Records with Keyword: Energy Storage
Showing records 1 to 25 of 205. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Lyapunov-Function-Based Feedback Linearization Control Strategy of Modular Multilevel Converter−Bidirectional DC−DC Converter for Vessel Integrated Power Systems
Peng Chen, Jilong Liu, Fei Xiao, Zhichao Zhu, Zhaojie Huang
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: DC distribution, Energy Storage, feedback linearization, integrated power system, Lyapunov function
The modular multilevel converter−bidirectional DC−DC converter (MMC−BDC) has been proposed to be utilized in the vessel integrated power system to interconnect the medium voltage bus and the distributed energy storage elements. In the shipboard applications, MMC−BDC faces unbalanced sub-module power operation because of the inconsistent state-of-charge (SOC) of the energy storage elements. Researchers have investigated into the unbalanced operation principle of MMC−BDC and proposed some unbalanced operation control strategies, but these traditional strategies do not perform well in both aspects of operating range and efficiency. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel Lyapunov-function-based feedback linearization control strategy for the independent sub-module voltage control of MMC−BDC, which not only shows wide unbalanced operation range and high efficiency, but also realizes the decoupling and symmetrical control of the sub-module capacitor voltages.
Dynamic Cost-Optimal Assessment of Complementary Diurnal Electricity Storage Capacity in High PV Penetration Grid
Samuel Matthew G. Dumlao, Keiichi N. Ishihara
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: cost-optimal, diurnal storage, Energy Storage, generation cost, growth trajectory, high PV penetration, Optimization, scenario analysis, solar curtailment
Solar Photovoltaics (PV) is seen as one of the renewable energy technologies that could help reduce the world’s dependence on fossil fuels. However, since it is dependent on the sun, it can only generate electricity in the daytime, and this restriction is exacerbated in electricity grids with high PV penetration, where solar energy must be curtailed due to the mismatch between supply and demand. This study conducts a techno-economic analysis to present the cost-optimal storage growth trajectory that could support the dynamic integration of solar PV within a planning horizon. A methodology for cost-optimal assessment that incorporates hourly simulation, Monte Carlo random sampling, and a proposed financial assessment is presented. This approach was tested in Japan’s southernmost region since it is continuously increasing its solar capacity and is at the precipice of high PV curtailment scenario. The results show the existence of a cost-optimal storage capacity growth trajectory that bal... [more]
Parametric Study of a Long-Duration Energy Storage Using Pumped-Hydro and Carbon Dioxide Transcritical Cycles
Paul Byrne, Pascal Lalanne
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, Energy Storage, global warming potential, heat pump, lined rock cavern, PTES, pumped hydro, round-trip efficiency, thermal engine, thermo-electrical storage, underground pumped hydro
The urgent energy transition needs a better penetration of renewable energy in the world’s energy mix. The intermittency of renewables requires the use of longer-term storage. The present system uses water displacement, in a lined rock cavern or in an aerial pressurised vessel, as the virtual piston of compressor and expander functions in a carbon dioxide heat pump cycle (HPC) and in an organic transcritical cycle (OTC). Within an impermeable membrane, carbon dioxide is compressed and expanded by filling and emptying pumped-hydro water. Carbon dioxide exchanges heat with two atmospheric thermal storage pits. The hot fluid and ice pits are charged by the HPC when renewable energy becomes available and discharged by the OTC when electricity is needed. A numerical model was built to replicate the system’s losses and to calculate its round-trip efficiency (RTE). A subsequent parametric study highlights key parameters for sizing and optimisation. With an expected RTE of around 70%, this CO2... [more]
Review on the Status of the Research on Power-to-Gas Experimental Activities
Andrea Barbaresi, Mirko Morini, Agostino Gambarotta
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Storage, Hydrogen, methanation, power-to-gas, project overview, smart energy systems
In recent years, power-to-gas technologies have been gaining ground and are increasingly proving their reliability. The possibility of implementing long-term energy storage and that of being able to capture and utilize carbon dioxide are currently too important to be ignored. However, systems of this type are not yet experiencing extensive realization in practice. In this study, an overview of the experimental research projects and the research and development activities that are currently part of the power-to-gas research line is presented. By means of a bibliographical and sitographical analysis, it was possible to identify the characteristics of these projects and their distinctive points. In addition, the main research targets distinguishing these projects are presented. This provides an insight into the research direction in this regard, where a certain technological maturity has been achieved and where there is still work to be done. The projects found and analyzed amount to 87,... [more]
