Records with Subject: Process Control
Showing records 1 to 25 of 2571. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
A Decentralized Informatics, Optimization, and Control Framework for Evolving Demand Response Services
Sean Williams, Michael Short, Tracey Crosbie, Maryam Shadman-Pajouh
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: community energy management, decentralized, demand response, Optimization
This paper presents a decentralized informatics, optimization, and control framework to enable demand response (DR) in small or rural decentralized community power systems, including geographical islands. The framework consists of a simplified lumped model for electrical demand forecasting, a scheduling subsystem that optimizes the utility of energy storage assets, and an active/pro-active control subsystem. The active control strategy provides secondary DR services, through optimizing a multi-objective cost function formulated using a weight-based routing algorithm. In this context, the total weight of each edge between any two consecutive nodes is calculated as a function of thermal comfort, cost (tariff), and the rate at which electricity is consumed over a short future time horizon. The pro-active control strategy provides primary DR services. Furthermore, tertiary DR services can be processed to initiate a sequence of operations that enables the continuity of applied electrical se... [more]
Adaptive Control of Four-Quadrant DC-DC Converters in Both Discontinuous and Continuous Conduction Modes
Hicham Chaoui, Mohamad Alzayed, Okezie Okoye, Mehdy Khayamy
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: adaptive control, CCM, DC-DC converters, DCM
The inherently different dynamics of a DC-DC converter while operating in both continuous conduction mode (CCM) and discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) necessitate an advanced controller to control the inductor current. A conventional PI controller cannot be used across both modes since it does not guarantee a smooth transition between both modes. Furthermore, in time-varying input-output voltage applications of the four-quadrant converter such as in battery charging applications, the location of the boundary between the CCM and the DCM changes dynamically, creating an uncertainty. Therefore, a robust controller is required to accurately track the inductor current in the presence of uncertainties. Thus, an adaptive controller is proposed in this work, which is based on the general inverse model of the four-quadrant converter in both modes. Moreover, gain scheduling is used to switch the parameters of the controller as the converter transits between the DCM and the CCM. The adaptability... [more]
A Comprehensive Review on Grid Connected Photovoltaic Inverters, Their Modulation Techniques, and Control Strategies
Muhammad Yasir Ali Khan, Haoming Liu, Zhihao Yang, Xiaoling Yuan
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: control strategies, current control, grid-connected PV inverters, grid-connected PV system, modulation techniques, multi-level inverters
The installation of photovoltaic (PV) system for electrical power generation has gained a substantial interest in the power system for clean and green energy. However, having the intermittent characteristics of photovoltaic, its integration with the power system may cause certain uncertainties (voltage fluctuations, harmonics in output waveforms, etc.) leading towards reliability and stability issues. In PV systems, the power electronics play a significant role in energy harvesting and integration of grid-friendly power systems. Therefore, the reliability, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of power converters are of main concern in the system design and are mainly dependent on the applied control strategy. This review article presents a comprehensive review on the grid-connected PV systems. A wide spectrum of different classifications and configurations of grid-connected inverters is presented. Different multi-level inverter topologies along with the modulation techniques are classifi... [more]
Indirect Vector-Controlled Brushless Doubly-Fed Twin-Stator Induction Generator for Wind Energy Conversion Application
Mona I. Abdelkader, Ahmed K. Abdelsalam, Ahmed A. Hossameldin
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: active-reactive power control, back-to-back converter, brushless doubly-fed induction machine (BDFIM), brushless doubly-fed twin-stator induction generator (BDFTSIG), doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG), indirect vector control, wind energy conversion system (WECS)
Wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) seem certain to play a major part in the world’s energy future due to their known high power capacity. The maximum power tracking is unavoidable due to the wind velocity variation and the non-linear relation with the turbine mechanical power. Commercial wind turbines are commonly coupled to either doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs), wound rotor synchronous generators (WRSG) or permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs). The DFIG-based WECS has several advantages over others. One of which is the power converter in such systems only deals with rotor power, hence the converter rating can run at reduced power rating. However, DFIG has the famous disadvantage of the presence of slip rings which leads to increased maintenance costs and outage times. Hence, brushless doublyfed induction machines (BDFIMs) can be considered as a viable alternative at the penalty of complicated controller requirement and limited decoupling control capability due t... [more]
Construction of a New Type of Coal Moisture Control Device Based on the Characteristic of Indirect Drying Process of Coking Coal
Ming Yan, Xinnan Song, Jin Tian, Xuebin Lv, Ze Zhang, Xiaoyan Yu, Shuting Zhang
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: coal pre-drying, drying kinetics, heat, mass, moisture
This paper presents an in-depth study on the indirect drying characteristics and interface renewal. By comparing the drying rate curve, it is found that shortening the surface drying stage, which contains a repeated evaporation-diffusion-condensation process of moisture, is the key to improve the total drying efficiency. By stirring the coal and realizing the interface renewal between the bottom layer and the surface layer, the drying efficiency reached seven times than that of static indirect drying. Based on indirect heat transfer with high heat and mass transfer rate, a new type of indirect heat transfer moving bed coal moisture control device is designed. At the same time, Fluent fluid mechanics software is used for mathematical modeling and simulation experiments. It is proved that the designed moving bed coal moisture control device has a good application prospect in coal pre-drying technology.
