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Records with Keyword: Ethanol
Showing records 1 to 25 of 81. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 Last
Separation of VOC Gaseous Mixtures Using an Adsorption−Desorption Device
Ľudmila Gabrišová, Oliver Macho, Martin Juriga, Zuzana Gábrišová, Ivan Valent, Juraj Kabát, Jaroslav Blaško, Róbert Kubinec
November 30, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Adsorption, desorption, Ethanol, granulated activated carbon, stripping
The aim of this work was to separate ethanol in an experimental adsorption−desorption device. We focused on concentrating ethanol by adsorption onto granulated activated carbon in its gaseous phase, which was produced by stripping a matrix with different ethanol concentrations (2, 5, 10, and 15% v/v). For adsorption, three kinds of granulated activated carbon (GAC) were used, marked as GAC1, GAC2, and GAC3. The separation product had a higher ethanol concentration than the initial ethanol concentration before the adsorption−desorption process. The enrichment factor was, in the case of the initial ethanol concentration, 2% v/v at the level of 10. With our new adsorption−desorption device, it is possible to achieve a product with an ethanol concentration of 59.0% v/v with stripping, adsorption, desorption, and condensation. To verify the separation efficiency, a real matrix (fermentation broth) was used. The ethanol concentration in the real matrix was, at the beginning of the separation... [more]
Life Cycle Assessment of Fuel Ethanol Production from Food Waste in Consideration of By-Product Utilization
Jun Zhou, Hongzhi Ma, Pin Lv, Wei Su, Qunhui Wang, Ming Gao, Heyang Qin
July 4, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: by-product, environmental implications, Ethanol, food waste, life cycle assessment
In this paper, a life cycle assessment was used to evaluate fuel ethanol production from food waste with a capacity of 20 tons/day. The energy and pollution emissions during the whole process were recorded and compared by the method of electricity conversion to standard coal. Different indicators, such as GWP (global warming potential), ODP (ozone depletion potential), AP (acid potential), EP (possibility of eutrophication), POCP (photochemical oxidation potential), and DUST (dust), were used to perform an environmental impact analysis with and without by-product utilization. The result shows that the indicator sequence under the weighted factor sequence was AP > DUST > GWP > ODP > EP > POCP. The consideration of by-products decreased the values of GWP, AP, and DUST significantly; EP declined slightly; ODP and POCP increased; and the overall energy output was negative. The consideration of by-product utilization was determined to be environmentally friendly.
Potential of Pine Needle Biomass for Bioethanol Production
Aleksandra Wawro, Jakub Jakubowski, Weronika Gieparda, Zenon Pilarek, Agnieszka Łacka
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Ethanol, ethanol yield, lignocellulosic biomass, logging residues management, soil preparation
Currently, fossil fuels are used to produce fuels and electricity, which are finite sources and have a negative impact on the natural environment. An excellent alternative to these fuels is biofuels, such as bioethanol from waste forest biomass. Pine needles are one of the most important available forest biomass materials with s significant impact on local understory vegetation. Forest waste biomass, which is a rich source of lignocellulose, can be used in various ways, such as for the eco-economical production of bioethanol. The aim of this study was to analyze the possibilities of bioethanol production from pine needle biomass obtained from forest land following different soil preparations and logging residue management. The pine needle dry matter yield, chemical components of pine needle biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin), and the amount of ethanol yield per hectare were evaluated. The highest average yield pine needle equal to 6.17 Mg∙ha−1 was observed. Bioethanol yield per... [more]
Assessing the Impact of Ethanol/Biodiesel/Diesel Blends and Nanoparticle Fuel Additives on Performance and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine with EGR Integration: An Experimental Study
Raouf Mobasheri, Abdel Aitouche, Sadegh Pourtaghi Yousefdeh, Abbas Zarenezhad Ashkezari
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biodiesel, EGR, emission, Ethanol, TiO2 nano additive
