Records with Keyword: Technoeconomic Analysis
Showing records 1 to 25 of 106. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Techno-Economic Considerations on Nanocellulose’s Future Progress: A Short Review
Giannis Penloglou, Aikaterini Basna, Alexandros Pavlou, Costas Kiparissides
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: bacterial nanocellulose (BNC), lignocellulosic biomass, nanocellulose, nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), production cost, Technoeconomic Analysis
Nanocellulose (NC) is an emerging natural material that offers great potential for various applications due to its unique properties and renewable character. Nowadays, as NC production technologies are advancing, it is essential to evaluate their economic feasibility, technological maturity and commercialization potential using systematic techno-economic analysis (TEA). The present study considers both technical and economic aspects of NC production and analyzes them in two ways: first, by developing a new concept based on the production of different types of NC through the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass by chemical and mechanical technologies, and second, by a comparative review of existing TEA studies in the open literature. Three specific scenarios and two case studies are evaluated by comparing specific key performance indicators (KPIs), such as the production cost (PC) and minimum product selling price (MPSP) of NC. As a result, a short though comprehensive overview of the... [more]
Techno-Economic Analysis of Thermochemical Conversion of Waste Masks Generated in the EU during COVID-19 Pandemic into Energy Products
Samy Yousef, Vidas Lekavičius, Nerijus Striūgas
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: gasification, internal rate of return, pyrolysis, surgical mask waste, Technoeconomic Analysis
During the COVID-19 pandemic, more than 24 billion pieces of surgical mask waste (WM) were generated in the EU region, with an acute shortage of their management and recycling. Pyrolysis and gasification are among the most promising treatments that were proposed to dispose of WMs and convert them into pyrolysis oil and hydrogen-rich syngas. This work aimed to investigate the techno-economic analysis (TEA) of both treatments in order to assess the feasibility of scaling up. The TEA was carried out using a discounted cash flow model and its data were collected from practical experiments conducted using a fluidised bed pyrolysis reactor and bubbling fluidised bed gasifier system with a capacity of 0.2 kg/h and 1 kg/h, respectively, then upscaling to one tonne/h. The technological evaluation was made based on the optimal conditions that could produce the maximum amount of pyrolysis oil (42.3%) and hydrogen-rich syngas (89.7%). These treatments were also compared to the incineration of WMs... [more]
A Comprehensive Study on the Recent Progress and Trends in Development of Small Hydropower Projects
Teegala Srinivasa Kishore, Epari Ritesh Patro, V. S. K. V. Harish, Ali Torabi Haghighi
April 20, 2023 (v1)
In terms of fuel resource, hydropower possesses a prominent advantage over any other large power plants which burn fossil fuels to generate electricity. Moreover, due to the abundance in resource availability (as a domestic source in small streams and rivers), small hydropower (SHP) plants are showing prominence all over the world. SHP plants have led to improved access to electricity usage in under-developed and developing nations, thereby contributing to sustainable development goals and social empowerment. SHP, as a technology, is regarded as the largest density renewable resource with high adaptability, and low investment costs. The primary objective of the paper is to study and analyze recent developments in SHP technologies with reporting statistical figures in terms of installed capacity and MW potential in several parts of the world. Methodologies adopted by researchers to conduct techno-economic analysis of SHP projects are reviewed. Various costs involved in conducting pre-fe... [more]
Cost and Environmental Benefits of Using Pelleted Corn Stover for Bioethanol Production
Ramsharan Pandey, Nurun Nahar, Scott W. Pryor, Ghasideh Pourhashem
April 19, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: biomass pellets, cellulosic biorefinery, Life Cycle Analysis, soaking in aqueous ammonia pretreatment, Technoeconomic Analysis
While the production costs and logistical benefits of biomass pelleting have been widely discussed in the literature, the downstream economic and environmental benefits of processing pelleted biomass have been largely neglected. To investigate those benefits, we performed a comparative techno-economic analysis and life cycle assessment of producing ethanol using loose and pelleted forms of biomass. Analyses of a 2000 metric tons (dry)/d biorefinery showed that using pelleted biomass is more economical than using loose or baled biomass. The lowest minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) for pelleted biomass was USD 0.58/gal less than the lowest MESP for loose biomass. Among all processing conditions analyzed, MESP for ethanol produced with pelleted biomass was always lower than when produced with loose biomass. Shorter pretreatment and hydrolysis times, higher pretreatment solids loadings, lower ammonia requirements, and reduced enzyme loadings were the primary factors contributing to lowe... [more]
