Records with Subject: Food & Agricultural Processes
Showing records 1 to 25 of 1227. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Biochemical Characterization and Fuel Properties of Endemic Taurus Flowering Ash (Fraxinus ornus subsp. cilicica) Bark from Turkey
Ali Umut Şen, Rita Simões, Cengiz Yücedağ, Isabel Miranda, Ângela Fernandes, Helena Pereira
February 10, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: antioxidant, calcium, ignition temperature, suberin, ω-hydroxy acids
Taurus flowering ash (Fraxinus ornus subsp. cilicica) is an endemic tree species in Turkey. The bark of the species was characterized for summative chemical composition, the monomeric composition of polysaccharides, phenolic content, in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant properties of hydrophilic extracts, the composition of lipophilic extractives and suberin, and thermal degradation. The bark has an elevated ash content (17%), primarily composed of calcium, and a noteworthy extractive content (38.9%), predominantly of hydrophilic compounds. The antioxidant activity of the bark extracts is moderate, with an IC50 value of 40 μg/mL and an EC50 value of 230 μg/mL by DPPH and TBARS methods. The lipophilic extractives principally contain fatty acids and diterpenoids. The suberin content is low (1%) and composed primarily of ω-hydroxy acids with 9,10,18 trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid as the major suberin monomer. The lignin content is low (9.8%), and polysaccharides represent 33%. The ignition tempe... [more]
Polyphenols as Antioxidant/Pro-Oxidant Compounds and Donors of Reducing Species: Relationship with Human Antioxidant Metabolism
Celia María Curieses Andrés, José Manuel Pérez de la Lastra, Celia Andrés Juan, Francisco J. Plou, Eduardo Pérez-Lebeña
February 10, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: antioxidant metabolism, antioxidant/pro-oxidant features, NRF2/ARE axis, polyphenols
In this review, we have focused mainly on the study of their antioxidant and pro-oxidant capacity, and the analysis of the oxidation of the catechol group to o-quinone. The redox balance established between the different oxidase and reductase enzymes generates reducing species, H+ and e−, and allows the oxidation of polyphenolic groups to quinones to be reversible. This continuous balance between these nucleophilic and electrophilic substances allows the activation of the NRF2/ARE axis, which regulates cellular antioxidant responses against oxidative stress, as well as cell proliferation. Understanding the ambivalent character of polyphenols, which can act simultaneously as antioxidants and pro-oxidants, will allow the design of specific therapies that can serve science and medicine in their tasks.
Investigating the Microwave-Assisted Extraction Conditions and Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Capacities of Symphytum officinale WL Leaves
Kuo-Hao Lou, Ming-Shiun Tsai, Jane-Yii Wu
February 10, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: anti-inflammation, antioxidant, comfrey leaf extract, MAPK signaling, microwave-assisted extraction, NF-κB signaling, rosmarinic acid
(comfrey) is a perennial herb native to West Asia and Europe. Its root extracts are commonly used as a natural remedy to treat muscle, joint, skin, and bone disorders, especially in Europe. However, more information is needed on the biomedical functions of comfrey leaves. This study’s sequencing results of internal transcribed spacer and trnL−trnF genes showed that plants purchased from the local market were comfrey and named S. officinale WL (WL). The suitable extraction conditions of the WL leaves with the highest extract yield and total phenols and flavonoid contents by microwave-assisted extraction were identified. The antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities and possible molecular mechanism(s) of the WL leaf extract (WLE) were evaluated. Furthermore, the major component of WLE was identified as rosmarinic acid by HPLC. Results showed that the optimal extract condition was obtained with 750 W microwave power, 50 °C, 75% methanol, the solid-to-solvent ratio of 1:10, and 15 min... [more]
New Resources for Sustainable Thermal Insulation Using Textile and Agricultural Waste in a New Circular Economy Approach: An Overview
Saloua Biyada, Mohammed Merzouki, Jaunius Urbonavičius
January 12, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: agriculture waste, end-of-life cycle, green thermal insulation, renewable resources, textile waste
Energy conservation has emerged as a strategic target worldwide, which will enable the protection of the environment and the preservation of natural resources. Energy consumption in buildings for heating and cooling is considered one of the main sources of energy consumption in several countries. For this reason, there is an ongoing search for appropriate alternatives to preserve energy and reduce energy losses. To overcome this challenge, thermal insulation is becoming increasingly essential to save energy. Although a large number of insulation materials are used commercially, this sector still faces various challenges such as cost, thermal and mechanical properties, the end-of-life cycle, as well as health issues, etc. Furthermore, the harmful impact of buildings on the environment and health issues should be considered not only in relation to the energy expended whilst using them but also in relation to the energy performance materials they are constructed from. The insulation mater... [more]