In this paper, the effect of nano-particles along with EGR rates was experimentally assessed on the performance and emission of a DI diesel engine fueled by biodiesel and ethanol. For this purpose, three levels of TiO2 nanoparticles (0, 40, and 60 ppm) were added to biodiesel/diesel blends in the proportions of 0, 10, and 20% biodiesel with ethanol at levels of 0, 4, and 6%. EGR rates were used at 0, 20, and 30%. A total of 31 fuel samples with different ethanol, biodiesel, TiO2 nano-additives, and EGR rates were tested at different speeds. The equation for this combination is BxEy + EGRw + TiO2z, where x, y, w, and z are the percentages of biodiesel, ethanol, EGR, and TiO2. The results showed that the mixture of B10E4 + EGR20 + TiO260, reduced the amount of NOx, CO, and HC by 10, 12.4, and 17%. Moreover, due to the significant reduction of emissions and performance improvement, the combinatory method of EGR−TiO2 nano-additives can be used as an effective formula for diesel engines fue... [more]
Comparative Analysis of the Engine Performance and Emissions Characteristics Powered by Various Ethanol−Butanol−Gasoline Blends
Ashraf Elfasakhany
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: blends, Butanol, comparative, dual, Ethanol, ternary
Although many biofuel blends have been proposed recently, comparisons of such blends are rarely investigated. Currently, it is extremely difficult to recommend one biofuel blend over another since comparisons are not carried out under the same engine conditions. In the current study, different biofuel blends in dual and ternary issues are compared together, as well as with conventional gasoline under the same engine conditions. Five different biofuel blends are considered, i-butanol (iB), n-butanol (nB), bio-ethanol (E), n-butanol−bio-ethanol (nBE), and i-butanol−bio-ethanol−gasoline (iBE) blends, at two different engine speeds (2500 and 3500 rpm/min). Additionally, the blends are compared in the average bases through wide engine speeds. The comparisons of blends are carried out via engine performance and emissions. The performance includes engine power, torque, and volumetric efficiency, while the emissions include CO, CO2, and UHC. Results showed that the E blends presented higher pe... [more]
Experimental Assessment of the Performance and Emissions of a Spark-Ignition Engine Using Waste-Derived Biofuels as Additives
Joaquim Costa, Jorge Martins, Tiago Arantes, Margarida Gonçalves, Luis Durão, Francisco P. Brito
April 25, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: emissions, Ethanol, performance biofuel, pyrolysis biofuel, spark ignition engine, waste valorisation
The use of biofuels for spark ignition engines is proposed to diversify fuel sources and reduce fossil fuel consumption, optimize engine performance, and reduce pollutant emissions. Additionally, when these biofuels are produced from low-grade wastes, they constitute valorisation pathways for these otherwise unprofitable wastes. In this study, ethanol and pyrolysis biogasoline made from low-grade wastes were evaluated as additives for commercial gasoline (RON95, RON98) in tests performed in a spark ignition engine. Binary fuel mixtures of ethanol + gasoline or biogasoline + gasoline with biofuel incorporation of 2% (w/w) to 10% (w/w) were evaluated and compared with ternary fuel mixtures of ethanol + biogasoline + gasoline with biofuel incorporation rates from 1% (w/w) to 5% (w/w). The fuel mix performance was assessed by determination of torque and power, fuel consumption and efficiency, and emissions (HC, CO, and NOx). An electronic control unit (ECU) was used to regulate the air−fue... [more]
Physiological, Biochemical and Energetic Characteristics of Torulaspora globosa, a Potential Producer of Biofuel
Svetlana V. Kamzolova, Igor G. Morgunov
April 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biodiesel, Ethanol, Torulaspora globosa, yeast lipids, zinc
It was obtained that the yeast Torulaspora globosa VKPM Y-953 is suitable for the production of biodiesel fuel. Zinc plays an important regulatory role in the metabolism of the studied strain. The study of the growth parameters and the fatty acid profile of the yeast T. globosa showed that the limitation of its growth by ethanol, at different concentrations of zinc in the medium, considerably influences the chemical composition and the energy content of yeast cells, but not their yield by weight (Yx/s). The increased concentrations of zinc in the medium, in combination with the yeast growth limitation by ethanol, elevated the content of lipids in the cells by 28% and diminished the content of proteins by 14%. At the same time, the limitation of yeast growth by zinc decreased Yx/s and energy (ηX/S) by 2.6 and 3.1 times, respectively. In this case, the content of lipids in cells fell by 72%, while that of proteins rose by 65%. The fatty acid profile of the T. globosa cells was used to es... [more]
The Potential of Ethanol/Methanol Blends as Renewable Fuels for DI SI Engines
Silvana Di Iorio, Francesco Catapano, Agnese Magno, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
April 18, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Ethanol, gaseous emissions, Methanol, particle emissions, spark ignition engine, WLTC