Economic Analysis of the Investments in Battery Energy Storage Systems: Review and Current Perspectives
Paulo Rotella Junior, Luiz Célio Souza Rocha, Sandra Naomi Morioka, Ivan Bolis, Gianfranco Chicco, Andrea Mazza, Karel Janda
April 19, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: economic feasibility, energy storage systems, power quality, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Technoeconomic Analysis
Sources such as solar and wind energy are intermittent, and this is seen as a barrier to their wide utilization. The increasing grid integration of intermittent renewable energy sources generation significantly changes the scenario of distribution grid operations. Such operational challenges are minimized by the incorporation of the energy storage system, which plays an important role in improving the stability and the reliability of the grid. This study provides the review of the state-of-the-art in the literature on the economic analysis of battery energy storage systems. The paper makes evident the growing interest of batteries as energy storage systems to improve techno-economic viability of renewable energy systems; provides a comprehensive overview of key methodological possibilities for researchers interested in economic analysis of battery energy storage systems; indicates the need to use adequate economic indicators for investment decisions; and identifies key research topics... [more]
Residential Photovoltaic Profitability with Storage under the New Spanish Regulation: A Multi-Scenario Analysis
Bruno Domenech, Gema Calleja, Jordi Olivella
April 14, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: battery storage, residential solar photovoltaic, self-consumption, self-sufficiency, Spain, Technoeconomic Analysis
In recent years, solar price drops and regulations have helped residential users to invest in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) facilities. In Spain, a novel law promotes self-consumption by discounting electricity fed into the grid from the utility bill. However, the performance of PV-based facilities depends on diverse factors. The contribution of this paper is to evaluate the techno-economic performance of such installations for different considerations linked to the Spanish law. A simulation model is used to examine different representative cities, load profiles and alternative objectives: maximising profitability and self-sufficiency. For profit maximisation, results show that load profile variations entail PV size changes up to 5 kWp for the same location, together with huge economic and self-sufficiency differences. In contrast, the solar radiation and compensation rate have a more limited influence. For self-sufficiency maximisation, the economic performance drops close to EUR 0... [more]
Techno-Economic Analysis of a Fuzzy Logic Control Based Hybrid Renewable Energy System to Power a University Campus in Japan
Tatsuya Hinokuma, Hooman Farzaneh, Ayas Shaqour
April 14, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: fuel cell, fuzzy logic, hybrid renewable energy system, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Technoeconomic Analysis
In order to reduce the load demand of buildings in Japan, this study proposes a grid-tied hybrid solar−wind−hydrogen system that is equipped with a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system, using a fuzzy logic control (FLC) algorithm. Compared with the existing MPPTs, the proposed MPPT provides rapid power control with small oscillations. The dynamic simulation of the proposed hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) was performed in MATLAB-Simulink, and the model results were validated using an experimental setup installed in the Chikushi campus, Kyushu University, Japan. The techno-economic analysis (TEA) of the proposed system was performed to estimate the optimal configuration of the proposed HRES, subject to satisfying the required annual load in the Chikushi campus. The results revealed a potential of 2% surplus power generation from the proposed HRES, using the FLC-based MPPT system, which can guarantee a lower levelized cost of electricity (LOCE) for the HRES and significant sav... [more]
Integration of Photovoltaic Electricity with Shallow Geothermal Systems for Residential Microgrids: Proof of Concept and Techno-Economic Analysis with RES2GEO Model
Luka Perković, Domagoj Leko, Amalia Lekić Brettschneider, Hrvoje Mikulčić, Petar S. Varbanov
April 14, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: decarbonisation, Energy Efficiency, geothermal heat pumps, levelized cost of energy, microgrid, photovoltaic, RES2GEO model, shallow geothermal, Technoeconomic Analysis
