Records with Subject: Food & Agricultural Processes
Showing records 1 to 25 of 1151. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Livestock Agriculture Greenhouse Gases for Electricity Production: Recent Developments and Future Perspectives
Chrysanthos Maraveas, Eleni Simeonaki, Dimitrios Loukatos, Konstantinos G. Arvanitis, Thomas Bartzanas, Marianna I. Kotzabasaki
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: agriculture, electricity, gases, greenhouse, livestock, production, trends
The focus of this review paper was to investigate innovations currently employed to capture and use greenhouse gases produced within livestock farms for energy production and expected future directions. The methods considered for data collection regarded a systematic review of the literature, where 50 journal articles were critically reviewed. The main findings identified that the conventional method used in transforming livestock agriculture greenhouse gases into energy regards the combustion of biogas. However, emerging methods encompass microbial fuel cells, dry biogas reforming, steam biogas reforming, auto thermal Chemical Looping Reforming (CLRa), and gas-to-liquid methods that convert methane to liquid hydrocarbons. The conclusions from the review are that there is a potential to integrate these methods in livestock agriculture in order to generate energy from greenhouse emissions and reduce the reliance on fossil fuels.
Analysis of Specific Greenhouse Gas Emissions Savings from Biogas Production Based on Agricultural Residues and Industrial By-Products
Ana Kodba, Tomislav Pukšec, Neven Duić
May 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: agricultural residues, biogas, greenhouse gas emission saving, industrial by-products
The aim of this study was to analyse specific greenhouse gas emissions savings for a variety of agricultural residues, industrial by-products, and municipal biowaste. One of the most viable alternatives to fossil fuels is bioenergy, particularly biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion of renewable feedstocks. The revised Renewable Energy Directive (D 2018/2001) recognizes that biogas production from agricultural residues, livestock production, and industrial by-products is an acknowledged greenhouse gas mitigation technology in cases where their use results in a certain level of specific greenhouse gas savings. This study delivered values for the maximum transport distance of agricultural residues and industrial by-products to achieve the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions-saving requirement defined by Directive 2018/2001. It analysed the greenhouse gas emissions reduction for numerous feedstocks for which Directive 2018/2001 has not defined the default and typical values but which coul... [more]
Discrete Heaped Model of Tobacco Strips Drying and Characteristics Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer
Qike Wei, Lihua Wang, Wei Jiang, Huaiyu Wang, Hao Zhang
May 2, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: discrete heap, drying model, heat and mass transfer, porous media, tobacco redrying
To accurately study the drying characteristics of tobacco strips in the process of redrying, a discrete heaped physical model of tobacco strips is built. Based on this model, a convective drying multiphase porous media model of the heaped tobacco strips is established, which considers the binary diffusion and transport of vapor inside and outside the tobacco leaf. The model is solved using COMSOL Multiphysics, and the accuracy of the model is verified by experiments. The changes in hot air velocity, vapor and moisture content, and evaporation rate in heaped tobacco strips with different thicknesses are analyzed. The results show that: it is feasible to study the drying characteristics of tobacco strips in redrying using a discrete heaped model; there were significant differences in water content, evaporation rate, and temperature in different regions of heaped tobacco strips; the increase in heaping thickness will significantly reduce the uniformity of heat and mass transfer of tobacco... [more]
Assessment of Hydrogen and Volatile Fatty Acid Production from Fruit and Vegetable Waste: A Case Study of Mediterranean Markets
Ester Scotto di Perta, Alessandra Cesaro, Stefania Pindozzi, Luigi Frunzo, Giovanni Esposito, Stefano Papirio
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: dark fermentation, fruit and vegetable waste, initial pH, season variability, substrate/inoculum