Rice Water—More a Source of Nutrition Elements or Toxic Arsenic? Multi-Element Analysis of Home-Made (Natural) Rice Water and Commercialized Rice-Based Products Using (HG)-ICP OES
Maja Welna, Anna Szymczycha-Madeja, Pawel Pohl
January 12, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: arsenic, multi-element analysis, nutritional value, rice water, rice-based cosmetics
Although rice is a well-known source of nutrients, it unfortunately accumulates As the most compared to other cereal plants. Due to the growing interest in rice-based cosmetics, the aim of the work was the multi-element analysis of various home-made (natural) rice waters and commercialized ready-to-use rice-based cosmetics for skin/hair. The total concentrations of Al, As Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in raw rice and rice products were determined using inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) after wet sample decomposition in the presence of concentrated HNO3. In the case of As, the hydride generation (HG) technique was used as a sample introduction system to the ICP OES instrument. Five different procedures, including washing/rinsing, soaking, boiling, and fermentation steps, and three rice types, i.e., white, brow, and jasmine, were used for this purpose. The effects of the water temperature, the contact time of rice grains with water, and the type of... [more]
Recovering Polyphenols in Aqueous Solutions from Olive Mill Wastewater and Olive Leaf for Biological Applications
Adrián Hernández-Fernández, Yolanda Garrido, Eduardo Iniesta-López, Antonia Pérez de los Ríos, Joaquín Quesada-Medina, Francisco José Hernández-Fernández
January 12, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: circular economy, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, olive leaf, olive mill wastewater, polyphenols
Olive leaf and olive mill wastewater are wastes which are produced in olive industry and can be used to obtain value-added products such as polyphenols. In this work, extracts of polyphenols from olive mill wastewater and olive leaf in an aqueous medium are obtained and their composition in polyphenols were determined and compared with those obtained using the conventional extract agent (methanol−water). The antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extracts of olive mill wastewater and olive leaf were also analysed. It was observed that the olive mill wastewater extracted in water provides a similar content of phenolic compounds in the final extract compared to extraction with methanol−water, with the main polyphenols being hydrotyrosol and tyrosol (20.1 and 6.61 mg gdw−1). In the case of leaf extraction, the methanol-free extract (recovery in water after extraction with methanol−water) had a lower total phenol content compared to the methanolic extract, with the main polyphenol being oleur... [more]
Optimisation Using Response Surface Methodology of Quality, Nutritional and Antioxidant Attributes of ‘Wichita’ Pecan Nuts Roasted by Microwaves
Priscilla L. Mukwevho, Tafadzwa Kaseke, Olaniyi A. Fawole
January 5, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: fatty acids, microwave roasting, pecan nuts, radical scavenging activity, response surface methodology, total colour difference
Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) nuts are rich in functional compounds (unsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols, polyphenols, and tocopherols) associated with various health benefits. Commercially, pecan nuts are roasted to enhance their physical, chemical, and sensory properties. In the present study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimise the quality and nutritional and antioxidant attributes of ‘Wichita’ pecan nuts roasted by using a microwave process with a range of microwave power (96.45−803.55 W) and roasting time (1.37−5.62 min). The microwave-roasted pecan nuts were analysed for hardness, total colour difference (TCD), and radical scavenging activity and modelled using the central composite design. The results showed that microwave power and roasting time significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the quality attributes of the pecan. The quadratic model adequately described the changes in TCD and hardness, respectively, while the 2FI model adequately described the changes... [more]
Special Issue: Food Processing and Food Analysis: Principles, Techniques, and Applications
Jung-Feng Hsieh
January 5, 2024 (v1)
This Special Issue, entitled “Food Processing and Food Analysis: Principles, Techniques, and Applications”, explores perspectives and latest advances in the field of food science [...]
