Records with Keyword: Process Intensification
Showing records 1 to 25 of 56. [First] Page: 1 2 3 Last
Supplementary Material - A Novel Cost-Efficient Tributyl Citrate Production Process
Andres F. Cabeza, Alvaro Orjuela, David E. Bernal Neira
December 15, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Calcium citrate, Modelling and Simulations, Process Integration, Process Intensification, Tributyl citrate
This is the supplementary material for the Foundations of Computer Aided Process Design (FOCAPD 2024) Conference Proceedings: Novel Cost-Efficient Tributyl Citrate Production Process presented in the Systems and Control Transactions series
Microwave-Assisted Reductive Amination under Heterogeneous Catalysis for the Synthesis of β-Adrenergic Agonist and Related Structures
Fabio Bucciol, Mariachiara Colia, Erica Canova, Giorgio Grillo, Emanuela Calcio Gaudino, Giancarlo Cravotto
November 30, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: microwave-assisted reactions, Process Intensification, ractopamine:HCl, raspberry ketone, reductive amination, transition-metal catalysts
Reductive amination is a powerful tool in sustainable organic synthesis that allows chemists to access a wide range of valuable amine products using renewable feedstocks and mild reaction conditions, with minimal waste generation. Practical applications can be found in various fields, including pharmaceuticals, contributing to greener and more sustainable chemical processes. In this work, we present a heterogeneous (Rh and Pt) catalyzed protocol for the fast and efficient synthesis of ractopamine hydrochloride (β-adrenergic drug) under microwave-assisted reductive amination protocol starting from raspberry ketone and octopamine. Microwave (MW) successfully accelerated the hydrogenation reaction and reduced the reaction time from 13 h to only 3 h under mild conditions (50 °C at 10 bar). The best catalysts were Pt/C and Rh/C, which led to high conversion and selectivity towards ractopamine:HCl. Different solvents and ketone substrates were also experimented. Acetophenone, cyclohexanone,... [more]
NiCoAl-Based Monolithic Catalysts for the N2O Intensified Decomposition: A New Path towards the Microwave-Assisted Catalysis
Olga Muccioli, Eugenio Meloni, Simona Renda, Marco Martino, Federico Brandani, Pluton Pullumbi, Vincenzo Palma
June 7, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: alternative heating, electrification, microwave heating, N2O decomposition, Process Intensification, silicon carbide monoliths, structured catalysts
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is considered the primary source of NOx in the atmosphere, and among several abatement processes, catalytic decomposition is the most promising. The thermal energy necessary for this reaction is generally provided from the external side of the reactor by burning fossil fuels. In the present work, in order to overcome the limits related to greenhouse gas emissions, high heat transfer resistance, and energy losses, a microwave-assisted N2O decomposition was studied, taking advantages of the microwave’s (MW) properties of assuring direct and selective heating. To this end, two microwave-susceptible silicon carbide (SiC) monoliths were layered with different nickel−cobalt−aluminum mixed oxides. Based on the results of several characterization analyses (SEM/EDX, BET, ultrasound washcoat adherence tests, Hg penetration technique, and TPR), the sample showing the most suitable characteristics for this process was reproduced in the appropriate size to perform specific MW-as... [more]
Intensification of Processes for the Production of Ethyl Levulinate Using AlCl3·6H2O
Carlo Pastore, Valeria D’Ambrosio
April 26, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: aluminum chloride hexahydrate, catalyst recovery, direct esterification, ethyl levulinate, Process Intensification
A process for obtaining ethyl levulinate through the direct esterification of levulinic acid and ethanol using AlCl3·6H2O as a catalyst was investigated. AlCl3·6H2O was very active in promoting the reaction and, the correspondent kinetic and thermodynamic data were determined. The reaction followed a homogeneous second-order reversible reaction model: in the temperature range of 318−348 K, Ea was 56.3 kJ·K−1·mol−1, whereas Keq was in the field 2.37−3.31. The activity of AlCl3·6H2O was comparable to that of conventional mineral acids. Besides, AlCl3·6H2O also induced a separation of phases in which ethyl levulinate resulted mainly (>98 wt%) dissolved into the organic upper layer, well separated by most of the co-formed water, which decanted in the bottom. The catalyst resulted wholly dissolved into the aqueous phase (>95 wt%), allowing at the end of a reaction cycle, complete recovery, and possible reuse for several runs. With the increase of the AlCl3·6H2O content (from 1 to 5 mol%), t... [more]
