Records with Subject: Modelling and Simulations
Showing records 1 to 25 of 4046. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Reviewing the Modeling Aspects and Practices of Shallow Geothermal Energy Systems
Paul Christodoulides, Ana Vieira, Stanislav Lenart, João Maranha, Gregor Vidmar, Rumen Popov, Aleksandar Georgiev, Lazaros Aresti, Georgios Florides
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: energy geo-structures, Modelling, shallow geothermal energy systems, software tools, thermal analysis, thermo-hydro-mechanical
Shallow geothermal energy systems (SGES) may take different forms and have recently taken considerable attention due to energy geo-structures (EGS) resulting from the integration of heat exchange elements in geotechnical structures. Still, there is a lack of systematic design guidelines of SGES. Hence, in order to contribute towards that direction, the current study aims at reviewing the available SGES modeling options along with their various aspects and practices. This is done by first presenting the main analytical and numerical models and methods related to the thermal behavior of SGES. Then, the most important supplementary factors affecting such modeling are discussed. These include: (i) the boundary conditions, in the form of temperature variation or heat flow, that majorly affect the predicted thermal behavior of SGES; (ii) the spatial dimensions that may be crucial when relaxing the infinite length assumption for short heat exchangers such as energy piles (EP); (iii) the deter... [more]
Temperature Analysis of the Stand-Alone and Building Integrated Photovoltaic Systems Based on Simulation and Measurement Data
Adam Idzkowski, Karolina Karasowska, Wojciech Walendziuk
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: building integrated PV power system, Energy Efficiency, mathematical modeling, photovoltaic systems, solar energy, stand-alone PV power system, temperature estimation
Sunlight is converted into electrical energy due to the photovoltaic effect in photovoltaic cells. Energy yield of photovoltaic systems depends on the solar array location, orientation, tilt, tracking and local weather conditions. In order to determine the amount of energy produced in a photovoltaic system, it is important to analyze the operation of the photovoltaic (PV) arrays in real operating conditions and take into account the impact of external factors such as irradiance, ambient temperature or the speed of blowing wind, which is the natural coolant of PV panels. The analysis was carried out based on mathematical models and actual measurement data, regarding the dependence of the average temperature of PV arrays on variable and difficult to predict ambient conditions. The analysis used standard (nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT)), King, Skoplaki, Faiman and Mattei thermal models and the standard model for flat-plate photovoltaic arrays. Photovoltaic installations PV1, PV... [more]
Single Column Model Simulations of Icing Conditions in Northern Sweden: Sensitivity to Surface Model Land Use Representation
Erik Janzon, Heiner Körnich, Johan Arnqvist, Anna Rutgersson
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: cold climate, forests, heterogeneous land use, icing, wind energy
In-cloud ice mass accretion on wind turbines is a common challenge that is faced by energy companies operating in cold climates. On-shore wind farms in Scandinavia are often located in regions near patches of forest, the heterogeneity length scales of which are often less than the resolution of many numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. The representation of these forests—including the cloud water response to surface roughness and albedo effects that are related to them—must therefore be parameterized in NWP models used as meteorological input in ice prediction systems, resulting in an uncertainty that is poorly understood and, to the present date, not quantified. The sensitivity of ice accretion forecasts to the subgrid representation of forests is examined in this study. A single column version of the HARMONIE-AROME three-dimensional (3D) NWP model is used to determine the sensitivity of the forecast of ice accretion on wind turbines to the subgrid forest fraction. Single column... [more]
Innovative Hydrodynamic Disintegrator Adjusted to Agricultural Substrates Pre-treatment Aimed at Methane Production Intensification—CFD Modelling and Batch Tests
Monika Zubrowska-Sudol, Aleksandra Dzido, Agnieszka Garlicka, Piotr Krawczyk, Michał Stępień, Katarzyna Umiejewska, Justyna Walczak, Marcin Wołowicz, Katarzyna Sytek-Szmeichel
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: agricultural substrates, cavitation, computational fluid dynamic, energy balance, hydrodynamic disintegration, immersed solid method, mathematical modelling, specific methane production
The study objective was to adjust the hydrodynamic disintegrator dedicated to sewage sludge pre-treatment (HDS) to work with agricultural substrate. This involved the development and implementation of a mathematical model of flow via the device’s domain. An innovative disintegrator (HAD—hydrodynamic disintegrator for agriculture) was designed, built, and tested based on the obtained results. The main improvements to the HDS include the implementation of shredding knives in order to overcome clogging by crushed substrate, and the application of ribs in the recirculation zone, contributing to the development of an additional structure damage zone. The challenge of this study was also to determine the operating parameters of the HDA that would provide for an increase in methane production with positive energy balance. The testing procedures, for which maize silage was selected, involved batch disintegration tests and biochemical methane potential tests. No clogging of rotor or spontaneous... [more]
