Records with Keyword: Ethylene
C2-Hydrocarbon Mixture Separation on Polyethylene Membranes with Grafted Sulfonated Polystyrene in H+, Li+ and Na+ Forms
Natalya Zhilyaeva, Evgeny Sofronov, Elena Mironova, Nina Shevlyakova, Vladimir Tverskoy, Irina Stenina, Andrey Yaroslavtsev
January 12, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: C2-hydrocarbon separation, Ethylene, facilitated ethylene transport, ion exchange membrane, olefin, sulfonated polystyrene
The olefin separation from their mixture with paraffins by facilitated transport membranes is a very important process for the further macromolecular compounds production. Membranes loaded with silver ions, which are responsible for the facilitated olefin transport, are instable with time due to their reduction, while those containing protons catalyze the polymerization of olefins. In this work, membranes based on polyethylene with grafted sulfonated polystyrene in various ionic forms (H+, Li+, Na+) were used for the first time for the separation of the ethylene/ethane mixture. The influence of sulfonation time, relative humidity, and various ionic forms on ethylene separation was studied. The SEM study shows a non-uniform sulfur distribution over the membrane thickness for membranes sulfonated for different reaction times. With increasing sulfonation time and relative humidity the ethylene permeability and the factor of its separation with ethane increase. Separation factors for membr... [more]
Fast Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Helical Tubes
Igor O. Shamshin, Viktor S. Aksenov, Maxim V. Kazachenko, Pavel A. Gusev, Sergey M. Frolov
July 7, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: blended hydrogenous fuels, detonability, Ethylene, fast deflagration-to-detonation transition, Hydrogen, methane, propane, pulsed detonation tube, run-up distance
When designing a new type of power plants operating on pulsed detonations of gaseous or liquid fuels, the concept of fast deflagration-to-detonation transition (FDDT) is used. According to the concept, a flame arising from a weak ignition source must accelerate so fast as to form an intense shock wave at a minimum distance from the ignition source so that the intensity of the shock wave is sufficient for fast shock-to-detonation transition by some additional arrangements. Hence, the FDDT concept implies the use of special means for flame acceleration and shock wave amplification. In this work, we study the FDDT using a pulsed detonation tube comprising a Shchelkin spiral and a helical tube section with ten coils as the means for flame acceleration and shock amplification (focusing), respectively. To attain the FDDT at the shortest distances for fuels of significantly different detonability, the diameter of the pulsed detonation tube is taken close to the limiting diameter of detonation... [more]
Flame Propagation Characteristics of Hybrid Explosion of Ethylene and Polyethylene Mixture under Pressure Accumulation
Wentao Ji, Jingjing Yang, Yang Wang, Jia He, Xiaoping Wen, Yan Wang
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: Ethylene, explosion flame propagation characteristics, mixed explosion, polyethylene, pressure accumulation
In order to study the flame propagation characteristics of a ethylene/polyethylene hybrid explosion under pressure accumulation, a visual pressure-bearing gas/power hybrid-explosion experimental platform was built. The flame propagation characteristics of polyethylene and ethylene/polyethylene hybrid explosions in the closed vessel were analyzed. The results show that the flame brightness, flame front continuity and average flame propagation velocity of polyethylene dust explosion in the closed vessel increased first and then decreased when the polyethylene dust concentration increased. The curve of the flame propagation velocity with time had obvious pulsation characteristics. Adding 1% and 3% ethylene to different concentrations of polyethylene dust significantly improved its explosion flame brightness, flame front continuity and average flame propagation velocity. Moreover, it also improved the fluctuation amplitude of the explosion flame propagation velocity with time curve. The ex... [more]
Rendering Fat and Heavy Fischer-Tropsch Waxes Mixtures (0−100%) Fast Pyrolysis Tests for the Production of Ethylene and Propylene
Martyna Murat, Zahra Gholami, Josef Šimek, Daily Rodríguez-Padrón, José Miguel Hidalgo-Herrador
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Ethylene, Fischer-Tropsch, propylene, pyrolysis, rendering fat
A great emphasis is placed on searching for efficient sources to produce renewable fuels due to the actual trends in avoiding the use of fossil resources to mitigate the environment’s deterioration. Thus, the use of waste from the food or wood industry for the production of biofuels is widely researched and may contribute to sustainable general development. Rendered fat and Fischer-Tropsch waxes are high-energy materials which could be used for the pyrolysis reaction. Therefore, in this study, the effect of reaction parameters and feedstock composition on the distribution of the pyrolysis products has been examined. The experiments were carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere in a multi-shot pyrolizer instrument equipped with GC-FID. First, the influence of the temperature was examined at 785, 800, and 815 °C. The highest yield to olefins was observed at 815 °C. The effect of triglycerides and paraffins contents (0−100% with 10% ramp) in the feedstock on the product composition was invest... [more]
Heterogeneous Catalysis in (Bio)Ethanol Conversion to Chemicals and Fuels: Thermodynamics, Catalysis, Reaction Paths, Mechanisms and Product Selectivities
Gabriella Garbarino, Giovanni Pampararo, Thanh Khoa Phung, Paola Riani, Guido Busca
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: acetaldehyde, acid catalysis, bioethanol conversion, cobalt catalysts, copper catalysts, Ethylene, nickel catalysts, Syngas
In gas/solid conditions, different chemicals, such as diethylether, ethylene, butadiene, higher hydrocarbons, acetaldehyde, acetone and hydrogen, can be produced from ethanol with heterogeneous catalytic processes. The focus of this paper is the interplay of different reaction paths, which depend on thermodynamic factors as well as on kinetic factors, thus mainly from catalyst functionalities and reaction temperatures. Strategies for selectivity improvements in heterogeneously catalyzed processes converting (bio)ethanol into renewable chemicals and biofuels are also considered.