Numerical Study and Experimental Validation of Skim Milk Drying in a Process Intensified Counter Flow Spray Dryer
Umair Jamil Ur Rahman, Artur K. Pozarlik
April 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, counter-current mechanism, experimental validation, Process Intensification, REA, skim milk, spray drying
This research presents 3D steady-state simulations of a skim milk spray drying process in a counter-current configuration dryer. A two-phase flow involving gas and discrete phase is modeled using the Eulerian−Lagrangian model with two-way coupling between phases. The drying kinetics of skim milk is incorporated using the Reaction Engineering Approach. The model predictions are found to be in accordance with the experimental temperature measurements with a maximum average error of 5%. The validated computational model is employed further to study the effects of nozzle position, initial spray Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD), air inlet temperature, and feed rate on the temperature and moisture profiles, particle impact positions, drying histories, and product recovery at the outlet. The location of the nozzle upwards (≈23 cm) resulted in maximum product recovery and increased the mean particle residence time at the outlet. A similar trend was observed for the highest feed rate of 26 kg/h owing... [more]
Process and Energy Intensification of Glycerol Carbonate Production from Glycerol and Dimethyl Carbonate in the Presence of Eggshell-Derived CaO Heterogeneous Catalyst
Wanichaya Praikaew, Worapon Kiatkittipong, Farid Aiouache, Vesna Najdanovic-Visak, Kanokwan Ngaosuwan, Doonyapong Wongsawaeng, Jun Wei Lim, Su Shiung Lam, Kunlanan Kiatkittipong, Navadol Laosiripojana, Sunya Boonyasuwat, Suttichai Assabumrungrat
April 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biomass waste derived catalyst, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), glycerol carbonate production, mass and heat transfer, Process Intensification
The process and energy intensifications for the synthesis of glycerol carbonate (GC) from glycerol and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) using an eggshell-derived CaO heterogeneous catalyst were investigated. The transesterification reaction between glycerol and DMC was typically limited by mass transfer because of the immiscible nature of the reactants. By varying the stirring speed, it was observed that the mass transfer limitation could be neglected at 800 rpm. The presence of the CaO solid catalyst made the mass transport-limited reaction process more prominent. Mass transfer intensification using a simple kitchen countertop blender as an alternative to overcome the external mass transfer limitation of a typical magnetic stirrer was demonstrated. A lower amount of the catalyst and a shorter reaction time were required to achieve 93% glycerol conversion or 91% GC yield, and the turnover frequency (TOF) increased almost 5 times from 1.5 to 7.2 min−1 when using a conventional magnetic stirrer... [more]
Particle-Resolved Computational Fluid Dynamics as the Basis for Thermal Process Intensification of Fixed-Bed Reactors on Multiple Scales
Nico Jurtz, Urvashi Srivastava, Alireza Attari Moghaddam, Matthias Kraume
April 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: complex particle shapes, fixed-bed reactor, heat transfer, Process Intensification, wall structures
Process intensification of catalytic fixed-bed reactors is of vital interest and can be conducted on different length scales, ranging from the molecular scale to the pellet scale to the plant scale. Particle-resolved computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to characterize different reactor designs regarding optimized heat transport characteristics on the pellet scale. Packings of cylinders, Raschig rings, four-hole cylinders, and spheres were investigated regarding their impact on bed morphology, fluid dynamics, and heat transport, whereby for the latter particle shape, the influence of macroscopic wall structures on the radial heat transport was also studied. Key performance indicators such as the global heat transfer coefficient and the specific pressure drop were evaluated to compare the thermal performance of the different designs. For plant-scale intensification, effective transport parameters that are needed for simplified pseudo-homogeneous two-dimensional plug flow models we... [more]
Immobilising Microalgae and Cyanobacteria as Biocomposites: New Opportunities to Intensify Algae Biotechnology and Bioprocessing
Gary S. Caldwell, Pichaya In-na, Rachel Hart, Elliot Sharp, Assia Stefanova, Matthew Pickersgill, Matthew Walker, Matthew Unthank, Justin Perry, Jonathan G. M. Lee
April 19, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: bioreactor, Carbon Capture, Carbon Dioxide, eutrophication, immobilization, latex polymers, Process Intensification, Wastewater