This study investigates the dark fermentation of fruit and vegetable waste under mesophilic conditions (30−34 °C), as a valorization route for H2 and volatile fatty acids production, simulating the open market waste composition over the year in two Mediterranean countries. Specifically, the study focuses on the effect of the (i) seasonal variability, (ii) initial pH, and (iii) substrate/inoculum ratio on the yields and composition of the main end products. Concerning the seasonal variation, the summer and spring mixtures led to +16.8 and +21.7% higher H2 production than the winter/autumn mixture, respectively. Further investigation on the least productive substrate (winter/autumn) led to 193.0 ± 7.4 NmL of H2 g VS−1 at a pH of 5.5 and a substrate/inoculum of 1. With the same substrate, at a pH of 7.5, the highest acetic acid yield of 7.0 mmol/g VS was observed, with acetic acid corresponding to 78.2% of the total acids. Whereas a substrate/inoculum of 3 resulted in the lowest H2 yield,... [more]
Application of a Full-Scale Horizontal Anaerobic Digester for the Co-Digestion of Pig Manure, Food Waste, Excretion, and Thickened Sewage Sludge
Yongwoon Park, Jeehyeong Khim, Jong Doo Kim
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: anaerobic co-digestion, bio-gasification, horizontal mixing, methane gas production rate, mixed substrates, organic waste
Many laboratory- and pilot-scale studies on anaerobic co-digestion have been conducted in Republic of Korea; however, studies on full-scale demonstration facilities are lacking. This study aimed to present a successful case of a large-scale anaerobic co-digestion facility in Republic of Korea for biogas generation from four organic wastes (pig manure, food waste, excretion, and thickened sewage sludge) using a horizontal anaerobic digester. A preliminary biochemical methane potential test was performed for the individual and mixed organic waste to design a treatment facility for 320 m3/day of organic waste generated in Seosan City. Subsequently, a horizontal anaerobic digester with a 35 day-retention time (based on 320 m3/day input) was constructed. Each organic waste was placed in an anaerobic reactor after pretreatment. The input was gradually increased after the first seeding, and the operation continued for 158 days. Total and volatile solids made up 4.1% and 3.3%, respectively. Th... [more]
Solar and Convective Drying: Modeling, Color, Texture, Total Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) Slices
Diana Paola García-Moreira, Harumi Hernández-Guzmán, Neith Pacheco, Juan Carlos Cuevas-Bernardino, Emanuel Herrera-Pool, Ivan Moreno, Erick César López-Vidaña
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: antioxidant capacity, color analysis, peach, phenolic content, solar drying
Peach is a fruit highly appreciated by consumers; however, it is highly perishable, so drying is an alternative to preserve its physical and chemical properties. In this study, the effect of drying in natural and forced convection at three different temperatures (40 °C, 45 °C and 50 °C) and solar drying with two air velocities (1 m/s and 3 m/s) on the color, texture, total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch), were evaluated. The experimental data of the drying kinetics were adjusted to five different mathematical models (Page, Logarithmic, Two-term exponential, Wang and Singh, and Verma et al.). The model that best represented the experimental data in natural convection was the Wang and Singh model (r2 > 0.998; RMSE < 0.016; χ2 < 2.85 × 10−4); in forced convection (45 °C and 50 °C), it was the Verma et al. model (r2 > 0.997; RMSE < 0.025; χ2 < 8.12 × 10−4); and finally, for solar drying, it was the Logarithmic model at 3 m/s (r2 = 0.99... [more]
Natural Fiano Wines Fermented in Stainless Steel Tanks, Oak Barrels, and Earthenware Amphora
Massimo Di Renzo, Francesco Letizia, Catello Di Martino, Julian Karaulli, Renata Kongoli, Bruno Testa, Pasquale Avino, Ettore Guerriero, Gianluca Albanese, Mario Monaco, Massimo Iorizzo
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: earthenware amphora, natural wine, organoleptic evaluation, volatile compounds, wooden barrel
The growing sensitivity toward sustainability is being demonstrated by an increase in sales of natural wines. Natural wines are obtained using exclusively native vines, indigenous yeasts, absence of additives, irregular temperature control during fermentation, and smaller quantities of sulfites even compared to organic wines. In this work, natural wines were obtained from Fiano grape, a historical cultivar of Irpinia (Campania, Italy). The main objective of this study was to compare the chemical and sensory characteristics of natural wines produced using different vessels (10 HL): Test A: stainless steel; Test B: earthenware amphora; Test C: mulberry wood barrel; and Test D: cherry wood barrel without the use of starter yeasts and chemical additives, including sulfites. Our results show a greater concentration of higher alcohols and esters in wines obtained in amphora and wooden barrels. The results of this work reveal that the type of container influences the composition of wine to an... [more]
Thermal Processing of Acidified Vegetables: Effect on Process Time-Temperature, Color and Texture
Harsimar Singh, Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: acidified, color, processing, quality, texture, thermal, vegetables