The European Union aims to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions by 55% before 2030 compared to 1990 as a reference year. One of the main contributions to GHG emissions comes from the household sector. This paper shows that the household sector, when organised into a form of prosumer microgrids, including renewable sources for electric, heating and cooling energy supply, can be efficiently decarbonised. This paper investigates one hypothetical prosumer microgrid with the model RES2GEO (Renewable Energy Sources to Geothermal). The aim is to integrate a carbon-free photovoltaic electricity source and a shallow geothermal reservoir as a heat source and heat sink during the heating and cooling season. A total of four cases have been evaluated for the Zagreb City location. The results represent a balance of both thermal and electric energy flows within the microgrid, as well as thermal recuperation of the reservoir. The levelised cost of energy for all cases, based on a 20-year modelling ho... [more]
Techno-Economic Analysis of a Stand-Alone Hybrid System: Application in Donoussa Island, Greece
Michail Katsivelakis, Dimitrios Bargiotas, Aspassia Daskalopulu, Ioannis P. Panapakidis, Lefteri Tsoukalas
April 14, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: excess electricity percentage, HOMER Pro, Levelizez Cost of Energy (LCoE), Net Present Cost (NPC), simulation-optimization, stand-alone hybrid system, Technoeconomic Analysis
Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems (HRES) are an attractive solution for the supply of electricity in remote areas like islands and communities where grid extension is difficult. Hybrid systems combine renewable energy sources with conventional units and battery storage in order to provide energy in an off-grid or on-grid system. The purpose of this study is to examine the techno-economical feasibility and viability of a hybrid system in Donoussa island, Greece, in different scenarios. A techno-economic analysis was conducted for a hybrid renewable energy system in three scenarios with different percentages of adoption rate (20%, 50% and 100%)and with different system configurations. Using HOMER Pro software the optimal system configuration between the feasible configurations of each scenario was selected, based on lowest Net Present Cost (NPC), minimum Excess Electricity percentage, and Levelized Cost of Energy (LCoE). The results obtained by the simulation could offer some operational r... [more]
Techno-Economic Analysis of On-Site Energy Storage Units to Mitigate Wind Energy Curtailment: A Case Study in Scotland
Seda Canbulat, Kutlu Balci, Onder Canbulat, I. Safak Bayram
April 14, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: “Case of Scotland”, cost-benefit analysis, Energy Efficiency, storage technologies, Technoeconomic Analysis, wind energy curtailment, wind farms
Wind energy plays a major role in decarbonisation of the electricity sector and supports achieving net-zero greenhouse gas emissions. Over the last decade, the wind energy deployments have grown steadily, accounting for more than one fourth of the annual electricity generation in countries like the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Germany. However, as the share of wind energy increases, system operators face challenges in managing excessive wind generation due to its nondispatchable nature. Currently, the most common practice is wind energy curtailment in which wind farm operators receive constraint payments to reduce their renewable energy production. This practice not only leads to wastage of large volumes of renewable energy, but also the associated financial cost is reflected to rate payers in the form of increased electricity bills. On-site energy storage technologies come to the forefront as a technology option to minimise wind energy curtailment and to harness wind energy in a more... [more]
CO2 Utilization Technologies: A Techno-Economic Analysis for Synthetic Natural Gas Production
Szabolcs Szima, Calin-Cristian Cormos
April 14, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: CO2 utilization, renewable hydrogen, synthetic natural gas, Technoeconomic Analysis
Production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) offers an alternative way to valorize captured CO2 from energy intensive industrial processes or from a dedicated CO2 grid. This paper presents an energy-efficient way for synthetic natural gas production using captured CO2 and renewable hydrogen. Considering several renewable hydrogen production sources, a techno-economic analysis was performed to find a promising path toward its practical application. In the paper, the five possible renewable hydrogen sources (photo fermentation, dark fermentation, biomass gasification, bio photolysis, and PV electrolysis) were compared to the two reference cases (steam methane reforming and water electrolysis) from an economic stand point using key performance indicators. Possible hydrogen production capacities were also considered for the evaluation. From a technical point of view, the SNG process is an efficient process from both energy efficiency (about 57%) and CO2 conversion rate (99%). From the evaluat... [more]
