Records with Keyword: Technoeconomic Analysis
Showing records 1 to 25 of 86. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 Last
Assessing Hydrokinetic Energy in the Mexican Caribbean: A Case Study in the Cozumel Channel
Juan F. Bárcenas Graniel, Jassiel V. H. Fontes, Hector F. Gomez Garcia, Rodolfo Silva
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: cost of renewable energy, cozumel, developing regions, environmental constraints, marine turbines, ocean current energy, Technoeconomic Analysis
This paper presents a techno-economic assessment of hydrokinetic energy of Cozumel Island, where ocean currents have been detected, but tourist activities are paramount. The main objective of this research is to identify devices that have been used to harvest hydrokinetic power elsewhere and perform an economic analysis as to their implementation in the Mexican Caribbean. First, the energy potential of the area was evaluated using simulated data available through the HYCOM consortium. Then, for four pre-commercial and commercial turbines, technical and economic analyses of their deployments were performed. Socio-environmental constraints were reviewed and discussed. Three optimal sites were identified, with an average annual hydrokinetic energy density of 3−6 MWh/m2-year. These sites meet the socio-environmental requirements for marine kinetic energy harvesting. Of the turbines considered in the analysis, the best energy price/cost ratio is that of SeaGen device, with a maximum theoret... [more]
Techno-Economic Analysis of a Process for the Aqueous Conversion of Corn Stover into Lactic and Levulinic Acid through Sn-Beta Catalysis
Andrew Kohler, Wayne Seames, Cassandra Shaeffer, Cara Bjerke, Jacob Dahl
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: lactic acid, levulinic acid, renewable chemicals, renewable fuels, Technoeconomic Analysis
A readily available source for renewable fuels and chemicals is corn stover, which consists of the leftover stalks, leaves, husks, and cobs from the corn plant and makes up nearly half of the yield of a corn crop. Common practice is to pretreat it with sulfuric acid to break down the hemicellulose, releasing xylose, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to convert the cellulose into glucose. Using a Sn-Beta catalyst, it is possible to convert these monomeric sugars into lactic, levulinic, formic, and acetic acids. This paper presents the results of a techno-economic analysis (TEA) of the commercial feasibility of producing these acids from corn stover. Two preliminary process designs were evaluated which represent two separate reaction yields: a balanced yield of both lactic and levulinic acids and the yields from a co-catalysis with CaSO4 to produce primarily lactic acid. Both process designs are scaled to process 230,000 MT/year of corn stover. An AACS Class 4 factored broad capital cost... [more]
Creating Values from Biomass Pyrolysis in Sweden: Co-Production of H2, Biocarbon and Bio-Oil
Ilman Nuran Zaini, Nanta Sophonrat, Kurt Sjöblom, Weihong Yang
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Aspen Plus, biochar, bioenergy, hydrogen production, process simulation, Technoeconomic Analysis
Hydrogen and biocarbon are important materials for the future fossil-free metallurgical industries in Sweden; thus, it is interesting to investigate the process that can simultaneously produce both. Process simulations of biomass pyrolysis coupled with steam reforming and water-gas-shift to produce H2, biocarbon, and bio-oil are investigated in this work. The process simulation is performed based on a biomass pyrolysis plant currently operating in Sweden. Two co-production schemes are proposed: (1) production of biocarbon and H2, and (2) production of biocarbon, H2, and bio-oil. Sensitivity analysis is also performed to investigate the performance of the production schemes under different operating parameters. The results indicated that there are no notable differences in terms of the thermal efficiency for both cases. Varying the bio-oil condenser temperature only slightly changes the system’s thermal efficiency by less than 2%. On the other hand, an increase in biomass moisture conte... [more]
Community Resilience-Oriented Optimal Micro-Grid Capacity Expansion Planning: The Case of Totarabank Eco-Village, New Zealand
Soheil Mohseni, Alan C. Brent, Daniel Burmester
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: critical loads, electric vehicles, energy resilience, HOMER Pro, microgrids, New Zealand, optimal expansion planning, renewable energy systems, resilient energy systems, Technoeconomic Analysis