The objective of this study was to compare the quality of low-acid vegetables conventionally thermal processed with those subjected to modified thermal processing following acidification to pH < 4.6. For conventional processing, a process lethality (Fo value) equivalent of 5 min at 121.1 °C (commercially sterilization) was used, while those that are acidified were pasteurized, such as acidic foods, to a lethality value of 10 min at 90 °C. Acidification was performed with citric acid by immersion of vegetables in an ultrasonic bath. The quality of raw, blanched, acidified, pasteurized and sterilized products were compared for color and textural characteristics. The acidified thermal processing yielded significantly better retained color and textural properties, almost similar to blanched vegetables, while those subjected to the conventional processing resulted in significant texture loss. The process temperatures were significantly lower, and corresponding process intensities were si... [more]
Methods for Detecting and Classifying Weeds, Diseases and Fruits Using AI to Improve the Sustainability of Agricultural Crops: A Review
Ana Corceiro, Khadijeh Alibabaei, Eduardo Assunção, Pedro D. Gaspar, Nuno Pereira
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: agriculture, CNN, deep learning, disease detection, fruit detection, performance metrics, support decision-making algorithm, weed classification, weed detection
The rapid growth of the world’s population has put significant pressure on agriculture to meet the increasing demand for food. In this context, agriculture faces multiple challenges, one of which is weed management. While herbicides have traditionally been used to control weed growth, their excessive and random use can lead to environmental pollution and herbicide resistance. To address these challenges, in the agricultural industry, deep learning models have become a possible tool for decision-making by using massive amounts of information collected from smart farm sensors. However, agriculture’s varied environments pose a challenge to testing and adopting new technology effectively. This study reviews recent advances in deep learning models and methods for detecting and classifying weeds to improve the sustainability of agricultural crops. The study compares performance metrics such as recall, accuracy, F1-Score, and precision, and highlights the adoption of novel techniques, such as... [more]
Microwave-Assisted Phytochemical Extraction from Walnut Hull and Process Optimization Using Box−Behnken Design (BBD)
Rahul Singh, Poornima Singh, Vinay Kumar Pandey, Kshirod Kumar Dash, Ashish, Shaikh Ayaz Mukarram, Endre Harsányi, Béla Kovács
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: antioxidant, conventional method, microwave-assisted extraction, walnut hull
The walnut green hull is an agro-waste, a source of natural dye and volatile compounds with various biological activities, but the main challenge with the conventional extraction method is the quality and quantity of the volatile compound (dye) extraction from walnut hull waste. The objective of this research work is to use microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) as an emerging technology. Further, the MAE process was optimized using a Box−Behnken Design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM). The variables in MAE process optimization were microwave power, microwave time, solvent volume, and raw material particle size. The result indicated that MAE produces a higher extraction yield compared to the conventional method. The RSM analyses showed an increase in extract yield, total phenolic content, and total flavonoid content, along with antioxidant activity. The optimized condition parameters of MAE were reported to be 363.64-watt microwave power, 3.133 min, 39.999 mL/g solvent volume,... [more]
Optimization of Spray-Drying Conditions of Microencapsulated Habanero Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) Extracts and Physicochemical Characterization of the Microcapsules
Kevin Alejandro Avilés-Betanzos, Juan Valerio Cauich-Rodríguez, Manuel Octavio Ramírez-Sucre, Ingrid Mayanin Rodríguez-Buenfil
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: antioxidant capacity, Capsicum chinense, Optimization, polyphenols, spray drying
The Habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) is recognized worldwide for its unique organoleptic characteristics, as well as for its capsaicin content; however, other bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds with bioactive properties (mainly antioxidant capacity), have been extracted (ultrasound) and identified in this fruit. Moreover, the extracts obtained by ultrasound present a high sensitivity to environmental conditions, making spray drying a viable option to avoid the degradation of bioactive compounds while maintaining their properties after microencapsulation. Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize spray-drying conditions such as the inlet temperature (IT) and maltodextrin:extract (M:E) ratio. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish the optimal spray-drying conditions (IT and M:E) of a Habanero pepper extract with a final characterization of the spray-dried product. Results showed that the optimal spray-drying conditions included an IT =... [more]