Assessing the Techno-Economic Impact of Derating Factors on Optimally Tilted Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Systems
Hasan Masrur, Keifa Vamba Konneh, Mikaeel Ahmadi, Kaisar R. Khan, Mohammad Lutfi Othman, Tomonobu Senjyu
April 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: grid-tied PV, PV derating factor, simulation and optimization, Technoeconomic Analysis
Photovoltaic (PV) systems encounter substantial losses throughout their lifespan due to the different derating factors of PV modules. Those factors mainly vary according to the geographical location and PV panel characteristics. However, the available literature does not explicitly concentrate on the technical and economic impact of the derating factors within the PV system. Owing to that necessity, this study performs a comprehensive analysis of various PV loss parameters followed by a techno-economic assessment of derating factors using the average value on a grid-connected and optimally tilted PV system located in Hatiya, Bangladesh. Some criteria linked to the derating factors such as PV degradation and ambient temperature are further explored to analyze their impact on the aforementioned power system. Simulation results show that PV power generation would vary around 12% annually, subject to a 10% variation in the derating factor. Again, a 10% difference in the derating factor cha... [more]
Breaking-Down and Parameterising Wave Energy Converter Costs Using the CapEx and Similitude Methods
Ophelie Choupin, Michael Henriksen, Amir Etemad-Shahidi, Rodger Tomlinson
April 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: CapEx method, capital expenditure (CapEx), cost breakdown and parameterisation, cost model, Froude law similarities, Similitude method, Technoeconomic Analysis, wave energy converter (WEC)
Wave energy converters (WECs) can play a significant role in the transition towards a more renewable-based energy mix as stable and unlimited energy resources. Financial analysis of these projects requires WECs cost and WEC capital expenditure (CapEx) information. However, (i) cost information is often limited due to confidentiality and (ii) the wave energy field lacks flexible methods for cost breakdown and parameterisation, whereas they are needed for rapid and optimised WEC configuration and worldwide site pairing. This study takes advantage of the information provided by Wavepiston to compare different costing methods. The work assesses the Froude-Law-similarities-based “Similitude method” for cost-scaling and introduces the more flexible and generic “CapEx method” divided into three steps: (1) distinguishing WEC’s elements from the wave energy farm (WEF)’s; (2) defining the parameters characterising the WECs, WEFs, and site locations; and (3) estimating elements that affect WEC an... [more]
Improving the Anaerobic Digestion of Swine Manure through an Optimized Ammonia Treatment: Process Performance, Digestate and Techno-Economic Aspects
Anna Lymperatou, Niels B. Rasmussen, Hariklia N. Gavala, Ioannis V. Skiadas
April 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: ammonia pretreatment, anaerobic digestion, aqueous ammonia soaking, biogas, continuous anaerobic digestion, CSTR, manure, manure fibers, methane, Technoeconomic Analysis
Swine manure mono-digestion results in relatively low methane productivity due to the low degradation rate of its solid fraction (manure fibers), and due to the high ammonia and water content. The aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) pretreatment of manure fibers has been proposed for overcoming these limitations. In this study, continuous anaerobic digestion (AD) of manure mixed with optimally AAS-treated manure fibers was compared to the AD of manure mixed with untreated manure fibers. Due to lab-scale pumping restrictions, the ratio of AAS-optimally treated manure fibers to manure was only 1/3 on a total solids (TS) basis. However, the biogas productivity and methane yield were improved by 17% and 38%, respectively, also confirming the predictions from a simplified 1st order hydrolysis model based on batch experiments. Furthermore, an improved reduction efficiency of major organic components was observed for the digester processing AAS-treated manure fibers compared to the non-treated one... [more]
Combined Use of Solar and Biomass Energy for Sustainable and Cost-Effective Low-Temperature Drying of Food Processing Residues on Industrial-Scale
Özge Çepelioğullar Mutlu, Daniel Büchner, Steffi Theurich, Thomas Zeng
April 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, drying, solar energy, Technoeconomic Analysis, thermodynamic modeling