There is a groundswell of interest in applying phototrophic microorganisms, specifically microalgae and cyanobacteria, for biotechnology and ecosystem service applications. However, there are inherent challenges associated with conventional routes to their deployment (using ponds, raceways and photobioreactors) which are synonymous with suspension cultivation techniques. Cultivation as biofilms partly ameliorates these issues; however, based on the principles of process intensification, by taking a step beyond biofilms and exploiting nature inspired artificial cell immobilisation, new opportunities become available, particularly for applications requiring extensive deployment periods (e.g., carbon capture and wastewater bioremediation). We explore the rationale for, and approaches to immobilised cultivation, in particular the application of latex-based polymer immobilisation as living biocomposites. We discuss how biocomposites can be optimised at the design stage based on mass transfe... [more]
Structured Catalysts for Non-Thermal Plasma-Assisted Ammonia Synthesis
Eugenio Meloni, Liberato Cafiero, Marco Martino, Vincenzo Palma
April 17, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: ammonia production, non-thermal plasma, Process Intensification, structured catalysts
Ammonia has been intensively studied as a clean, sustainable fuel source and an efficient energy storage medium due to its effectiveness as a hydrogen carrier molecule. However, the currently used Haber−Bosch process requires a large fossil fuel input, high temperatures and pressures, as well as a significant capital investment. These constraints prevent decentralized and small-scale ammonia production at the level of small farms and local communities. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) can promote ammonia synthesis in operating conditions in which, in a conventional process, a catalyst is generally not active. In this study, the production of NTP-assisted catalytic ammonia at milder temperatures and ambient pressure was investigated. Four different structured catalysts were prepared and tested using an experimental plant based on a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The effect of the gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) was investigated, as well as the effect of the N2/H2 ratio on catalyst... [more]
Numerical Study toward Optimization of Spray Drying in a Novel Radial Multizone Dryer
Umair Jamil Ur Rahman, Artur Krzysztof Pozarlik, Thomas Tourneur, Axel de Broqueville, Juray De Wilde, Gerrit Brem
April 14, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Eulerian–Lagrangian, high-G acceleration, Process Intensification, Radial Multizone Dryer, spray drying, vortex chamber
In this paper, an intensified spray-drying process in a novel Radial Multizone Dryer (RMD) is analyzed by means of CFD. A three-dimensional Eulerian−Lagrangian multiphase model is applied to investigate the effect of solids outlet location, relative hot/cold airflow ratio, and droplet size on heat and mass transfer characteristics, G-acceleration, residence time, and separation efficiency of the product. The results indicate that the temperature pattern in the dryer is dependent on the solids outlet location. A stable, symmetric spray behavior with maximum evaporation in the hot zone is observed when the solids outlet is placed at the periphery of the vortex chamber. The maximum product separation efficiency (85 wt %) is obtained by applying high G-acceleration (at relative hot/cold ratio of 0.75) and narrow droplet size distribution (45−70 µm). The separation of different sized particles with distinct drying times is also observed. Smaller particles (<32 µm) leave the reactor via t... [more]
Novel Hybrid Reactive Distillation with Extraction and Distillation Processes for Furfural Production from an Actual Xylose Solution
Le Cao Nhien, Nguyen Van Duc Long, Moonyong Lee
April 13, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: extraction-distillation, industrial furfural process, lignocellulosic biomass, Process Intensification, Reactive Distillation
Furfural is only derived from lignocellulosic biomass and is an important chemical used in the plastics, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries. The existing industrial furfural production process, involving reaction and purification steps, suffers from a low yield and intensive energy use. Hence, major improvements are needed to sustainably upgrade the furfural production process. In this study, the conventional furfural process based on a continuous stirred tank reactor and distillation columns was designed and optimized from an actual aqueous xylose solution via a biomass pretreatment step. Subsequently, a reactive distillation (RD) and extraction/distillation (ED) configuration was proposed for the reaction and purification steps, respectively, to improve the process efficiency. RD can remove furfural instantly from the reactive liquid phase and can separate heavy components from the raw furfural stream, while the ED configuration with toluene and butyl chloride used as extrac... [more]