The Effect of Spray-Drying Conditions on the Characteristics of Powdered Pistacia lentiscus Leaf Extract
Tanja Jović, Ivona Elez Garofulić, Patricija Čulina, Sandra Pedisić, Erika Dobroslavić, Ena Cegledi, Verica Dragović-Uzelac, Zoran Zorić
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: antioxidant activity, carrier type, phenolic content, Pistacia lentiscus, spray drying
is an evergreen shrub widely used in folk medicine due to the high biological potential of the leaves’ phenolic compounds. Since phenolic compounds are susceptible to degradation under different heat, light and oxygen conditions, various microencapsulation techniques, such as spray drying, can be used to increase their stability. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of different carriers (gum arabic (GA), maltodextrin 13−17 DE (MD), β-cyclodextrin (BCD) and their mixtures), carrier concentrations in feed (12.8, 16 and 19.2% (m/V)) and drying temperatures (120, 150 and 180 °C) on the physiochemical properties, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) of Pistacia lentiscus leaf extract powders. Product yields of powders ranged from 23.53 to 65.51%, moisture content from 2.89 to 12.03%, hygroscopicity up to 4.45 g/100 g, solubility from 27.11 to 86.84% and bulk density from 0.24 to 0.45 g/mL. All obtained powders had satisfactory physicochemical prop... [more]
Good Practices Contributing to Cleaner Food Production? A Preliminary Survey Analysis Involving Wrocław-Poland Food Retail Sector
Charles Odilichukwu R. Okpala
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: agrofood industry, good practices, product improvement, productivity, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Good practices are among the direct/indirect components that influence agrofood safety knowledge, and occupying quality assurance control facets within the (agrofood) product industry. Cleaner production involves an integrated preventive environmental strategy applied to processes, products, and services, which increases overall efficiency, and reduces risks to humans/environment. However, ‘cleaner food production’ appears neither yet clearly defined nor well established. In this preliminary survey analysis, how good practices would contribute towards achieving cleaner food production in the context of food retail sector was performed. Specifically, Wrocław-Poland served as a case reference targeting managers/supervisors given their expected service, experience, and expertise. The sampling technique used was the judgment/purposive type, and the research instrument took the form of a questionnaire. Managers’/supervisors’ responses revealed significant differences (p < 0.05) across va... [more]
Investigation of the Factors That Contribute to Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Losses in the Australian Fresh Food Supply Chain
Reham Abdullah Sanad Alsbu, Prasad Yarlagadda, Azharul Karim
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: factors, food processing waste, food supply chain, fresh produce, loss minimisation, quality degradation
Fruit and vegetables (FV) are the major source of bioactive compounds for human beings. FV supply chains are complex and sensitive due to various features, including the seasonality of products, variations in demand, and short shelf-lives. The amount of waste in FV supply chains is significant compared with other supply chains as 44% of fresh FV produced globally are wasted in the food chain. This large amount of waste has a significant impact on the economy, food security, available natural resources, and the environment. To reduce food losses in the fresh food supply chain (FFSC), the root causes of waste must be first identified. While a number of researchers have investigated food losses in Australia, most only consider a specific stage in the supply chain and multiple stages in the FFSC are often overlooked. Additionally, the impact of advanced storage technologies, packing, handling, and transport on food losses should be investigated. Furthermore, supply chain practices are chan... [more]
Adversarial Training Collaborating Multi-Path Context Feature Aggregation Network for Maize Disease Density Prediction
Wei Yang, Peiquan Shen, Zhaoyi Ye, Zhongmin Zhu, Chuan Xu, Yi Liu, Liye Mei
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: adversarial training, context feature aggregation, maize disease, patch embedding