Adsorption Isotherm Modelling of Water on Nano-Tailored Mesoporous Silica Based on Distribution Function
František Mikšík, Takahiko Miyazaki, Kyaw Thu
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Adsorption, distribution function, mesoporous silica, Modelling, Water
A new model of adsorption isotherms Type IV and V is proposed as a basis for theoretical calculations and modelling of adsorption systems such as adsorption heat storage and heat pumps. As the current models have decent yet limited applicability, in this work, we present a new combined model with universal use for micro-mesoporous silica/water adsorption systems. Experimental measurement of adsorption isotherm of water onto seven different samples of micro and mesoporous silica and aluminium-silica were used to fit new adsorption models based on a combination of classical theories and a distribution function related to the pore-size distribution of the selected materials. The fitting was conducted through a repeated non-linear regression using Trust Region Reflective algorithm with weighting factors to compensate for the scalability of the adsorption amount at low relative pressure with optimization of the absolute average deviation fitting parameter. The results display a significant... [more]
Data for Urban Scale Building Energy Modelling: Assessing Impacts and Overcoming Availability Challenges
Solène Goy, François Maréchal, Donal Finn
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: building, data, Energy, Modelling, sensitivity analysis, urban scale
Data are essential to urban building energy models and yet, obtaining sufficient and accurate building data at a large-scale is challenging. Previous studies have highlighted that the data impact on urban case studies has not been sufficiently discussed. This paper addresses this gap by providing an analysis of the impact of input data on building energy modelling at an urban scale. The paper proposes a joint review of data impact and data accessibility to identify areas where future survey efforts should be concentrated. Moreover, a Morris sensitivity analysis is carried out on a large-scale residential case study, to rank input parameters by impact on space heating demand. This paper shows that accessible data impact the whole modelling process, from approach selection to model replicability. The sensitivity analysis shows that the setpoint and thermal characteristics were the most impactful for the case study considered. Solutions proposed to overcome availability and accessibility... [more]
Analytical Modeling of the Cyclic ES-SAGD Process
Diego Manfre Jaimes, Matthew Clarke
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: analytical modeling, ES-SAGD, heavy oil, numerical simulation, SAGD
Approximately half of the daily oil production from the Canadian oil sands comes from the application of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). Due to the high steam requirements of SAGD, many studies have focused on solvent injection as a means of reducing the steam consumption. One of the multiple variations of the steam-solvent injection process consists on the intermittent co-injection of solvent with steam, also known as a cyclic expanding-solvent (ES)-SAGD process. The current study represents a first attempt to create an analytical model that can describe a cyclic ES-SAGD process. The proposed analytical model uses previous SAGD and ES-SAGD models to describe the steam plus solvent stages of the process. The results obtained from the analytical model were contrasted against numerical simulation results for cases in which the solvent was hexane, pentane, and butane, as well as for cases in which hexane is a solvent and the injection cycle length is variable. In all cases, it was... [more]
Synthetic Data Generator for Electric Vehicle Charging Sessions: Modeling and Evaluation Using Real-World Data
Manu Lahariya, Dries F. Benoit, Chris Develder
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: electric vehicle, exponential distribution, Gaussian mixture models, Machine Learning, mathematical modeling, Poisson distribution, Simulation, smart grid, synthetic data
Electric vehicle (EV) charging stations have become prominent in electricity grids in the past few years. Their increased penetration introduces both challenges and opportunities; they contribute to increased load, but also offer flexibility potential, e.g., in deferring the load in time. To analyze such scenarios, realistic EV data are required, which are hard to come by. Therefore, in this article we define a synthetic data generator (SDG) for EV charging sessions based on a large real-world dataset. Arrival times of EVs are modeled assuming that the inter-arrival times of EVs follow an exponential distribution. Connection time for EVs is dependent on the arrival time of EV, and can be described using a conditional probability distribution. This distribution is estimated using Gaussian mixture models, and departure times can calculated by sampling connection times for EV arrivals from this distribution. Our SDG is based on a novel method for the temporal modeling of EV sessions, and... [more]
Experimental Validation of a New Modeling for the Design Optimization of a Sliding Vane Rotary Expander Operating in an ORC-Based Power Unit
Fabio Fatigati, Marco Di Bartolomeo, Davide Di Battista, Roberto Cipollone