Advanced and Intensified Seawater Flue Gas Desulfurization Processes: Recent Developments and Improvements
Nguyen Van Duc Long, Dong Young Lee, Kim Myung Jin, Kwag Choongyong, Lee Young Mok, Lee Sung Won, Moonyong Lee
April 4, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: marine seawater FGD process, process improvement, process integration, Process Intensification, process modification
Seawater flue gas desulfurization (SWFGD) is considered to be a viable solution for coastal and naval applications; however, this process has several drawbacks, including its corrosive absorbent; low vapor loading capacity since the solubility of sulfur oxides (SOx) in seawater is lower than that of limestone used in conventional methods; high seawater flowrate; and large equipment size. This has prompted process industries to search for possible advanced and intensified configurations to enhance the performance of SWFGD processes to attain a higher vapor loading capacity, lower seawater flowrate, and smaller equipment size. This paper presents an overview of new developments as well as advanced and intensified configurations of SWFGD processes via process modifications such as modification and optimization of operating conditions, improvement of spray and vapor distributors, adding internal columns, using square or rectangular shape, using a pre-scrubber, multiple scrubber feed; proce... [more]
Novel Intensified Alternatives for Purification of Levulinic Acid Recovered from Lignocellulosic Biomass
Massimiliano Errico, Roumiana P. Stateva, Sébastien Leveneur
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: levulinic acid, Process Intensification, Process Synthesis, separation and purification
The development of a bio-based economy has its foundations in the development of efficient processes to optimize biomass potential. In this context there are a multitude of molecules that can be either synthetized or recovered from biomass, among those the so-called 12 building-blocks reported by the US Department of Energy. Even if their identification and importance is clearly defined, research efforts concerning the purification or separation of these platform molecules are limited. To fill this gap, different configurations for the purification of levulinic acid recovered from lignocellulosic biomass are examined and compared in this work. In particular, hybrid configurations obtained by the combination of liquid-liquid extraction and distillation have been considered. It was demonstrated how a deep understanding of the subspace including all extraction-assisted simple column distillation configurations represents a fundamental step in the synthesis of different process alternative... [more]
A Review of Biohydrogen Productions from Lignocellulosic Precursor via Dark Fermentation: Perspective on Hydrolysate Composition and Electron-Equivalent Balance
Yiyang Liu, Jingluo Min, Xingyu Feng, Yue He, Jinze Liu, Yixiao Wang, Jun He, Hainam Do, Valérie Sage, Gang Yang, Yong Sun
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: artificial neuron networks, biohydrogen, electron-equivalent balance, lignocellulosic precursor, Process Intensification, review
This paper reviews the current technological development of bio-hydrogen (BioH2) generation, focusing on using lignocellulosic feedstock via dark fermentation (DF). Using the collected reference reports as the training data set, supervised machine learning via the constructed artificial neuron networks (ANNs) imbedded with feed backward propagation and one cross-out validation approach was deployed to establish correlations between the carbon sources (glucose and xylose) together with the inhibitors (acetate and other inhibitors, such as furfural and aromatic compounds), hydrogen yield (HY), and hydrogen evolution rate (HER) from reported works. Through the statistical analysis, the concentrations variations of glucose (F-value = 0.0027) and acetate (F-value = 0.0028) were found to be statistically significant among the investigated parameters to HY and HER. Manipulating the ratio of glucose to acetate at an optimal range (approximate in 14:1) will effectively improve the BioH2 generat... [more]
Review of Porous Ceramics for Hot Gas Cleanup of Biomass Syngas Using Catalytic Ceramic Filters to Produce Green Hydrogen/Fuels/Chemicals
Devin Peck, Mark Zappi, Daniel Gang, John Guillory, Rafael Hernandez, Prashanth Buchireddy
March 17, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: biomass gasification, ceramic filters, ceramic materials, green hydrogen production, hot gas filtration, NOx reduction, Process Intensification, syngas cleanup
