Records with Subject: Food & Agricultural Processes
Showing records 1 to 25 of 1218. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Vacuum-Packed Pork Sausages with Modified Casing Added with Orange Peel Extracts: Evaluating In Vitro Antioxidant Activity via Hyperspectral Imaging Coupled with Chemometrics
Chao-Hui Feng
November 30, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: DPPH, flavonoids, multivariate analysis, natural casing, orange wastes
The antioxidant activities (in vitro) of vacuum-packaged dry-cured sausages stored for 1 year, which were treated with varying concentrations of extracts from orange peel (EFOP) in a modification solution, were evaluated using a central composite design. The individual variables: soy lecithin concentration, soy oil concentration, treated time, lactic acid addition, EFOP addition, and dependent variable [i.e., in vitro antioxidant activity] were analyzed by response surface methodology. Among the 32 treatment combinations, treatment 26 (central point) exhibited a higher 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity compared to the control group (natural hog casing without modification). Spectral pre-treatments were applied to enhance the robustness of the model, and a partial least squares regression model (PLSRM) was fitted. The results of the response surface methodology indicated that the interactive effects of a high [soy lecithin concentration] × a high [EFOP add... [more]
Extraction and Purification of Kiwifruit Seed Oil Using Three-Phase Partitioning: An Efficient and Value-Adding Method for Agro-Industrial Residue Utilization
Bangfu Liu, Xiufang Li, Qingchun Liu, Zhijian Tan
November 30, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: extraction and separation, kiwifruit seed oil, three-phase partitioning, waste utilization
Kiwifruit seeds are usually discarded as waste in the kiwifruit processing industry. However, kiwifruit seeds are rich in oil, which implies their value as a potential resource. Therefore, three-phase partitioning (TPP) using ammonium sulfate and n-butanol has been developed to extract kiwifruit seed oil (KSO) from discarded kiwifruit seeds. The factors influencing the extraction process have been investigated. The highest extraction yield of 36.06% for KSO was obtained under the following conditions: an extraction time of 18 h, a liquid-solid ratio of 4:1, an amount of ammonium sulfate of 28.5 wt%, and a phase ratio (top phase/bottom phase) of 1/1. The composition of obtained KSO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the results indicated the high content of α-linolenic acid. This simple and low-cost method can be used as an efficient approach for utilizing the value of kiwifruit seeds.
Study on Efficient Removal Method of Fine Particulate Dust in Green Metallurgy Process
Haiying Li, Hairui Xue, Junya Zhang, Guijie Zhang
November 30, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: chemical agglomeration, fine particulate dust, green metallurgy
In order to solve the problem of the low removal efficiency of fine particles in the flue gases of the metallurgy process, a chemical agglomeration pretreatment method was studied. The coagulant solution of xanthan gum, konjac gum, and their mixtures was selected to research the reunion effects of and the efficiency of gravitational dust removal of fine dust in the gas of the converter flue using a self-built experimental platform. Moreover, the effects of wetting agent type, dust concentration, pressure, and flue gas velocity on the fine grain removal efficiency were investigated. The results showed that the mixed solution of 1 g/L mixed gum and 0.5 g/L SDS had the most obvious effect on the particle size increasing of fine dust particles and the best removal effect when the flue gas velocity was 10 m/s. There was a peak particle size of 85.32 μm increased about eight times larger, and the removal efficiencies reached 51.46% for PM2.5 and 53.13% for PM10. The Box−Behnken experimental... [more]
Technological Advancements in Food Processing and Packaging
Tobi Fadiji, Pankaj B. Pathare
November 30, 2023 (v1)
The global challenge of providing sufficient, safe, and sustainable food to a growing population requires continuous food processing and packaging technology advancements [...]
