Records with Keyword: Nuclear
Peoples’ Perception towards Nuclear Energy
Meesha Iqbal, Rae Moss, Irene van Woerden
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: attitudes, Energy, Idaho, Nuclear, United States
Perception towards nuclear energy is a vital factor determining the success or failure of nuclear projects. An online survey obtained attitudes toward nuclear energy, opinions on whether benefits of nuclear energy outweigh the risks, and views of using nuclear energy as an energy source. A total of 4318 participants from across the U.S. completed the survey. Logistic regression was used to predict perceptions of nuclear energy by participant demographics and geographical location. Participants living closest to Idaho National Laboratory (INL) were more likely to have positive attitudes towards nuclear energy (aOR: 7.18, p < 0.001), believe the benefits were greater than the risks (aOR: 4.90, p < 0.001), and have positive attitudes toward using nuclear energy as an electricity source (aOR: 5.70, p < 0.001), compared to people living farther from INL. Males and non-Hispanic white participants were more likely to have positive perceptions of nuclear energy. Developing and impleme... [more]
Defining and Quantifying Intermittency in the Power Sector
Daniel Suchet, Adrien Jeantet, Thomas Elghozi, Zacharie Jehl
April 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: electricity, intermittency, Nuclear, solar, Wind
The lack of a systematic definition of intermittency in the power sector blurs the use of this term in the public debate: the same power source can be described as stable or intermittent, depending on the standpoint of the authors. This work tackles a quantitative definition of intermittency adapted to the power sector, linked to the nature of the source, and not to the current state of the energy mix or the production predictive capacity. A quantitative indicator is devised, discussed and graphically depicted. A case study is illustrated by the analysis of the 2018 production data in France and then developed further to evaluate the impact of two methods often considered to reduce intermittency: aggregation and complementarity between wind and solar productions.
The Fuel Cycle Implications of Nuclear Process Heat
Aiden Peakman, Robert Gregg
April 26, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: fuel cycle, HTR, Nuclear, ORION, process heat, SFR, SMR, spent nuclear fuel
International and UK fuel cycle scenario analyses performed to date have focused on nuclear plants producing electricity without considering in detail the other potential drivers for nuclear power, such as industrial process heat. Part of the reason behind the restricted applications of nuclear power is because the assumptions behind the future scenario are not fully captured, for example how big are demands from different sectors? Here we present a means to fully capture the potential opportunities for nuclear power using Sankey diagrams and then, using this information, consider for the first time in the UK the fuel cycle implications of decarbonising industrial heat demand in the year 2050 with nuclear power using the ORION fuel cycle code to study attributes related to spent fuel, uranium demand and decay heat from the spent fuel. We show that even in high industrial energy demand scenarios, the sensitivity of spent fuel masses and decay heat to the types of reactor deployed is rel... [more]
Renewable Energy Sector in Bangladesh: The Current Scenario, Challenges and the Role of IoT in Building a Smart Distribution Grid
Abdul Hasib Siddique, Sumaiya Tasnim, Fahim Shahriyar, Mehedi Hasan, Khalid Rashid
April 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: distributed generation, hydro, Internet of Things, Nuclear, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, solar, Wind
Advancement in electricity is the key ingredient that can actively take part in alleviating poverty and drastically improve the socio-economic status of the people of Bangladesh. The incorporation of renewable energy sources would help the country meet the energy requirement as well as contribute positively towards building a sustainable planet. The paper has extensively discussed the potential aspects of renewable energy resources in Bangladesh and how the Internet of Things can facilitate the implementation of intermittent sources. The regulatory and socio-economic aspects of the renewable energy industry have been explored and sustainable solutions will be discussed to fast-track the process of integrating various renewable energy sources in the power grid to meet the energy demand. The paper discusses the challenges associated with the RE integration in Bangladesh’s power mix and tries to mitigate it through the IoT. Besides that, an RE map for Bangladesh along with prospective pow... [more]
iMAGINE—Visions, Missions, and Steps for Successfully Delivering the Nuclear System of the 21st Century
Bruno Merk, Dzianis Litskevich, Anna Detkina, Omid Noori-kalkhoran, Lakshay Jain, Elfriede Derrer-Merk, Daliya Aflyatunova, Greg Cartland-Glover
April 17, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: iMAGINE, mission development, Nuclear, nuclear energy, nuclear reactors, nuclear waste management, strategic development, vision development