Feedback Control Strategy for Transient Stability Application
Samuel T. Ojetola, Josh Wold, Daniel Trudnowski
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Storage, power system control, power system stability, transient analysis, wide area measurements
Power systems are subjected to a wide range of disturbances during daily operations. Severe disturbances, such as a loss of a large generator, a three-phase bolted fault on a generator bus, or a loss of a transmission line, can lead to the loss of synchronism of a generator or group of generators. The ability of a power system to maintain synchronism during the few seconds after being subjected to a severe disturbance is known as transient stability. Most of the modern methods of controlling transient stability involve special protection schemes or remedial action schemes. These special protection schemes sense predetermined system conditions and take corrective actions, such as generator tripping or generation re-dispatch, in real time to maintain transient stability. Another method is the use of a real-time feedback control system to modulate the output of an actuator in response to a signal. This paper provides a fundamental evaluation of the use of feedback control strategies to im... [more]
Underground Storage of Green Hydrogen—Boundary Conditions for Compressor Systems
Heinz Bekebrok, Hendrik Langnickel, Adam Pluta, Marco Zobel, Alexander Dyck
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: compressor, Energy Storage, Hydrogen, hydrogen infrastructure, salt cavern, storage demand profile, underground storage
The large-scale storage of hydrogen in salt caverns, modelled on today’s natural gas storage, is a promising approach to storing renewable energy over a large power range and for the required time period. An essential subsystem of the overall gas storage is the surface facility and, in particular, the compressor system. The future design of compressor systems for hydrogen storage strongly depends on the respective boundary conditions. Therefore, this work analyses the requirements of compressor systems for cavern storage facilities for the storage of green hydrogen, i.e., hydrogen produced from renewable energy sources, using the example of Lower Saxony in Germany. In this course, a hydrogen storage demand profile of one year is developed in hourly resolution from feed-in time series of renewable energy sources. The injection profile relevant for compressor operation is compared with current natural gas injection operation modes.
Transition to Renewable Energy for Communities: Energy Storage Requirements and Dissipation
Efstathios E. Michaelides
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: dissipation, duck curve, Energy Storage, hydrogen storage, irradiance, microgrid, residential community, wind energy
The transition of residential communities to renewable energy sources is one of the first steps for the decarbonization of the energy sector, the reduction of CO2 emissions, and the mitigation of global climate change. This study provides information for the development of a microgrid, supplied by wind and solar energy, which meets the hourly energy demand of a community of 10,000 houses in the North Texas region; hydrogen is used as the energy storage medium. The results are presented for two cases: (a) when the renewable energy sources supply only the electricity demand of the community, and (b) when these sources provide the electricity as well as the heating needs (for space heating and hot water) of the community. The results show that such a community can be decarbonized with combinations of wind and solar installations. The energy storage requirements are between 2.7 m3 per household and 2.2 m3 per household. There is significant dissipation in the storage−regeneration processes... [more]
Techno-Economic Analysis of Low Carbon Hydrogen Production from Offshore Wind Using Battolyser Technology
Brian Jenkins, David Squires, John Barton, Dani Strickland, K. G. U. Wijayantha, James Carroll, Jonathan Wilson, Matthew Brenton, Murray Thomson
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: battolyser, electrolysis, Energy Storage, NPV, stochastic modelling, wind generation
A battolyser is a combined battery electrolyser in one unit. It is based on flow battery technology and can be adapted to produce hydrogen at a lower efficiency than an electrolyser but without the need for rare and expensive materials. This paper presents a method of determining if a battolyser connected to a wind farm makes economic sense based on stochastic modelling. A range of cost data and operational scenarios are used to establish the impact on the NPV and LCOE of adding a battolyser to a wind farm. The results are compared to adding a battery or an electrolyser to a wind farm. Indications are that it makes economic sense to add a battolyser or battery to a wind farm to use any curtailed wind with calculated LCOE at £56/MWh to £58/MWh and positive NPV over a range of cost scenarios. However, electrolysers, are still too expensive to make economic sense.