A Comparative Study on the Bioavailability and Soil-to-Plant Transfer Factors of Potentially Toxic Element Contamination in Agricultural Soils and Their Impacts: A Case Study of Dense Farmland in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia
Basma G. Alhogbi, Shroog A. Al-Ansari, Mohammed S. El-Shahawi
November 30, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: agricultural soil, edible vegetables, pollution assessment, soil-to-plant transfer factors, toxic elements
Soil and aquatic pollution by heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Ni) ions has become one of the prime problems worldwide. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to conduct hydrogeological research and quantify the main trace metals in the edible vegetables, soil, irrigation water, pesticides, and fertilizers in the farmland near Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. Samples of soil, water, and plants such as coriander (Coriandrum sativum), dill (Anethum graveolens), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), and arugula (Eruca sativa) were collected, acid-digested, and analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma−optical emission spectrometer (ICP−OES). The levels of the elements in soil were determined in the order of Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb, whereas the sequence in plants was Fe > Cr > Zn > Pb> Ni > Cu, and in water, the order was Pb > Fe > Cu > Zn> Ni = Cr. In soil, the levels of Fe, Cr, and Pb were higher than the recommended values set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food Admini... [more]
Experimental Study and Mathematical Modeling under Various Hot-Air Drying Conditions of Thin Layer Olive Pomaces
Chafaa Nsibi, Marzouk Lajili
November 30, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: convective drying, effective diffusion coefficient, kinetics, Modelling, olive pomace
The present work studies the convective drying of a granular porous medium in a bed of olive pomace. The experimental tests were conducted in a closed convection drying loop of hot air. The experimental tests measured the mass loss over time. Tests were carried out for five temperature values: 60 ± 0.1 °C, 70 ± 0.1 °C, 80 ± 0.1 °C, 90 ± 0.1 °C and 100 ± 0.1 °C, respectively. Moreover, three values of velocities of the drying air, 1 ± 0.01 ms−1, 1.5 ± 0.01 ms−1 and 2 ± 0.01 ms−1, were considered. The effects of initial humidity, bed thickness and pomace composition on the drying process were studied. The results show that the moisture content decreases when the temperature and the velocity of the drying air increase. In addition, the composition of olive pomace (pulp, pits and raw pomace) significantly affects the drying time. A characteristic drying curve and its equation were determined. Seven thin layer drying models were tested, and the Midilli et al.’s model produced the best agree... [more]
Unlocking the Full Potential of Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) Spice: An Overview of Extraction Techniques, Bioactivity, and Future Opportunities in the Food and Beverage Industry
Ahmad Hazim Abdul Aziz, Dwila Nur Rizkiyah, Lailatul Qomariyah, Irianto Irianto, Mohd Azizi Che Yunus, Nicky Rahmana Putra
September 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: bioactivities, clove extraction techniques, eugenol, future opportunities, natural spices
This review article provides an overview of the bioactive compounds of clove, their health benefits, and their potential application in food and beverages. Cloves are rich in phenolic compounds, mainly eugenol, which exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, and wound-healing properties. Traditional methods of clove extraction, such as Soxhlet and maceration, have limitations. Green extraction methods, such as ultrasound-assisted extraction, pressurised liquid extraction, and microwave-assisted extraction, have shown promising results. The potential application of clove extract in various food and beverage products are also discussed. Finally, future perspectives and challenges for clove extraction are highlighted. Overall, the review highlights the potential of clove extract as a natural source of bioactive compounds for various applications in the food and beverage industry.
Waste-to-Energy Pipeline through Consolidated Fermentation−Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) System
Kundan Kumar, Ling Ding, Haiyan Zhao, Ming-Hsun Cheng
September 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: agriculture residues (AR), bioenergy, Fermentation, microbial fuel cell (MFC), municipal solid waste (MSW)
The rise in population, urbanization, and industrial developments have led to a substantial increase in waste generation and energy demand, posing significant challenges for waste management as well as energy conservation and production. Bioenergy conversions have been merged as advanced, sustainable, and integrated solutions for these issues, encompassing energy generation and waste upcycling of different types of organic waste. Municipal solid waste (MSW) and agricultural residues (AR) are two main resources for bioenergy conversions. Bioenergy production involves feedstock deconstruction and the conversion of platform chemicals to energy products. This review provides a detailed overview of waste sources, biofuel, and bioelectricity production from fermentation and microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology, and their economic and environmental perspectives. Fermentation plays a critical role in liquid biofuel production, while MFCs demonstrate promising potential for simultaneous product... [more]
New Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Sample Preparation Procedure for the Fast Determination of Total Sn in Canned Tomatoes by HG-ICP OES
Maja Welna, Anna Szymczycha-Madeja, Pawel Pohl