Nuclear technologies have the potential to play a major role in the transition to a global net-zero society. Their primary advantage is the capability to deliver controllable 24/7 energy on demand. However, as a prerequisite for successful worldwide application, significant innovation will be required to create the nuclear systems of the 21st century, the need of the hour. The pros (low harmful emissions, high reliability, low operational expenses, and high energy density) and cons (environmental damage, fuel waste disposal concerns, limited uranium reserves, and long construction time-frame) of nuclear are discussed and analysed at different levels—the societal and public recognition and concerns (accidents, weapons, mining, and waste) as well as the scientific/engineering and economic level—to assure a demand-driven development. Based on the analysis of the different challenges, a vision for the nuclear system of the 21st century is synthesised consisting of three pillars—unlimited n... [more]
Generic Feasibility Assessment: Helping to Choose the Nuclear Piece of the Net Zero Jigsaw
William Bodel, Kevin Hesketh, Grace McGlynn, Juan Matthews, Gregg Butler
April 14, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: choice, net zero, Nuclear, policy, reactor
The United Kingdom has declared a climate change policy of 100% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions by 2050. Efforts thus far have been limited solely to electricity generation methods. While progress has been admirable, effort now must be directed at the nation’s non-electrical energy use. Nuclear energy is an essential part of any energy future, since it is low-carbon, firm and supplies synchronous electricity; however the nation’s nuclear strategy to date has been erratic, costly and lacking in strategic oversight. A multitude of reactor designs are on offer for potential uptake, and decision-makers must have clarity of vision on what these systems must deliver before forming a strategy. Choosing between these systems, given the uncharted energy future faced by the UK is a daunting prospect. Generic feasibility assessment offers a tool for decision-makers to assist them in selecting the most suitable nuclear system for chosen future conditions. Generic feasibility assessment offer... [more]
A Comparison of Advanced Boiling Water Reactor Simulations between Serpent/CTF and Polaris/DYN3D: Steady State Operational Characteristics and Burnup Evolution
Seddon Atkinson, Anna Detkina, Dzianis Litskevich, Bruno Merk
April 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: modelling &, Nuclear, nuclear reactors, Simulation, strategic development
High fidelity modelling for nuclear power plant analysis is becoming more common due to advances in modelling software and the availability of high-performance computers. However, to design, develop and regulate new light water nuclear reactors there are, up until now, limited requirements for high fidelity methods due to the already well-established computational methods already being widely accepted. This article explores the additional detail which can be obtained when using high fidelity methods through Monte Carlo/Sub-channel analysis compared to industrial methods of cross-section/nodal analysis using the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor as a case study. This case study was chosen due to the challenges in modelling two phase flow and the high levels of heterogeneity within the fuel assembly design. The article investigates how to implement such an approach, from a bottom-up procedure, by analysing each stage of the modelling process.
Retrofit Decarbonization of Coal Power Plants—A Case Study for Poland
Staffan Qvist, Paweł Gładysz, Łukasz Bartela, Anna Sowiżdżał
April 12, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, climate change, Coal, decarbonization, Nuclear, renewable, repowering, retrofit decarbonization
Out of 2 TWe of coal power plant capacity in operation globally today, more than half is less than 14 years old. Climate policy related to limiting CO2-emissions makes the longer-term operation of these plants untenable. In this study, we assess the spectrum of available options for the future of both equipment and jobs in the coal power sector by assessing the full scope of “retrofit decarbonization” options. Retrofit decarbonization is an umbrella term that includes adding carbon capture, fuel conversion, and the replacement of coal boilers with new low-carbon energy sources, in each case re-using as much of the existing equipment as economically practicable while reducing or eliminating emissions. This article explores this idea using the Polish coal power fleet as a case study. Retrofit decarbonization in Poland was shown to be most attractive using high-temperature small modular nuclear reactors (SMRs) to replace coal boilers, which can lower upfront capital costs by ~28−35% and l... [more]
Economic Dispatch Model of Nuclear High-Temperature Reactor with Hydrogen Cogeneration in Electricity Market
James Richards, Cristian Rabiti, Hiroyuki Sato, Xing L. Yan, Nolan Anderson
March 3, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: economic dispatch, Hydrogen, integrated energy systems, iodine–sulfur cycle, Nuclear, Stochastic Optimization
Hydrogen produced without carbon emissions could be a useful fuel as nations look to decarbonize their electricity, transport, and industry sectors. Using the iodine−sulfur (IS) cycle coupled with a nuclear heat source is one method for producing hydrogen without the use of fossil fuels. An economic dispatch model was developed for a nuclear-driven IS system to determine hydrogen sale prices that would make such a system profitable. The system studied is the HTTR-GT/H2, a design for power and hydrogen cogeneration at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor. This study focuses on the development of the economic model and the role that input data plays in the final calculated values. Using a historical price duration curve shows that the levelized cost of hydrogen (LCOH) or breakeven sale price of hydrogen would need to be 98.1 JPY/m3 or greater. Synthetic time histories were also used and found the LCOH to be 67.5 JPY/m3. The price duration input was f... [more]
