Records with Keyword: Syngas
Showing records 1 to 25 of 58. [First] Page: 1 2 3 Last
Gasification of Spruce Wood Chips in a 1.5 MWth Fluidised Bed Reactor
Fabio Montagnaro, Lucio Zaccariello
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, equivalence ratio, fluidised bed, gasification, Hydrogen, spruce wood chips, Syngas, tar
Production of syngas from the gasification of a biomass is attracting attention with an eye to the concepts of circularity, sustainability, and recent needs, triggered by socio-political events, to increase the level of self-sufficiency of energy sources for a given community. This manuscript reports on the gasification of spruce wood chips in a demonstration fluidised bed gasifier (1.5 MWth, height of 5.40 m, internal diameter of 1.2 m), with 0.2−0.4 mm olivine inventory (1000 kg). Gasification was carried out in air, at four different values of equivalence ratio (from 27% to 36%). The bed was fluidised at about 0.6 m/s, and the bed temperature resulted in the range of about 960−1030 °C as a function of the different tests. A mass flow rate of biomass in the range of about 360−480 kg/h (as a function of the different tests) was fed to the fluidised bed gasifier. Syngas lower heating value, specific mass and energetic yield, and chemical composition, were reported along with data on th... [more]
Oxygen-Blown Gasification of Pulp Mill Bark Residues for Synthetic Fuel Production
Fredrik Weiland, Sandra Lundström, Yngve Ögren
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: bark residues, gasification, online TDLAS process measurement, oxygen blown, pulp mill, Syngas
Synthetic fuel production via gasification of residual biomass streams from the pulp and paper industry can be an opportunity for the mills to enable improved resource utilization and at the same time reduce the production of excess heat. This paper summarizes initial oxygen-blown gasification experiments with two bark residues from a European pulp and paper mill, i.e., a softwood bark and a hardwood bark. The gasification process was characterized by measuring syngas yields and process efficiency to find optimum operating conditions. In addition, impurities in the syngas and ash behavior were characterized. Maximum yields of CO and H2 were obtained from softwood bark and amounted to approximately 29 and 15 mol/kg fuel, respectively. Optimum cold gas efficiency was achieved at an oxygen stoichiometric ratio of λ = 0.40 and was approximately 76% and 70% for softwood bark and hardwood bark, respectively. Increased λ had a reducing effect on pollutants in the syngas, e.g., higher hydrocar... [more]
Techno-Economic Assessment of Solar-Driven Steam Gasification of Biomass for Large-Scale Hydrogen Production
Houssame Boujjat, Sylvain Rodat, Stéphane Abanades
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biomass/waste conversion, economics, hybridization, Hydrogen, solar gasification, Syngas
Solar biomass gasification is an attractive pathway to promote biomass valorization while chemically storing intermittent solar energy into solar fuels. The economic feasibility of a solar gasification process at a large scale for centralized H2 production was assessed, based on the discounted cash-flow rate of return method to calculate the minimum H2 production cost. H2 production costs from solar-only, hybrid and conventional autothermal biomass gasification were evaluated under various economic scenarios. Considering a biomass reference cost of 0.1 €/kg, and a land cost of 12.9 €/m2, H2 minimum price was estimated at 2.99 €/kgH2 and 2.48 €/kgH2 for the allothermal and hybrid processes, respectively, against 2.25 €/kgH2 in the conventional process. A sensitivity study showed that a 50% reduction in the heliostats and solar tower costs, combined with a lower land cost of below 0.5 €/m2, allowed reaching an area of competitiveness where the three processes meet. Furthermore, an increa... [more]
The “INNOVARE” Project: Innovative Plants for Distributed Poly-Generation by Residual Biomass
M. Costa, A. Buono, C. Caputo, A. Carotenuto, D. Cirillo, M. A. Costagliola, G. Di Blasio, M. La Villetta, A. Macaluso, G. Martoriello, N. Massarotti, A. Mauro, M. Migliaccio, V. Mulone, F. Murena, D. Piazzullo, M. V. Prati, V. Rocco, A. Stasi, L. Vanoli, A. Cinocca, D. Di Battista, A. De Vita
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, combined heat and power generation (CHP), Syngas