September 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: canned tomatoes, hydride generation, ICP OES, sample preparation, tin
An analytical method with no need for laborious sample preparation before determining the total Sn in canned tomatoes by hydride generation (HG) coupled to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) was developed. The ultrasound-assisted extraction with various reagents (acidic media: HCl, HNO3, CH3COOH or aqua regia and alkaline: TMAH) that could replace the traditional wet sample digestion in the presence of a concentrated HNO3-H2O2 mixture was tested and compared. Tin hydride was generated directly from the prepared sample solution in the reaction with 1% NaBH4 or via prior acidification with a 1 mol L−1 HCl. The effect of the sample pretreatment before HG-ICP OES measurements on the Sn signal was also examined. The best results were obtained with aqua regia as the extraction medium, followed by a simple two-fold dilution of the sample extract combined with the addition of L-cysteine. The developed method was characterized by a detection limit of Sn at 0.74 n... [more]
Establishment and Application of a New Parameter Model for Quantitative Characterization of the Heterogeneity of Thick, Coarse-Grained Clastic Reservoirs: A Case Study of the Badaowan Formation in the Western Slope of the Mahu Depression, Junggar Basin, C
Boyu Zhou, Xiaodong Zhao, Xuebing Ji, Xinyu Wu, Wenping Zhao, Xi Rong
September 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: fluctuation coefficient, heterogeneity, Junggar Basin, Mahu Depression, thick coarse-grained clastic rock reservoir
The rock composition of thick-layer, coarse-grained clastic reservoirs is complex. There are large variations in granularity and poor selectivity. Reservoirs of thick-layer, coarse-grained clastic rocks are extremely heterogeneous. Current conventional parameters for quantitative characterization of reservoir heterogeneity, such as the calculation values of the permeability variation coefficient, the permeability rush coefficient, and the permeability contrast, are unbounded, have different representation angles, and the quantification degree of the characterization method is not high. This study takes the thick layer of the coarse-clastic rock reservoir developed in the western slope of the Badaowan Formation in the Mahu Depression of the Junggar Basin as an example. Through core observation, microscopic characteristics, and analysis of laboratory data, a new quantitative characterization parameter of heterogeneity is proposed, and a reservoir interpretation parameter model is establi... [more]
Biodegradable Composite Film of Brewers’ Spent Grain and Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)
Lilian Lin, Sarah Mirkin, Heon E. Park
September 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biodegradable composite film, brewers’ spent grain, food waste, glycerol, hexamethoxymethylmelamine (HMMM), mechanical properties, moisture uptake, mulch film, poly(vinyl alcohol), tensile tests, universal test machine, waste upcycling
Plastic pollution and food waste are two pressing global challenges that require immediate attention and innovative solutions. In this study, we address these challenges by upcycling brewers’ spent grain (BSG) into biodegradable composite films. BSG, a by-product of the beer brewing process, is commonly discarded in landfills or used as animal feed. By utilizing BSG as a raw material for biodegradable films, we simultaneously reduce waste and decrease plastic pollution. To create the composite films, we employed poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and glycerol as binder materials, along with hexamethoxymethylmelamine (HMMM) as a water-repelling agent. By varying the ratios of these components, we investigated the effects on film properties. Our characterization included assessing moisture uptake and tensile properties. The results revealed that the practical BSG content in the films was 20−60 wt%. Films with this composition exhibited a balance between moisture absorption and mechanical strength... [more]
Development and Validation of Gas Chromatography−Mass Spectrometry Method for Quantification of Sibutramine in Dietary Supplements
Vanya Rangelov Kozhuharov, Kalin Ivanov, Diana Karcheva-Bahchevanska, Natalia Prissadova, Stanislava Ivanova
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: dietary supplements, food supplements, GC-MS, obesity, sibutramine, unintentional doping
The use of dietary supplements (DSs) has dramatically increased in recent decades. However, around 20% of these products are reported to contain pharmacologically active undeclared compounds, most of which could expose consumers to serious side effects. According to recent data, some of the most commonly detected undeclared compounds are also considered doping and are prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). One of the most frequently detected undeclared substances in DSs used for promoting weight loss is sibutramine. In 2011, all medicines containing sibutramine were urgently withdrawn from Europe and US markets because of serious side effects. In the present study, in order to detect and quantify sibutramine in DSs, a rapid, sensitive, and reliable gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines and demonstrated good linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. The limits of detection and qu... [more]
Special Issue on “Extraction Optimization Processes of Antioxidants”
Lina Cossignani, Francesca Blasi
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Understanding the importance of extraction optimization processes of bioactive molecules in the food industry is fundamental in the choice of innovative extraction processes involving sustainable procedures and is essential in process design for the isolation of antioxidants, thus preserving their chemical integrity and biological properties [...]