Electrification is considered an optimal long-term solution for the decarbonization of the transport sector. However, in the medium period, propulsion systems will continue to dominate urban mobility, thus requiring the shift from fossil fuels toward low carbon fuels. In this regard, the request from the EU to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050 is encouraging the use of innovative fuels and powertrains. Alcohols such as ethanol and methanol are particularly suitable for spark ignition engines. This paper investigates the effect of ethanol/methanol blends on the performance and emissions of a turbocharged direct injection spark ignition engine running on the worldwide harmonized light vehicles test cycle. Three blends were considered, consisting of 10% v/v ethanol (E10), 25% v/v ethanol (E25) and 5% v/v ethanol with 15% v/v methanol (E5M15). Gaseous and particle emissions were measured at the exhaust. The main novelty of the study regards the investigation of the behavior of alcohol blen... [more]
Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass from Date Palm of Phoenix dactylifera L. into Ethanol Production
Yousra Antit, Inmaculada Olivares, Moktar Hamdi, Sebastián Sánchez
April 14, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: cellulosic fibers from date palm, enzymatic hydrolysis, Ethanol, Fermentation, P. tannophilus, pretreatment
Cellulosic fibers from date palm are among the most promising lignocellulose feedstock for biorefinery purposes. The world production is between 1.9 and 2.4 million t/year. Initially, a pretreatment with dilute-sulphuric acid of these fibers was performed using a response surface methodology, with temperature and process time as factors. The aim is to produce bioethanol from young and old fibers from date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. Optimal thermochemical pretreatment conditions for both fibers palms were 220 °C in hydrothermal conditions (without acid); in these conditions pretreated young fibers presented a maximum content in holocelluloses of 45.18% and old fibers 61.97%. Subsequently, during the enzymatic hydrolysis a maximum yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) was reached, 46.32 g/100 g for pretreated dry young fibers and 48.54 g/100 g for pretreated dry old fibers. After enzymatic saccharification, hydrolysates were fermented by Pachysolen tannophilus (ATCC 32691) to ethanol, r... [more]
A Comparative Study of Biofuels and Fischer−Tropsch Diesel Blends on the Engine Combustion Performance for Reducing Exhaust Gaseous and Particulate Emissions
Felipe Andrade Torres, Omid Doustdar, Jose Martin Herreros, Runzhao Li, Robert Poku, Athanasios Tsolakis, Jorge Martins, Silvio A. B. Vieira de Melo
April 14, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: aftertreatment system, diesel engine, Ethanol, exhaust emissions, Fischer–Tropsch diesel, particulate matter
The worldwide consumption of fossil hydrocarbons in the road transport sector in 2020 corresponded to roughly half of the overall consumption. However, biofuels have been discreetly contributing to mitigate gaseous emissions and participating in sustainable development, and thus leading to the extending of the commercial utilization of internal combustion engines. In this scenario, the present work aims at exploring the effects of alternative fuels containing a blend of 15% ethanol and 35% biodiesel with a 50% fossil diesel (E15D50B35) or 50% Fischer−Tropsch (F-T) diesel (E15FTD50B35) on the engine combustion, exhaust emissions (CO, HC, and NOx), particulate emissions characteristics as well as the performance of an aftertreatment system of a common rail diesel engine. It was found that one of the blends (E15FTD50B35) showed more than 30% reduction in PM concentration number, more than 25% reduction in mean particle size, and more than 85% reduction in total PM mass with respect to con... [more]
Influence of Short Carbon-Chain Alcohol (Ethanol and 1-Propanol)/Diesel Fuel Blends over Diesel Engine Emissions
María D. Redel-Macías, David E. Leiva-Candia, José A. Soriano, José M. Herreros, Antonio J. Cubero-Atienza, Sara Pinzi
April 14, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: alcohol blends, combustion noise, emissions, Ethanol, soot
Oxygenated fuels, in this case short carbon-chain alcohols, have been investigated as alternative fuels to power compression ignition engines. A major advantage of short-chain alcohols is that they can be produced from renewable resources, i.e., cultivated commodities or biomass-based biorefineries. However, before entering the market, the effects of short-chain alcohols on engine performance, exhaust emissions, noise and sound quality need to be understood. This work sheds light on the relationship between the physicochemical properties of the alcohol/diesel fuel blends (ethanol and 1-propanol) on engine performance, exhaust emissions and, for the first time, on noise and sound quality. It has been demonstrated that when the content of alcohol in blends increased, soot and soluble organic material emissions drastically decreased, mainly due to the increase of oxygen content in the fuel. Reduction in soot emissions combined with higher thermodynamic efficiency of alcohol fuels, with re... [more]