Quantifying the Demand Response Potential of Inherent Energy Storages in Production Systems
Nina Strobel, Daniel Fuhrländer-Völker, Matthias Weigold, Eberhard Abele
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: demand response (DR), inherent energy storages (IESs), production systems, thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs), virtual energy storages (VESs)
The increasing share of volatile, renewable energy sources rises the demand for consumers who can shift their electrical power demand in time. In theory, the industrial sector offers great potential here, as it accounts for a large proportion of electricity demand. However, the heterogeneous structure of facilities in factories and the concerns of operators regarding data security and process control often prevent the implementation of demand side management measures in this sector. In order to counteract these obstacles, this paper presents a general mathematical framework for modelling and evaluating different types of inherent energy storages (IES) which typically can be found in industrial production systems. The method can be used to calculate the flexibility potential of the IES in a factory with focus on hysteresis-controlled devices and make the potential visible and usable for power grid stabilization. The method is applied in a typical production line from metalworking indust... [more]
Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR): A Comprehensive Review of Topologies, Power Converters, Control Methods, and Modified Configurations
Ali Moghassemi, Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: control methods, distributed generation, dynamic voltage restorer (DVR), modified DVR configurations, power converter, power quality
Power quality is a pressing concern and of the utmost importance for advanced and high-tech equipment in particular, whose performance relies heavily on the supply’s quality. Power quality issues like voltage sags/swells, harmonics, interruptions, etc. are defined as any deviations in current, voltage, or frequency that result in end-use equipment damage or failure. Sensitive loads like medical equipment in hospitals and health clinics, schools, prisons, etc. malfunction for the outages and interruptions, thereby causing substantial economic losses. For enhancing power quality, custom power devices (CPDs) are recommended, among which the Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is considered as the best and cost-effective solution. DVR is a power electronic-based solution to mitigate and compensate voltage sags. This paper provides a thorough discussion and comprehensive review of DVR topologies based on operations, power converters, control methods, and applications. The review compares the sta... [more]
Advanced Variable Step Size Incremental Conductance MPPT for a Standalone PV System Utilizing a GA-Tuned PID Controller
Adeel Feroz Mirza, Majad Mansoor, Qiang Ling, Muhammad Imran Khan, Omar M. Aldossary
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: genetic algorithm (GA), global maxima (GM), incremental conductance (IC), local maxima (LM), maximum power point tracking (MPPT), photovoltaic (PV), proportional integral deferential (PID)
In this article, a novel maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller for the fast-changing irradiance of photovoltaic (PV) systems is introduced. Our technique utilizes a modified incremental conductance (IC) algorithm for the efficient and fast tracking of MPP. The proposed system has a simple implementation, fast tracking, and achieved steady-state oscillation. Traditional MPPT techniques use a tradeoff between steady-state and transition-state parameters. The shortfalls of various techniques are studied. A comprehensive comparative study is done to test various existing techniques against the proposed technique. The common parameters discussed in this study are fast convergence, efficiency, and reduced oscillations. The proposed method successfully addresses these issues and improves the results significantly by using a proportional integral deferential (PID) controller with a genetic algorithm (GA) to predict the variable step size of the IC-based MPPT technique. The system is d... [more]
2D Simulation for CH4 Internal Reforming-SOFCs: An Approach to Study Performance Degradation and Optimization
Emilio Audasso, Fiammetta Rita Bianchi, Barbara Bosio
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: 2D local control, active site degradation, cell design optimization, CH4 internal reforming, solid oxide fuel cell
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a well-developed technology, mainly used for combined heat and power production. High operating temperatures and anodic Ni-based materials allow for direct reforming reactions of CH4 and other light hydrocarbons inside the cell. This feature favors a wider use of SOFCs that otherwise would be limited by the absence of a proper H2 distribution network. This also permits the simplification of plant design avoiding additional units for upstream syngas production. In this context, control and knowledge of how variables such as temperature and gas composition are distributed on the cell surface are important to ensure good long-lasting performance. The aim of this work is to present a 2D modeling tool able to simulate SOFC performance working with direct internal CH4 reforming. Initially thermodynamic and kinetic approaches are compared in order to tune the model assuming a biogas as feed. Thanks to the introduction of a matrix of coefficients to represent... [more]