How Does the Electricity Demand Profile Impact the Attractiveness of PV-Coupled Battery Systems Combining Applications?
Alejandro Pena-Bello, Edward Barbour, Marta C. Gonzalez, Selin Yilmaz, Martin K. Patel, David Parra
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: battery, clustering, combination of applications, Energy Storage, lithium-ion, load profile, PV
Energy storage is a key solution to supply renewable electricity on demand and in particular batteries are becoming attractive for consumers who install PV panels. In order to minimize their electricity bill and keep the grid stable, batteries can combine applications. The daily match between PV supply and the electricity load profile is often considered as a determinant for the attractiveness of residential PV-coupled battery systems, however, the previous literature has so far mainly focused on the annual energy balance. In this paper, we analyze the techno-economic impact of adding a battery system to a new PV system that would otherwise be installed on its own, for different residential electricity load profiles in Geneva (Switzerland) and Austin (U.S.) using lithium-ion batteries performing various consumer applications, namely PV self-consumption, demand load-shifting, avoidance of PV curtailment, and demand peak shaving, individually and jointly. We employ clustering of the hous... [more]
A Hybrid vs. On-Grid Photovoltaic System: Multicriteria Analysis of Environmental, Economic, and Technical Aspects in Life Cycle Perspective
Agnieszka Żelazna, Justyna Gołębiowska, Agata Zdyb, Artur Pawłowski
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: BCR, DGC, Energy Storage, greenhouse gas emission, hybrid PV system, LCA, multicriteria analysis, photovoltaics, reliability
Hybrid photovoltaic installations, defined as on-grid PV system in cooperation with battery energy storage system (BESS), are still rare among the typical investors because the investment cost of the hybrid installation is significantly higher than the one of the on-grid system. However, while considering the broader perspective, such as environmental or technological aspects, the mentioned solution can be competitive with photovoltaic on-grid systems and therefore should be carefully tested in the widest possible context. In this study, the authors compared 3.05 kW of peak power hybrid and on-grid installations operating in temperate climate conditions (Eastern Poland) using economic indicators, such as dynamic generation cost (DGC) and benefit−cost rate (BCR); environmental impact indicators (IMPACT 2002+ and GWP 100a) determined using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); and technological aspects consideration, including the reliability of examined systems. Creating a ranking of the conside... [more]
Control System Development for the Three-Ports ANPC Converter
Silvio Antonio Teston, Kaio Vinicius Vilerá, Marcello Mezaroba, Cassiano Rech
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: active neutral-point-clamped (ANPC) converter, control system, distributed power generation, Energy Storage, integrated secondary DC port, low-frequency current ripple
This paper proposes a control system for the single-phase Three-Ports Active Neutral- Point-Clamped (ANPC-3P) converter, which can inject a sinusoidal current into the grid, balance the neutral point voltage, and regulate the energy storage system (ESS) current with reduced low-frequency ripple. Despite other applications, ANPC-3P inverter can be used in grid-tied renewable generation to allow the simultaneous connection of a photovoltaic (PV) energy source and an ESS to the AC grid. The ESS is connected directly to the inverter circuit without any auxiliary DC-DC converter, but due to the DC bus pulsed power, it can be subjected to low-frequency current ripple. This undesired current ripple is difficult to filter and can lead to shorter battery life. A control system based on well-known controllers is analyzed and designed. Theoretical analysis is validated experimentally using a single-phase 1-kW prototype.
