynamic and electrochemical phenomena involved in an electrolysis cell. The electrical response was evaluated in terms of polarization curve (voltage vs. current density) at different operating conditions: temperature, electrolyte conductivity, and electrode-diaphragm distance. For all cases, the model fits very well with the experimental data with an error of less than 1% for the po... [more]
How to Power the Energy−Water Nexus: Coupling Desalination and Hydrogen Energy Storage in Mini-Grids with Reversible Solid Oxide Cells
Arianna Baldinelli, Linda Barelli, Gianni Bidini, Giovanni Cinti, Alessandro Di Michele, Francesco Mondi
June 2, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: desalination, electrolysis, Energy Storage, Hydrogen, mini-grids, power-to-gas, renewables, rSOC, sector-coupling, Water
Sustainable Development Goals establish the main challenges humankind is called to tackle to assure equal comfort of living worldwide. Among these, the access to affordable renewable energy and clean water are overriding, especially in the context of developing economies. Reversible Solid Oxide Cells (rSOC) are a pivotal technology for their sector-coupling potential. This paper aims at studying the implementation of such a technology in new concept PV-hybrid energy storage mini-grids with close access to seawater. In such assets, rSOCs have a double useful effect: charge/discharge of the bulk energy storage combined with seawater desalination. Based on the outcomes of an experimental proof-of-concept on a single cell operated with salty water, the operation of the novel mini-grid is simulated throughout a solar year. Simulation results identify the fittest mini-grid configuration in order to achieve energy and environmental optimization, hence scoring a renewable penetration of more t... [more]
Adaptive Control Strategy of Energy Storage System Participating in Primary Frequency Regulation
Chaoxiong Fang, Yuchen Tang, Rong Ye, Zhangsui Lin, Zhenshan Zhu, Buying Wen, Chengtao Ye
September 15, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: drop control, Energy Storage, primary frequency regulation, virtual inertial control
In order to solve the capacity shortage problem in power system frequency regulation caused by large-scale integration of renewable energy, the battery energy storage-assisted frequency regulation is introduced. In this paper, an adaptive control strategy for primary frequency regulation of the energy storage system (ESS) was proposed. The control strategy combined virtual droop control, virtual inertial control, and virtual negative inertial control. The virtual inertial control was used to reduce the frequency change rate, and the virtual droop control was used to reduce the steady-state frequency deviation. The virtual droop control and the virtual inertia control were adopted in the frequency deterioration stage to slow down the frequency drop. While in the frequency recovery stage, the virtual negative inertia control worked together with the virtual droop control to accelerate the frequency recovery. Besides, the coefficients of the control methods were related to the state of ch... [more]
A 140 MW Solar Thermal Plant in Jordan
Wael Al-Kouz, Ahmad Almuhtady, Nidal Abu-Libdeh, Jamal Nayfeh, Alberto Boretti
August 29, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: concentrated solar power, Energy Storage, Jordan, molten salt, solar energy
This paper aims to compute the performances of a smaller version of Solana power plant, with half the solar field, and 1 of 2 turbines in the power cycle, that can be built in Amman or Ma’an in Jordan. The climate conditions for both Amman and Ma’an are discussed thoroughly in the paper. Furthermore, a preliminary validation exercise performed by using measured monthly average values of electricity production from existing plants, a system advisor model (SAM) is used to predict the performances of the proposed Solana-like plants in Ma’an and Amman. The validation shows a good agreement with the measured data for different existing power plants. The simulation results including the monthly capacity factors suggest the annual operation in Ma’an maybe even better than the operation in Gila Bend, for an annual average capacity factor of about 41% for Ma’an vs. a capacity factor of about 39% for Gila Bend. This is mainly due to the best combination of direct normal irradiance (DNI) and the... [more]
Proactive Energy Optimization in Residential Buildings with Weather and Market Forecasts
Cody R. Simmons, Joshua R. Arment, Kody M. Powell, John D. Hedengren
January 7, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: dynamic optimization, Energy Storage, forecast, HEMS, home energy optimization, Model Predictive Control, moving horizon estimation, solar generation, thermal modeling
This work explores the development of a home energy management system (HEMS) that uses weather and market forecasts to optimize the usage of home appliances and to manage battery usage and solar power production. A Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE) application is used to find the unknown home model parameters. These parameters are then updated in a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) which optimizes and balances competing comfort and economic objectives. Combining MHE and MPC applications alleviates model complexity commonly seen in HEMS by using a lumped parameter model that is adapted to fit a high-fidelity model. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) on/off behaviors are simulated by using Mathematical Program with Complementarity Constraints (MPCCs) and solved in near real time with a non-linear solver. Removing HVAC on/off as a discrete variable and replacing it with an MPCC reduces solve time. The results of this work indicate that energy management optimization significa... [more]
Using Real-Time Electricity Prices to Leverage Electrical Energy Storage and Flexible Loads in a Smart Grid Environment Utilizing Machine Learning Techniques
Moataz Sheha, Kody Powell
January 2, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: artificial neural networks, duck curve, dynamic real-time optimization, Energy Storage, Machine Learning, real-time pricing, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, smart grid, smart houses, solar energy