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: geometric optimization, ORC, Sliding Rotary Vane Expander, volumetric expander design, Waste Heat Recovery
Sliding Rotary Vane Expanders (SVRE) are often employed in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)-based power units for Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) in Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) due to their operating flexibility, robustness, and low manufacturing cost. In spite of the interest toward these promising machines, in literature, there is a lack of knowledge referable to the design and the optimization of SVRE: these machines are often rearranged reversing the operational behavior when they operate as compressors, resulting in low efficiencies and difficulty to manage off-design conditions, which are typical in ORC-based power units for WHR in ICE. In this paper, the authors presented a new model of the machine, which, thanks to some specific simplifications, can be used recursively to optimize the design. The model was characterized by a good level of physical representation and also by an acceptable computational time. Despite its simplicity, the model integrated a good capability to reproduce v... [more]
Study on Well Selection Method for Refracturing Horizontal Wells in Tight Reservoirs
Qihong Feng, Jiawei Ren, Xianmin Zhang, Xianjun Wang, Sen Wang, Yurun Li
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: decision index, deep learning, horizontal wells, re-fracturing, tight oil, XGBoost regression
Refracturing technology is one of the key technologies to recover the productivity of horizontal wells in tight oil reservoirs, and the selection of best candidate wells from target blocks is the basis of this technology. Based on the refracturing production database, this paper analyzes the direct relationship between geological data, initial fracturing completion data, and dynamic production data, and the stimulation effect of refracturing. Considering the interaction among multiple factors, the factors affecting the stimulation effect of refracturing are classified and integrated, and a comprehensive index including geology, engineering, and production is constructed, making this index meaningful both for physical and engineering properties. The XGBoost decision tree model is established to analyze the weight of influence for the comprehensive index of geology, engineering, and production in predicting the stimulation effect of refracturing. A comprehensive decision index of refract... [more]
Light Reflection Loss Reduction by Nano-Structured Gratings for Highly Efficient Next-Generation GaAs Solar Cells
Narottam Das, Devanandh Chandrasekar, Mohammad Nur-E-Alam, M. Masud K. Khan
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: aspect ratio, conversion efficiency, FDTD simulation, GaAs substrate, light absorption, nano-grating structures, reflection loss, solar cells, subwavelength grating (SWG)
This paper mainly focuses on increasing the conversion efficiency of GaAs solar cells by reducing the light reflection losses. The design of nano-structured gratings and their light trapping performance are modelled and optimised by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The sunlight directly impinges on the solar panel or cells, then a portion of the incident sunlight reflects back to the air from the surface of the panel, thus leading to a reduction in the light absorption capacity of the solar cells. In order to proliferate the light absorption capacity of solar cells nano-grating structures are employed, as they are highly capable of capturing the incident sunlight compared to a conventional (or flat type) solar cell, which results in generating more electrical energy. In this study, we design three different types of nano-grating structures, optimise their parameters and their performance in light capturing capacity. From the simulation results, we confirm that tha... [more]
Multi-Horizon Forecasting of Global Horizontal Irradiance Using Online Gaussian Process Regression: A Kernel Study
Hanany Tolba, Nouha Dkhili, Julien Nou, Julien Eynard, Stéphane Thil, Stéphane Grieu
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: global horizontal irradiance, Machine Learning, online Gaussian process regression, online sparse Gaussian process regression, solar resource, time series forecasting
In the present paper, global horizontal irradiance (GHI) is modelled and forecasted at time horizons ranging from 30 min to 48 h, thus covering intrahour, intraday and intraweek cases, using online Gaussian process regression (OGPR) and online sparse Gaussian process regression (OSGPR). The covariance function, also known as the kernel, is a key element that deeply influences forecasting accuracy. As a consequence, a comparative study of OGPR and OSGPR models based on simple kernels or combined kernels defined as sums or products of simple kernels has been carried out. The classic persistence model is included in the comparative study. Thanks to two datasets composed of GHI measurements (45 days), we have been able to show that OGPR models based on quasiperiodic kernels outperform the persistence model as well as OGPR models based on simple kernels, including the squared exponential kernel, which is widely used for GHI forecasting. Indeed, although all OGPR models give good results whe... [more]
Modification of Interaction Forces between Smoke and Evacuees
Sungryong Bae, Jun-Ho Choi, Hong Sun Ryou
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: evacuation, inner smoke force, interaction between smoke and evacuees, modified BR-smoke model