Analysis of Control-System Strategy and Design of a Small Modular Reactor with Different Working Fluids for Electricity and Hydrogen Production as Part of a Decentralised Mini Grid
Arnold Gad-Briggs, Emmanuel Osigwe, Soheil Jafari, Theoklis Nikolaidis
March 1, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: control, cycles, heat exchanger, Hydrogen, Nuclear, reactor
Hydrogen is increasingly being viewed as a significant fuel for future industrial processes as it offers pathways to zero emission. The UK sees hydrogen as one of a handful of low-carbon solutions for transition to net zero. Currently, most hydrogen production is from steam reforming of natural gas or coal gasification, both of which involve the release of carbon dioxide. Hydrogen production from mini decentralised grids via a thermochemical process, coupled with electricity production, could offer favourable economics for small modular reactors (SMRs), whereby demand or grid management as a solution would include redirecting the power for hydrogen production when electricity demand is low. It also offers a clean-energy alternative to the aforementioned means. SMRs could offer favourable economics due to their flexible power system as part of the dual-output function. This study objective is to investigate the critical performance parameters associated with the nuclear power plant (NPP... [more]
Overview of the Role of Energy Resources in Algeria’s Energy Transition
Youcef Himri, Shafiqur Rehman, Ali Mostafaeipour, Saliha Himri, Adel Mellit, Mustapha Merzouk, Nachida Kasbadji Merzouk
February 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Nuclear, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, solar, Water, wind energy
Algeria is a wealthy country with natural resources, namely, nuclear, renewable, and non-renewable sources. The non-renewable energy sources are considered the lion’s share for energy production (98%). Algeria’s efforts to ensure and strengthen its energy security will take an important step in the coming decades by commissioning new energy infrastructure based on intensive use of water, coal, nuclear, non-renewable, and renewable sources. The implementation of new power infrastructure is expected to be operational from 2030. The renewable power realization in Algeria is relatively less compared to other African countries, i.e., Morocco, Egypt, South Africa, etc. The total renewable power installed capacity in Algeria reached 686 MW in 2020, as part of its national energy portfolio, although the Algerian government has spent tremendous efforts on introducing new sustainable technologies to enable the transition towards a cleaner and sustainable energy system. Indeed, the country announ... [more]
A First Step towards Zero Nuclear Waste—Advanced Strategic Thinking in Light of iMAGINE
Bruno Merk, Anna Detkina, Dzianis Litskevich, Maulik Patel, Omid Noori-kalkhoran, Gregory Cartland-Glover, Olga Efremova, Mark Bankhead, Claude Degueldre
February 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: final disposal, fission products, molten salt reactors, Nuclear, nuclear chemistry, nuclear energy, nuclear reactors, nuclear waste, reactor physics, salt clean-up
Traditionally, there has been a gap between reactor operation and the consideration of nuclear waste in the final disposal. Fuel is produced, and fuel must be disposed. In the view of the reactor operator, fuel has to be cleaned in the reprocessing, and new solid fuel has to be produced in the view of the chemist. iMAGINE is designed to overcome this separation through a breakthrough development applying an optimized, integrative approach from cradle to grave of nuclear energy production as a first step to come as close as possible to the vision of zero waste nuclear power. It is described here for the first time in three steps: reactor, fuel cycle, and waste, providing the rationality behind each of the choices made to come to the overall solution to open the discussion and thinking process on what could be achieved by a very innovative approach to integrated nuclear energy production. The opportunities regarding the handling of the remaining waste are discussed with a view on the exp... [more]
DEMO Divertor Cassette and Plasma facing Unit in Vessel Loss-of-Coolant Accident
Danilo Nicola Dongiovanni, Matteo D’Onorio, Gianfranco Caruso, Tonio Pinna, Maria Teresa Porfiri
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: accident, DEMO, divertor, fusion, LOCA, MELCOR code, Nuclear, safety
As part of the pre-conceptual design activities for the European DEMOnstration plant, a carefully selected set of safety analyses have been performed to assess plant integrated performance and the capability to achieve expected targets while keeping it in a safe operation domain. The DEMO divertor is the in-vessel component in charge of exhausting the major part of the plasma ions’ thermal power in a region far from the plasma core to control plasma pollution. The divertor system accomplishes this goal by means of assemblies of cassette and target plasma facing units modules, respectively cooled with two independentheat-transfer systems. A deterministic assessment of a divertor in-vessel Loss-of-Coolant Accident is here considered. Both Design Basis Accident case simulating the rupture of an in-vessel pipe for the divertor cassette cooling loop, and a Design Extension Conditions accident case considering the additional rupture of an independent divertor target cooling loop are assessed... [more]
A HELIOS-Based Dynamic Salt Clean-Up Study Analysing the Effects of a Plutonium-Based Initial Core for iMAGINE