The Physical, Sensory, and Microbial Qualities of Broth Gels Enclosing Food Cubes and Their Changes during Cold Storage
Yang-Ju Son, Ji-Yu Choi
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: chicken stock, gel food, gelatin, jelly, sensory evaluation, κ-carrageenan
Due to their unusual textural properties and semblance, gel foods have been welcomed by consumers. In this study, we designed a novel gel food, that is, broth jellies that enclosed particular food dices (shrimp, chicken, and potatoes). Briefly, various ratios of gelling molecules (gelatin and κ-carrageenan) were added to chicken broth, the food dices were placed in the center of the gels, and their characteristics and stabilities were verified during cold storage (4 °C) for 14 days. As a result, the mix of κ-carrageenan and gelatin led to the formation of firm cross-junctions with an elevated hardness compared to gelatin singular gel. In contrast, the gelatin sole gel showed different sensory attributes, such as a high chewiness and meltiness. The thick gel barriers of the products fairly increased the stability of the inner food ingredients. By blocking the loss of moisture, the texture and sensory traits were well preserved; moreover, the gelling molecules greatly impeded microbial d... [more]
Study on Mechanical Behavior and Mechanism of Sandstone under the Coupling Effect of Water Content and Dynamic Load
Yang Chen, Ting Kang, Chao Wu
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: crushing characteristics, Energy Conversion, impact load, saturation degree, weakening of strength
In the process of underground engineering construction, rock mass often faces the dual influence of dynamic load disturbance and groundwater, it is therefore essential to investigate the mechanical response of the rock mass under the coupling effect of dynamic load disturbance and water content. In this paper, dynamic load impact tests were carried out on sandstone with bullet velocities of 5 m/s, 10 m/s, and 15 m/s and water content of 0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9, and the mechanical behavior and mechanism response of water content to sandstone were investigated. The research findings indicate that this study has made significant contributions in quantifying the along grain and trans-grain fractures of microcracks. It has explored the influence of water content and dynamic loading on the strength mechanism of sandstone. It was discovered that the dynamic loading and water content significantly affect the ratio of along grain and trans-grain fractures, thereby influencing the dynamic behavior... [more]
Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) in an Intermittent Process as an Alternative for Obtaining Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis) Leaf Hydroalcoholic Extract (Tincture)
Larissa da Cunha Rodrigues, Renata Barbosa Bodini, Fernando de Lima Caneppele, Gustavo César Dacanal, Eduardo José Crevelin, Luiz Alberto Beraldo de Moraes, Alessandra Lopes de Oliveira
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Extraction, Fick’s Law, high-pressure, intermittent process, isovitexin, phenolic compounds
Tinctures are medicinal plant extracts obtained by extraction with a hydroalcoholic solution (70%) by percolation (PER). This process takes about 26 h to prepare, in addition to using a large amount of solvent. In our research, passion fruit leaf tinctures were obtained using extract with the same pressurized hydroalcoholic solution as in an intermittent process. The objective was to demonstrate that this emerging technology can be economical and profitable. An optimization using Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was performed to evaluate the influence of process variables on the yields and compositions of the extracts. The temperature (T) was the factor that most influenced the responses. Extraction with pressurized liquid (PLE) provided total yields and total phenolic and flavonoid contents in greater amounts than PER. The optimized conditions of the process variables studied in the CCRD for the highest content of total phenolics (43.2 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids (58.8 mg QE/g)... [more]
Effect of Atmospheric Cold Plasma on the Aroma of Pineapple Juice: Improving Fresh and Fruity Notes and Reducing Undesired Pungent and Sulfurous Aromas
Elaine C. M. Porto, Edy S. de Brito, Sueli Rodrigues, Fabiano A. N. Fernandes
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Ananas comosus, aroma, dielectric barrier discharge plasma, food chemistry, quality