Maize is one of the world’s major food crops, and its yields are closely related to the sustenance of people. However, its cultivation is hampered by various diseases. Meanwhile, maize diseases are characterized by spots of varying and irregular shapes, which makes identifying them with current methods challenging. Therefore, we propose an adversarial training collaborating multi-path context feature aggregation network for maize disease density prediction. Specifically, our multi-scale patch-embedding module uses multi-scale convolution to extract feature maps of different sizes from maize images and performs a patch-embedding operation. Then, we adopt the multi-path context-feature aggregation module, which is divided into four paths to further extract detailed features and long-range information. As part of the aggregation module, the multi-scale feature-interaction operation will skillfully integrate rough and detailed features at the same feature level, thereby improving predictio... [more]
Establishment of a Research Focus on Resilient Sustainable Climate Neutral Agricultural Production—Resilient Farming Initiative
Alexander Uhl, Axel Schmidt, Martin Tegtmeier, Andreas Wenzel, Frank Beneke, Jochen Strube
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: agri-photovoltaics, cascade utilization, circular economy, climate neutrality, cultivation and harvesting technology, digitalization, energy and resource efficiency, resilience, robotics, waste valorization
Efficient and sustainable agricultural production is a pivotal factor in meeting the nutritional needs of an expanding global population. However, it is imperative to optimize national, regional and local effectiveness to support government initiatives towards climate neutrality and resilience, while simultaneously ensuring economic viability for farmers. A significant reduction in the cost of goods must be accompanied by a decrease in their global warming potential contribution to maintain competitiveness in the world market. As such, it is necessary to adopt practices that enhance productivity while minimizing environmental impacts. This paper discusses potential solutions for the sustainable enlargement of botanical product portfolios towards essential oil products and natural extracts for value-added products, such as natural pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, agrochemicals and materials by direct waste valorization. Contributions from the fields of automation and digitalization provide t... [more]
The Use of Chitosan for Flocculation Recovery of Bacillus Biomass Grown on Dairy and Wine Industry Effluents
Selena Dmitrović, Nataša Lukić, Ivana Pajčin, Vanja Vlajkov, Jovana Grahovac, Aleksandar Jokić
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Bacillus sp., chitosan, flocculation, food industry wastewaters
The downstream processing of efficient biomass-based microbial biopesticides is heavily reliant on obtaining the largest concentration of viable cells in the most cost-effective manner. The goal of this research was to assess the ability of chitosan flocculation to recover bacterial Bacillus sp. BioSol021 biomass from the broth after biological treatment of wastewaters from the dairy and wine industries. Second-order factorial design models were used to estimate the effect of chitosan concentration and mixing speed on flocculation efficiency, settling velocity, and antimicrobial activity against Aspergillus flavus, i.e., inhibition zone diameter. Response surface methodology was followed by multi-objective optimization by applying the desirability function (DF) and genetic algorithm (GA). The optimum values for flocculation efficiency, settling velocity, and inhibition zone diameter for cheese whey effluent were 88%, 0.10 mm/s, and 51.00 mm, respectively. In the case of winery flotatio... [more]
Effect of Rosehip Powder Addition on Dough Extensographic, Amylographic and Rheofermentographic Properties and Sensory Attributes of Bread
Nicoleta Vartolomei, Maria Turtoi
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: amylograph, ascorbic acid, bread, dough, extensograph, rheofermentometer, rosehip powder, sensory attributes, wheat flour
One of the improvers used in breadmaking is ascorbic acid (AA), a chemical compound that strengthens the dough and extends the shelf life of bread. This work investigates the suitability of replacing the synthetic AA with rosehip powder (Rp) rich in this bioactive compound. Thus, a comprehensive study of wheat flour (WF) replaced with 0.5−2.5% w/w Rp regarding the extensographic, amylographic and rheofermentographic properties of dough and sensory attributes of bread was performed. WF without RP or AA addition of 2 mg/100 g was used as a control. A sample with an AA addition of 2 mg/100 g was also used. The Rp addition positively influenced the extensographic, amylographic and rheofermentographic properties of the dough. The dough resistance to extension, R, in Brabender Units (BU), increased from 330 ± 1.41 BU (control) to 995 ± 1.41 BU (2.5% w/w Rp) for a resting time of 90 min. The gelatinization temperature of the dough increased from 61.0 °C (control) to 62.9 °C (2.5% w/w Rp). The... [more]