Life-Cycle Carbon Emissions and Energy Return on Investment for 80% Domestic Renewable Electricity with Battery Storage in California (U.S.A.)
Marco Raugei, Alessio Peluso, Enrica Leccisi, Vasilis Fthenakis
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: California, Energy Storage, energy transition, EROI, grid mix, hourly data, life cycle assessment, lithium-ion battery, net energy analysis, photovoltaic
This paper presents a detailed life-cycle assessment of the greenhouse gas emissions, cumulative demand for total and non-renewable primary energy, and energy return on investment (EROI) for the domestic electricity grid mix in the U.S. state of California, using hourly historical data for 2018, and future projections of increased solar photovoltaic (PV) installed capacity with lithium-ion battery energy storage, so as to achieve 80% net renewable electricity generation in 2030, while ensuring the hourly matching of the supply and demand profiles at all times. Specifically—in line with California’s plans that aim to increase the renewable energy share into the electric grid—in this study, PV installed capacity is assumed to reach 43.7 GW in 2030, resulting of 52% of the 2030 domestic electricity generation. In the modelled 2030 scenario, single-cycle gas turbines and nuclear plants are completely phased out, while combined-cycle gas turbine output is reduced by 30% compared to 2018. Re... [more]
Economic Comparison Between a Stand-Alone and a Grid Connected PV System vs. Grid Distance
Concettina Marino, Antonino Nucara, Maria Francesca Panzera, Matilde Pietrafesa, Alfredo Pudano
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: emission reduction, Energy Storage, net present value, PV systems configurations, renewable energy sources
The limitation of fossil fuel uses and GHG (greenhouse gases) emissions reduction are two of the main objectives of the European energy policy and global agreements that aim to contain climate changes. To this end, the building sector, responsible for important energy consumption rates, requires a significant improvement of its energetic performance, an obtainable increase of its energy efficiency and the use of renewable sources. Within this framework, in this study, we analysed the economic feasibility of a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) plant, dimensioned in two configurations with decreasing autonomy. Their Net Present Value at the end of their life span was compared with that of the same plant in both grid-connected and storage-on-grid configurations, as well as being compared with a grid connection without PV. The analysis confirms that currently, for short distances from the grid, the most suitable PV configuration is the grid-connected one, but also that the additional use of a... [more]
Net Present Value Analysis of a Hybrid Gas Engine-Energy Storage System in the Balancing Mechanism
Farhad Anvari-Azar, Dani Strickland, Neil Filkin, Harry Townshend
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: balancing mechanism, energy management, Energy Storage, gas engines, NPV
There is the potential for hybridised gas engine-energy storage systems to participate in the Balancing Mechanism (BM) by offering a product that marries the advantages of both units. The higher price offerings are currently dominated by pumped storage (PS) assets. Given their high-flexibility, PS plants mostly offer at higher prices, but respond quicker and can run for a smaller minimum run time than a gas engine on its own. The operation of the hybrid system must match the operation of the pumped storage plants, to be able to claim a space in this part of the BM market including meeting a minimum run time and minimum start time. The business case is dependent on battery costs which in turn depend on size and operational strategy. This paper uses a case study approach to estimate Net Present Value of a hybrid system. The paper uses a mixture of publicly available data and industrially provided data within its analysis. The paper concludes that battery cost and lifespan are still issue... [more]
A Comprehensive Review on Energy Storage Systems: Types, Comparison, Current Scenario, Applications, Barriers, and Potential Solutions, Policies, and Future Prospects
Eklas Hossain, Hossain Mansur Resalat Faruque, Md. Samiul Haque Sunny, Naeem Mohammad, Nafiu Nawar