In the grid-tied micro-grid context, energy resilience can be defined as the time period that a local energy system can supply the critical loads during an unplanned upstream grid outage. While the role of renewable-based micro-grids in enhancing communities’ energy resilience is well-appreciated, the academic literature on the techno-economic optimisation of community-scale micro-grids lacks a quantitative decision support analysis concerning the inclusion of a minimum resilience constraint in the optimisation process. Utilising a specifically-developed, time-based resilience capacity characterisation method to quantify the sustainability of micro-grids in the face of different levels of extended grid power outages, this paper facilitates stakeholder decision-making on the trade-off between the whole-life cost of a community micro-grid system and its degree of resilience. Furthermore, this paper focuses on energy infrastructure expansion planning, aiming to analyse the importance of m... [more]
Optimal Sizing and Scheduling of Hybrid Energy Systems: The Cases of Morona Santiago and the Galapagos Islands
Pablo Benalcazar, Adam Suski, Jacek Kamiński
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Ecuador, hybrid energy systems, Modelling, Optimization, sizing, Technoeconomic Analysis
Hybrid energy systems (HESs) generate electricity from multiple energy sources that complement each other. Recently, due to the reduction in costs of photovoltaic (PV) modules and wind turbines, these types of systems have become economically competitive. In this study, a mathematical programming model is applied to evaluate the techno-economic feasibility of autonomous units located in two isolated areas of Ecuador: first, the province of Galapagos (subtropical island) and second, the province of Morona Santiago (Amazonian tropical forest). The two case studies suggest that HESs are potential solutions to reduce the dependence of rural villages on fossil fuels and viable mechanisms to bring electrical power to isolated communities in Ecuador. Our results reveal that not only from the economic but also from the environmental point of view, for the case of the Galapagos province, a hybrid energy system with a PV−wind−battery configuration and a levelized cost of energy (LCOE) equal to 0... [more]
Utilization of Excess Production of Waste-Fired CHP Plants for District Cooling Supply, an Effective Solution for a Serious Challenge
Mika Fabricius, Daniel Øland Tarp, Thomas Wehl Rasmussen, Ahmad Arabkoohsar
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: district cooling, district heating, MSW management, Technoeconomic Analysis, waste incineration
District heating-connected waste incineration plants face a serious operating challenge during the warmer months of the year when the heating load is quite low. The challenge is the difficulty of managing the extra municipal solid waste to be disposed of, exposing great pressure and cost on the plant. Conventionally, the solution is either burning the surplus waste and providing the extra cooling required for the condenser with a summer chiller and paying the tax of the total heat generation of the plant, or paying other industries to burn the waste for their specific applications. Both of these solutions are, however, costly. In this study, to address this challenge the utilization of the extra available resources of waste incineration plants for district cooling supply is proposed. Then, the proposed solution is analyzed from the thermodynamic and economic points of view. The feasibility of the proposal is investigated for a real waste incineration plant in Denmark and its 50 neighbo... [more]
Techno-Economic Assessment of the Use of Syngas Generated from Biomass to Feed an Internal Combustion Engine
J. R. Copa, C. E. Tuna, J. L. Silveira, R. A. M. Boloy, P. Brito, V. Silva, J. Cardoso, D. Eusébio
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biomass gasification, Energy Efficiency, internal combustion engines-generator, Monte Carlo method, small-scale systems, Technoeconomic Analysis
The focus of this study is to provide a comparative techno-economic analysis concerning the deployment of small-scale gasification systems in dealing with various fuels from two countries, Portugal and Brazil, for electricity generation in a 15 kWe downdraft gasifier. To quantify this, a mathematical model was implemented and validated against experimental runs gathered from the downdraft reactor. Further, a spreadsheet economic model was developed combining the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and the payback period (PBP) over the project’s lifetime set to 25 years. Cost factors included expenses related to electricity generation, initial investment, operation and maintenance and fuel costs. Revenues were estimated from the electricity sales to the grid. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was used to measure the performance of the economic model and determine the investment risk. The analysis showed an electricity production between 11.6 to 15 kW, with a general... [more]
A Preliminary Techno-Economic Analysis on the Calcium Looping Process with Simultaneous Capture of CO2 and SO2 from a Coal-Based Combustion Power Plant