With exposure to real-time market pricing structures, consumers would be incentivized to invest in electrical energy storage systems and smart predictive automation of their home energy systems. Smart home automation through optimizing HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) temperature set points, along with distributed energy storage, could be utilized in the process of optimizing the operation of the electric grid. Using electricity prices as decision variables to leverage electrical energy storage and flexible loads can be a valuable tool to optimize the performance of the power grid and reduce electricity costs both on the supply and demand sides. Energy demand prediction is important for proper allocation and utilization of the available resources. Manipulating energy prices to leverage storage and flexible loads through these demand prediction models is a novel idea that needs to be studied. In this paper, different models for proactive prediction of the energy demand... [more]
Optimal Expansion Co-Planning of Reconfigurable Electricity and Natural Gas Distribution Systems Incorporating Energy Hubs
Xianzheng Zhou, Chuangxin Guo, Yifei Wang, Wanqi Li
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: electricity and natural gas distribution systems, energy hub, Energy Storage, expansion planning, multi-energy systems, reconfiguration
In a carbon-constrained world, natural gas with low emission intensity plays an important role in the energy consumption area. Energy consumers and distribution networks are linked via energy hubs. Meanwhile, reconfiguration that optimizes operational performance while maintaining a radial network topology is a worldwide technique in the electricity distribution system. To improve the overall efficiency of energy infrastructure, the expansion of electricity distribution lines and elements within energy hubs should be co-planned. In this paper, the co-planning process is modeled as a mixed integer quadratic programming problem to handle conflicting objectives simultaneously. We propose a novel model to identify the optimal co-expansion plan in terms of total cost. Operational factors including energy storages and reconfiguration are considered within the systems to serve electricity, cooling and heating loads. Reconfiguration and elements in energy hubs can avoid or defer new elements’... [more]
Designing and Testing Composite Energy Storage Systems for Regulating the Outputs of Linear Wave Energy Converters
Zanxiang Nie, Xi Xiao, Pritesh Hiralal, Xuanrui Huang, Richard McMahon, Min Zhang, Weijia Yuan
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Storage, linear machine, power conversion, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Wave Energy
Linear wave energy converters generate intrinsically intermittent power with variable frequency and amplitude. A composite energy storage system consisting of batteries and super capacitors has been developed and controlled by buck-boost converters. The purpose of the composite energy storage system is to handle the fluctuations and intermittent characteristics of the renewable source, and hence provide a steady output power. Linear wave energy converters working in conjunction with a system composed of various energy storage devices, is considered as a microsystem, which can function in a stand-alone or a grid connected mode. Simulation results have shown that by applying a boost H-bridge and a composite energy storage system more power could be extracted from linear wave energy converters. Simulation results have shown that the super capacitors charge and discharge often to handle the frequent power fluctuations, and the batteries charge and discharge slowly for handling the intermit... [more]
Dynamic Exergy Analysis for the Thermal Storage Optimization of the Building Envelope
Valentina Bonetti, Georgios Kokogiannakis
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: building envelope, dynamic exergy analysis, Energy Storage
As a measure of energy “quality”, exergy is meaningful for comparing the potential for thermal storage. Systems containing the same amount of energy could have considerably different capabilities in matching a demand profile, and exergy measures this difference. Exergy stored in the envelope of buildings is central in sustainability because the environment could be an unlimited source of energy if its interaction with the envelope is optimised for maintaining the indoor conditions within comfort ranges. Since the occurring phenomena are highly fluctuating, a dynamic exergy analysis is required; however, dynamic exergy modelling is complex and has not hitherto been implemented in building simulation tools. Simplified energy and exergy assessments are presented for a case study in which thermal storage determines the performance of seven different wall types for utilising nocturnal ventilation as a passive cooling strategy. Hourly temperatures within the walls are obtained with the ESP-r... [more]
Enhanced Lifetime Cathode for Alkaline Electrolysis Using Standard Commercial Titanium Nitride Coatings
William J. F. Gannon, Daniel R. Jones, Charles W. Dunnill
June 18, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: alkaline electrolysis, Energy Storage, stainless steel, titanium nitride
The use of hydrogen gas as a means of decoupling supply from demand is crucial for the transition to carbon-neutral energy sources and a greener, more distributed energy landscape. This work shows how simple commercially available titanium nitride coatings can be used to extend the lifetime of 316 grade stainless-steel electrodes for use as the cathode in an alkaline electrolysis cell. The material was subjected to accelerated ageing, with the specific aim of assessing the coating’s suitability for use with intermittent renewable energy sources. Over 2000 cycles lasting 5.5 days, an electrolytic cell featuring the coating outperformed a control cell by 250 mV, and a reduction of overpotential at the cathode of 400 mV was observed. This work also confirms that the coating is solely suitable for cathodic use and presents an analysis of the surface changes that occur if it is used anodically.