Pectin from Three Vietnamese Seagrasses: Isolation, Characterization and Antioxidant Activity
Pham Duc Thinh, Cao Thi Thuy Hang, Dinh Thanh Trung, Thanh-Danh Nguyen
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: antioxidant activity, characterization, Enhalus acoroides, Halophila ovalis, isolation, pectin, Thalassia hemprichii, Vietnamese seagrass
This study focused on the isolation and structural characterization of pectin from three distinct species of Vietnamese seagrass including Enhalus acoroides, Thalassia hemprichii, and Halophila ovalis. The pectin yield obtained from Enhalus acoroides was the highest, corresponding to 24.15%, followed by those from Thalassia hemprichii (20.04%) and Halophila ovalis (19.14%). The physicochemical properties of pectin including total carbohydrate content, anhydrouronic acid (AUA) content, equivalent weight (EW), methoxyl content (MeO), and degree of esterification (DE) were determined using various analysis techniques. The pectin obtained from all three species were found to be low-methyl-esterified pectin, with the MeO content and DE for E. acoroides, T. hemprichii, and H. ovalis being 6.15% and 27.18%, 3.26% and 43.31%, and 4.65% and 33.25%, respectively. The average molecular weight (MW) of pectin was analyzed by size-exclusion chromatography. Pectin from T. hemprichii had the highest M... [more]
Impact of Some Enzymatic Treatments on Acrylamide Content in Biscuits
Amr A. El-Sayed, Magdy M. Abdelhady, Saleh A. Jaafari, Tariq M. Alanazi, Alaa S. Mohammed
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: acrylamide, asparagine, biscuits, glucose oxidase, L-asparaginase, Maillard reaction
Since its discovery in many heat-treatment foods in 2002, many efforts have been made to reduce acrylamide levels in foods. Methods to reduce acrylamide levels by reducing Maillard reaction products have been considered. However, baking cookies produces acrylamide, a carcinogenic compound. This study aimed to use a new quantitative index and formula for L-asparaginase, glucose oxidase, their 1:1 blending enzymes, baker’s yeast, and green tea powder (0.5 g/kg wheat flour) at a new proposed temperature of 37 °C for 30 min to reduce acrylamide production in biscuits and bakery products using new indicators such as asparagine reduction (%), the asparagine/acrylamide ratio, acrylamide reduction (%), and the asparagine/reducing sugar ratio. The highest acrylamide concentrations were reduced from 865 mg/kg in the blank sample (BT0) to 260 and 215 mg/kg in the mixed enzyme powder (1:1) (BT3)- and BT4-treated samples, respectively. The biscuit samples treated with 0.5 g/kg L-asparaginase reduce... [more]
Hypoglycemic Potential, Antioxidant and Prebiotic Activity after Simulated Digestion of Combined Blueberry Pomace and Chia Seed Extracts
Elena Mihai, Bogdan-Stefan Negreanu-Pirjol, Oana Craciunescu, Teodora Ciucan, Andreea Iosageanu, Ana-Maria Seciu-Grama, Ana-Maria Prelipcean, Elena Utoiu, Viorica Coroiu, Ana-Maria Ghenea, Ticuta Negreanu-Pirjol
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: berry polyphenols, chia polysaccharides, gut microbiota, hypoglycemic activity, reactive oxygen species, simulated digestion
This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic potential, antioxidant activity and prebiotic activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of blueberry pomace (BP), an aqueous extract of chia seeds (CS) and a novel combination of BP−CS extracts (BCM) for further use as ingredient of functional food. Spectrometric and HPLC analyses were used to characterize the total phenolic and flavonoid content and composition of BP, while CS was analyzed for total carbohydrate content. Data showed that the BCM mixture exerted an inhibition of α-amylase activity, which was 1.36 times higher than that of BP and 1.25 higher than CS extract. The mixture also showed better scavenging activity of free DPPH radicals than individual extracts, and had an IC50 value of 603.12 µg/mL. In vitro testing indicated that both serum- and colon-reaching products of simulated intestinal digestion of BCM presented the capacity to protect Caco-2 intestinal cells against oxidative stress by inhibition of reactive oxygen species pro... [more]
Hawthorn Drying: An Exploration of Ultrasound Treatment and Microwave−Hot Air Drying
Mohammad Kaveh, Małgorzata Nowacka, Esmail Khalife, Kamal Imanian, Yousef Abbaspour-Gilandeh, Maryam Sabouri, Safoura Zadhossein
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: drying characteristics, hawthorn fruit, microwave drying, specific energy, ultrasound treatment