Antonio Coppola, Fabrizio Scala
March 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: calcium looping, Carbon Dioxide Capture, coal-based power plant, desulphurization, Technoeconomic Analysis
The increase of capital investments and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs represents a current limitation to the diffusion of carbon capture systems for the clean combustion of fossil fuels. However, post-combustion systems, such as calcium looping (CaL), for CO2 capture from flue gas are the most attractive carbon capture systems since they can be installed at new plants and retrofitted into existing power plants. This work investigates the pros and cons of employing a calcium looping system for CO2 capture and also as a desulphurization unit. A preliminary techno-economic analysis was carried out comparing a base case consisting of a coal-based power plant of about 550MWe with a desulphurization unit (Case 1), the same plant but with a CaL system added for CO2 capture (Case 2), or the same plant but with a CaL system for simultaneous capture of CO2 and SO2 and the removal of the desulphurization unit (Case 3). Case 2 resulted in a 67% increase of capital investment with respect t... [more]
Ultracapacitors for Port Crane Applications: Sizing and Techno-Economic Analysis
Mostafa Kermani, Giuseppe Parise, Ben Chavdarian, Luigi Martirano
March 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: energy cost, energy storage system (ESS), peak shaving, ship to shore (STS) crane, Technoeconomic Analysis, ultracapacitor sizing
The use of energy storage with high power density and fast response time at container terminals (CTs) with a power demand of tens of megawatts is one of the most critical factors for peak reduction and economic benefits. Peak shaving can balance the load demand and facilitate the participation of small power units in generation based on renewable energies. Therefore, in this paper, the economic efficiency of peak demand reduction in ship to shore (STS) cranes based on the ultracapacitor (UC) energy storage sizing has been investigated. The results show the UC energy storage significantly reduce the peak demand, increasing the load factor, load leveling, and most importantly, an outstanding reduction in power and energy cost. In fact, the suggested approach is the start point to improve reliability and reduce peak demand energy consumption.
Techno-Economic Analysis (TEA) of Different Pretreatment and Product Separation Technologies for Cellulosic Butanol Production from Oil Palm Frond
Nazira Mahmud, Kurt A. Rosentrater
March 22, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: ABE fermentation, cellulosic butanol, LMAA pretreatment, Technoeconomic Analysis
Among the driving factors for the high production cost of cellulosic butanol lies the pretreatment and product separation sections, which often demand high amounts of energy, chemicals, and water. In this study, techno-economic analysis of several pretreatments and product separation technologies were conducted and compared. Among the pretreatment technologies evaluated, low-moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) pretreatment has shown notable potential with a pretreatment cost of $0.16/L butanol. Other pretreatment technologies evaluated were autohydrolysis, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), and soaking in sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) with pretreatment costs of $1.98/L, $3.77/L, and $0.61/L, respectively. Evaluation of different product separation technologies for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process have shown that in situ stripping has the lowest separation cost, which was $0.21/L. Other product separation technologies tested were dual extraction, adsorption, and membra... [more]
Experimental Analysis of Bi-Directional Heat Trading Operation Integrated with Heat Prosumers in Thermal Networks
Min-Hwi Kim, Deuk-Won Kim, Dong-Won Lee, Jaehyeok Heo
March 9, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: bi-directional thermal trade, heat prosumer, Technoeconomic Analysis, thermal network
District cooling and heating methods that can utilize highly efficient heat pumps and various unused new and renewable types of energy are required to achieve low carbon emissions and zero energy usage in buildings and community units. The technical requirements for the implementation of decentralized thermal networks and heat trading are increasing, both for thermal networks in new buildings and for those remodeled based on existing centralized thermal networks. In this study, a conventional centralized thermal network was implemented as a decentralized thermal network and the possibility of heat prosumers feeding thermal networks was demonstrated experimentally. A real-scale plant was constructed by employing unused thermal energy facilities as prosumers in a school and childcare center based on the existing small-scale block heating and cooling thermal network. The decentralized thermal network and heat prosumer concepts were proven through operation experiments performed on the con... [more]