The Time Duration of the Effects of Total Extraction Mining Methods on Surface Movement
André Vervoort
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Belgium, ground control, long-term behavior, longwall coal mining, radar-interferometry, subsidence, surface movement, sustainable mining, uplift
Since the 1990s, remote sensing data have been available to monitor the surface movement for long periods of time. The analysis of satellite data shows that there is still residual subsidence (i.e., with average rates of about −10 mm/year) several decades after mining longwall panels in an area. Several years after the underground infrastructure was sealed, the surface started to move upwards. In the past, it often was claimed that movement of the surface was limited in time, i.e., a few years after mining a longwall panel. This is not the case for the conditions of the Campine coal basin, Belgium. This knowledge is important when one wants to design new operations in deep coal seams, but also when planning to stop the underground mining and to seal the access to the mine.
Control Analysis of a Real-World P2 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Test Data
Woong Lee, Tacksu Kim, Jongryeol Jeong, Jaewoo Chung, Deokjin Kim, Beomho Lee, Namwook Kim
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: benchmarking, control analysis, control strategy, dynamometer test, energy management strategy, hybrid electric vehicle, Ioniq, parallel hybrid system, real driving test
The control strategy of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is generally not disclosed to public because it is a significant factor in determining the performance of the system. However, engineers desiring to understand the control concept of real-world HEVs can gain knowledge in various ways. In this study, we used test data obtained from a bench dynamometer and real driving to analyze the supervisory control strategy of Hyundai Ioniq Hybrid. This research can be described in three steps. First, an understanding of the mode control strategy is obtained by investigating the engine on/off behavior, which determines when the pure electric driving mode is used. Second, the shifting patterns are studied by observing the speed ratios according to the vehicle speed and the torque demand. Third, the strategy for distributing the torque between the engine and the motor is analyzed by studying the motor assistant operation. Based on the analyzed control concept, it is possible to understand the tec... [more]
Impact of Submodule Faults on the Performance of Modular Multilevel Converters
Shuren Wang, Fahad Saeed Alsokhiry, Grain Philip Adam
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: ac/dc converter for medium and high-voltage applications, fault-tolerant control and operation, modular multilevel converter, submodule fault
Modular multilevel converter (MMC) is well suited for high-power and medium-voltage applications. However, its performance is adversely affected by asymmetry that might be introduced by the failure of a limited number of submodules (SMs) or even by severe deviations in the values of SM capacitors and arm inductors, particularly when the number of SMs per arm is relatively low. Although a safe-failed operation is easily achieved through the incorporation of redundant SMs, the SMs’ faults make MMC arms present unequal impedances, which leads to undesirable internal dynamics because of unequal power distribution between the arms. The severity of these undesirable dynamics varies with the implementation of auxiliary controllers that regulate the MMC internal dynamics. This paper studied the impact of SMs failure on the MMC internal dynamics performance, considering two implementations of internal dynamics control, including a direct control method for suppressing the fundamental component... [more]
Soft Start-Up Control Strategy for Dual Active Bridge Converter with a Supercapacitor
Min-Soo Kim, Do-Hyun Kim, Dong-Keun Jeong, Jang-Mok Kim, Hee-Je Kim
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: 3-step soft start-up operation, dual active bridge (DAB) converter, phase shift, photovoltaic/energy storage system (PV/ESS), supercapacitor (SC)
Renewable energy needs are steadily on the rise. Bidirectional DC/DC converters are essential in charging and discharging various storage batteries, such as PV/ESS (photovoltaic/energy storage system). A dual active bridge (DAB) converter, in particular, transfers power in both directions by phase shift using a soiled state transformer (SST). To reduce switching inrush current in batteries under high voltages, a soft start-up is demonstrated during the initial switching operation. When a supercapacitor (SC) is used as a battery, the reverse power caused by the inrush current appears under high voltage at the DC-link side. This causes serious electrical damage to the PV/ESS’ boost converter and inverter. To suppress peak overshoot voltage and stabilize soft start-up transients, we propose a three-step soft start-up controller and algorithm for bidirectional DAB converter implementation at virtual ESS and UPS. The step-by-step control strategy by OLDC (open loop duty control), OLPSC (ope... [more]