The most used fire effect models on evacuees are only focused on the physical capacity of the evacuees. However, some of the evacuees in a fire situation continuously move through the familiar route, although the familiar route is smoke-filled and they know that they are moving towards the fire source. Thus, the additional evacuation models are required for considering the behavioral changes due to the psychological pressure when the evacuees are moving through the smoke or towards the fire source. In this study, the inner smoke region force is modified to improve the accuracy and practicality of the BR-smoke model by varying the walking speed according to the smoke density. Additionally, the BR-smoke model is applied to FDS+Evac to compare the simulation results of the modified BR-smoke model with those of existing models. Based on the results, the evacuation characteristics inside the smoke region can be improved by using the modified BR-smoke model because the evacuees are continuou... [more]
Economic Feasibility of Semi-Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower Plants in Open-Pit Mines
Michael Wessel, Reinhard Madlener, Christoph Hilgers
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, NPV evaluation, pumped hydro storage, value at risk
This work aims at the economic evaluation of a semi-underground pumped hydro storage power plant erected in an abandoned open-pit mine. For the exploratory model-based analysis, we develop and apply both a simple deterministic and a stochastic net present value (NPV) approach, the latter of which uses a Monte Carlo simulation to account for revenue uncertainty from electricity price fluctuations. The analytical framework developed is applied to two promising sites in the Rheinland region in Germany, Hambach and Inden, making reasonable parameter value assumptions and considering and ignoring the lengthy duration of lower reservoir flooding. The investor’s value-at-risk is computed for alternative performance indicators (NPV, net cash recovery, profit-to-investment ratio, and specific production costs) to compare the different outcomes in terms of the project’s financial risk distribution. Calculations show that a semi-underground pumped hydro storage power plant in an abandoned open-pi... [more]
Insights on Germany’s Future Congestion Management from a Multi-Model Approach
Dirk Hladik, Christoph Fraunholz, Matthias Kühnbach, Pia Manz, Robert Kunze
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: agent-based modeling, capacity mechanism, congestion management, demand-side modeling, market splitting, model coupling, optimal power flow
In Germany, the political decision to phase out nuclear and coal-fired power as well as delays in the planned grid extension are expected to intensify the current issue of high grid congestion volumes. In this article, we investigate two instruments which may help to cope with these challenges: market splitting and the introduction of a capacity mechanism. For this purpose, we carry out a comprehensive system analysis by jointly applying the demand side models FORECAST and eLOAD, the electricity market model PowerACE and the optimal power flow model ELMOD. While a German market splitting has a positive short-term impact on the congestion volumes, we find the optimal zonal delimination determined for 2020 to become outdated by 2035 resulting in new grid bottlenecks. Yet, readjusting the zonal configuration would lower the ability of the market split to provide regional investment incentives. Introducing a capacity mechanism with a congestion indicator allows allocating new power plants... [more]
Mathematical Model of a Sun-Tracked Parabolic Trough Collector and Its Verification
Wiesław Zima, Artur Cebula, Piotr Cisek
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: computational and experimental verification, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), mathematical model, numerical modeling, parabolic trough collector
The paper presents a one-dimensional distributed parameter model for simulating the transient-state operation of a parabolic trough collector (PTC). The analyzed solar collector has a module design and is equipped with a two-axis sun-tracking system to increase the solar energy yield. The single module is composed of an evacuated tube and a set of parabolic mirrors acting as reflectors. In each of the collector tubes, two aluminum U-tubes are installed, enabling heat intake by the solar fluid. The collector is intended for household applications, as well as other medium thermal energy demand uses. During the numerical model development, appropriate energy balance differential equations are formulated for the collector individual components. The equations are solved using different schemes. As a result, a time- and space-dependent temperature series for each of the collector components and the working fluid are obtained. To select an appropriate time and spatial steps for the developed... [more]
On the Performance of Night Ventilation in a Historic Office Building in Nordic Climate
Hossein Bakhtiari, Jan Akander, Mathias Cehlin, Abolfazl Hayati
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: building energy simulation, historic buildings, IDA-ICE, night ventilation, Nordic climate, office buildings