Investigation of Optimal Hybrid Energy Systems Using Available Energy Sources in a Rural Area of Bangladesh
Fazlur Rashid, Md. Emdadul Hoque, Muhammad Aziz, Talukdar Nazmus Sakib, Md. Tariqul Islam, Raihan Moker Robin
March 9, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: cost of energy, hybrid renewable system of energy, net present cost, photovoltaic system, Technoeconomic Analysis
The aims of this paper are to develop hybrid energy systems considering biomass energy sources as well as a framework and optimal configuration of hybrid systems of energy for a southern sub-urban area of Bhola district in Bangladesh, named Kukri Mukri island, and analyse the feasibility of the techno-economic prospects of these systems. In this work, electrification for the rural area is analysed for different configurations of the hybrid systems. The estimation of available resources with optimal sizing and analysis of techno-economic aspects is done through HOMER Pro software to satisfy the demand of peak load. Different configurations of hybrid energy systems, including PV/diesel, PV/wind, PV/diesel/wind, PV/wind/diesel/biomass, and wind/diesel, are analysed and compared through optimization of different energy sources in HOMER. The size of the system and components are optimized and designed depending on the net present cost (NPC) and the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). Due to th... [more]
Interlinking the Renewable Electricity and Gas Sectors: A Techno-Economic Case Study for Austria
Christoph Sejkora, Johannes Lindorfer, Lisa Kühberger, Thomas Kienberger
March 9, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: decarbonisation, electrolysis, green hydrogen, levelised cost of hydrogen, national energy system, national potential, power to gas, scenario analysis, Technoeconomic Analysis
Achieving climate neutrality requires a massive transformation of current energy systems. Fossil energy sources must be replaced with renewable ones. Renewable energy sources with reasonable potential such as photovoltaics or wind power provide electricity. However, since chemical energy carriers are essential for various sectors and applications, the need for renewable gases comes more and more into focus. This paper determines the Austrian green hydrogen potential, produced exclusively from electricity surpluses. In combination with assumed sustainable methane production, the resulting renewable gas import demand is identified, based on two fully decarbonised scenarios for the investigated years 2030, 2040 and 2050. While in one scenario energy efficiency is maximised, in the other scenario significant behavioural changes are considered to reduce the total energy consumption. A techno-economic analysis is used to identify the economically reasonable national green hydrogen potential... [more]
What Are the Policy Impacts on Renewable Jet Fuel in Sweden?
Jenny Trinh, Fumi Harahap, Anton Fagerström, Julia Hansson
March 7, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Biofuels, electrofuels, policy mix, spatial and temporal analysis, supply-chain optimization, sustainable aviation fuels, Sweden, Technoeconomic Analysis
The aviation industry contributes to more than 2% of global human-induced CO2-emissions, and it is expected to increase to 3% by 2050 as demand for aviation grows. As the industry is still dependent on conventional jet fuel, an essential component for a carbon-neutral growth is low-carbon, sustainable aviation fuels, for example alternative drop-in fuels with biobased components. An optimization model was developed for the case of Sweden to examine the impacts of carbon price, blending mandates and penalty fee (for not reaching the blending mandate) on the production of renewable jet fuel (RJF). The model included biomass gasification-based Fischer−Tropsch (FT) jet fuel, Power-to-Liquid (PTL) jet fuel through the FT route and Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL)-based jet fuel. Thus, this study aims at answering how combining different policies for the aviation sector can support the production of RJF in Sweden while reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The results demonstrate the impor... [more]
Valuation of Distributed Wind in an Isolated System
Sarah Barrows, Kendall Mongird, Brian Naughton, Rachid Darbali-Zamora
March 7, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: benefit–cost analysis, distributed energy resources, distributed wind, economics, isolated systems, remote communities, Technoeconomic Analysis, valuation