The valorization of residual biomass plays today a decisive role in the concept of “circular economy”, according to which each waste material must be reused to its maximum extent. The collection and energy valorization at the local level of biomass from forest management practices and wildfire prevention cutting can be settled in protected areas to contribute to local decarbonization, by removing power generation from fossil fuels. Despite the evident advantages of bioenergy systems, several problems still hinder their diffusion, such as the need to assure their reliability by extending the operating range with materials of different origin. The Italian project “INNOVARE—Innovative plants for distributed poly-generation by residual biomass”, funded by the Italian Ministry of Economic Development (MISE), has the main scope of improving micro-cogeneration technologies fueled by biomass. A micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) unit was chosen as a case study to discuss pros and cons of bio... [more]
Experimental and Model Study on Raw Biomass Gasification Syngas Conditioning in a Molten NaOH-Na2CO3 Mixture
Xiaobo Wang, Anqi Liu, Zengli Zhao, Haibin Li
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, conditioning, model, molten salts, Syngas
Raw syngas conditioning using molten salts was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of the reaction conditions, including temperature, gas velocity, bubble diameter, molten salt static liquid heights, and inlet gas composition, on the composition of the syngas product and the properties of the spent molten salts were investigated. The molten salt absorbed CO2 in all of the experiments (at temperatures from 350 °C to 500 °C) and decreased its concentration down to 1%. The H2/CO increased from 0.94 to a maximum of 11.0, which may meet most of the synthetic process’ requirements. The temperature, gas velocity, and molten salt static liquid heights had significant effects on the H2 and CO concentrations in the gas product. Molten salt raw syngas conditioning can be a suitable follow-up procedure for gasification and pyrolysis.
Guest Partitioning and High CO2 Selectivity in Hydroquinone Clathrates Formed from Ternary (CO + CO2 + H2) Gas Mixtures
Sang Jun Yoon, Dongwon Lee, Ji-Ho Yoon, Jong-Won Lee
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, carbon monoxide, clathrate compounds, hydroquinone, Syngas
Clathrate formation and guest behaviors in hydroquinone (HQ) clathrates were investigated for the first time using ternary (CO + CO2 + H2) gas mixtures. Two gas compositions (low and high CO2 concentrations) were used to simulate synthesis gases generated from various sources. After reaction at 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 MPa, the conversion yield of pure HQ to the clathrate form reached >90% if the CO2 partial pressure was 0.7 MPa or higher. In addition, CO2 was the most abundant occupant, whereas CO was only detectable at higher CO concentrations and experimental pressures. The separation efficiency values expressed as molar ratios of CO2 to CO in the solid clathrate form were found to be 12.7 and 23.9 MPa at 4.0 and 6.0 MPa, respectively. The experimental and the calculated results in this study provide information useful for the design of a clathrate-based separation process for synthesis gases from various sources (i.e., synthesis gases with various compositions).
Heterogeneous Catalysis in (Bio)Ethanol Conversion to Chemicals and Fuels: Thermodynamics, Catalysis, Reaction Paths, Mechanisms and Product Selectivities
Gabriella Garbarino, Giovanni Pampararo, Thanh Khoa Phung, Paola Riani, Guido Busca
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: acetaldehyde, acid catalysis, bioethanol conversion, cobalt catalysts, copper catalysts, Ethylene, nickel catalysts, Syngas
In gas/solid conditions, different chemicals, such as diethylether, ethylene, butadiene, higher hydrocarbons, acetaldehyde, acetone and hydrogen, can be produced from ethanol with heterogeneous catalytic processes. The focus of this paper is the interplay of different reaction paths, which depend on thermodynamic factors as well as on kinetic factors, thus mainly from catalyst functionalities and reaction temperatures. Strategies for selectivity improvements in heterogeneously catalyzed processes converting (bio)ethanol into renewable chemicals and biofuels are also considered.