Disturbance Observer-Based Offset-Free Global Tracking Control for Input-Constrained LTI Systems with DC/DC Buck Converter Applications
Kyunghwan Choi, Dong Soo Kim, Seok-Kyoon Kim
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: DC/DC buck converters, disturbance observer, input constraints, LTI systems, offset-free global tracking control
This paper presents an offset-free global tracking control algorithm for the input-constrained plants modeled as controllable and open-loop strictly stable linear time invariant (LTI) systems. The contribution of this study is two-fold: First, a global tracking control law is devised in such a way that it not only leads to offset-free reference tracking but also handles the input constraints using the invariance property of a projection operator embedded in the proposed disturbance observer (DOB). Second, the offset-free tracking property is guaranteed against uncertainties caused by plant-model mismatch using the DOB’s integral action for the state estimation error. Simulation results are given in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by applying it to a DC/DC buck converter.
Formal Verification and Co-Simulation in the Design of a Synchronous Motor Control Algorithm
Cinzia Bernardeschi, Pierpaolo Dini, Andrea Domenici, Maurizio Palmieri, Sergio Saponara
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: co-simulation, cogging torque, formal verification, model-based design, power drive system, synchronous motor, theorem proving
Mechatronic systems are a class of cyber-physical systems, whose increasing complexity makes their validation and verification more and more difficult, while their requirements become more challenging. This paper introduces a development method based on model-based design, co-simulation and formal verification. The objective of this paper is to show the applicability of the method in an industrial setting. An application case study comes from the field of precision servo-motors, where formal verification has been used to find acceptable intervals of values for design parameters of the motor controller, which have been further explored using co-simulation to find optimal values. The reported results show that the method has been applied successfully to the case study, augmenting the current model-driven development processes by formal verification of stability, formal identification of acceptable parameter ranges, and automatic design-space exploration.
On-Line Control of Stresses in the Power Unit Pressure Elements Taking Account of Variable Heat Transfer Conditions
Andrzej Rusin, Martyna Tomala, Henryk Łukowicz, Grzegorz Nowak, Wojciech Kosman
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Green’s functions, heat transfer coefficients, on-line monitoring, thermal stresses
Coal-fired power units, now balancing power shortages in the power system, must be characterised by increasingly higher flexibility of operation. This means faster start-ups and the capacity for frequent decreases and increases in the power output. These processes cause large temperature gradients in elements of the power unit and the turbine and lead to an increase in the stress level. At such an operating regime it is impossible to ensure safety based on start-up characteristics only—it becomes necessary to constantly monitor stress levels in critical areas of machinery and equipment elements. The stress level in turbine elements can be monitored on-line using algorithms based on Green’s functions and Duhamel’s integral. This paper presents examples of modifications of stress calculations in turbine valves and casings during start-ups. By modifying basic algorithms, it is possible to take into account the impact of the variability of heat transfer coefficients on the thermal stress l... [more]
Harmonics Compensation by Using a Multi-Modular H-Bridge-Based Multilevel Converter
Raul Gregor, Julio Pacher, Alejandro Espinoza, Alfredo Renault, Leonardo Comparatore, Magno Ayala
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: harmonics compensation, multilevel converter, multimodular APF
This paper presents an active power filter based on a seven-level cascade H-bridge where the main contribution is a control strategy that combines model-based predictive control, the voltage vectors of the converter output levels, the phase shift PWM technique, and suboptimal DC-link voltage control. The proposed scheme greatly simplified the overall control system, making it well suited to compensate the current harmonics distortion at the grid side, generated by nonlinear loads connected to the point of common coupling. In addition, the proposed method achieved a balancing of the capacitor voltages of the seven-level cascade H-bridge converter by using the minimum DC-link voltage sensors. This feature significantly reduced the control system complexity and provided a low computational burden. Experimental results confirmed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed controller.