Pineapple aroma is characterized by several esters, which confers its fresh and fruity aroma. However, high concentrations of methyl hexanoate and thioesters bring an undesired pungently sweet aroma and sulfurous notes to pineapple juice. This study investigates the chemical effects of cold plasma on the aroma compounds and descriptors of pineapple juice, evaluating the effects of plasma on its esters and thioesters. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma was applied to pineapple juice, varying the excitation frequency (50 to 1000 Hz) and processing time (10 to 20 min) at constant voltage (20 kV). Plasma treatment induced successive demethylation of esters and the conversion of methyl esters into ethyl esters. Thioesters showed to be more stable under plasma treatment. Proper setting of plasma operating conditions enabled an improvement in the fresh and fruity descriptors of pineapple juice, a reduction of its undesired pungently sweet aroma, but an increase in the influence of sulfurous... [more]
Breaking New Ground: Exploring the Promising Role of Solid-State Fermentation in Harnessing Natural Biostimulants for Sustainable Agriculture
Roberto Carlos Solano Porras, Adriana Artola, Raquel Barrena, Golafarin Ghoreishi, Cindy Ballardo Matos, Antoni Sánchez
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: crop improvement, natural biostimulant, organic waste, solid-state fermentation, sustainable agriculture
Agriculture has been experiencing a difficult situation because of limiting factors in its production processes. Natural biostimulants (NBs) have emerged as a novel alternative. This study reviews NBs produced through solid-state fermentation (SSF) from organic waste, focusing on processes and production methods. The aim is to highlight their potential for improving agricultural productivity and promoting sustainable agriculture. Through a literature review, the effects of NBs on crops were summarized, along with the challenges associated with their production and application. The importance of standardizing production processes, optimizing fermentation conditions, and assessing their effects on different crops is emphasized. Furthermore, future research areas are introduced, such as enhancing production efficiency and evaluating the effectiveness of SSF-produced NBs in different agricultural systems. In conclusion, SSF-produced NBs offer a promising alternative for sustainable agricul... [more]
Valorization of Peanut and Walnut Shells through Utilisation as Biosorbents for the Removal of Textile Dyes from Water
Svetlana Lazarova, Radoslav Tonev, Sonya Dimitrova, Galina Dimova, Irena Mihailova
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: adsorption kinetics, biosorbents, dye removal, methylene blue, peanut shells, walnut shells
The present research focuses on the application of peanut and walnut shells, in their natural state, for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from water solutions in batch and dynamic (flow-through) conditions. Under batch conditions, at a 100 mg/L MB concentration of aqueous solution, the optimum dose of the studied biosorbents was determined to be 2.5 g/L, reaching about 95−97% efficiency of MB removal for both materials. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to model and evaluate the experimental data under different initial concentrations of MB (25 to 100 mg/L). The determined maximum adsorption capacities are 41.50 mg/g for walnut shells and 46.80 mg/g for peanut shells. Under flow-through conditions, breakthrough curves are determined for three sizes of fractions (<0.25 mm, 0.315−0.5 mm, and 0.8−1.6 mm). For peanut shells, the smaller the particle size, the higher the adsorption capacity and the column breakthrough time. For walnut shells, however, the particle size seems... [more]
Effects of Temperature and Pressure on Hemp Oil Filtration Parameters and Peroxide Number
Jiří Souček, Petr Jevič, Martin Dědina, Veronika Tománková, Vladimír Mašán, Patrik Burg, Kornél Szalay, Algirdas Jasinskas
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: hemp oil, oil filtration, oil storage, oil treatment, oil viscosity, oxidation stability of oils, plate filters, vegetable oil processing, vegetable oils
This article focuses on the quality of hemp oil processing, specifically the filtration that is an important part of the technological procedure of processing vegetable oils. The aim of the research was to determine the effects of pressure and temperature on the filtration parameters when using plate filters. The research was carried out on an experimental measuring device with adjustable static pressure. The qualitative properties of the oil were observed in terms of analytical composition, microbial content, and changes in peroxide value as the indicator of oxidation stability. The change in pressure affected the oil flow rate, especially at lower pressure values. The increase in temperature of the filtered oil had a negative impact on the oxidation stability.