Syngas Production, Clean-Up and Wastewater Management in a Demo-Scale Fixed-Bed Updraft Biomass Gasification Unit
Gabriele Calì, Paolo Deiana, Claudia Bassano, Simone Meloni, Enrico Maggio, Michele Mascia, Alberto Pettinau
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: activated carbon adsorption, biomass gasification, circular economy, demonstration-scale plant, Syngas, wastewater management
This paper presents the experimental development at demonstration scale of an integrated gasification system fed with wood chips. The unit is based on a fixed-bed, updraft and air-blown gasifier—with a nominal capacity of 5 MWth—equipped with a wet scrubber for syngas clean-up and an integrated chemical and physical wastewater management system. Gasification performance, syngas composition and temperature profile are presented for the optimal operating conditions and with reference to two kinds of biomass used as primary fuels, i.e., stone pine and eucalyptus from local forests (combined heat and power generation from this kind of fuel represents a good opportunity to exploit distributed generation systems that can be part of a new energy paradigm in the framework of the circular economy). The gasification unit is characterised by a high efficiency (about 79−80%) and an operation stability during each test. Particular attention has been paid to the optimisation of an integrated double... [more]
Co-Gasification of Treated Solid Recovered Fuel Residue by Using Minerals Bed and Biomass Waste Blends
Md Tanvir Alam, Se-Won Park, Sang-Yeop Lee, Yean-Ouk Jeong, Anthony De Girolamo, Yong-Chil Seo, Hang Seok Choi
March 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, gas pollutants, gasification, solid recovered fuel, Syngas, waste
Solid recovered fuel (SRF) residue, which is leftovers from the SRF manufacturing process, usually is discarded in landfill because of its low heating value and high ash and moisture content. However, it could be used as a fuel after mechanical and biological treatment. Gasification experiments were conducted on treated SRF residue (TSRFR) to assess the viability of syngas production. Efforts were also made to improve the gasification performance by adding low-cost natural minerals such as dolomite and lime as bed material, and by blending with biomass waste. In the case of additive mineral tests, dolomite showed better performance compared to lime, and in the case of biomass blends, a 25 wt% pine sawdust blend with TSRFR showed the best performance. Finally, as an appropriate condition, a combined experiment was conducted at an equivalence ratio (ER) of 0.2 using a 25 wt% pine sawdust blend with TSRFR as a feedstock and dolomite as the bed material. The highest dry gas yield (1.81 Nm3... [more]
High Temperature Pyrolysis of Municipal Plastic Waste Using Me/Ni/ZSM-5 Catalysts: The Effect of Metal/Nickel Ratio
Mohammed Al-asadi, Norbert Miskolczi
March 23, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: gas-chromatography, metal loaded catalysts, pyrolysis, Syngas, waste plastic
This work is dedicated to the high temperature pyrolysis of municipal plastic waste using Me/Ni/ZSM-5 catalysts. Catalysts were synthetized by wet impregnation. In addition to nickel, synthetic zeolite catalysts contain calcium, ceria, lanthanum, magnesia or manganese. Catalysts were prepared and tested using 0.1, 0.5 and 2.0 Me/Ni ratios. Catalyst morphology was investigated by SEM and surface analysis. Higher concentrations of second metals can block catalyst pore channels due to the more coke formation, which leads to smaller surface area. Furthermore, the chemicals used for the impregnation were among the catalyst grains, especially in case of 2.0 Me/Ni ratios. For pyrolysis, a horizontal tubular furnace reactor was used at 700 °C. The highest hydrogen and syngas yields were observed using ceria- and lanthanum-covered catalysts. The maximum production of syngas and hydrogen (69.8 and 49.2 mmol/g raw material) was found in the presence of Ce/Ni/ZSM-5 catalyst with a 0.5 Me/Ni ratio.