Thermodynamic Analysis of an Ethylene Reliquefaction System Using the Entropy-Cycle Method
Viktoriia Sokolovska-Yefymenko, Larisa Morozyuk, Volodymyr Ierin, Oleksandr Yefymenko
March 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: entropy-cycle method, Ethylene, irreversibility, reliquefaction system, thermodynamic analysis
In this study, a boil-off gas reliquefaction system that is a part of liquid ethylene gas (LEG) carriers is evaluated. The reliquefaction system is formed by two thermally interconnected two-stage refrigeration cycles. The working fluid of the bottoming cycle is ethylene; the working fluid of the topping cycle is propylene. The research is based on determining the irreversibilities in the reliquefaction system cycles using the entropy-cycle method of thermodynamic analysis. The impact of the process performance in the main components on the reliquefaction system energy efficiency has been evaluated by the entropy-cycle method. The greatest thermodynamic irreversibility is observed in the two-stage compression process of the bottoming cycle (9%), total throttling irreversibility in the reliquefaction system (8.5%), and vapor superheating at the suction into the low stage of the two-stage compressor of the bottoming cycle (8%). The results of the study showed that it is necessary to impr... [more]
A Review on the Production of Light Olefins Using Steam Cracking of Hydrocarbons
Zahra Gholami, Fatemeh Gholami, Zdeněk Tišler, Mohammadtaghi Vakili
March 6, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: butenes, cracking furnace, Ethylene, olefin production, propylene, reaction parameters, steam cracking
Light olefins are the main building blocks used in the petrochemical and chemical industries for the production of different components such as polymers, synthetic fibers, rubbers, and plastic materials. Currently, steam cracking of hydrocarbons is the main technology for the production of light olefins. In steam cracking, the pyrolysis of feedstocks occurs in the cracking furnace, where hydrocarbon feed and steam are first mixed and preheated in the convection section and then enter the furnace radiation section to crack to the desired products. This paper summarizes olefin production via the steam cracking process; and the reaction mechanism and cracking furnace are also discussed. The effect of different operating parameters, including temperature, residence time, feedstock composition, and the steam-to-hydrocarbon ratio, are also reviewed.
Liquid-Phase Non-Thermal Plasma Discharge for Fuel Oil Processing
Evgeniy Yurevich Titov, Ivan Vasilevich Bodrikov, Anton Igorevich Serov, Yuriy Alekseevich Kurskii, Dmitry Yurievich Titov, Evgenia Ruslanovna Bodrikova
March 1, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: acetylene, Ethylene, fuel oil, hydrogen power, non-equilibrium low-temperature plasma, plasma pyrolysis, pulse electric discharge
The non-thermal plasma pyrolysis of fuel oil, under the action of low-voltage electric discharges in the liquid phase, has made it possible to develop a new process to obtain valuable petrochemical products. In this study, the main parameters, including pulse energy and the time of impact on the non-thermal plasma pyrolysis process, are studied. The main components of the obtained gaseous products are hydrogen (27.6−49.6 mol%), acetylene (33.6−49.1 mol%), ethylene (6.9−12.1 mol%), methane (3.9−9.1 mol%), and hydrocarbons C3-C5 (3.8−9.3 mol%). Increasing the capacity of electric discharges leads to an increase in the content of acetylene in the gas phase to 49.1 mol% and a decrease in energy costs for the production of gaseous products.