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: applications, barriers, classification, Energy Storage, intermittency mitigation, policies, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Driven by global concerns about the climate and the environment, the world is opting for renewable energy sources (RESs), such as wind and solar. However, RESs suffer from the discredit of intermittency, for which energy storage systems (ESSs) are gaining popularity worldwide. Surplus energy obtained from RESs can be stored in several ways, and later utilized during periods of intermittencies or shortages. The idea of storing excess energy is not new, and numerous researches have been conducted to adorn this idea with innovations and improvements. This review is a humble attempt to assemble all the available knowledge on ESSs to benefit novice researchers in this field. This paper covers all core concepts of ESSs, including its evolution, elaborate classification, their comparison, the current scenario, applications, business models, environmental impacts, policies, barriers and probable solutions, and future prospects. This elaborate discussion on energy storage systems will act as a... [more]
Underground Pumped-Storage Hydropower (UPSH) at the Martelange Mine (Belgium): Underground Reservoir Hydraulics
Vasileios Kitsikoudis, Pierre Archambeau, Benjamin Dewals, Estanislao Pujades, Philippe Orban, Alain Dassargues, Michel Pirotton, Sebastien Erpicum
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Storage, numerical modeling, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, underground pumped storage hydropower, water transients
The intermittent nature of most renewable energy sources requires their coupling with an energy storage system, with pumped storage hydropower (PSH) being one popular option. However, PSH cannot always be constructed due to topographic, environmental, and societal constraints, among others. Underground pumped storage hydropower (UPSH) has recently gained popularity as a viable alternative and may utilize abandoned mines for the construction of the lower reservoir in the underground. Such underground mines may have complex geometries and the injection/pumping of large volumes of water with high discharge could lead to uneven water level distribution over the underground reservoir subparts. This can temporarily influence the head difference between the upper and lower reservoirs of the UPSH, thus affecting the efficiency of the plant or inducing structural stability problems. The present study considers an abandoned slate mine in Martelange in Southeast Belgium as the lower, underground,... [more]
Exergo-Economic and Environmental Analysis of a Solar Integrated Thermo-Electric Storage
Daniele Fiaschi, Giampaolo Manfrida, Karolina Petela, Federico Rossi, Adalgisa Sinicropi, Lorenzo Talluri
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Energy Storage, exergo-economic, exergo-environmental, LCA, solar energy, TEES
Renewable energies are often subject to stochastic resources and daily cycles. Energy storage systems are consequently applied to provide a solution for the mismatch between power production possibility and its utilization period. In this study, a solar integrated thermo-electric energy storage (S-TEES) is analyzed both from an economic and environmental point of view. The analyzed power plant with energy storage includes three main cycles, a supercritical CO2 power cycle, a heat pump and a refrigeration cycle, indirectly connected by sensible heat storages. The hot reservoir is pressurized water at 120/160 °C, while the cold reservoir is a mixture of water and ethylene glycol, maintained at −10/−20 °C. Additionally, the power cycle’s evaporator section rests on a solar-heated intermediate temperature (95/40 °C) heat reservoir. Exergo-economic and exergo-environmental analyses are performed to identify the most critical components of the system and to obtain the levelized cost of elect... [more]
Life Cycle Assessment of Classic and Innovative Batteries for Solar Home Systems in Europe
Federico Rossi, Maria Laura Parisi, Sarah Greven, Riccardo Basosi, Adalgisa Sinicropi
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Batteries, Energy Storage, LCA, photovoltaic, smart grids, solar energy
This paper presents an environmental sustainability assessment of residential user-scale energy systems, named solar home systems, encompassing their construction, operation, and end of life. The methodology adopted is composed of three steps, namely a design phase, a simulation of the solar home systems’ performance and a life cycle assessment. The analysis aims to point out the main advantages, features, and challenges of lithium-ion batteries, considered as a benchmark, compared with other innovative devices. As the environmental sustainability of these systems is affected by the solar radiation intensity during the year, a sensitivity analysis is performed varying the latitude of the installation site in Europe. For each site, both isolated and grid-connected solar home systems have been compared considering also the national electricity mix. A general overview of the results shows that, regardless of the installation site, solid state nickel cobalt manganese and nickel cobalt alum... [more]