Robust Scheduling Optimization Model for Multi-Energy Interdependent System Based on Energy Storage Technology and Ground-Source Heat Pump
Zhongfu Tan, Hongwu Guo, Hongyu Lin, Qingkun Tan, Shenbo Yang, De Gejirifu, Liwei Ju, Xueying Song
April 15, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: distributed energy, Energy Storage, ground-source heat pump, PSO algorithm, robust scheduling optimization
The energy consumed by buildings makes up a significant part of total social energy consumption. The energy use rate of the traditional cooling and heating unit is low. A distributed cooling, heating, and power (CHP) system can achieve cascade use of energy and reduce the long-distance transportation of energy. Along with the wide use of ground-source heat pumps and energy storage technology, the combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) system coupled with a ground-source heat pump and energy storage technology is increasingly being used. Firstly, we proposed the construction of a CCHP system driven by distributed energy resources (DERs) including three subsystems of an electricity subsystem, a CCHP subsystem and an auxiliary heating subsystem as the object of study in this paper. Besides, with the goals of reducing carbon emissions, increasing energy efficiency, and minimizing system cost, a constraint mechanism based on the DOM-PSO (dynamic object method/particle swarm optimizatio... [more]
A Hybrid Modular Multilevel Converter with Partial Embedded Energy Storage
Georgios Konstantinou, Josep Pou, Daniel Pagano, Salvador Ceballos
February 27, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Storage, hybrid multilevel converters, modular multilevel converter (MMC), multilevel converters
Modular and cascaded multilevel converters provide a functional solution for the integration of energy storage systems (ESSs). This paper develops a hybrid multilevel converter based on the modular multilevel converter (MMC) that can be functionally extended with partial embedded ESS as a fraction of the overall converter power rating. The configuration, which can operate as a typical DC-AC converter, enables multi-directional power flow between the DC- and AC-side of the converter, as well as the embedded energy storage elements. The use of a three-phase flying-capacitor submodule eliminates the second-order harmonic oscillations present in modular cascaded multilevel converters. Current, voltage and power control are discussed in the paper while simulation results illustrate the operation of the hybrid MMC as a DC-AC converter in a typical inverter application and the additional functions and control of the embedded ESS.
Linearization and Control of Series-Series Compensated Inductive Power Transfer System Based on Extended Describing Function Concept
Kunwar Aditya, Sheldon Williamson
February 5, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: and transportation, chargers, Energy Storage, inductive energy storage, power electronics, resonant power conversion
The extended describing function (EDF) is a well-known method for modelling resonant converters due to its high accuracy. However, it requires complex mathematical formulation effort. This paper presents a simplified non-linear mathematical model of series-series (SS) compensated inductive power transfer (IPT) system, considering zero-voltage switching in the inverter. This simplified mathematical model permits the user to derive the small-signal model using the EDF method, with less computational effort, while maintaining the accuracy of an actual physical model. The derived model has been verified using a frequency sweep method in PLECS. The small-signal model has been used to design the voltage loop controller for a SS compensated IPT system. The designed controller was implemented on a 3.6 kW experimental setup, to test its robustness.