In this study, a low-temperature drying plant based on renewable energies to dry food processing wastes is investigated. The demand-oriented heat supply is realized by a solar wall in combination with a biomass boiler. Due to the operational complexity of such a system with different sub-units and process parameters, steady-state simulations were performed in Aspen Plus to provide an insight into the process. Moreover, a time-resolved energetic evaluation was conducted to analyze the influence of varying capacity of the heat sources and operational strategy in addition to economic calculations. The simulations showed that an overall control strategy needs to consider the air properties as well as the flow rate of wet input material. In the reference case, the boiler must be operated at full load through the year to supply as much heat as possible. The revenue from the dried material was the most crucial parameter on the drying economics. Although the current plant configuration operati... [more]
Hybridizing Lead−Acid Batteries with Supercapacitors: A Methodology
Xi Luo, Jorge Varela Barreras, Clementine L. Chambon, Billy Wu, Efstratios Batzelis
April 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: battery degradation, depth of discharge, energy management system, hybrid energy storage system, lead–acid battery, supercapacitor, Technoeconomic Analysis
Hybridizing a lead−acid battery energy storage system (ESS) with supercapacitors is a promising solution to cope with the increased battery degradation in standalone microgrids that suffer from irregular electricity profiles. There are many studies in the literature on such hybrid energy storage systems (HESS), usually examining the various hybridization aspects separately. This paper provides a holistic look at the design of an HESS. A new control scheme is proposed that applies power filtering to smooth out the battery profile, while strictly adhering to the supercapacitors’ voltage limits. A new lead−acid battery model is introduced, which accounts for the combined effects of a microcycle’s depth of discharge (DoD) and battery temperature, usually considered separately in the literature. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis on the thermal parameters and an economic analysis were performed using a 90-day electricity profile from an actual DC microgrid in India to infer the hybridizati... [more]
Design Framework of a Stand-Alone Microgrid Considering Power System Performance and Economic Efficiency
Hak-Ju Lee, Ba Hau Vu, Rehman Zafar, Sung-Wook Hwang, Il-Yop Chung
April 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: dynamic performance, microgrid design, renewable energy integration, stand-alone microgrid, Technoeconomic Analysis
Stand-alone microgrids integrating renewable energy sources have emerged as an efficient energy solution for electrifying isolated sites, such as islands and remote areas. The design of a microgrid involves various influential factors, including technological development, economic feasibility, and environmental impacts, based on the conditions and regulations of a particular site. This paper proposes a comprehensive microgrid design framework based on power system analysis and techno-economic analysis. The obtained optimal microgrid configuration satisfies both the design objective and power system performance regulations. The proposed design approach focuses on using practical data and can adapt to any microgrid design problems based on the local characteristics of a specific site. The practicality and effectiveness of the design framework are validated by applying it to the design of a stand-alone microgrid for Deokjeok Island in South Korea. The case study results justify the import... [more]
Highly Efficient CO2 Capture and Utilization of Coal and Coke-Oven Gas Coupling for Urea Synthesis Process Integrated with Chemical Looping Technology: Modeling, Parameter Optimization, and Performance Analysis
Qiang Wang, Yong Yang, Huairong Zhou
April 11, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: chemical looping technology, conceptual design, highly efficient CO2 capture and utilization, pressure swing adsorption, Technoeconomic Analysis
The resource endowment structure of being coal-rich and oil-poor makes China’s production of coal-based ammonia and urea, with a low production cost and a good market, a competitive advantage. However, the process suffers from high CO2 emissions and low energy efficiency and carbon utilization efficiency due to the mismatch of hydrogen-to-carbon ratio between raw coal and chemicals. Based on the coal-to-urea (CTU) process and coal-based chemical looping technology for urea production processes (CTUCLAS&H), a novel urea synthesis process from a coal and coke-oven gas-based co-feed chemical looping system (COG-CTUCLAS&H) is proposed in this paper. By integrating chemical looping air separation and chemical looping hydrogen production technologies and the synergies between coal gasification, low-energy consumption CO2 capture and CO2 utilization are realized; the excess carbon emissions of the CTU process are avoided through coupling the pressure swing adsorption of COG, and the low carbo... [more]