Multi-Objective Collaborative Optimization of Distillation Column Group Based on System Identification
Renchu He, Keshuai Ju, Linlin Li, Jian Long
February 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: clustering, distillation column group, Ethylene, multi-objective optimization, propylene
In this paper, a multi-objective collaborative optimization (MOCO) strategy is proposed for making decisions on a distillation column group. Firstly, based on data preprocessing, the operating modes of the tower group are determined by use of the fuzzy C-means clustering method. Secondly, based on the proposed concept of a collaborative variable, the discrete state-space model of the main towers are constructed by the subspace identification method. Then, a MOCO optimization model is designed for the ethylene plant. Finally, NSGA-III is used to solve the optimization problem. An analysis of a Pareto-optimal frontier and population is carried out. To illustrate the superiority of the proposed strategy, the results are compared with historical data and the appealing operation area is finally obtained.
Influence of Red Mud Catalyst and Reaction Atmosphere on Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae
Tawsif Rahman, Hossein Jahromi, Poulami Roy, Sushil Adhikari, Farshad Feyzbar-Khalkhali-Nejad, Tae-Sik Oh, Qichen Wang, Brendan T. Higgins
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: algae, biocrude, catalyst, Ethylene, hydrothermal liquefaction, reaction environment, red mud
Algae are a diverse group of aquatic organisms and have a potential to produce renewable biofuel via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). This study investigated the effects of reaction environments on biocrude production from “Tetraselmis sp.” algae strain by HTL process using red mud (RM) based catalyst. The inert (N2), ethylene (C2H4), reducing (10% H2/90% N2), and oxidizing (10% O2/90% N2) environments were applied to the non-catalytic as well as catalytic HTL treatments with two forms of RM catalysts: RM reduced at 500 °C (RRM) and nickel-supported RM (Ni/RM). Under nitrogen, ethylene and reducing environments, the biocrude yield increased by the following trend: No Catalyst < RRM < Ni/RM. The Ni/RM catalyst produced the highest biocrude yield (37 wt.%) in an ethylene environment, generated the lowest total acid number (14 mg KOH/g) under inert atmosphere, and lowered sulfur (33−66%) and oxygen (18−30%) from biocrude products irrespective of environments. The RRM catalyst maximi... [more]
Review on Gassing Tendency of Different Insulating Fluids towards Transformer Applications
Arputhasamy Joseph Amalanathan, Ramanujam Sarathi, Maciej Zdanowski, Ravikrishnan Vinu, Zbigniew Nadolny
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: electrical stress, ester fluid, Ethylene, gassing, Hydrogen, mineral oil, regeneration, stray gassing, thermal stress
This paper reports the critical reviews on the gassing tendency of different insulating fluids along with the precautionary measures to be considered during their fault diagnosis in transformer insulation. The experimental techniques and procedures for identifying the gassing due to electrical and thermal stress along with the stray gassing phenomenon has been elucidated. The different interpretation schemes used for determining the faults in transformers results in unexpected errors when the historical data relating to mineral oil is used for the other alternative fluids. Mineral oil and natural ester show a positive gassing tendency compared to synthetic ester which exhibit a negative gassing tendency. The stray gases are mostly due to breakage of C-C bonds under normal operating temperature of transformer. Among the different hydrocarbons, hydrogen and ethylene are more predominantly formed under lower temperatures. The silicone oil and ester fluids are more stable even under locali... [more]
Economic Potential of Bio-Ethylene Production via Oxidative Coupling of Methane in Biogas from Anaerobic Digestion of Industrial Effluents
Alberto Teixeira Penteado, Giovanna Lovato, Abigail Pérez Ortiz, Erik Esche, José Alberto Domingues Rodrigues, Hamid Reza Godini, Alvaro Orjuela, Jūlija Gušča, Jens-Uwe Repke
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas application, Ethylene, methane, oxidative coupling of methane
Brazil’s large biofuels industry generates significant amounts of effluents, e.g., vinasse from bioethanol, that can effectively be used as substrate for production of biogas via Anaerobic Digestion (AD). The Oxidative Coupling of Methane (OCM) is the heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of methane into ethylene, which is a main building block for the chemical industry. This work investigates the potential and competitiveness of bio-ethylene production via OCM using biogas produced by biological anaerobiosis of vinasse as a feedstock. The proposed process can add incentive to treat of vinasse via AD and replace fossil ethylene, thus potentially reducing emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHG). A process model is developed in Aspen Plus v10 software and used to design an economic Biogas-based Oxidative Coupling of Methane (Bio-OCM) process that consumes biogas and oxygen as educts and produces ethylene, ethane, and light off-gases as products. Operating conditions in the reaction section are o... [more]