Investigation into the Impact of the Composition of Ethanol Fuel Deposit Control Additives on Their Effectiveness
Zbigniew Stępień, Grażyna Żak, Jarosław Markowski, Michał Wojtasik
April 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: engine deposits, Ethanol, fuel, tests
An increasing percentage of ethanol in fuel leads to significant changes in polarity and solubility, which makes conventional gasoline deposit control additives (DCAs) difficult to dissolve in ethanol fuels, resulting in the formation of deposits on engine elements. Critical areas of deposit formation in an engine are constituted by inlet valves, combustion chambers, and fuel injectors. As a consequence, operational parameters of the engine are disturbed to a large extent by the total effect of the deposits. To prevent the aforementioned phenomena, in the operation of engines fueled with ethanol-containing blends, it is necessary to use specifically prepared DCAs. The paper briefly presents a process of development of DCAs dedicated to high-ethanol fuels. Each of the prepared DCA formulations contained a substance having detergent-emulsifying properties (referred to in the text as DEM), a carrier oil, and a solvent. The composition and ratios of components used in the DCA, by testing t... [more]
Optical Investigation of a Partial Fuel Stratification Strategy to Stabilize Overall Lean Operation of a DISI Engine Fueled with Gasoline and E30
Cinzia Tornatore, Magnus Sjöberg
April 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: E30, Ethanol, GDI engine, lean operation, partial fuel stratification, spark ignition engine
This paper offers new insights into a partial fuel stratification (PFS) combustion strategy that has proven to be effective at stabilizing overall lean combustion in direct injection spark ignition engines. To this aim, high spatial and temporal resolution optical diagnostics were applied in an optically accessible engine working in PFS mode for two fuels and two different durations of pilot injection at the time of spark: 210 µs and 330 µs for E30 (gasoline blended with ethanol by 30% volume fraction) and gasoline, respectively. In both conditions, early injections during the intake stroke were used to generate a well-mixed lean background. The results were compared to rich, stoichiometric and lean well-mixed combustion with different spark timings. In the PFS combustion process, it was possible to detect a non-spherical and highly wrinkled blue flame, coupled with yellow diffusive flames due to the combustion of rich zones near the spark plug. The initial flame spread for both PFS ca... [more]
Considerations on Potentials, Greenhouse Gas, and Energy Performance of Biofuels Based on Forest Residues for Heavy-Duty Road Transport in Sweden
Shveta Soam, Pål Börjesson
April 12, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: biofuel potential, Energy Efficiency, Ethanol, GHG emissions, HVO, LBG, logging residues, sawdust
This case study investigates the potentials, greenhouse gas (GHG), and energy performance of forest residue biofuels produced by new and emerging production technologies, which are commercially implemented in Sweden for heavy transport. The biofuel options included are ethanol (ED 95), hydro-processed vegetable oil (HVO), and liquefied biogas (LBG) produced from logging residues in forestry and sawdust generated in sawmills. The calculated life cycle GHG emissions, based on the EU Renewable Energy Directive calculation methodology, for all three pathways are in the range of 6−11 g CO2eq./MJ, corresponding to 88−94% GHG emission reductions as compared to fossil fuel. Critical parameters are the enzyme configuration for ethanol, hydrogen supply systems and bio-oil technology for HVO, and gasifier size for LBG. The energy input is ranging from 0.16 to 0.43 MJ/MJ biofuel and the total conversion efficiency from the feedstock to biofuel, including high-value by-products (excluding heat), va... [more]
The Perspective of Using the System Ethanol-Ethyl Acetate in a Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) Cycle
Elio Santacesaria, Riccardo Tesser, Sara Fulignati, Anna Maria Raspolli Galletti
April 11, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Ethanol, ethyl acetate, Hydrogen, LOHC