Lyapunov-Function-Based Feedback Linearization Control Strategy of Modular Multilevel Converter−Bidirectional DC−DC Converter for Vessel Integrated Power Systems
Peng Chen, Jilong Liu, Fei Xiao, Zhichao Zhu, Zhaojie Huang
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: DC distribution, Energy Storage, feedback linearization, integrated power system, Lyapunov function
The modular multilevel converter−bidirectional DC−DC converter (MMC−BDC) has been proposed to be utilized in the vessel integrated power system to interconnect the medium voltage bus and the distributed energy storage elements. In the shipboard applications, MMC−BDC faces unbalanced sub-module power operation because of the inconsistent state-of-charge (SOC) of the energy storage elements. Researchers have investigated into the unbalanced operation principle of MMC−BDC and proposed some unbalanced operation control strategies, but these traditional strategies do not perform well in both aspects of operating range and efficiency. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel Lyapunov-function-based feedback linearization control strategy for the independent sub-module voltage control of MMC−BDC, which not only shows wide unbalanced operation range and high efficiency, but also realizes the decoupling and symmetrical control of the sub-module capacitor voltages.
A Review on Artificial Intelligence Applications for Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic Systems
Varaha Satra Bharath Kurukuru, Ahteshamul Haque, Mohammed Ali Khan, Subham Sahoo, Azra Malik, Frede Blaabjerg
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, condition monitoring, irradiance forecasting, optimal sizing, photovoltaic systems, reliability, transition control
The use of artificial intelligence (AI) is increasing in various sectors of photovoltaic (PV) systems, due to the increasing computational power, tools and data generation. The currently employed methods for various functions of the solar PV industry related to design, forecasting, control, and maintenance have been found to deliver relatively inaccurate results. Further, the use of AI to perform these tasks achieved a higher degree of accuracy and precision and is now a highly interesting topic. In this context, this paper aims to investigate how AI techniques impact the PV value chain. The investigation consists of mapping the currently available AI technologies, identifying possible future uses of AI, and also quantifying their advantages and disadvantages in regard to the conventional mechanisms.
Steady-State Control of Fuel Cell Based on Boost Mode of a Dual Winding Motor
Cheng Chang, Weibin Chang, Jiangang Ma, Yafu Zhou
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: current circulation, dual winding motor, fuel cell steady-state control, fuel cell vehicle, input current control
In recent years, a dual winding motor drive has been proposed in the field of fuel cell vehicles due to its advantages of good performance and high robustness. This new topology and its basic control method have been widely investigated. However, the previous research has not considered the current dynamic property of a fuel cell when studying the power sharing control method, but this is an important research objective for fuel cell durability. Considering the current change principle of a fuel cell, an optimal steady-state control method based on a new dual winding motor architecture boost charging is proposed to optimize the fuel cell life. In addition, in view of the current circulation problem of the fuel cell side winding in the boost mode, a Bang-Bang-PI control algorithm with a relatively constant reference value is proposed to realize the current sharing control. On this basis, the optimized control of the output current ripple of the fuel cell is realized to ensure the steady... [more]
Monitoring and Control in Program Management as Effectiveness Drivers in Polish Energy Sector. Diagnosis and Directions of Improvement
Mateusz Trzeciak, Izabela Jonek-Kowalska
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: management in energy sector, monitoring and control process, Polish energy enterprises, project and program management
The activity of enterprises in the energy sector is complicated by the complexity and capital intensity of the resources and processes used. In the current market conditions, an additional challenge is the implementation of sustainable development, including, in particular, environmental and social goals. These circumstances require efficient and effective management, and this is possible, inter alia, thanks to the use of the project management. However, this approach requires not only implementation, but also professional monitoring and control, which is considered and diagnosed in this article. The purpose of this article is to: (a) verify the programme management areas subject to the monitoring and control process; (b) identify and evaluate the effectiveness of the most frequently used methods in the process of monitoring and control of the programme implementation. A qualitative study using a structured interview was conducted among 21 experts involved in the implementation of prog... [more]
Climate Adaptive Design Index for the Built Environment (CADI-BE): An Assessment System of the Adaptive Capacity to Urban Temperatures Increase
Eduardo Bassolino, Maria Cerreta
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: climate-adaptive design, decision support system, multi-criteria analysis, urban high-temperature management
In a scenario in which the climate changes subject urban centres and large cities to high levels of environmental vulnerability and criticality underway, it is evident the need to define operational and straightforward decision-making tools capable of prefiguring and verifying the effectiveness of urban transformation climate-adaptive regeneration processes. The Climate Adaptive Design Index for the Built Environment (CADI-BE) tool has been developed to assess the adaptive capacity and level of performance of open urban spaces to the stresses due to the increase in global average temperatures. The repercussions of these phenomena cause the occurrence of heatwaves and the urban heat island effect (UHI), bringing out the inability of cities to cope with changes in the climate, making urban open spaces unlivable and no longer the ideal habitat for everyday life and social interactions.