McMaster University Course Lectures in Energy Systems Engineering
Thomas Alan Adams II
December 17, 2018 (v1)
Lecture slides from the Fall 2018 CHEM ENG 4A03/6A03 Energy System Engineering course at McMaster University are attached. Energy Systems Engineering is a survey course that discusses many ways in which energy products are produced, transported, converted, and consumed in our society today. The lectures correspond to two 50-minute lectures a week for 13 weeks (some slide decks take 2 or 3 lectures to complete). The course cannot cover all energy systems of course, but focus mostly on large-scale or common processes either in use today or currently in development and research. The course takes a chemical engineering perspective so more attention is paid to processes and thermochemical phenomena and less attention is paid to issues related to mechanical engineering or electrical engineering, although there is some intersection.

The lecture slides include the following topics:

1.1. Life Cycle Analysis (basic review)
1.2. Key Metrics in Energy Systems
2.1. Coal Production
2.2. Nat... [more]
Development of Integrally Molded Bipolar Plates for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries
Chih-Hsun Chang, Han-Wen Chou, Ning-Yih Hsu, Yong-Song Chen
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRBs), bipolar plate (BP), Energy Storage, injection molding
All-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs) are potential energy storage systems for renewable power sources because of their flexible design, deep discharge capacity, quick response time, and long cycle life. To minimize the energy loss due to the shunt current, in a traditional design, a flow field is machined on two electrically insulated frames with a graphite plate in between. A traditional bipolar plate (BP) of a VRB consists of many components, and thus, the assembly process is time consuming. In this study, an integrally molded BP is designed and fabricated to minimize the manufacturing cost. First, the effects of the mold design and injection parameters on frame formability were analyzed by simulation. Second, a new graphite plate design for integral molding was proposed, and finally, two integrally molded BPs were fabricated and compared. Results show that gate position significantly affects air traps and the maximum volume shrinkage occurs at the corners of a BP. The volume shr... [more]
An Actuator Control Unit for Safety-Critical Mechatronic Applications with Embedded Energy Storage Backup
Sergio Saponara
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: actuator control unit (ACU), automotive electric actuators, biomedical robotics, Energy Storage, ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) for power systems, mechatronics, power electronics and components
This paper presents an actuator control unit (ACU) with a 450-J embedded energy storage backup to face safety critical mechatronic applications. The idea is to ensure full operation of electric actuators, even in the case of battery failure, by using supercapacitors as a local energy tank. Thanks to integrated switching converter circuitry, the supercapacitors provide the required voltage and current levels for the required time to guarantee actuator operation until the system enters into safety mode. Experimental results are presented for a target application related to the control of servomotors for a robotized prosthetic arm. Mechatronic devices for rehabilitation or assisted living of injured and/or elderly people are available today. In most cases, they are battery powered with lithium-based cells, providing high energy density and low weight, but at the expense of a reduced robustness compared to lead-acid- or nickel-based battery cells. The ACU of this work ensures full operatio... [more]
Distributed Renewable Generation and Storage System Sizing Based on Smart Dispatch of Microgrids
Raji Atia, Noboru Yamada
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: demand response (DR), distributed power generation, energy management, Energy Storage, microgrid (MG), Optimization
This paper considers the contribution of independent owners (IOs) operating within microgrids (MGs) toward green power generation in deregulated energy markets. An optimization scheme is introduced for sizing distributed renewable generation (DRG) and a distributed energy storage system (DESS) based on a novel energy management system (EMS) that accounts for demand response (DR), DESS dispatch and performance degradation, dynamic pricing environments, power distribution loss and irregular renewable generation. The proposed EMS utilizes an iterative Newton-Raphson linear programming algorithm that schedules resources in order to minimize the objective function, to deal with the complicated nonlinear nature of the problem and to enable efficient long-term assessments. The EMS is used to evaluate candidate solutions that are generated by a genetic algorithm (GA) to determine the optimal combination of DRG and DESS. A case study for IEEE 34-bus distribution MG in Okinawa, Japan, is used fo... [more]
Optimal Power Management Strategy for Energy Storage with Stochastic Loads
Stefano Pietrosanti, William Holderbaum, Victor M. Becerra
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Storage, flywheel, Optimization, power management, RTG crane, stochastic loads