Characteristics and Effects of Laminae on a Cretaceous Reservoir in the Bozi−Dabei Area of the Tarim Basin, China
Wenhui Zhu, Tao Mo, Changchao Chen, Chunlei Hu, Cuili Wang, Chaoqun Shi, Lingling Shi, Pengzhen Li
January 5, 2024 (v1)
Keywords: Bozi–Dabei area, characteristics of laminae, Cretaceous reservoir, iron-stained argillaceous-enriched laminae, Kelasu structural belt, reservoir heterogeneity
Reservoir heterogeneity is an important factor in oil and gas exploration and development. It has guiding significance for favourable target optimization because it helps clarify the formation and development characteristics of laminae: thin, alternating layers of sediment deposited in a repeating pattern in Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs. Reservoir heterogeneity is higher when laminae are densely distributed. For example, laminae have a significant influence on reservoir properties in the Kelasu structural belt in the Bozi−Dabei area, Tarim Basin, China, where oil and gas wells have very low productivity. Hence, this study attempts to develop a classification scheme based on laminae to identify how they influence reservoir properties. Based on an analysis of cores, thin section and logging imaging data, laminae in this area can be classified into three types: magnetite-enriched, iron-stained argillaceous-enriched, and grain-size change. Results show that magnetite-enriched and iron-s... [more]
Vacuum-Packed Pork Sausages with Modified Casing Added with Orange Peel Extracts: Evaluating In Vitro Antioxidant Activity via Hyperspectral Imaging Coupled with Chemometrics
Chao-Hui Feng
November 30, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: DPPH, flavonoids, multivariate analysis, natural casing, orange wastes
The antioxidant activities (in vitro) of vacuum-packaged dry-cured sausages stored for 1 year, which were treated with varying concentrations of extracts from orange peel (EFOP) in a modification solution, were evaluated using a central composite design. The individual variables: soy lecithin concentration, soy oil concentration, treated time, lactic acid addition, EFOP addition, and dependent variable [i.e., in vitro antioxidant activity] were analyzed by response surface methodology. Among the 32 treatment combinations, treatment 26 (central point) exhibited a higher 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity compared to the control group (natural hog casing without modification). Spectral pre-treatments were applied to enhance the robustness of the model, and a partial least squares regression model (PLSRM) was fitted. The results of the response surface methodology indicated that the interactive effects of a high [soy lecithin concentration] × a high [EFOP add... [more]
Extraction and Purification of Kiwifruit Seed Oil Using Three-Phase Partitioning: An Efficient and Value-Adding Method for Agro-Industrial Residue Utilization
Bangfu Liu, Xiufang Li, Qingchun Liu, Zhijian Tan
November 30, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: extraction and separation, kiwifruit seed oil, three-phase partitioning, waste utilization
Kiwifruit seeds are usually discarded as waste in the kiwifruit processing industry. However, kiwifruit seeds are rich in oil, which implies their value as a potential resource. Therefore, three-phase partitioning (TPP) using ammonium sulfate and n-butanol has been developed to extract kiwifruit seed oil (KSO) from discarded kiwifruit seeds. The factors influencing the extraction process have been investigated. The highest extraction yield of 36.06% for KSO was obtained under the following conditions: an extraction time of 18 h, a liquid-solid ratio of 4:1, an amount of ammonium sulfate of 28.5 wt%, and a phase ratio (top phase/bottom phase) of 1/1. The composition of obtained KSO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the results indicated the high content of α-linolenic acid. This simple and low-cost method can be used as an efficient approach for utilizing the value of kiwifruit seeds.
Study on Efficient Removal Method of Fine Particulate Dust in Green Metallurgy Process
Haiying Li, Hairui Xue, Junya Zhang, Guijie Zhang
November 30, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: chemical agglomeration, fine particulate dust, green metallurgy
In order to solve the problem of the low removal efficiency of fine particles in the flue gases of the metallurgy process, a chemical agglomeration pretreatment method was studied. The coagulant solution of xanthan gum, konjac gum, and their mixtures was selected to research the reunion effects of and the efficiency of gravitational dust removal of fine dust in the gas of the converter flue using a self-built experimental platform. Moreover, the effects of wetting agent type, dust concentration, pressure, and flue gas velocity on the fine grain removal efficiency were investigated. The results showed that the mixed solution of 1 g/L mixed gum and 0.5 g/L SDS had the most obvious effect on the particle size increasing of fine dust particles and the best removal effect when the flue gas velocity was 10 m/s. There was a peak particle size of 85.32 μm increased about eight times larger, and the removal efficiencies reached 51.46% for PM2.5 and 53.13% for PM10. The Box−Behnken experimental... [more]
Technological Advancements in Food Processing and Packaging
Tobi Fadiji, Pankaj B. Pathare
November 30, 2023 (v1)
The global challenge of providing sufficient, safe, and sustainable food to a growing population requires continuous food processing and packaging technology advancements [...]