The effect of mechanical night ventilation on thermal comfort and electricity use for cooling of a typical historic office building in north-central Sweden was assessed. IDA-ICE simulation program was used to model the potential for improving thermal comfort and electricity savings by applying night ventilation cooling. Parametric study comprised different outdoor climates, flow rates, cooling machine’s coefficient of performance and ventilation units’ specific fan power values. Additionally, the effect of different door schemes (open or closed) on thermal comfort in offices was investigated. It was shown that night ventilation cannot meet the building’s total cooling demand and auxiliary active cooling is required, although the building is located in a cold climate. Night ventilation had the potential in decreasing the percentage of exceedance hours in offices by up to 33% and decreasing the total electricity use for cooling by up to 40%. More electricity is saved with higher night ve... [more]
Thermo-Fluid Dynamic and Kinetic Modeling of Hydrothermal Carbonization of Olive Pomace in a Batch Reactor
Barbara Mendecka, Giovanni Di Ilio, Lidia Lombardi
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biomass upgrading, Computational Fluid Dynamics, hydrothermal carbonization, olive pomace
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) represents one of the emerging and most promising technologies for upgrading biomass. Among the residual biomass waste, olive pomace and olive mill wastewater may be seen as valuable energy sources, especially for the Mediterranean countries, given the key role of the olive oil industry in those regions. This paper deals with the thermo-fluid dynamic performance of the HTC process of olive pomace. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling is employed in this study to numerically simulate such a process in batch reactor with the aim of understanding the complex fluid dynamics, heat transfer and reaction kinetics phenomena occurring under hydrothermal conditions. A parametric analysis is performed to evaluate the temperature fields inside the reactor and the output mass yields as a function of the power input required by the process. Velocity flow fields and the spatial distribution of the mixture during the process are also investigated to understand t... [more]
Dynamic Modeling of a Decarbonized District Heating System with CHP Plants in Electricity-Based Mode of Operation
Katharina Koch, Bastian Alt, Matthias Gaderer
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, combined heat and power generation (CHP), district heating, heat storage, Modelling, Simulation
The targets of global CO2 reduction outline the importance of decarbonizing the heating and cooling sector, which consume half of the final energy in the European Union (EU). Consequently, heating network operators must adapt to growing requirements for carbon neutrality. Energy system modeling allows the simulation of individual network compositions and regulations, while considering electricity market signals for a more efficient plant operation. The district heating model, programmed for this work, covers a measured heat demand with peak load boiler, biomass-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plant, and biomass heating plant supply. The CHP plant reacts to electricity prices of the European Power Exchange market and uses a long-term heat storage to decouple heat and electricity production. This paper presents the results of three annual simulation scenarios aimed at carbon neutrality for the analyzed heating network. Two scenarios achieve a climate-neutral system by replacing the p... [more]
Updated Typical Weather Years for the Energy Simulation of Buildings in Mediterranean Climate. A Case Study for Sicily
Vincenzo Costanzo, Gianpiero Evola, Marco Infantone, Luigi Marletta
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: building energy simulations, energy demand, residential building, typical weather year, weather data
Building energy simulations are normally run through Typical Weather Years (TWYs) that reflect the average trend of local long-term weather data. This paper presents a research aimed at generating updated typical weather files for the city of Catania (Italy), based on 18 years of records (2002−2019) from a local weather station. The paper reports on the statistical analysis of the main recorded variables, and discusses the difference with the data included in a weather file currently available for the same location based on measurements taken before the 1970s but still used in dynamic energy simulation tools. The discussion also includes a further weather file, made available by the Italian Thermotechnical Committee (CTI) in 2015 and built upon the data registered by the same weather station but covering a much shorter period. Three new TWYs are then developed starting from the recent data, according to well-established procedures reported by ASHRAE and ISO standards. The paper discuss... [more]
Acceleration of Premixed Flames in Obstructed Pipes with Both Extremes Open
Abdulafeez Adebiyi, Olatunde Abidakun, V’yacheslav Akkerman
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: computational simulations, flame acceleration, Machine Learning, obstructed channels, premixed combustion, thermal expansion
Premixed flame propagation in obstructed channels with both extremes open is studied by means of computational simulations of the reacting flow equations with a fully-compressible hydrodynamics, transport properties (heat conduction, diffusion and viscosity) and an Arrhenius chemical kinetics. The aim of this paper is to distinguish and scrutinize various regimes of flame propagation in this configuration depending on the geometrical and thermal-chemical parameters. The parametric study includes various channel widths, blockage ratios, and thermal expansion ratios. It is found that the interplay of these three critical parameters determines a regime of flame propagation. Specifically, either a flame propagates quasi-steady, without acceleration, or it experiences three consecutive distinctive phases (quasi-steady propagation, acceleration and saturation). This study is mainly focused on the flame acceleration regime. The accelerating phase is exponential in nature, which correlates wel... [more]