Environmental and Economic Assessments and Uncertainties of Multiple Lignocellulosic Biomass Utilization for Bioenergy Products: Case Studies
Yuxi Wang, Jingxin Wang, Xufeng Zhang, Shawn Grushecky
April 11, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: bioeconomy, bioenergy, biomass utilization, life cycle assessment, Technoeconomic Analysis, uncertainty
Life-cycle assessment (LCA) and techno-economic analysis (TEA) were applied to assess the economic feasibility and environmental benefits of utilizing multiple biomass feedstocks for bioenergy products under three different technological pathways with consideration of uncertainties. Three cases were studied for the production of pellets, biomass-based electricity, and pyrolysis bio-oil. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to examine the uncertainties of fossil energy consumption, bioenergy conversion efficiency, stochastic production rate, etc. The cradle-to-gate LCA results showed that pellet production had the lowest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water and fossil fuels consumption (8.29 kg CO2 eq (equivalent), 0.46 kg, and 105.42 MJ, respectively). The conversion process presented a greater environmental impact for all three bioenergy products. When producing 46,929 Mg of pellets, 223,380 MWh of electricity, and 78,000 barrels of pyrolysis oil, the net present values (NPV) indicated... [more]
Techno-Economic and Environmental Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Fischer−Tropsch Synthesis Integrated to Sugarcane Biorefineries
Jéssica Marcon Bressanin, Bruno Colling Klein, Mateus Ferreira Chagas, Marcos Djun Barbosa Watanabe, Isabelle Lobo de Mesquita Sampaio, Antonio Bonomi, Edvaldo Rodrigo de Morais, Otávio Cavalett
April 3, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: energy-cane, eucalyptus, Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, gasification, Life Cycle Assessment, sugarcane, Technoeconomic Analysis, thermochemical conversion, validation biorefinery
Large-scale deployment of both biochemical and thermochemical routes for advanced biofuels production is seen as a key climate change mitigation option. This study addresses techno-economic and environmental aspects of advanced liquid biofuels production alternatives via biomass gasification and Fischer−Tropsch synthesis integrated to a typical sugarcane distillery. The thermochemical route comprises the conversion of the residual lignocellulosic fraction of conventional sugarcane (bagasse and straw), together with eucalyptus and energy-cane as emerging lignocellulosic biomass options. This work promotes an integrated framework to simulate the mass and energy balances of process alternatives and incorporates techno-economic analyses and sustainability assessment methods based on a life-cycle perspective. Results show that integrated biorefineries provide greenhouse gas emission reduction between 85−95% compared to the fossil equivalent, higher than that expected from a typical sugarcan... [more]
Assessing Hydrokinetic Energy in the Mexican Caribbean: A Case Study in the Cozumel Channel
Juan F. Bárcenas Graniel, Jassiel V. H. Fontes, Hector F. Gomez Garcia, Rodolfo Silva
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: cost of renewable energy, cozumel, developing regions, environmental constraints, marine turbines, ocean current energy, Technoeconomic Analysis
This paper presents a techno-economic assessment of hydrokinetic energy of Cozumel Island, where ocean currents have been detected, but tourist activities are paramount. The main objective of this research is to identify devices that have been used to harvest hydrokinetic power elsewhere and perform an economic analysis as to their implementation in the Mexican Caribbean. First, the energy potential of the area was evaluated using simulated data available through the HYCOM consortium. Then, for four pre-commercial and commercial turbines, technical and economic analyses of their deployments were performed. Socio-environmental constraints were reviewed and discussed. Three optimal sites were identified, with an average annual hydrokinetic energy density of 3−6 MWh/m2-year. These sites meet the socio-environmental requirements for marine kinetic energy harvesting. Of the turbines considered in the analysis, the best energy price/cost ratio is that of SeaGen device, with a maximum theoret... [more]
Techno-Economic Analysis of a Process for the Aqueous Conversion of Corn Stover into Lactic and Levulinic Acid through Sn-Beta Catalysis
Andrew Kohler, Wayne Seames, Cassandra Shaeffer, Cara Bjerke, Jacob Dahl
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: lactic acid, levulinic acid, renewable chemicals, renewable fuels, Technoeconomic Analysis