Deadbeat Predictive Current Control for Series-Winding PMSM Drive with Half-Bridge Power Module-Based Inverter
Zhiping Dong, Chunhua Liu, Senyi Liu, Zaixin Song
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: deadbeat control, half-bridge power module, phase current, PMSM, series-winding topology, voltage vector, zero-sequence current
Series-winding topology (SWT) could improve the DC-link voltage utilization, as open-winding topology does. Meanwhile, it can greatly reduce the number of power devices. Firstly, for the half-bridge power modules (HBPMs)-based inverter, an N-phase series-winding motor only requires N + 1 HBPMs for driving. On the other hand, such SWT also brings new challenges to the drive system. A zero-sequence loop is introduced into the motor windings due to SWT. The generated zero-sequence current would degrade the total harmonic distortion of the phase currents and produce the additional torque ripple. Moreover, current sensors are typically integrated with the HBPMs. However, in SWT, their measured results are the leg currents of the inverter, not the phase currents of the motor, which is crucial to the motor control. Thus, this paper mainly focuses on the aforementioned problems in a three-phase series-winding permanent-magnet synchronous motor (TPSW-PMSM) drive with HBPM-based inverter. Firstl... [more]
Current Control Strategies for a Star Connected Cascaded H-Bridge Converter Operating as MV-AC to MV-DC Stage of a Solid State Transformer
Sebastian Stynski, Marta Grzegorczyk, Cezary Sobol, Radek Kot
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: current control, MV grid voltage imbalance, solid state transformer, star connected cascaded H-bridge converter
Nowadays, the increasing number of nonlinear loads and renewable energy resources pose new challenges for the standard electrical grid. Conventional solutions cannot handle most of them. The weakest component in the whole system is a conventional distribution (converting medium to low AC voltage) transformer. It should not operate with unbalanced, heavily distorted voltage and cannot control power flow or compensate current harmonics. One of the promising solutions to replace the conventional transformer and thus minimize power flow and grid distortions is a power electronics device called a solid state transformer (SST). Depending on the SST topology, it can have different functionalities, and, with the proper control algorithm, it is able to compensate any power imbalances in both low voltage (LV) and medium voltage (MV) grid sides. In the case of a three energy conversion stage SST, the LV and the MV stages can be treated separately. This paper focuses on the MV-AC to the MV-DC stag... [more]
Influence of Vertical Equivalent Damping Ratio on Seismic Isolation Effectiveness of Nuclear Reactor Building
Xiuyun Zhu, Jianbo Li, Gao Lin, Rong Pan
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: 3-dimensional combined isolation bearing (3D-CIB), 3D base-seismic isolation, isolation effectiveness, vertical equivalent damping ratio
This paper aimed at evaluating the influence of different vertical equivalent damping ratios of a 3-dimensional combined isolation bearing (3D-CIB) as regards seismic response and isolation effectiveness. A comparative study of the seismic response in terms of acceleration floor response spectra (FRS), peak acceleration, displacement response of the nuclear reactor building, and dynamic response of the 3D-CIB was carried out. The results showed that: (1) the horizontal FRS is slightly influenced by the vertical equivalent damping ratio of 3D-CIB, whereas the increase of the vertical equivalent damping ratio has a significant effect on reducing the vertical FRS; (2) the peak vertical acceleration increased with the decrease in the vertical equivalent damping ratios of 3D-CIB and the difference of peak accelerations calculated by the damping ratio of 20 and 25% is within 10%; (3) the increase of the vertical equivalent damping ratio is capable of reducing the horizontal displacement and... [more]
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