Starting from bioethanol it is possible, by using an appropriate catalyst, to produce ethyl acetate in a single reaction step and pure hydrogen as a by-product. Two molecules of hydrogen can be obtained for each molecule of ethyl acetate produced. The mentioned reaction is reversible, therefore, it is possible to hydrogenate ethyl acetate to reobtain ethanol, so closing the chemical cycle of a Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) process. In other words, bioethanol can be conveniently used as a hydrogen carrier. Many papers have been published in the literature dealing with both the ethanol dehydrogenation and the ethyl acetate hydrogenation to ethanol so demonstrating the feasibility of this process. In this review all the aspects of the entire LOHC cycle are considered and discussed. We examined in particular: the most convenient catalysts for the two main reactions, the best operative conditions, the kinetics of all the reactions involved in the process, the scaling up of both eth... [more]
Fatty Acid Alkyl Ester Production by One-Step Supercritical Transesterification of Beef Tallow by Using Ethanol, Iso-Butanol, and 1-Butanol
Ricardo García-Morales, Francisco J. Verónico-Sánchez, Abel Zúñiga-Moreno, Oscar A. González-Vargas, Edgar Ramírez-Jiménez, Octavio Elizalde-Solis
April 11, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: 1-butanol, Ethanol, fatty acid butyl ester, fatty acid ethyl ester, iso-butanol, supercritical, transesterification, waste beef tallow
The effect of temperature was studied on the synthesis of fatty acid alkyl esters by means of transesterification of waste beef tallow using ethanol and, iso-butanol and 1-butanol at supercritical conditions. These alcohols are proposed for the synthesis of biodiesel in order to improve the cold flow properties of alkyl esters. Alcohol−beef tallow mixtures were fed to a high-pressure high-temperature autoclave at a constant molar ratio of 45:1. Reactions were carried out in the ranges of 310−390 °C and 310−420 °C for ethanol and iso-butanol, respectively; meanwhile, synthesis using 1-butanol was assessed only at 360 °C. After separation of fatty acid alkyl esters, these samples were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to quantify yields, chemical composition, and molecular weight. Results indicated that yields enhanced as temperature increased; the maximum yields for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) were attained... [more]
Oriented Fermentation of Food Waste towards High-Value Products: A Review
Qiao Wang, Huan Li, Kai Feng, Jianguo Liu
April 4, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Ethanol, fatty acids, Fermentation, food waste, lactic acid, recovery
Food waste has a great potential for resource recovery due to its huge yield and high organic content. Oriented fermentation is a promising method with strong application prospects due to high efficiency, strong robustness, and high-value products. Different fermentation types lead to different products, which can be shifted by adjusting fermentation conditions such as inoculum, pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), organic loading rate (OLR), and nutrients. Compared with other types, lactic acid fermentation has the lowest reliance on artificial intervention. Lactic acid and volatile fatty acids are the common products, and high yield and high purity are the main targets of food waste fermentation. In addition to operational parameters, reactors and processes should be paid more attention to for industrial application. Currently, continuously stirred tank reactors and one-stage processes are used principally for scale-up continuous fermentation of food waste. Electro-fermentation a... [more]
The Major Driving Forces of the EU and US Ethanol Markets with Special Attention Paid to the COVID-19 Pandemic
Tamás Mizik, Lajos Nagy, Zoltán Gabnai, Attila Bai
April 4, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: correlation, COVID, Ethanol, oil, price analysis
Ethanol is a widely produced fuel, as well as a fuel additive. Its price is closely related to the price of gasoline, its major substitute. This paper focuses on the impacts of the related variables on regional ethanol prices. Additionally, the length of the price dataset made it possible to isolate the impacts of COVID-19 on the ethanol prices. Using multiple regression and Confirmatory Factor Analyses, we found no significant correlation between the European and US ethanol prices because the major influencing factors were regionally different. In the case of the European ethanol markets, the positive factors were wheat, maize, and potassium chloride prices, while the European sugar and diammonium phosphate prices were negative. In the US markets, gasoline, sugar, and most of the artificial fertilizer prices were positive, while wheat prices were negative. Based on factor analysis, artificial fertilizers and maize factors proved to be important to the European markets, while US ethano... [more]