Biomass Thermochemical Conversion via Pyrolysis with Integrated CO2 Capture
Małgorzata Sieradzka, Ningbo Gao, Cui Quan, Agata Mlonka-Mędrala, Aneta Magdziarz
March 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, CaO solid sorbent, Carbon Dioxide Capture, chars, Hydrogen, physicochemical structure, pine wood, pyrolysis, Syngas
The presented work is focused on biomass thermochemical conversion with integrated CO2 capture. The main aim of this study was the in-depth investigation of the impact of pyrolysis temperature (500, 600 and 700 °C) and CaO sorbent addition on the chemical and physical properties of obtained char and syngas. Under the effect of the pyrolysis temperature, the properties of biomass chars were gradually changed, and this was confirmed by examination using thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and porosimetry methods. The chars were characterised by a noticeable carbon content (two times at 700 °C) resulting in a lower O/C ratio. The calculated combustion indexes indicated the better combustible properties of chars. In addition, structural morphology changes were observed. However, the increasing pyrolysis temperature resulted in changes of solid products; the differences of char properties were not significant in the range of 500 to 700 °C. Syngas was analysed... [more]
Effect of Syngas Composition on the Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of a Syngas/Diesel RCCI Engine
Navid Kousheshi, Mortaza Yari, Amin Paykani, Ali Saberi Mehr, German F. de la Fuente
March 22, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: combustion, emissions, Exergy, RCCI engine, Syngas
Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) strategy uses two different fuels with different reactivities which provides more control over the combustion process and has the potential to dramatically lower combustion temperature and NOX and PM emissions. The objective of the present study is to numerically investigate the impact of syngas composition on the combustion and emissions characteristics of an RCCI engine operating with syngas/diesel at constant energy per cycle. For this purpose, different syngas compositions produced through gasification process have been chosen for comparison with the simulated syngas (mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide). The results obtained indicate that using syngas results in more soot, CO and UHC emissions compared with simulated syngas. Even though more NOX reduction can be achieved while operating with syngas, the engine could suffer from poor combustion and misfire at low loads due to the presence of nitrogen in the mixture. In terms of... [more]
Influence of Oxidant Agent on Syngas Composition: Gasification of Hazelnut Shells through an Updraft Reactor
Francesco Gallucci, Raffaele Liberatore, Luca Sapegno, Edoardo Volponi, Paolo Venturini, Franco Rispoli, Enrico Paris, Monica Carnevale, Andrea Colantoni
March 22, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, gasification, oxidizing agent, Syngas, updraft
This work aims to study the influence of an oxidant agent on syngas quality. A series of tests using air and steam as oxidant agents have been performed and the results compared with those of a pyrolysis test used as a reference. Tests were carried out at Sapienza University of Rome, using an updraft reactor. The reactor was fed with hazelnut shells, waste biomass commonly available in some parts of Italy. Temperature distribution, syngas composition and heating value, and producible energy were measured. Air and steam gasification tests produced about the same amount of syngas flow, but with a different quality. The energy flow in air gasification had the smallest measurement during the experiments. On the contrary, steam gasification produced a syngas flow with higher quality (13.1 MJ/Nm3), leading to the best values of energy flow (about 5.4 MJ/s vs. 3.3 MJ/s in the case of air gasification). From the cold gas efficiency point of view, steam gasification is still the best solution,... [more]
Development of a Chemical Quasi-Equilibrium Model of Biomass Waste Gasification in a Fluidized-Bed Reactor by Using Aspen Plus
Vera Marcantonio, Enrico Bocci, Danilo Monarca
March 22, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Aspen Plus, biomass gasification, equilibrium model, Gibbs free energy minimization, hazelnut shells, steam gasification, Syngas, tar
In the delicate context of climate change, biomass gasification has been demonstrated to be a very useful technology to produce power and hydrogen. Nevertheless, in literature, there is a lack of a flexible and fast but accurate model of biomass gasification that can be used with all the combinations of oxidizing agents, taking into account both organic and inorganic contaminants, and able to give results that are more realistic. In order to do that, a model of biomass gasification has been developed using the chemical engineering software Aspen Plus. The developed model is based on the Gibbs free energy minimization applying the restricted quasi-equilibrium approach via Data-Fit regression from experimental data. The simulation results obtained, considering different mixes of gasifying agents, were compared and validated against experimental data reported in literature for the most advanced fluidized bed technology. The maximum discrepancy value obtained for hydrogen, with respect to... [more]
Gasification of Waste Cooking Oil to Syngas by Thermal Arc Plasma
Andrius Tamošiūnas, Dovilė Gimžauskaitė, Mindaugas Aikas, Rolandas Uscila, Marius Praspaliauskas, Justas Eimontas
March 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: gasification, Syngas, thermal arc plasma, waste cooking oil, water vapor