A Comparative Study on the Bioavailability and Soil-to-Plant Transfer Factors of Potentially Toxic Element Contamination in Agricultural Soils and Their Impacts: A Case Study of Dense Farmland in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia
Basma G. Alhogbi, Shroog A. Al-Ansari, Mohammed S. El-Shahawi
November 30, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: agricultural soil, edible vegetables, pollution assessment, soil-to-plant transfer factors, toxic elements
Soil and aquatic pollution by heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Ni) ions has become one of the prime problems worldwide. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to conduct hydrogeological research and quantify the main trace metals in the edible vegetables, soil, irrigation water, pesticides, and fertilizers in the farmland near Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. Samples of soil, water, and plants such as coriander (Coriandrum sativum), dill (Anethum graveolens), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), and arugula (Eruca sativa) were collected, acid-digested, and analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma−optical emission spectrometer (ICP−OES). The levels of the elements in soil were determined in the order of Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb, whereas the sequence in plants was Fe > Cr > Zn > Pb> Ni > Cu, and in water, the order was Pb > Fe > Cu > Zn> Ni = Cr. In soil, the levels of Fe, Cr, and Pb were higher than the recommended values set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food Admini... [more]
Experimental Study and Mathematical Modeling under Various Hot-Air Drying Conditions of Thin Layer Olive Pomaces
Chafaa Nsibi, Marzouk Lajili
November 30, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: convective drying, effective diffusion coefficient, kinetics, Modelling, olive pomace
The present work studies the convective drying of a granular porous medium in a bed of olive pomace. The experimental tests were conducted in a closed convection drying loop of hot air. The experimental tests measured the mass loss over time. Tests were carried out for five temperature values: 60 ± 0.1 °C, 70 ± 0.1 °C, 80 ± 0.1 °C, 90 ± 0.1 °C and 100 ± 0.1 °C, respectively. Moreover, three values of velocities of the drying air, 1 ± 0.01 ms−1, 1.5 ± 0.01 ms−1 and 2 ± 0.01 ms−1, were considered. The effects of initial humidity, bed thickness and pomace composition on the drying process were studied. The results show that the moisture content decreases when the temperature and the velocity of the drying air increase. In addition, the composition of olive pomace (pulp, pits and raw pomace) significantly affects the drying time. A characteristic drying curve and its equation were determined. Seven thin layer drying models were tested, and the Midilli et al.’s model produced the best agree... [more]
Unlocking the Full Potential of Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) Spice: An Overview of Extraction Techniques, Bioactivity, and Future Opportunities in the Food and Beverage Industry
Ahmad Hazim Abdul Aziz, Dwila Nur Rizkiyah, Lailatul Qomariyah, Irianto Irianto, Mohd Azizi Che Yunus, Nicky Rahmana Putra
September 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: bioactivities, clove extraction techniques, eugenol, future opportunities, natural spices
This review article provides an overview of the bioactive compounds of clove, their health benefits, and their potential application in food and beverages. Cloves are rich in phenolic compounds, mainly eugenol, which exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, and wound-healing properties. Traditional methods of clove extraction, such as Soxhlet and maceration, have limitations. Green extraction methods, such as ultrasound-assisted extraction, pressurised liquid extraction, and microwave-assisted extraction, have shown promising results. The potential application of clove extract in various food and beverage products are also discussed. Finally, future perspectives and challenges for clove extraction are highlighted. Overall, the review highlights the potential of clove extract as a natural source of bioactive compounds for various applications in the food and beverage industry.