Influence of Gaseous Hydrogen Addition on Initiation of Rotating Detonation in Liquid Fuel−Air Mixtures
Jan Kindracki, Krzysztof Wacko, Przemysław Woźniak, Stanisław Siatkowski, Łukasz Mężyk
April 3, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Ethanol, hexane, Hydrogen, kerosene, liquid fuel, rotating detonation
Hydrogen is the most common molecule in the universe. It is an excellent fuel for thermal engines: piston, turbojet, rocket, and, going forward, in thermonuclear power plants. Hydrogen is currently used across a range of industrial applications including propulsion systems, e.g., cars and rockets. One obstacle to expanding hydrogen use, especially in the transportation sector, is its low density. This paper explores hydrogen as an addition to liquid fuel in the detonation chamber to generate thermal energy for potential use in transportation and generation of electrical energy. Experiments with liquid kerosene, hexane, and ethanol with the addition of gaseous hydrogen were conducted in a modern rotating detonation chamber. Detonation combustion delivers greater thermal efficiency and reduced NOx emission. Since detonation propagates about three orders of magnitude faster than deflagration, the injection, evaporation, and mixing with air must be almost instantaneous. Hydrogen addition h... [more]
Microwave Heating Improvement: Permittivity Characterization of Water−Ethanol and Water−NaCl Binary Mixtures
Fabio Fanari, Giacomo Muntoni, Chiara Dachena, Renzo Carta, Francesco Desogus
April 3, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Acree model, binary mixtures, dielectric constant, Ethanol, impedance, King and Queen model, microwave heating, NaCl, permittivity, Water
Microwave heating offers a lot of advantages compared to conventional heating methods in the chemical reactions field due to its positive effects on reaction time and selectivity. Dielectric properties, and in particular permittivity, of substances and mixtures, are important for the optimization of microwave heating processes; notwithstanding this, specific databases are poor and far from being complete, and in the scientific literature very little data regarding these properties can be found. In this work, impedance measurements were carried out using a specially designed system to get the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The apparatus was tested in the estimation of permittivity of water−ethanol and water−NaCl mixtures, varying their composition to obtain a wide range of permittivity values. The results were compared to literature data and fitted with available literature models to verify the correspondence between them, finding that permittivity dependence on mi... [more]
Synergy of Thermochemical Treatment of Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles with Bioethanol Production for Increased Sustainability and Profitability
Samuel O’Brien, Jacek A. Koziel, Chumki Banik, Andrzej Białowiec
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biofuel, biorenewables, corn, CSF, DDGS, Ethanol, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, torrefaction, waste-to-carbon, waste-to-energy
The bioethanol industry continues improving sustainability, specifically focused on plant energy and GHG emission management. Dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) is a byproduct of ethanol fermentation and is used for animal feed. DDGS is a relatively low-value bulk product that decays, causes odor, and is challenging to manage. The aim of this research was to find an alternative, value-added-type concept for DDGS utilization. Specifically, we aimed to explore the techno-economic feasibility of torrefaction, i.e., a thermochemical treatment of DDGS requiring low energy input, less sophisticated equipment, and resulting in fuel-quality biochar. Therefore, we developed a research model that addresses both bioethanol production sustainability and profitability due to synergy with the torrefaction of DDGS and using produced biochar as marketable fuel for the plant. Our experiments showed that DDGS-based biochar (CSF—carbonized solid fuel) lower calorific value may reach up to 27 MJ∙... [more]
Stability and Performance Analysis of Bioethanol Production with Delay and Growth Inhibition in a Continuous Bioreactor with Recycle
Rubayyi T. Alqahtani, Samir Kumar Bhowmik, Abdelhamid Ajbar, Mourad Boumaza
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: bioreactor, continuous, delay, Ethanol, model, performance, Saccharomyces bayanus, stability