Low-Carbon Futures for Bioethylene in the United States
Gillian Foster
February 22, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: bioeconomy, climate change, Ethylene, socio-economic scenarios, sustainable biomass
The manufacture of the chemical ethylene, a key ingredient in plastics, currently depends on fossil-fuel-derived carbon and generates significant greenhouse gas emissions. Substituting ethylene’s fossil fuel feedstock with alternatives is important for addressing the challenge of global climate change. This paper compares four scenarios for meeting future ethylene supply under differing societal approaches to climate change based on the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways. The four scenarios use four perspectives: (1) a sustainability-focused pathway that demands a swift transition to a bioeconomy within 30 years; (2) a regional energy-focused pathway that supports broad biomass use; (3) a fossil-fuel development pathway limited to corn grain; and (4) a fossil-fuel development pathway limited to corn grain and corn stover. Each scenario is developed using the latest scientifically informed future feedstock analyses from the 2016 Billion-Ton report interpreted with perspectives on the future... [more]
Optimization of the Oxidative Coupling of Methane Process for Ethylene Production
Raed Alkathiri, Ali Alshamrani, Irfan Wazeer, Mourad Boumaza, Mohamed K. Hadj-Kali
February 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Ethylene, heat integration, Natural Gas, OCM process, process simulation
The oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) process is considered an intriguing route for the production of ethylene, one of the most demanded petrochemical products on the market. Ethylene can be produced by various methods, but the most widely used is the steam cracking process. However, due to the current instability of the crude oil market and the shale gas revolution, the production of olefins from natural gas has opened a new path for companies to mitigate the high demand for crude oil while utilizing an abundant amount of natural gas. In this work, the OCM process was compared with other existing processes, and the process was simulated using Aspen HYSYS. The flowsheet was divided into four sections, namely (i) the reaction section, (ii) the water removal section, (iii) the carbon dioxide capture section, and (iv) the ethylene purification section. Each section was thoroughly discussed, and the heat integration of the process was performed to ensure maximum energy utilization. The h... [more]
Dynamics of Pressure Variation in Closed Vessel Explosions of Diluted Fuel/Oxidant Mixtures
Venera Giurcan, Domnina Razus, Maria Mitu, Codina Movileanu
February 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: confined explosions, Ethylene, nitrogen dilution, nitrous oxide, pressure dynamics
Nitrous oxide is widely used as oxidizer or nitriding agent in numerous industrial activities such as production of adipic acid and caprolactam and even for production of some semiconductors. Further, it is used as an additive in order to increase the power output of engines, and as an oxidizer in propulsion systems of rockets, because it has a large heat of formation (+81.6 kJ mol−1). N2O is highly exothermic, and during its decomposition a supplementary heat amount is released, so it needs special handling conditions. The combustion of fuels in nitrous oxide atmosphere can lead to high unstable and turbulent deflagrations that speedily self-accelerate and therefore a deflagration can change to a detonation. The peak explosion pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise of explosions in confined spaces are key safety parameters to evaluate the hazard of processes running in closed vessels and for design of enclosures able to withstand explosions or of their vents used as relief dev... [more]
Process Modeling and Evaluation of Plasma-Assisted Ethylene Production from Methane
Evangelos Delikonstantis, Marco Scapinello, Georgios D. Stefanidis
May 16, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: electrified process, Ethylene, non-oxidative methane coupling, non-thermal plasma, process modeling
The electrification of the petrochemical industry, imposed by the urgent need for decarbonization and driven by the incessant growth of renewable electricity share, necessitates electricity-driven technologies for efficient conversion of fossil fuels to chemicals. Non-thermal plasma reactor systems that successfully perform in lab scale are investigated for this purpose. However, the feasibility of such electrified processes at industrial scale is still questionable. In this context, two process alternatives for ethylene production via plasma-assisted non-oxidative methane coupling have conceptually been designed based on previous work of our group namely, a direct plasma-assisted methane-to-ethylene process (one-step process) and a hybrid plasma-catalytic methane-to-ethylene process (two-step process). Both processes are simulated in the Aspen Plus V10 process simulator and also consider the technical limitations of a real industrial environment. The economically favorable operating w... [more]
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