Bruno Merk, Anna Detkina, Dzianis Litskevich, Omid Noori-kalkhoran, Lakshay Jain, Gregory Cartland-Glover
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: fission products, modelling and simulation, molten salt reactors, Nuclear, nuclear chemistry, nuclear energy, nuclear reactors, plutonium management, reactor physics, salt clean-up
Nuclear technologies have strong potential and a unique role to play in delivering reliable low carbon energy to enable a net-zero society for future generations. However, to assure the sustainability required for its long-term success, nuclear will need to deliver innovative solutions as proposed in iMAGINE. One of the most attractive features, but also a key challenge for the envisaged highly integrated nuclear energy system iMAGINE, is the need for a demand driven salt clean-up system based on the principles of reverse reprocessing. The work described provides an insight into the dynamic interplay between a potential salt clean-up system and reactor operation in a plutonium-started core in a dynamic approach. The results presented will help to optimise the parameters for the salt clean-up process as well as to understand the differences which appear between a core started with enriched uranium and plutonium as the fissile material. The integrated model is used to investigate the eff... [more]
Impact of Renewable Energy Sources and Nuclear Energy on CO2 Emissions Reductions—The Case of the EU Countries
Igor Petruška, Eva Litavcová, Jana Chovancová
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: CO2 emissions, economic growth, energy consumption, Nuclear, renewables
The aim of this work is to analyse the dependence of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions on total energy consumption, the energy produced from renewable sources, the energy produced in nuclear power plants and the gross domestic product (GDP) in 22 European countries, over the period 1992−2019. The fully modified ordinary least squares model (FMOLS) and dynamic OLS (DOLS) were used to estimate the long-term cointegration relationship between the variables. First differenced (FD) general moments methods (GMM) were used in the estimation of short-run relationship dynamics. The results suggest that energy produced from renewable sources causes a reduction in CO2 emissions per capita. On the other hand, total energy consumption increases CO2 emissions in the long run. Although the mitigation effect of nuclear power was not found to be significant across the entire block of countries studied, a closer look at countries utilising nuclear energy reveals that nuclear energy positively affects the r... [more]
Aspen Plus Simulation of Biomass-Gas-and-Nuclear-To-Liquids (BGNTL) Processes (Using CuCl Route)
James Alexander Scott, Thomas Alan Adams II
August 7, 2018 (v1)
These are Aspen Plus simulation files for a Biomass-Gas-and-Nuclear-To-Liquids chemical plant (a conceptional design), which uses the Copper-Chloride route for hydrogen production. This is a part of a larger work (see linked LAPSE record for pre-print and associated publication in Canadian J Chem Eng). Process sections and major units in this simulation include: Gasification, Integrated-Gasification-Methane-Reforming, Pre-Reforming, Water Gas Shift, Autothermal Reforming, Syngas Blending and Upgrading, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power islands, Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Methanol Synthesis, Dimethyl Ether Synthesis, Heat Recovery and Steam Generation, CO2 Compression for Sequestration, Cooling Towers, and various auxiliary units for heat and pressure management. See the linked work for a detailed description of the model.
Biomass-Gas-and-Nuclear-To-Liquids (BGNTL) Processes Part I: Model Development and Simulation
James Alexander Scott, Thomas Alan Adams II
August 7, 2018 (v1)
New polygeneration processes for the co-production of liquid fuels (Fischer-Tropsch liquids, methanol, and dimethyl ether) and electricity are presented. The processes use a combination of biomass, natural gas, and nuclear energy as primary energy feeds. Chemical process models were created and used to simulate candidate versions of the process, using combinations of models ranging from complex multi- scale models to standard process flowsheet models. The simulation results are presented for an Ontario, Canada case study to obtain key metrics such as efficiency and product conversions. Sample Aspen Plus files are provided in the supplementary material to be used by others.
Biomass-Gas-and-Nuclear-To-Liquids Aspen Plus Simulations
Leila Hoseinzade, Thomas A. Adams II
December 7, 2018 (v2)
In this paper, several new processes are proposed which co-generate electricity and liquid fuels (such as diesel, gasoline, or dimethyl ether) from biomass, natural gas and heat from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This carbonless heat provides the required energy to drive an endothermic steam methane reforming process, which yields H2-rich syngas (H2/CO>6) with lower greenhouse gas emissions than traditional steam methane reforming processes. Since downstream Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethyl ether synthesis processes require an H2/CO ratio of around 2, biomass gasification is integrated into the process. Biomass-derived syngas is sufficiently H2-lean such that blending it with the steam methane reforming derived syngas yields a syngas of the appropriate H2/CO ratio of around 2. In a prior work, we also demonstrated that integrating carbonless heat with combined steam and CO2 reforming of methane is a promising option to produce a syngas with proper H2/CO ratio for Fischer... [more]
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