This paper proposes and analyzes a mathematical model for the production of bioethanol in a continuous bioreactor with recycling. The kinetics correspond to the use of Saccharomyces bayanus for the fermentation of sugars found in wastewater from soft drinks. The proposed model considers product growth latency, which was experimentally found in batch studies of ethanol production. Furthermore, the inhibition effect of ethanol is expressed by a modified version of the classical Andrew’s model for substrate inhibition. The proposed model consists of only three ordinary differential equations containing a minimal number of operating parameters, which include the bioreactor residence time, glucose feed concentration, recycle ratio and the fraction of biomass removed from the reactor by the flow. The positivity and the boundedness of solutions of the model were confirmed under reasonable restrictions of parameters. The stability analysis showed that there is a value of residence time at whic... [more]
Effects of Diethyl Ether Introduction in Emissions and Performance of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Biodiesel-Ethanol Blends
Márcio Carvalho, Felipe Torres, Vitor Ferreira, Júlio Silva, Jorge Martins, Ednildo Torres
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biodiesel, Biofuels, diesel engines, diethyl ether, emissions, Ethanol
Biofuels provide high oxygen content for combustion and do modify properties that influence the engine operation process such as viscosity, enthalpy of vaporization, and cetane number. Some requirements of performance, fuel consumption, efficiency, and exhaust emission are necessary for the validation of these biofuels for application in engines. This work studies the effects of the use of diethyl ether (DEE) in biodiesel-ethanol blends in a DI mechanical diesel engine. The blends used in the tests were B80E20 (biodiesel 80%-ethanol 20%) and B76E19DEE5 (biodiesel 76%-ethanol 19%-DEE 5%). Fossil diesel (D100) and biodiesel (B100) were evaluated as reference fuels. The results revealed similar engine efficiencies among tested fuels at all loads. The use of B100 increased CO and NOx and decreased THC compared to D100 at the three loads tested. B80E20 fuel showed an increase in NOx emission in comparison with all fuels tested, which was attributed to higher oxygen content and lower cetane... [more]
Biodiesel Production by Lipase-Catalyzed in Situ Transesterification of Rapeseed Oil Containing a High Free Fatty Acid Content with Ethanol in Diesel Fuel Media
Migle Santaraite, Egle Sendzikiene, Violeta Makareviciene, Kiril Kazancev
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biodiesel, Ethanol, in situ transesterification, lipase, mineral diesel, rapeseed oil
In this study, low-quality rapeseed was used as a raw material for biodiesel fuel production. The application of such seeds with an enzyme catalyst is a green approach to producing renewable biodiesel fuel. During the in situ transesterification process, mineral diesel was selected as an extraction solvent for the simultaneous extraction and transesterification of rapeseed oil (RO). This allowed, at the end of the process, for the production of a mixture of mineral diesel and biodiesel fuel. Energy is saved using this process, as the need to extract the oil separately is eliminated and extraction and transesterification take place together in the in situ process. In this study, 11 different lipases were analyzed from which to select the most effective biocatalyst according to the chosen experimental conditions. The most suitable lipase for in situ transesterification was Lipozyme TL IM (Thermomyces lanuginosus). The impact of the temperature and duration of the reaction was investigate... [more]
Ethanol Production from High Solid Loading of Rice Straw by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation in a Non-Conventional Reactor
Inês C. Roberto, Rafael C. A. Castro, João Paulo A. Silva, Solange I. Mussatto
March 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Ethanol, Kluyveromyces marxianus, rice straw, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, vertical ball mill reactor
Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at high solid loading is a potential approach to improve the economic feasibility of cellulosic ethanol. In this study, SSF using high loading of rice straw was assessed using a vertical ball mill reactor. First, the conditions of temperature and number of glass spheres were optimized at 8% (w/v) initial solids (41.5 °C, 18 spheres). Then, assays were carried out at higher solid loadings (16% and 24% w/v). At 8% or 16% solids, the fermentation efficiency was similar (ηF~75%), but the ethanol volumetric productivity (QP) reduced from 1.50 to 1.14 g/L.h. By increasing the solids to 24%, the process was strongly affected (ηF = 40% and QP = 0.7 g/L.h). To overcome this drawback, three different feeding profiles of 24% pre-treated rice straw were investigated. Gradual feeding of the substrate (initial load of 16% with additions of 4% at 10 and 24 h) and an inoculum level of 3 g/L resulted in a high ethanol titer (52.3 g/L) with QP of 1.1... [more]
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