Remote communities are increasingly adopting renewable energy, such as wind, as they transition away from diesel energy generation. It is important to understand the benefits and costs of wind energy to isolated systems so that decision-makers can optimize their choices in these communities. There are few examples of valuation of wind energy as a distributed resource and numerous differences in valuation approaches, especially in the inclusion of environmental and economic impacts. We apply a distributed wind valuation framework to calculate the benefits and costs of wind in St. Mary’s, Alaska, to the local electric cooperative and to society, finding that the project does not have a favorable benefit-to-cost ratio unless societal benefits are included, in which case the benefit-to-cost ratio is nearly double. Government funding is important to reducing the initial capital expenditures of this wind project and will likely be the case for projects with similar characteristics. Additiona... [more]
Cost and Emissions Reduction in CO2 Capture Plant Dependent on Heat Exchanger Type and Different Process Configurations: Optimum Temperature Approach Analysis
Solomon Aforkoghene Aromada, Nils Henrik Eldrup, Lars Erik Øi
March 3, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide Capture, MEA, process simulation, Technoeconomic Analysis, waste heat
The performance of a plate heat exchanger (PHE), in comparison with the conventional shell and tube types, through a trade-off analysis of energy cost and capital cost resulting from different temperature approaches in the cross-exchanger of a solvent-based CO2 capture process, was evaluated. The aim was to examine the cost reduction and CO2 emission reduction potentials of the different heat exchangers. Each specific heat exchanger type was assumed for the cross-exchanger, the lean amine cooler and the cooler to cool the direct contact cooler’s circulation water. The study was conducted for flue gases from a natural-gas combined-cycle power plant and the Brevik cement plant in Norway. The standard and the lean vapour compression CO2 absorption configurations were used for the study. The PHE outperformed the fixed tube sheet shell and tube heat exchanger (FTS-STHX) and the other STHXs economically and in emissions reduction. The optimal minimum temperature approach for the PHE cases ba... [more]
Assessment of Waterfront Office Redevelopment Plan on Optimal Building Arrangements with Rooftop Photovoltaics: A Case Study for Shinagawa, Tokyo
Younghun Choi, Takuro Kobashi, Yoshiki Yamagata, Akito Murayama
March 2, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: building, CO2 emission, electricity demand, photovoltaics, Technoeconomic Analysis, urban decarbonization
Designing waterfront redevelopment generally focuses on attractiveness, leisure, and beauty, resulting in various types of building and block shapes with limited considerations on environmental aspects. However, increasing climate change impacts necessitate these buildings to be sustainable, resilient, and zero CO2 emissions. By producing five scenarios (plus existing buildings) with constant floor areas, we investigated how buildings and district forms with building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) affect energy consumption and production, self-sufficiency, CO2 emission, and energy costs in the context of waterfront redevelopment in Tokyo. From estimated hourly electricity demands of the buildings, techno-economic analyses were conducted for rooftop PV systems for 2018 and 2030 with declining costs of rooftop PV systems. We found that environmental building designs with rooftop PV system are increasingly economical in Tokyo with CO2 emission reduction of 2−9% that depends on rooftop si... [more]
A Techno-Economic Analysis of Energy Storage Components of Microgrids for Improving Energy Management Strategies
Alla Ndiaye, Fabrice Locment, Alexandre De Bernardinis, Manuela Sechilariu, Eduardo Redondo-Iglesias
March 2, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: aging modelling, lithium-ion batteries, microgrids, supercapacitors, Technoeconomic Analysis
Microgrids are essential elements of the energy transition because they allow optimal use of renewable energy sources (photovoltaic panels, wind turbines) and storage devices (batteries, supercapacitors) by connecting them to consumption poles (e.g., buildings, charging stations of electric vehicles). Lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors are the main electrical storage devices usually used by microgrids for energy and power transient management. In the present paper, microgrid simulations have been performed. Electrothermal and aging models of storage components are presented. Strategies and scenarios for the batteries are presented either based on the state of charge limitation or hybrid association with supercapacitors. The contribution of this study is to provide a management strategy which considers the aging of storage systems in the real-time management of the microgrid in order to extend their life, while minimizing installation costs. The first approach for a techno-econom... [more]