In this paper, a power management strategy (PMS) has been developed for the control of energy storage in a system subjected to loads of random duration. The PMS minimises the costs associated with the energy consumption of specific systems powered by a primary energy source and equipped with energy storage, under the assumption that the statistical distribution of load durations is known. By including the variability of the load in the cost function, it was possible to define the optimality criteria for the power flow of the storage. Numerical calculations have been performed obtaining the control strategies associated with the global minimum in energy costs, for a wide range of initial conditions of the system. The results of the calculations have been tested on a MATLAB/Simulink model of a rubber tyre gantry (RTG) crane equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and subjected to a test cycle, which corresponds to the real operation of a crane in the Port of Felixstowe. The... [more]
Optimal Component Sizing for Peak Shaving in Battery Energy Storage System for Industrial Applications
Rodrigo Martins, Holger C. Hesse, Johanna Jungbauer, Thomas Vorbuchner, Petr Musilek
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Storage, linear programming, battery aging modelling, lithium-ion battery, peak-shaving, Technoeconomic Analysis
Recent attention to industrial peak shaving applications sparked an increased interest in battery energy storage. Batteries provide a fast and high power capability, making them an ideal solution for this task. This work proposes a general framework for sizing of battery energy storage system (BESS) in peak shaving applications. A cost-optimal sizing of the battery and power electronics is derived using linear programming based on local demand and billing scheme. A case study conducted with real-world industrial profiles shows the applicability of the approach as well as the return on investment dependence on the load profile. At the same time, the power flow optimization reveals the best storage operation patterns considering a trade-off between energy purchase, peak-power tariff, and battery aging. This underlines the need for a general mathematical optimization approach to efficiently tackle the challenge of peak shaving using an energy storage system. The case study also compares t... [more]
Complex Heat Pump Operational Mode Identification and Comparison for Use in Electric Vehicles
James Jeffs, Andrew McGordon, Alessandro Picarelli, Simon Robinson, Yashraj Tripathy, Widanalage Dhammika Widanage
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: electric vehicles, energy flow, Energy Storage, heat, heat pumps
Previous research has focused on the use of heat pumps in electric vehicles, with the focus on recuperating heat from, normally, ambient and one thermal source on the vehicle. Here 5 potential thermal sources on a vehicle have been identified and thorough testing on the benefit of each source has been performed. The results presented suggest the motor, a thermal storage device, and cabin exhaust extraction should be used >80% of the time according to the scenarios tested, while battery heating and transmission heat extraction should be used subject to conditions on the ambient temperature and drive cycle.
Direct Steam Generation Concentrated Solar Power Plant with a Decalin/Naphthalene Thermochemical Storage System
Haoxiang Lai, Thomas A. Adams II
November 20, 2018 (v2)
This study presents the design and analysis of a new integrated direct steam generation (DSG) concentrated solar power (CSP) plant with a decalin/naphthalene thermochemical storage system. Model simulations were performed in accordance to historical hourly solar radiation data over a year, using a combination of Aspen Plus v10, MATLAB 2016b, and Microsoft Excel VBA. It was found that the proposed plant feasibly stored and discharged energy, based on the solar radiation and chemical storage availability, to maintain base-load power productions (250 MW or 120 MW) with an overall efficiency of 14.6%. The effectiveness of the designed storage system was found to be comparable to a molten salt storage system which is currently used in existing CSP plants. The proposed integrated DSG CSP plant with a decalin/naphthalene thermochemical storage system shows promise for being an alternative to existing CSP plants.
Direct Steam Generation Concentrated Solar Power Plant with a Decalin/Naphthalene Thermochemical Storage System
Haoxiang Lai, Thomas A. Adams II
June 12, 2018 (v1)
This study presents the design and analysis of a new integrated direct steam generation (DSG) concentrated solar power (CSP) plant with a decalin/naphthalene thermochemical storage system. Model simulations were performed in accordance to historical hourly solar radiation data over a year, using a combination of Aspen Plus v10, MATLAB 2016b, and Microsoft Excel VBA. It was found that the proposed plant feasibly stored and discharged energy, based on the solar radiation and chemical storage availability, to maintain base-load power productions (250 MW or 120 MW) with an overall efficiency of 14.6%. The effectiveness of the designed storage system was found to be comparable to a molten salt storage system which is currently used in existing CSP plants. The proposed integrated DSG CSP plant with a decalin/naphthalene thermochemical storage system shows promise for being an alternative to existing CSP plants.
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