Advancements in Real-Time Simulation for the Validation of Grid Modernization Technologies
Kati Sidwall, Paul Forsyth
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: CHIL, EMT, hardware-in-the-loop, HIL, multi-rate simulation, PHIL, real-time simulation
Real-time simulation and hardware-in-the-loop testing have increased in popularity as grid modernization has become more widespread. As the power system has undergone an evolution in the types of generator and load deployed on the system, the penetration and capabilities of automation and monitoring systems, and the structure of the energy market, a corresponding evolution has taken place in the way we model and test power system behavior and equipment. Consequently, emerging requirements for real-time simulators are very high when it comes to simulation fidelity, interfacing options, and ease of use. Ongoing advancements from a processing hardware, graphical user interface, and power system modelling perspective have enabled utilities, manufacturers, educational and research institutions, and consultants to apply real-time simulation to grid modernization projects. This paper summarizes various recent advancements from a particular simulator manufacturer, RTDS Technologies Inc. Many o... [more]
Effects of Tip Clearance Size on Energy Performance and Pressure Fluctuation of a Tidal Propeller Turbine
Bao Ngoc Tran, Haechang Jeong, Jun-Ho Kim, Jin-Soon Park, Changjo Yang
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), pressure fluctuation, propeller turbine, tip-clearance size (TCS), tip-leakage vortex (TLV)
Unavoidable tip clearance between blade tip and casing shroud plays an important role in the performance and characteristics of a tidal propeller turbine. In this work, the tip-leakage vortex (TLV) induced in the end-wall region was numerically illustrated by using the shear-stress transport (SST) k−ω turbulence model at various flow conditions and different tip-clearance sizes (TCSs). The swirling strength criterion was employed to visualize the tip-leakage vortex trajectory and investigate vortex evolution according to clearance size change. Although TLV occurs in both design and off-design conditions, vortex intensity develops strongly under excess flow rate with increased tip gap. The extreme influence of TCS on the turbine’s generated power and efficiency was predicted in steady simulations for four TCS cases, namely, δ = 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 0.75%. With the extension of the tip gap, turbine performance was drastically reduced because of vigorous turbulent leakage flow combined wi... [more]
Numerical Study of the Turbulent Flow from a Steam Dumping Pressurizer Relief Tank
Sen Zhang, Xiao-Wei Guo, Chao Li, Yi Liu, Ran Zhao, Canqun Yang
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: numerical simulation, OpenFOAM, pressurizer relief tank, thermal-hydraulics, turbulence model
Due to the complex geometry and turbulent flow characteristics, it is hard to simulate the process of steam dumping of the pressurizer relief tank (PRT). In this study, we develop a compressible fluid solver PRTFOAM to numerically study the turbulent flow dynamics from a PRT. The PRTFOAM is implemented based on the OpenFOAM and designed to be capable of integrating various turbulence models. Two representative Reynolds-averaged Navier−Stokes (RANS) models and a Smagorinsky−Lilly SGS model based on Large Eddy Simulation (LES) are coupled and tested with PRTFOAM. The case of a flow past a circular cylinder (Re = 3900) is tested and analyzed comprehensively as a benchmark case. Then, the turbulent steam dumping process in the full geometry of a PRT is analyzed and compared with ANSYS CFX and literature reports. In addition, we tested the WALE model based on the PRT steam dumping process. The results show that SST k-ω model and Smagorinsky−Lilly SGS model-based LES approach are more approp... [more]
An Enhanced Vertical Ground Heat Exchanger Model for Whole-Building Energy Simulation
Matt S. Mitchell, Jeffrey D. Spitler
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: g-Function, ground heat exchanger, ground source heat pump, whole-building energy simulation
This paper presents an enhanced vertical ground heat exchanger (GHE) model for whole-building energy simulation (WBES). WBES programs generally have computational constraints that affect the development and implementation of component simulation sub-models. WBES programs require models that execute quickly and efficiently due to how the programs are utilized by design engineers. WBES programs also require models to be formulated so their performance can be determined from boundary conditions set by upstream components and environmental conditions. The GHE model developed during this work utilizes an existing response factor model and extends its capabilities to accurately and robustly simulate at timesteps that are shorter than the GHE transit time. This was accomplished by developing a simplified dynamic borehole model and then exercising that model to generate exiting fluid temperature response factors. This approach blends numerical and analytical modeling methods. The existing resp... [more]
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