Biomass gasification is one of the most promising routes to produce green hydrogen, power, fuels, and chemicals, which has drawn much attention as the world moves away from fossil fuels. Syngas produced from gasification needs to go through an essential gas cleanup step for the removal of tars and particulates for further processing, which is one of the cost-inducing steps. Existing hot gas cleanup strategies involve the particulate removal step followed by catalytic tar reforming, which could be integrated into a single unit operation using porous ceramics owing to their advantages including high-temperature resistance, high corrosion resistance, flexibility, and robust mechanical integrity. Ceramic filters have proven to be effective at filtering particulates from hot gas streams in various applications including combustion, incineration, gasification, and pyrolysis. These materials have also been evaluated and used to an extent as catalyst support to remove contaminants such as nitr... [more]
A Process Intensification Approach for CO2 Absorption Using Amino Acid Solutions and a Guanidine Compound
Abishek Kasturi, Jorge F. Gabitto, Radu Custelcean, Costas Tsouris
March 9, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: amino acids, CO2 absorption, Process Intensification, slurry bubble column
Environmentally friendly amino-acid salt solutions are used for the absorption of carbon dioxide from concentrated flue-gas streams via chemical absorption. Process intensification reduces operating and capital costs by combining chemical reactions and separation operations. Here, we present a new process-intensification approach that combines the CO2 capture and the amino-acid regeneration steps into a single process carried out in a slurry three-phase reactor. The absorbed CO2 precipitates as a solid carbonated guanidine compound. The cycle is completed by separation of the solid precipitate to strip the CO2 and regenerate the guanidine compound, while the liquid solution is recycled to the slurry reactor. The process was studied by modifying a model developed by the authors for a gas-liquid bubble column without the presence of the guanidine compound. The guanidine precipitation reaction was accounted for using kinetic parameters calculated by the authors in another study. The propo... [more]
A Combined Chemical-Electrochemical Process to Capture CO2 and Produce Hydrogen and Electricity
Nabila Shamim, Shuza Binzaid, Jorge Federico Gabitto, John Okyere Attia
March 9, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: CO2 absorption, electrochemical cell, Hydrogen, Process Intensification
Several carbon sequestration technologies have been proposed to utilize carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce energy and chemical compounds. However, feasible technologies have not been adopted due to the low efficiency conversion rate and high-energy requirements. Process intensification increases the process productivity and efficiency by combining chemical reactions and separation operations. In this work, we present a model of a chemical-electrochemical cyclical process that can capture carbon dioxide as a bicarbonate salt. The proposed process also produces hydrogen and electrical energy. Carbon capture is enhanced by the reaction at the cathode that displaces the equilibrium into bicarbonate production. Literature data show that the cyclic process can produce stable operation for long times by preserving ionic balance using a suitable ionic membrane that regulates ionic flows between the two half-cells. Numerical simulations have validated the proof of concept. The proposed process cou... [more]
Pressure Swing-Based Reactive Distillation and Dividing Wall Column for Improving Manufacture of Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Acetate
Yus Donald Chaniago, Le Cao Nhien, Ahmad Naquash, Amjad Riaz, Gwang Sik Kim, Hankwon Lim, Moonyong Lee
March 8, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: dividing-wall column, Optimization, pressure swing, Process Intensification, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, Reactive Distillation
Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) is a commonly used solvent in the rapidly developing semiconductor industry. Ultra-high purity PGMEA is required for this ultra-precision industry and to satisfy the current strict waste management regulations. The traditional PGMEA production process consumes considerable energy and has a high production cost. In this study, a novel heat integrated and intensified design, which applies a dividing wall column, reactive distillation, and pressure swing techniques, was proposed for improving the energy efficiency and reducing the cost of PGMEA production. Heat integration was applied to maximize the heat recovery of the process. All processes were simulated using the commercial simulator Aspen Plus V11. The economic and environmental parameters of the process alternative were assessed for a fair comparison with the conventional process. The results showed that heat integration of the optimal pressure swing-based reactive distillation and... [more]