Techno-Economic Assessment of Energy Storage Technologies for Inertia Response and Frequency Support from Wind Farms
Hector Beltran, Sam Harrison, Agustí Egea-Àlvarez, Lie Xu
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: ancillary services, Energy Storage, inertia emulation, frequency support, wind power
This paper provides the result of a techno-economic study of potential energy storage technologies deployable at wind farms to provide short-term ancillary services such as inertia response and frequency support. Two different scenarios are considered including a single energy storage system for the whole wind farm and individual energy storage for each wind turbine (located at either the dc or the ac side of its grid-side converter). Simulations are introduced to check the technical viability of the proposal with different control strategies. Power and energy capability requirements demanded by both specific services are defined for each studied case based on present and future grid code needs. Based on these requirements, the study compares a wide range of energy storage technologies in terms of present-day technical readiness and properties and identifies potential candidate solutions. These are flywheels, supercapacitors, and three chemistries out of the Li-ion battery family. Fina... [more]
Dimensioning Methodology of Energy Storage Systems for Power Smoothing in a Wave Energy Conversion Plant Considering Efficiency Maps and Filtering Control Techniques
Jorge Torres, Marcos Blanco, Marcos Lafoz, Gustavo Navarro, Jorge Nájera, Miguel Santos-Herran
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: dimensioning, efficiency, Energy Storage, flywheel, renewable energies, Wave Energy
This paper aims at presenting and describing a dimensioning methodology for energy storage systems (ESS), in particular for one based on flywheels, applied for the specific application of reducing power oscillation in a wave energy conversion (WEC) plant. The dimensioning methodology takes into account the efficiency maps of the storage technology as well as the effect of the filtering control techniques. The methodology is applied to the case study of a WEC plant in operation in Spain, using real power generation profiles delivered into the electric grid. The paper firstly describes the calculation procedure of the efficiency maps for the particular technology of flywheels, although it could be extended to other storage technologies. Then, the influence of using future data values in the dimensioning process and the control of the ESS operation is analysed in depth. A moving average filter (MAF) is defined to compensate for power oscillations, studying the difference between consideri... [more]
Energy Storage for 1500 V Photovoltaic Systems: A Comparative Reliability Analysis of DC- and AC-Coupling
Jinkui He, Yongheng Yang, Dmitri Vinnikov
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: 1500 V photovoltaic (PV), cost-oriented design, Energy Storage, reliability
There is an increasing demand in integrating energy storage with photovoltaic (PV) systems to provide more smoothed power and enhance the grid-friendliness of solar PV systems. To integrate battery energy storage systems (BESS) to an utility-scale 1500 V PV system, one of the key design considerations is the basic architecture selection between DC- and AC-coupling. Hence, it is necessary to assess the reliability of the power conversion units, which are not only the key system components, but also represent the most reliability-critical parts, in order to ensure an efficient and reliable 1500 V PV-battery system. Thus, this paper investigates the BESS solutions of DC- and AC-coupled configurations for 1500 V PV systems with a comparative reliability analysis. The reliability analysis is carried out through a case study on a 160 kW/1500 V PV-system integrated DC- or AC-coupled BESS for PV power smoothing and ramp-rate regulation. In the analysis, all of the DC-DC and DC-AC power interfa... [more]
An Evaluation of Energy Storage Cost and Performance Characteristics
Kendall Mongird, Vilayanur Viswanathan, Patrick Balducci, Jan Alam, Vanshika Fotedar, Vladimir Koritarov, Boualem Hadjerioua
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Batteries, combustion turbines, Compressed Air Energy Storage, energy economics, Energy Storage, Flywheels, lithium-ion, pumped storage hydro, ultracapacitors