Waste-to-Energy Pipeline through Consolidated Fermentation−Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) System
Kundan Kumar, Ling Ding, Haiyan Zhao, Ming-Hsun Cheng
September 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: agriculture residues (AR), bioenergy, Fermentation, microbial fuel cell (MFC), municipal solid waste (MSW)
The rise in population, urbanization, and industrial developments have led to a substantial increase in waste generation and energy demand, posing significant challenges for waste management as well as energy conservation and production. Bioenergy conversions have been merged as advanced, sustainable, and integrated solutions for these issues, encompassing energy generation and waste upcycling of different types of organic waste. Municipal solid waste (MSW) and agricultural residues (AR) are two main resources for bioenergy conversions. Bioenergy production involves feedstock deconstruction and the conversion of platform chemicals to energy products. This review provides a detailed overview of waste sources, biofuel, and bioelectricity production from fermentation and microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology, and their economic and environmental perspectives. Fermentation plays a critical role in liquid biofuel production, while MFCs demonstrate promising potential for simultaneous product... [more]
New Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Sample Preparation Procedure for the Fast Determination of Total Sn in Canned Tomatoes by HG-ICP OES
Maja Welna, Anna Szymczycha-Madeja, Pawel Pohl
September 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: canned tomatoes, hydride generation, ICP OES, sample preparation, tin
An analytical method with no need for laborious sample preparation before determining the total Sn in canned tomatoes by hydride generation (HG) coupled to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) was developed. The ultrasound-assisted extraction with various reagents (acidic media: HCl, HNO3, CH3COOH or aqua regia and alkaline: TMAH) that could replace the traditional wet sample digestion in the presence of a concentrated HNO3-H2O2 mixture was tested and compared. Tin hydride was generated directly from the prepared sample solution in the reaction with 1% NaBH4 or via prior acidification with a 1 mol L−1 HCl. The effect of the sample pretreatment before HG-ICP OES measurements on the Sn signal was also examined. The best results were obtained with aqua regia as the extraction medium, followed by a simple two-fold dilution of the sample extract combined with the addition of L-cysteine. The developed method was characterized by a detection limit of Sn at 0.74 n... [more]
Establishment and Application of a New Parameter Model for Quantitative Characterization of the Heterogeneity of Thick, Coarse-Grained Clastic Reservoirs: A Case Study of the Badaowan Formation in the Western Slope of the Mahu Depression, Junggar Basin, C
Boyu Zhou, Xiaodong Zhao, Xuebing Ji, Xinyu Wu, Wenping Zhao, Xi Rong
September 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: fluctuation coefficient, heterogeneity, Junggar Basin, Mahu Depression, thick coarse-grained clastic rock reservoir
The rock composition of thick-layer, coarse-grained clastic reservoirs is complex. There are large variations in granularity and poor selectivity. Reservoirs of thick-layer, coarse-grained clastic rocks are extremely heterogeneous. Current conventional parameters for quantitative characterization of reservoir heterogeneity, such as the calculation values of the permeability variation coefficient, the permeability rush coefficient, and the permeability contrast, are unbounded, have different representation angles, and the quantification degree of the characterization method is not high. This study takes the thick layer of the coarse-clastic rock reservoir developed in the western slope of the Badaowan Formation in the Mahu Depression of the Junggar Basin as an example. Through core observation, microscopic characteristics, and analysis of laboratory data, a new quantitative characterization parameter of heterogeneity is proposed, and a reservoir interpretation parameter model is establi... [more]
Biodegradable Composite Film of Brewers’ Spent Grain and Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)
Lilian Lin, Sarah Mirkin, Heon E. Park
September 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biodegradable composite film, brewers’ spent grain, food waste, glycerol, hexamethoxymethylmelamine (HMMM), mechanical properties, moisture uptake, mulch film, poly(vinyl alcohol), tensile tests, universal test machine, waste upcycling
Plastic pollution and food waste are two pressing global challenges that require immediate attention and innovative solutions. In this study, we address these challenges by upcycling brewers’ spent grain (BSG) into biodegradable composite films. BSG, a by-product of the beer brewing process, is commonly discarded in landfills or used as animal feed. By utilizing BSG as a raw material for biodegradable films, we simultaneously reduce waste and decrease plastic pollution. To create the composite films, we employed poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and glycerol as binder materials, along with hexamethoxymethylmelamine (HMMM) as a water-repelling agent. By varying the ratios of these components, we investigated the effects on film properties. Our characterization included assessing moisture uptake and tensile properties. The results revealed that the practical BSG content in the films was 20−60 wt%. Films with this composition exhibited a balance between moisture absorption and mechanical strength... [more]
Development and Validation of Gas Chromatography−Mass Spectrometry Method for Quantification of Sibutramine in Dietary Supplements
Vanya Rangelov Kozhuharov, Kalin Ivanov, Diana Karcheva-Bahchevanska, Natalia Prissadova, Stanislava Ivanova
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: dietary supplements, food supplements, GC-MS, obesity, sibutramine, unintentional doping
The use of dietary supplements (DSs) has dramatically increased in recent decades. However, around 20% of these products are reported to contain pharmacologically active undeclared compounds, most of which could expose consumers to serious side effects. According to recent data, some of the most commonly detected undeclared compounds are also considered doping and are prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). One of the most frequently detected undeclared substances in DSs used for promoting weight loss is sibutramine. In 2011, all medicines containing sibutramine were urgently withdrawn from Europe and US markets because of serious side effects. In the present study, in order to detect and quantify sibutramine in DSs, a rapid, sensitive, and reliable gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines and demonstrated good linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. The limits of detection and qu... [more]
Special Issue on “Extraction Optimization Processes of Antioxidants”
Lina Cossignani, Francesca Blasi
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Understanding the importance of extraction optimization processes of bioactive molecules in the food industry is fundamental in the choice of innovative extraction processes involving sustainable procedures and is essential in process design for the isolation of antioxidants, thus preserving their chemical integrity and biological properties [...]