Electrified Hydrogen Production from Methane for PEM Fuel Cells Feeding: A Review
Eugenio Meloni, Giuseppina Iervolino, Concetta Ruocco, Simona Renda, Giovanni Festa, Marco Martino, Vincenzo Palma
February 28, 2023 (v1)
The greatest challenge of our times is to identify low cost and environmentally friendly alternative energy sources to fossil fuels. From this point of view, the decarbonization of industrial chemical processes is fundamental and the use of hydrogen as an energy vector, usable by fuel cells, is strategic. It is possible to tackle the decarbonization of industrial chemical processes with the electrification of systems. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the latest research on the electrification of endothermic industrial chemical processes aimed at the production of H2 from methane and its use for energy production through proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). In particular, two main electrification methods are examined, microwave heating (MW) and resistive heating (Joule), aimed at transferring heat directly on the surface of the catalyst. For cases, the catalyst formulation and reactor configuration were analyzed and compared. The key aspects of the use of... [more]
MW-Assisted Regeneration of 13X Zeolites after N2O Adsorption from Concentrated Streams: A Process Intensification
Eugenio Meloni, Marco Martino, Mariaconcetta Pierro, Pluton Pullumbi, Federico Brandani, Vincenzo Palma
February 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: electrification of chemical processes, energy saving, microwaves, N2O abatement, Process Intensification, temperature swing adsorption process
N2O has a global warming potential about 300 times higher than CO2, and even if its contribution to the greenhouse effect is underrated, its abatement in industrial production’s tail gas has become imperative. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of the microwave (MW)-assisted regeneration of a 13X zeolite bed for N2O capture from tail gases. Several consecutive adsorption−desorption cycles were performed to verify the microwave heating effect on the zeolite’s adsorption properties. The results of the experimental tests, performed at N2O concentrations of 10, 20 and 40% vol, highlighted that (i) the steps are perfectly repeatable in terms of both adsorbed and desorbed amount of N2O, meaning that the MWs did not damage the zeolite’s structure, (ii) the presence of both H2O and O2 in the feed stream irreversibly reduces the adsorbent capacity due to nitrites and nitrates formation, and (iii) the presence of H2O alone with N2O still reduces the adsorbent capacity of the zeolites,... [more]
Microwave-Assisted Freeze-Drying with Frequency-Based Control Concepts via Solid-State Generators: A Simulative and Experimental Study
Till Sickert, Isabel Kalinke, Jana Christoph, Volker Gaukel
February 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: freeze-drying, frequency shifting, microwave-assisted drying, process control, Process Intensification, solid-state microwave generator
Freeze-drying is a common process to extend the shelf life of food and bioactive substances. Its main drawback is the long drying time and associated high production costs. Microwaves can be applied to significantly shorten the process. This study investigates the effects of modulating the electromagnetic field in microwave-assisted freeze-drying (MFD). Control concepts based on microwave frequency are evaluated using electromagnetic simulations. The concepts are then applied to the first part of primary drying in a laboratory-scale system with solid-state generators. Targeted frequency modulation in the electromagnetic simulations enabled an increase in energy efficiency or heating homogeneity throughout MFD while having negligible effects on the power dissipation ratio between frozen and dried product areas. The simulations predicted the qualitative effects observed in the experimental proof of concept regarding energy efficiency and drying homogeneity. Additionally, shortened drying... [more]
Classical and Process Intensification Methods for Acetic Acid Concentration: Technical and Environmental Assessment
Letitia Petrescu, Codruta-Maria Cormos
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: acetic acid concentration, azeotropic distillation, double-effect distillation process, life cycle assessment, Process Intensification, thermally coupled process