Comparison of China’s Biomass Combustion Power Generation with Different Installed Capacities
Xiaocheng Zhu, Yanru Zhang, Zhenzhong Wang, Xunzhang Pan
March 2, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, installed capacity, operating status, power generation, Technoeconomic Analysis
As a major technical route to utilize biomass energy, biomass combustion power generation (BCPG) has been shown to be of environmental and economic significance. According to the operating experience, the installed capacity has a decisive impact on the operation and economic return of BCPG projects. In China, an installed capacity of either 30 MW or 12 MW is often chosen for constructing a BCPG project. To explore which one is more suitable for China, this paper uses actual operating data to compare the operation performance and techno-economics of two representative BCPG projects with an installed capacity of 30 MW and 12 MW. The results show that the operation situation and electricity production of the 30 MW project are better than those of the 12 MW project. The 30 MW project has a lower biomass consumption than the 12 MW project to produce per unit of electricity. The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of the 30 MW project is greater than the industry benchmark in China and is almost t... [more]
Parametric Thermo-Economic Analysis of a Power-to-Gas Energy System with Renewable Input, High Temperature Co-Electrolysis and Methanation
Maria Alessandra Ancona, Vincenzo Antonucci, Lisa Branchini, Francesco Catena, Andrea De Pascale, Alessandra Di Blasi, Marco Ferraro, Cristina Italiano, Francesco Melino, Antonio Vita
March 2, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: co-electrolysis, methanation, Power-to-Gas, renewables, storage system, Technoeconomic Analysis
A complete thermo-economic analysis on a cutting-edge Power-to-Gas system that comprises innovative technologies (a Solid Oxide Electrolyte Cell co-electrolyzer and an experimental methanator) and coupled with a renewable generator is provided in this study. The conducted economic analysis (which has never been applied to this typology of system) is aimed at the estimation of the synthetic natural gas cost of a product through a cash flow analysis. Various plant configurations—with different operating temperatures and pressure levels of the key components (electrolyzer: 600−850 °C; 1−8 bar)—are compared to identify possible thermal synergies. Parametric investigations are performed, to assess both the effect of the thermodynamic arrangements and of the economic boundary conditions. Results show that the combination of a system at ambient pressure and with a thermal synergy between the co-electrolyzer and the high-temperature methanator presents the best economic performance (up to 8% l... [more]
Design and Techno-Economic Analysis of a Novel Hybrid Offshore Wind and Wave Energy System
Ermando Petracca, Emilio Faraggiana, Alberto Ghigo, Massimo Sirigu, Giovanni Bracco, Giuliana Mattiazzo
March 1, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Dynamic Modelling, floating offshore wind, hybrid energy solutions, hydrostatic analysis, LCOE, offshore wind energy, point absorber, Technoeconomic Analysis, wave energy converter, wind farm
In the past few years, advanced technologies such as floating offshore wind turbines (FOWT) and wave energy converters (WECs) have been developed. As demonstrated by the innovative hybrid platform Poseidon, the feasibility of combining floating wind turbines and wave energy converters has already been explored. Furthermore, diversification of offshore renewable energy technologies reduces power fluctuations and lowers investment costs. This paper focuses on the development of an integrated wind and wave platform and the creation of a numerical model to evaluate the system performance for the Belmullet site. The novel concept consists of the semi-submersible Nautilus platform, integrated with four-point absorbers. A hydro-servo-aero time-domain model, combining WEC-Sim with an in-house wind turbine model, simulated the device motion and estimated the power generated. The performance of the Wave Energy Converters (WECs) was optimised based on their Power Take Off (PTO) damping. Finally,... [more]
A Simplified Techno-Economic Analysis for Sophorolipid Production in a Solid-State Fermentation Process
María Martínez, Alejandra Rodríguez, Teresa Gea, Xavier Font
February 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biosurfactant, solid-state fermentation, sophorolipids, Technoeconomic Analysis, waste