The depletion and usage of fossil fuels causes environmental issues and alternative fuels and technologies are urgently required. Therefore, thermal arc water vapor plasma for a fast and robust waste/biomass treatment is an alternative to the syngas method. Waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as an alternative potential feedstock for syngas production. The goal of this experimental study was to conduct experiments gasifying waste cooking oil to syngas. The WCO was characterized in order to examine its properties and composition in the conversion process. The WCO gasification system was quantified in terms of the produced gas concentration, the H2/CO ratio, the lower heating value (LHV), the carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), the energy conversion efficiency (ECE), the specific energy requirements (SER), and the tar content in the syngas. The best gasification process efficiency was obtained at the gasifying agent-to-feedstock (S/WCO) ratio of 2.33. At this ratio, the highest concentra... [more]
Investigation of the Effect of Hydrogen and Methane on Combustion of Multicomponent Syngas Mixtures using a Constructed Reduced Chemical Kinetics Mechanism
Nearchos Stylianidis, Ulugbek Azimov, Martin Birkett
March 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: chemical kinetics mechanism, digital analysis of reactive systems (DARS), ignition delay time, laminar flame speed, reaction sensitivity analysis, Syngas
This study investigated the effects of H2 and CH4 concentrations on the ignition delay time and laminar flame speed during the combustion of CH4/H2 and multicomponent syngas mixtures using a novel constructed reduced syngas chemical kinetics mechanism. The results were compared with experiments and GRI Mech 3.0 mechanism. It was found that mixture reactivity decreases and increases when higher concentrations of CH4 and H2 were used, respectively. With higher H2 concentration in the mixture, the formation of OH is faster, leading to higher laminar flame speed and shorter ignition delay time. CH4 and H2 concentrations were calculated at different pressures and equivalence ratios, showing that at high pressures CH4 is consumed slower, and, at different equivalence ratios CH4 reacts at different temperatures. In the presence of H2, CH4 was consumed faster. In the conducted two-stage sensitivity analysis, the first analysis showed that H2/CH4/CO mixture combustion is driven by H2-based reac... [more]
Fuel Reactor CFD Multiscale Modelling in Syngas-Based Chemical Looping Combustion with Ilmenite
Vlad-Cristian Sandu, Ana-Maria Cormos, Calin-Cristian Cormos
March 9, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: 3D particle, carbon capture and storage, chemical looping combustion, Computational Fluid Dynamics, ilmenite oxygen carrier, Multiscale Modelling, reaction chamber, Syngas
As global power generation is currently relying on fossil fuel-based power plants, more anthropogenic CO2 is being released into the atmosphere. During the transition period to alternative energy sources, carbon capture and storage seems to be a promising solution. Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is an energy conversion technology designed for combustion of fossil fuel with advantageous carbon capture capabilities. In this work, a 1D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) multiscale model was developed to study the reduction step in a syngas-based CLC system and was validated using literature data (R=0.99). In order to investigate mass transfer effects, flow rate and particle dimension studies were carried out. Sharper mass transfer rates were seen at lower flow rates and smaller granule sizes due to suppression of diffusion limitations. In addition, a 3D CFD particle model was developed to investigate in depth the reduction within an ilmenite particle, with focus on heat transfer effect... [more]
A Review of Hot Gas Cleaning Techniques for Hydrogen Chloride Removal from Biomass-Derived Syngas
Vera Marcantonio, Michael Müller, Enrico Bocci
March 8, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biomass gasification, dechlorination, hot gas cleaning, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen sulfide, Syngas
Considering the pressing challenges of supply security and climate change, advanced processes to produce electricity and biofuels from biomass have to be developed. Biomass gasification is a very promising technology, but there is a lack of comprehensive reviews, specifically on the technologies for hydrogen chloride hot gas cleanup, which are necessary in order to work at the same temperature and respect the limits of advanced downstream components. In this review, the Cl content of the main biomasses in Europe is given, and data on syngas content and the tolerance of downstream equipment are highlighted. Hot gas cleaning technologies, which have the advantage of improved thermal efficiency are reviewed, analyzing the thermodynamic and primary and secondary methods. This review identifies NaAlO2 and Na2CO3 within 450−550 °C as the most effective sorbents, which are able to reduce the concentration of HCl below 1 ppm. Nevertheless, H2S cannot be simultaneously removed and has... [more]
Co-Gasification Characteristics of Coal and Biomass Using CO2 Reactant under Thermodynamic Equilibrium Modelling
M. Shahabuddin, Sankar Bhattacharya
March 8, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: aspen plus modelling, Biomass, co-gasification, CO2 reactant, Coal, Syngas
This study assessed the entrained flow co-gasification characteristics of coal and biomass using thermodynamic equilibrium modelling. The model was validated against entrained flow gasifier data published in the literature. The gasification performance was evaluated under different operating conditions, such as equivalence ratio, temperature, pressure and coal to biomass ratio. It is observed that the lower heating value (LHV) and cold gas efficiency (CGE) increase with increasing temperature until the process reaches a steady state. The effect of pressure on syngas composition is dominant only at non-steady state conditions (<1100 °C). The variation in syngas composition is minor up to the blending of 50% biomass (PB50). However, the PB50 shows a higher LHV and CGE than pure coal by 12%and 18%, respectively. Overall, biomass blending of up to 50% favours gasification performance with an LHV of 12 MJ/kg and a CGE of 78%.