This study aims to investigate, from a technical and an environmental perspective, various alternatives for acetic acid concentration for maximizing acetic acid production, its purity, and in the meantime, minimizing the energy usage and the environmental impact. Liquid−liquid extraction followed by azeotropic distillation using different solvents such as: (i) ethyl acetate, (ii) isopropyl acetate, and (iii) a mixture containing isopropyl acetate and isopropanol were first explored, using process flow modeling software. The three cases were compared considering various technical key performance indicators (i.e., acetic acid flow-rate, acetic acid purity, acetic acid recovery, power consumption, thermal energy used, and number of equipment units involved) leading to the conclusion that the usage of the isopropyl acetate—isopropanol mixture leads to better technical results. The isopropanol-isopropyl acetate mixture was furthermore investigated in other two cases where process intensific... [more]
CO Preferential Oxidation in a Microchannel Reactor Using a Ru-Cs/Al2O3 Catalyst: Experimentation and CFD Modelling
Kyatsinge Cedric Musavuli, Nicolaas Engelbrecht, Raymond Cecil Everson, Gerrit Lodewicus Grobler, Dmitri Bessarabov
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: bootstrap statistical method, CO preferential oxidation, hydrogen energy, kinetic parameter estimation, microchannel reactor, PEM fuel cell, Process Intensification, Ru/Al2O3 catalyst
This work presents an experimental and modelling evaluation of the preferential oxidation of CO (CO PROX) from a H2-rich gas stream typically produced from fossil fuels and ultimately intended for hydrogen fuel cell applications. A microchannel reactor containing a washcoated 8.5 wt.% Ru/Al2O3 catalyst was used to preferentially oxidise CO to form CO2 in a gas stream containing (by vol.%): 1.4% CO, 10% CO2, 18% N2, 68.6% H2, and 2% added O2. CO concentrations in the product gas were as low as 42 ppm (99.7% CO conversion) at reaction temperatures in the range 120−140 °C and space velocities in the range 65.2−97.8 NL gcat−1 h−1. For these conditions, less than 4% of the H2 feed was consumed via its oxidation and reverse water-gas shift. Furthermore, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model describing the microchannel reactor for CO PROX was developed. With kinetic parameter estimation and goodness of fit calculations, it was determined that the model described the reactor with a confide... [more]
Dividing-Wall Column Design: Analysis of Methodologies Tailored to Process Simulators
Gloria A. Buitimea-Cerón, Juergen Hahn, Nancy Medina-Herrera, Arturo Jiménez-Gutiérrez, José A. Loredo-Medrano, Salvador Tututi-Avila
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: design, Distillation, DWC, methodology, Optimization, Process Intensification
Dividing-wall columns (DWCs) are intensified processes that have attracted industrial and academic attention due to the reduction in operating and installation costs compared to traditional distillation systems. Several methodologies are available for the design of DWCs. Most of them consist of three parts: an analysis of operating variables; an analysis of the structural design (topology); and an optimization of the resulting preliminary design. This paper aims to study three widely used design methodologies reported in the literature for DWCs, i.e., Triantafyllou and Smith (T&S), minimum vapor (Vmin), and Sotudeh and Shahraki (S&S) methods, along with their implementation on process simulators. A proposed modification to the S&S methodology is also presented. A comparison of the methods is carried out and rated against designs with minimum total annual costs. The analysis considers the effect of different structural design variables to initialize the design procedure with each method... [more]
Seed Train Intensification Using an Ultra-High Cell Density Cell Banking Process
Jan Müller, Vivian Ott, Dieter Eibl, Regine Eibl
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: Chinese hamster ovary cells, cryopreservation, monoclonal antibodies, N−1 perfusion, Process Intensification, upstream processing
A current focus of biopharmaceutical research and production is seed train process intensification. This allows for intermediate cultivation steps to be avoided or even for the direct inoculation of a production bioreactor with cells from cryovials or cryobags. Based on preliminary investigations regarding the suitability of high cell densities for cryopreservation and the suitability of cells from perfusion cultivations as inoculum for further cultivations, an ultra-high cell density working cell bank (UHCD-WCB) was established for an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. The cells were previously expanded in a wave-mixed bioreactor with internal filter-based perfusion and a 1 L working volume. This procedure allows for cryovial freezing at 260 × 106 cells mL−1 for the first time. The cryovials are suitable for the direct inoculation of N−1 bioreactors in the perfusion mode. These in turn can be used to inoculate subsequent IgG productions in the fed-... [more]
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