Sophorolipids (SLs) are microbial biosurfactants with an important role in industry and a continuously growing market. This research addresses the use of sustainable resources as feedstock for bioproducts. Winterization oil cake (WOC) and molasses are suitable substrates for SLs via solid-state fermentation (SSF). The model proposed herein was established for annually processing 750 t of WOC and comparing three support materials: wheat straw (WS), rice husk (RH), and coconut fiber (CF). Production capacity ranged 325−414 t of SLs per year. Unit Production Cost was 5.1, 5.7, and 6.9 USD/kg SL for WS, RH, and CF production models, respectively, and was slightly lower with other substrates. Financial parameters were CAPEX 6.7 MM USD and OPEX 1.9 MM USD/y, with a NPV, IRR and payback time of 6.4 MM USD, 31% and 3.2 y, respectively. SLs recovery from the solid matrix was the major contributor to operating costs, while fermentation equipment shaped capital costs. Results show that the physic... [more]
A Critical Review on the Use of Shallow Geothermal Energy Systems for Heating and Cooling Purposes
Abdelazim Abbas Ahmed, Mohsen Assadi, Adib Kalantar, Tomasz Sliwa, Aneta Sapińska-Śliwa
February 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: borehole heat exchanger, collector, geoenergetics, grout, Optimization, shallow geothermal energy, Technoeconomic Analysis
The reduction of CO2 emissions has become a global concern. In this regard, the EU intends to cut CO2 emissions by 55% by 2030 compared to those of 1990. The utilization of shallow geothermal energy (SGE) in EU countries is considered the most effective measure for decarbonizing heating and cooling. SGE systems utilize heat energy collected from the earth’s crust to provide secure, clean, and ubiquitous energy. This paper provides a literature review on the use of SGE for heating and cooling purposes. The latest advances in materials, new innovative structures, and techno-economic optimization approaches have been discussed in detail. Shallow geothermal energy’s potential is first introduced, and the innovative borehole structures to improve performance and reduce installation cost is outlined. This is followed by an extensive survey of different types of conventional and thermally enhanced collectors and grouts. Attention is mainly given to the techno-economic analysis and optimizatio... [more]
Ultra-Cheap Renewable Energy as an Enabling Technology for Deep Industrial Decarbonization via Capture and Utilization of Process CO2 Emissions
Mohammed Bin Afif, Abdulla Bin Afif, Harry Apostoleris, Krishiv Gandhi, Anup Dadlani, Amal Al Ghaferi, Jan Torgersen, Matteo Chiesa
February 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: carbon capture and utilization, Hydrogen, renewable energy transition, renewable methanol, solar energy, Technoeconomic Analysis
Rapidly declining costs of renewable energy technologies have made solar and wind the cheapest sources of energy in many parts of the world. This has been seen primarily as enabling the rapid decarbonization of the electricity sector, but low-cost, low-carbon energy can have a great secondary impact by reducing the costs of energy-intensive decarbonization efforts in other areas. In this study, we consider, by way of an exemplary carbon capture and utilization cycle based on mature technologies, the energy requirements of the “industrial carbon cycle”, an emerging paradigm in which industrial CO2 emissions are captured and reprocessed into chemicals and fuels, and we assess the impact of declining renewable energy costs on overall economics of these processes. In our exemplary process, CO2 is captured from a cement production facility via an amine scrubbing process and combined with hydrogen produced by a solar-powered polymer electrolyte membrane, using electrolysis to produce methano... [more]
Remote Power Generation for Applications to Natural Gas Grid: A Comprehensive Market Review of Techno-Energetic, Economic and Environmental Performance
Luca Da Lio, Andrea Lazzaretto
February 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: fuel cell, gas grid, lifetime, microturbine, operation cost, performance, remote power generation, Stirling engine, Technoeconomic Analysis, thermoelectric generator
The operation of natural gas grids requires electric-powered devices as data acquisition and control systems, surveillance and communication appliances, etc., often located in remote, unpopulated off-the-grid areas, where there is no personnel for surveillance, and maintenance costs are prohibitive. The literature on the power generating systems for these devices is limited to specific applications without a comparison between competing technologies, making their choice a difficult task for natural gas operators. This work presents a comprehensive up-to-date survey of market available technologies for remote power generation in the range of 20−1000 W for gas grid applications: thermoelectric generators, solid acid, direct methanol and solid oxide fuel cells, Stirling engines and microturbines. The work aims at sorting the technologies by techno-energetic, economic and environmental performance while providing specific technological characteristics and limitations. The results indicate... [more]
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