Drying is one of the methods used for preserving fruits and vegetables. However, due to the lengthy process and elevated temperature of convective drying, other pretreatment and drying methods are studied to shorten the drying time and obtain high-quality products. This study aimed to examine the effect of ultrasonic (US) pretreatment and microwave−hot air drying (MW−HA) on the drying time, specific energy (SEC), qualitative properties (e.g., color, shrinkage, and rehydration ratio), and bioactive compound properties (e.g., antioxidant activity, phenolic, and flavonoid contents) of hawthorn fruit. Experiments were performed using ultrasound pretreatment and a microwave dryer (microwave power: 180, 360, and 540 W) at air temperatures of 40, 55, and 70 °C. Drying of hawthorn lasts from 35 min for the ultrasound-treated sample (dried at 540 W and 70 °C) to 180 min (dried at 180 W and 40 °C without US treatment). The lowest amount of SEC (24.11 MJ/kg) was obtained using the US−MW−HA air dr... [more]
Review on the Usage of Small-Chain Hydrocarbons (C2—C4) as Aid Gases for Improving the Efficiency of Hydrate-Based Technologies
Alberto Maria Gambelli, Federico Rossi
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: gas hydrates, hydrate-based technologies, hydrocarbons as guests, process efficiency
This review article aims to describe the main applications of gas hydrates in industrial processes and the related advantages and limitations. In particular, gas storage, energy storage, gas transportation, final disposal of greenhouse gases, desalination, wastewater treatments, food concentration, and other technologies are described in detail. Similarly, the benefits and disadvantages of the solutions, currently adopted to improve the process efficiency, are discussed in the text. A particular focus on the use of additives and their capability to intervene during the formation of hydrates and on the replacement process is provided. The second part of the article deals with the use of small-chain hydrocarbons as aid gases during formation, to improve the efficiency and the competitivity of hydrate-based processes. First, the thermodynamic properties of hydrates, containing only these compounds, are described. Then, based on a collection of experimental data available elsewhere in the... [more]
Analysis of the Characteristics of Bio-Coal Briquettes from Agricultural and Coal Industry Waste
Alexandr Nikiforov, Akmaral Kinzhibekova, Evgeniy Prikhodko, Amangeldy Karmanov, Sholpan Nurkina
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: bio-coal briquettes, coal dust, coke dust, leaves, physical and combustion characteristics, sunflower husks
One of the options for reducing harmful emissions in the production of heat energy is the use of biomass, including in combination with industrial waste (for instance, coal and coke dust). Recent studies demonstrate that a mix of biomass and coal makes it possible to obtain a bio-coal briquette with better characteristics, which is a motivating factor in the search for alternative sources of heat energy from local agricultural waste. The aim of this research is to study the properties of bio-coal briquettes from biomass (sunflower husks and leaves) and industrial waste (coal and coke dust). The raw material was grinded and used for the production of bio-coal briquettes of 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70% of biomass. The biomass was grinded to the size of no more than 2 mm for the fine fraction and no more than 6 mm for the coarse fraction. The briquettes were made mechanically using a hydraulic press with a compression pressure of 25 MPa without the use of any binder. The characteristi... [more]
Interpretation of Sand Body Architecture in Complex Fault Block Area of Craton Basin: Case Study of TIII in Sangtamu Area, Tarim Basin
Chao Wang, Chunjing Yan, Zhengjun Zhu, Shaohua Li, Duanchuan Lv, Xixin Wang, Dawang Liu
April 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: architecture, braided river delta front, complex fault block oilfield, Tarim Basin, triassic
The complex fault block oilfields in the craton basin contain vast reserves of oil and gas resources. During the development of an oilfield, the flow of oil, gas, and water, is controlled by faults and configuration boundaries. The distribution of remaining oil and gas depends on the interpretation of the reservoir’s architecture. However, recognizing the faults and the architecture boundary remains a challenge, hindering the efficient development of these resources. This study proposes a new idea for interpreting the configuration of thick sand bodies. This study was conducted in order to interpret the fine architecture of thick sand bodies in the Sangtamu area, using core samples, well logging, and production data, guided by sedimentation patterns from ancient to modern times. Results indicate that the Sangtamu area is a braided river delta front sedimentary system, dominated by the backbone underwater distributary channel and branch-type underwater distributary channels. The backbon... [more]
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