Waste-Based Intermediate Bioenergy Carriers: Syngas Production via Coupling Slow Pyrolysis with Gasification under a Circular Economy Model
Danai Frantzi, Anastasia Zabaniotou
March 8, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: bioenergy intermediate carriers, biooil gasification, circular economy, slow pyrolysis, Syngas, waste
Waste-based feedstocks and bioenergy intermediate carriers are key issues of the whole bioenergy value chain. Towards a circular economy, changing upcycling infra-structure systems takes time, while energy-from-waste (EfW) technologies like waste pyrolysis and gasification could play an integral part. Thus, the aim of this study is to propose a circular economy pathway for the waste to energy (WtE) thermochemical technologies, through which solid biomass waste can be slowly pyrolyzed to biochar (main product), in various regionally distributed small plants, and the pyro-oils, by-products of those plants could be used as an intermediate energy carrier to fuel a central gasification plant for syngas production. Through the performed review, the main parameters of the whole process chain, from waste to syngas, were discussed. The study develops a conceptual model that can be implemented for overcoming barriers to the broad deployment of WtE solutions. The proposed model of WtE facilities... [more]
Managing Non-Sewered Human Waste Using Thermochemical Waste Treatment Technologies: A Review
Farhad Beik, Leon Williams, Tim Brown, Stuart T. Wagland
March 6, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: bio-oil, combustion, faecal, gasification, pyrolysis, sewage sludge, Syngas, thermochemical conversion
The utilisation of micro-scale thermal treatment technologies for non-sewered applications has been emerging as a prominent route for the safe treatment and disposal of high water content hazardous feedstock. This study provides a comprehensive review of the technological concepts practiced up to date in commercial/pilot and small scales for various types of solid fuels. The respective challenges are critically described and discussed to aid in the selection of promising technology for on-site sanitary applications. Furthermore, the challenges observed with the nominated (pyrolysis) technology are discussed in detail and addressed. This study suggests rapid energy recovery from by-products primarily made up of the highest yield of syngas with a desirable calorific value. The optimum operating ranges are discussed to ensure a reliable thermal conversion of sludge materials considering the application constraints and technology drawbacks. However, further studies are needed to investigat... [more]
An Electrochemical Platform for the Carbon Dioxide Capture and Conversion to Syngas
Alessio Mezza, Angelo Pettigiani, Nicolò B. D. Monti, Sergio Bocchini, M. Amin Farkhondehfal, Juqin Zeng, Angelica Chiodoni, Candido F. Pirri, Adriano Sacco
March 6, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: carbon capture and utilization, Carbon Dioxide Capture, CO2 conversion, electrochemical capture, electrodialysis, Syngas
We report on a simple electrochemical system able to capture gaseous carbon dioxide from a gas mixture and convert it into syngas. The capture/release module is implemented via regeneration of NaOH and acidification of NaHCO3 inside a four-chamber electrochemical flow cell employing Pt foils as catalysts, while the conversion is carried out by a coupled reactor that performs electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide using ZnO as a catalyst and KHCO3 as an electrolyte. The capture module is optimized such that, powered by a current density of 100 mA/cm2, from a mixture of the CO2−N2 gas stream, a pure and stable CO2 outlet flow of 4−5 mL/min is obtained. The conversion module is able to convert the carbon dioxide into a mixture of gaseous CO and H2 (syngas) with a selectivity for the carbon monoxide of 56%. This represents the first all-electrochemical system for carbon dioxide capture and conversion.