A readily available source for renewable fuels and chemicals is corn stover, which consists of the leftover stalks, leaves, husks, and cobs from the corn plant and makes up nearly half of the yield of a corn crop. Common practice is to pretreat it with sulfuric acid to break down the hemicellulose, releasing xylose, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to convert the cellulose into glucose. Using a Sn-Beta catalyst, it is possible to convert these monomeric sugars into lactic, levulinic, formic, and acetic acids. This paper presents the results of a techno-economic analysis (TEA) of the commercial feasibility of producing these acids from corn stover. Two preliminary process designs were evaluated which represent two separate reaction yields: a balanced yield of both lactic and levulinic acids and the yields from a co-catalysis with CaSO4 to produce primarily lactic acid. Both process designs are scaled to process 230,000 MT/year of corn stover. An AACS Class 4 factored broad capital cost... [more]
Creating Values from Biomass Pyrolysis in Sweden: Co-Production of H2, Biocarbon and Bio-Oil
Ilman Nuran Zaini, Nanta Sophonrat, Kurt Sjöblom, Weihong Yang
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Aspen Plus, biochar, bioenergy, hydrogen production, process simulation, Technoeconomic Analysis
Hydrogen and biocarbon are important materials for the future fossil-free metallurgical industries in Sweden; thus, it is interesting to investigate the process that can simultaneously produce both. Process simulations of biomass pyrolysis coupled with steam reforming and water-gas-shift to produce H2, biocarbon, and bio-oil are investigated in this work. The process simulation is performed based on a biomass pyrolysis plant currently operating in Sweden. Two co-production schemes are proposed: (1) production of biocarbon and H2, and (2) production of biocarbon, H2, and bio-oil. Sensitivity analysis is also performed to investigate the performance of the production schemes under different operating parameters. The results indicated that there are no notable differences in terms of the thermal efficiency for both cases. Varying the bio-oil condenser temperature only slightly changes the system’s thermal efficiency by less than 2%. On the other hand, an increase in biomass moisture conte... [more]
Community Resilience-Oriented Optimal Micro-Grid Capacity Expansion Planning: The Case of Totarabank Eco-Village, New Zealand
Soheil Mohseni, Alan C. Brent, Daniel Burmester
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: critical loads, electric vehicles, energy resilience, HOMER Pro, microgrids, New Zealand, optimal expansion planning, renewable energy systems, resilient energy systems, Technoeconomic Analysis
In the grid-tied micro-grid context, energy resilience can be defined as the time period that a local energy system can supply the critical loads during an unplanned upstream grid outage. While the role of renewable-based micro-grids in enhancing communities’ energy resilience is well-appreciated, the academic literature on the techno-economic optimisation of community-scale micro-grids lacks a quantitative decision support analysis concerning the inclusion of a minimum resilience constraint in the optimisation process. Utilising a specifically-developed, time-based resilience capacity characterisation method to quantify the sustainability of micro-grids in the face of different levels of extended grid power outages, this paper facilitates stakeholder decision-making on the trade-off between the whole-life cost of a community micro-grid system and its degree of resilience. Furthermore, this paper focuses on energy infrastructure expansion planning, aiming to analyse the importance of m... [more]
Optimal Sizing and Scheduling of Hybrid Energy Systems: The Cases of Morona Santiago and the Galapagos Islands
Pablo Benalcazar, Adam Suski, Jacek Kamiński
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Ecuador, hybrid energy systems, Modelling, Optimization, sizing, Technoeconomic Analysis
Hybrid energy systems (HESs) generate electricity from multiple energy sources that complement each other. Recently, due to the reduction in costs of photovoltaic (PV) modules and wind turbines, these types of systems have become economically competitive. In this study, a mathematical programming model is applied to evaluate the techno-economic feasibility of autonomous units located in two isolated areas of Ecuador: first, the province of Galapagos (subtropical island) and second, the province of Morona Santiago (Amazonian tropical forest). The two case studies suggest that HESs are potential solutions to reduce the dependence of rural villages on fossil fuels and viable mechanisms to bring electrical power to isolated communities in Ecuador. Our results reveal that not only from the economic but also from the environmental point of view, for the case of the Galapagos province, a hybrid energy system with a PV−wind−battery configuration and a levelized cost of energy (LCOE) equal to 0... [more]
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