The energy storage industry has expanded globally as costs continue to fall and opportunities in consumer, transportation, and grid applications are defined. As the rapid evolution of the industry continues, it has become increasingly important to understand how varying technologies compare in terms of cost and performance. This paper defines and evaluates cost and performance parameters of six battery energy storage technologies (BESS)—lithium-ion batteries, lead-acid batteries, redox flow batteries, sodium-sulfur batteries, sodium-metal halide batteries, and zinc-hybrid cathode batteries—four non-BESS storage systems—pumped storage hydropower, flywheels, compressed air energy storage, and ultracapacitors—and combustion turbines. Cost and performance information was compiled based on an extensive literature review, conversations with vendors and stakeholders, and costs of systems procured at sites across the United States. Detailed cost and performance estimates are presented for 2018... [more]
Internal Heat Gains in a Lunar Base—A Contemporary Case Study
Marcin Kaczmarzyk, Aleksander Starakiewicz, Aleksander Waśniowski
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: analogue planetary base, Energy Storage, extraterrestrial building physics, internal heat gain, occupational heat load
The Moon’s environmental conditions present limited opportunities for waste heat dissipation, so internal heat gains (IHG) are a key component of thermal balance in a lunar building. Despite the significant development in energy saving and energy storage technologies of the last thirty years, the issue of IHG in lunar buildings has not been readdressed since the early 1990s. This study is based on an inspection of internal heat sources conducted aboard LUNARES, the first European extraterrestrial analogue habitat. The equipment absent on LUNARES, but indispensable for an actual lunar base, was identified and accounted for, along with additional laboratory and maintenance equipment. Three main groups of internal heat sources were identified and studied in detail. Waste heat generated by electric devices was accounted for, along with occupational heat loads adjusted for lunar partial gravity conditions. Assuming a photovoltaic power source for the studied building, two alternative energy... [more]
Multi-Criteria Examination of Power-to-Gas Pathways under Stochastic Preferences
Sean Walker, Suadd Al-Zakwani, Azadeh Maroufmashat, Michael Fowler, Ali Elkamel
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: decision making, Energy Storage, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, imprecise pairwise comparisons, power-to-gas, renewable energy integration
Power-to-gas is an energy storage and vector technology which can utilize off-peak power, assist in the integration of renewable power and provide needed fuel for industry and transportation. Further, power-to-gas is a useful technology for balancing surplus baseload and renewable energy generation with demand. There are numerous applications of power-to-gas in Europe, where renewable power is used to generate hydrogen for numerous applications. Examining each of these power-to-gas pathways across quantitative and qualitative criteria, this paper utilizes the stochastic fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to determine criteria weights. These weights are then fed to a multiple criteria decision analysis tool to determine the viability of each pathway for investors and policy makers. A sensitivity analysis is carried out by reprioritizing the criteria and re-evaluating the multiple criteria analysis. The two pathways that score highest under multiple criteria rankings are power-to-gas to mo... [more]
Joint Storage: A Mixed-Method Analysis of Consumer Perspectives on Community Energy Storage in Germany
Esther Hoffmann, Franziska Mohaupt
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: acceptance, battery storage, community storage, consumer, energy services, Energy Storage, prosumer, user
In this paper, we analyze consumer attitudes toward and interest in community energy storage (CES) in Germany, based on five focus group discussions and an online survey of private owners of photovoltaic (PV) systems, as well as written surveys and workshops with the residents of two residential developments where CES has been installed. We find that owners of PV systems are generally receptive to the idea of CES but are unfamiliar with it. They assume that CES is more resource- and cost-efficient than residential storage and appreciate the idea of professionally managed operation and maintenance, but are skeptical of whether fair and transparent distribution and billing can be realized. Consumers express a need for ancillary services, such as monitoring, information or energy management, but the interest in such services, however, is strongly dependent on their perception of the costs versus potential savings.
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