On the Flow Structure and Dynamics of Methane and Syngas Lean Flames in a Model Gas-Turbine Combustor
Vladimir Dulin, Leonid Chikishev, Dmitriy Sharaborin, Aleksei Lobasov, Roman Tolstoguzov, Zundi Liu, Xiaoxiang Shi, Yuyang Li, Dmitriy Markovich
March 3, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: combustion chamber, gas as turbine combustor, particle image velocimetry, planar laser-induced fluorescence, proper orthogonal decomposition, swirl combustor, swirling flame, Syngas, synthesis gas
The present paper compares the flow structure and flame dynamics during combustion of methane and syngas in a model gas-turbine swirl burner. The burner is based on a design by Turbomeca. The fuel is supplied through injection holes between the swirler blades to provide well-premixed combustion, or fed as a central jet from the swirler’s centerbody to increase flame stability via a pilot flame. The measurements of flow structure and flame front are performed by using the stereo particle image velocimetry and OH planar laser-induced fluorescence methods. The measurements are performed for the atmospheric pressure without preheating and for 2 atm with the air preheated up to 500 K. The flow Reynolds numbers for the non-reacting flows at these two conditions are 1.5 × 103 and 1.0 × 103, respectively. The flame dynamics are analyzed based on a high-speed OH* chemiluminescence imaging. It is found that the flame dynamics at elevated conditions are related with frequent events of flame lift-... [more]
Reliability of Equilibrium Gasification Models for Selected Biomass Types and Compositions: An Overview
Linda Moretti, Fausto Arpino, Gino Cortellessa, Simona Di Fraia, Maria Di Palma, Laura Vanoli
March 3, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, equilibrium model, gasification, Gibbs free energy minimization approach, Modelling, stoichiometric, Syngas
In this paper, the authors present an overview of biomass gasification modeling approaches with the aim of evaluating their effectiveness as a modeling tool for the design and optimization of polygeneration plants based on biomass gasification. In fact, the necessity to build plant operating maps for efficiency optimization requires a significant number of simulations, and non-stoichiometry equilibrium models may allow fast computations thanks to their relative simplicity. The main objective consists of the assessment of thermodynamic equilibrium models performance as a function of biomass type and composition to better understand in which conditions of practical interest such models can be applied with acceptable reliability. To this aim, the authors developed two equilibrium models using both a commercial software (referred as Aspen model) and a simulation tool implemented in a non-commercial script (referred as analytical model). To assess their advantages and disadvantages, the two... [more]
Investigation of Biomass Integrated Air Gasification Regenerative Gas Turbine Power Plants
Momin Elhadi Abdalla, Salah Ahmed Abdalla, Syed Ali Ammar Taqvi, Salman Raza Naqvi, Wei-Hsin Chen
March 2, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Acacia Nilotica, air gasification, equivalence ratio, gas turbine, regenerative, Syngas
The results show that Wood Chips of Acacia Nilotica trees available in Sudan lands can be successfully used in the gasification process and, on the same basis, as a bio-renewable energy resource. Simulation models were used to characterize the air gasification process integrated with a Regenerative Gas Turbine Unit. The results revealed that at a moisture content of 12%, gasification temperature of 1500 K, pressure of 20 bar, and air-like gasification medium, the biomass gasifier’s flow rate is higher at higher syngas rates. The results verified that there is an optimum ER for each syngas rate, in which the slow growth of the ER revealed the maximum gasifier biomass flow rate. For ER growth at lower levels, the specific fuel consumption (SFC) of the RGT Unit declines sharply from the maximum value reached at 0.27 kg/kW·h at an ER of 5% to the minimum value reached at 0.80 kg/kW·h at an ER of 25% for the lowest gasification temperature of 1000 K. Moreover, ER growths at low levels have... [more]
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