Steam Explosion of Eucalyptus grandis Sawdust for Ethanol Production within a Biorefinery Approach
Mairan Guigou, Juan Guarino, Luana M. Chiarello, María N. Cabrera, Mauricio Vique, Claudia Lareo, Mario D. Ferrari, Luiz P. Ramos
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biomass moisture content, cellulosic ethanol, eucalypt sawdust, high total solids, PSSF, steam explosion
In this work, Eucalyptus grandis sawdust was subjected to steam explosion as the first step in cellulosic ethanol production within a biorefinery approach. The effect of the moisture content in the eucalypt sawdust (8 and 50%) and pretreatment process variables, such as temperature and residence time, were evaluated along with the influence of the water washing of steam-exploded solids on enzymatic hydrolysis and C6 fermentation yields. All other process streams were characterized to evaluate the recovery yield of valuable co-products. A recovery of nearly 100% glucans in the solid fraction and 60% xylans in the liquid fraction, mainly as partially acetylated oligomers, was obtained. The best enzymatic hydrolysis efficiencies (66−67%) were achieved after pretreatment at 205 °C for 10 min. The washing of pretreated sawdust with water improved the hydrolysis efficiencies and ethanol production yields by 10% compared to the unwashed pretreated solids under the same experimental condition.... [more]
Evaluation of the Capsaicinoid Extraction Conditions from Mexican Capsicum chinense Var. Mayapan with Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE)
Kevin Alejandro Avilés-Betanzos, Matteo Scampicchio, Giovanna Ferrentino, Manuel Octavio Ramírez-Sucre, Ingrid Mayanin Rodríguez-Buenfil
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, Capsicum chinense, supercritical fluid extraction
Capsaicin (Cp) is a secondary metabolite produced by the Capsicum plant family. This molecule exhibits various biological properties such as antioxidant capacities, anti-obesogenic effects, and antidiabetic properties, among others. However, conventional extraction methods for Cp present several disadvantages including toxicity, extraction time, and low purity. Therefore, the utilization of supercritical fluid extraction techniques represents a viable option for obtaining highly pure and low-toxicity oleoresins (capsaicin-rich extracts). This approach involves the use of CO2 in the supercritical state and finds applicability in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. The Capsicum chinense variety from the Yucatán Peninsula is a crop with significant economic impact in the region, due to having the highest concentrations of Cp in Mexico. This significant characteristic is attributed to its adaptation to the unique conditions (climate, soil, solar radiation, humidity) of the s... [more]
Plant-Derived Essential Oils and Aqueous Extract as Potential Ingredients for a Biopesticide: Phytotoxicity in Soybean and Activity against Soybean Mosaic Virus
María Evangelina Carezzano, Pablo Gastón Reyna, Efrén Accotto, Walter Giordano, María de las Mercedes Oliva, Patricia Rodriguez Pardina, María Carola Sabini
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biocontrol, Glycine max, Potyvirus
Soybean mosaic disease, caused by the soybean mosaic virus (SMV), is responsible for major losses in yield and seed quality worldwide. Although resistant cultivars are used for its prevention and control, an alternative strategy could consist of applying environmentally friendly antimicrobial agents, such as extracts and essential oils (EOs) of aromatic plants. This study assessed an extract of Achyrocline satureioides and EOs of Minthostachys verticillata, Origanum vulgare, and Thymus vulgaris in terms of their phytotoxicity in soybean. Since all the concentrations tested were found to be safe, the activity of each product against SMV was then assayed in vivo, i.e., in experimentally infected soybean plants. The parameters measured were plant height, wet weight, and virus titer. All the treated plants had a greater height and weight than those in the viral control group. The EOs of M. verticillata (0.80 mg/mL) and T. vulgaris (0.71 mg/mL) inhibited the production of viral antigens, as... [more]
Green Extraction Techniques of Bioactive Compounds: A State-of-the-Art Review
Rodrigo Martins, Ana Barbosa, Bárbara Advinha, Hélia Sales, Rita Pontes, João Nunes
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: antioxidant, bioactive pigments, bioeconomy, green chemistry, phenolic compounds
Green extraction techniques are more and more relevant due to major sustainable goals set by the United Nations. Greener extraction processes are being designed through the use of unconventional extraction techniques and green solvents, resulting in less hazardous processes which, consequently, reduces environmental impacts. This is also in line with the main principles of green chemistry. Additionally, greener extraction techniques intend to solve different drawbacks that are often related to conventional extraction techniques such as the high environmental impact. Biorefineries are a major player in developing greener extraction processes. These facilities take full advantage of several biomass sources, such as food waste, microalgae, and lignocellulosic biomass, in order to create high-value products, energy, alternative fuels, and bioactive compounds. Herein, a state-of-the-art review is presented, focused on presenting the greenest and least hazardous extraction processes that hav... [more]
DPPH Radical Scavenging Assay
İlhami Gulcin, Saleh H. Alwasel
September 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil, antioxidant assay, antioxidants, DPPH
Today, there is an increasing interest in antioxidants, especially to prevent the known harmful effects of free radicals in human metabolism and their deterioration during processing and storage of fatty foods. In both cases, natural-source antioxidants are preferred over synthetic antioxidants. So, there has been a parallel increase in the use of assays to estimate antioxidant efficacy in human metabolism and food systems. Today, there are many bioanalytical methods that measure the antioxidant effect. Of these, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) removing assay is the most putative, popular, and commonly used method to determine antioxidant ability. In this review, a general approach to the DPPH radical scavenging assay has been taken. In this context, many studies, including attempts to adapt the DPPH radical scavenging method to different analytes, search for the highest antioxidant activity values, and optimize the method of measurement, have previously been performed. Theref... [more]
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