The Physical, Sensory, and Microbial Qualities of Broth Gels Enclosing Food Cubes and Their Changes during Cold Storage
Yang-Ju Son, Ji-Yu Choi
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: chicken stock, gel food, gelatin, jelly, sensory evaluation, κ-carrageenan
Due to their unusual textural properties and semblance, gel foods have been welcomed by consumers. In this study, we designed a novel gel food, that is, broth jellies that enclosed particular food dices (shrimp, chicken, and potatoes). Briefly, various ratios of gelling molecules (gelatin and κ-carrageenan) were added to chicken broth, the food dices were placed in the center of the gels, and their characteristics and stabilities were verified during cold storage (4 °C) for 14 days. As a result, the mix of κ-carrageenan and gelatin led to the formation of firm cross-junctions with an elevated hardness compared to gelatin singular gel. In contrast, the gelatin sole gel showed different sensory attributes, such as a high chewiness and meltiness. The thick gel barriers of the products fairly increased the stability of the inner food ingredients. By blocking the loss of moisture, the texture and sensory traits were well preserved; moreover, the gelling molecules greatly impeded microbial d... [more]
Study on Mechanical Behavior and Mechanism of Sandstone under the Coupling Effect of Water Content and Dynamic Load
Yang Chen, Ting Kang, Chao Wu
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: crushing characteristics, Energy Conversion, impact load, saturation degree, weakening of strength
In the process of underground engineering construction, rock mass often faces the dual influence of dynamic load disturbance and groundwater, it is therefore essential to investigate the mechanical response of the rock mass under the coupling effect of dynamic load disturbance and water content. In this paper, dynamic load impact tests were carried out on sandstone with bullet velocities of 5 m/s, 10 m/s, and 15 m/s and water content of 0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9, and the mechanical behavior and mechanism response of water content to sandstone were investigated. The research findings indicate that this study has made significant contributions in quantifying the along grain and trans-grain fractures of microcracks. It has explored the influence of water content and dynamic loading on the strength mechanism of sandstone. It was discovered that the dynamic loading and water content significantly affect the ratio of along grain and trans-grain fractures, thereby influencing the dynamic behavior... [more]
Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) in an Intermittent Process as an Alternative for Obtaining Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis) Leaf Hydroalcoholic Extract (Tincture)
Larissa da Cunha Rodrigues, Renata Barbosa Bodini, Fernando de Lima Caneppele, Gustavo César Dacanal, Eduardo José Crevelin, Luiz Alberto Beraldo de Moraes, Alessandra Lopes de Oliveira
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Extraction, Fick’s Law, high-pressure, intermittent process, isovitexin, phenolic compounds
Tinctures are medicinal plant extracts obtained by extraction with a hydroalcoholic solution (70%) by percolation (PER). This process takes about 26 h to prepare, in addition to using a large amount of solvent. In our research, passion fruit leaf tinctures were obtained using extract with the same pressurized hydroalcoholic solution as in an intermittent process. The objective was to demonstrate that this emerging technology can be economical and profitable. An optimization using Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was performed to evaluate the influence of process variables on the yields and compositions of the extracts. The temperature (T) was the factor that most influenced the responses. Extraction with pressurized liquid (PLE) provided total yields and total phenolic and flavonoid contents in greater amounts than PER. The optimized conditions of the process variables studied in the CCRD for the highest content of total phenolics (43.2 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids (58.8 mg QE/g)... [more]
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