Records Added in 2023
Records added in 2023
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Showing records 1 to 25 of 25257. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Acid-Assisted Organosolv Pre-Treatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cynara cardunculus L. for Glucose Production
Mattia Gelosia, Alessandro Bertini, Marco Barbanera, Tommaso Giannoni, Andrea Nicolini, Franco Cotana, Gianluca Cavalaglio
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Cynara Cardunculus L., enzymatic hydrolysis, organosolv pre-treatment, γ-valerolactone
Lignocellulosic biomass is a non-edible feedstock that can be used in integrated biorefinery for the production of biochemicals and biofuel. Among lignocellulosic biomass, Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon) is a promising crop thanks to its low water and fertilizer demand. Organosolv is a chemical treatment that uses numerous organic or aqueous solvent mixtures, and a small amount of acid catalyst, in order to solubilize the lignin and hemicellulose fractions, making the cellulose accessible to hydrolytic enzymes. Lignocellulosic residues of cardoon underwent a two-step treatment process to obtain fermentable glucose. In the first step, the milled biomass was subjected to microwave-assisted extraction using an acidified γ-valerolactone (GVL)/water mixture, yielding a solid cellulose pulp. In the second step, the pre-treated material was hydrolyzed by cellulolytic enzymes to glucose. The first step was optimized by means of a two-level full factorial design. The investigated factors were p... [more]
Mirroring Solar Radiation Emitting Heat Toward the Universe: Design, Production, and Preliminary Testing of a Metamaterial Based Daytime Passive Radiative Cooler
Anna Castaldo, Giuseppe Vitiello, Emilia Gambale, Michela Lanchi, Manuela Ferrara, Michele Zinzi
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: cool roof, metamaterials, passive radiative cooling, prototype
A radiative cooling device, based on a metamaterial able to mirror solar radiation and emit heat toward the universe by the transparency window of the atmosphere (8−13 µm), reaching and maintaining temperatures below ambient air, without any electricity input (passive), could have a significant impact on energy consumption of buildings and positive effects on the global warming prevention. A similar device is expected to properly work if exposed to the nocturnal sky, but during the daytime, its efficacy could be affected by its own heating under direct sunlight. In scientific literature, there are only few evidences of lab scale devices, acting as passive radiative cooling at daytime, and remaining few degrees below ambient air. This work describes the proof of concept of a daytime passive radiative cooler, entirely developed in ENEA labs, capable to reach well 12 °C under ambient temperature. In particular, the prototypal device is an acrylic box case, filled with noble gas, whose top... [more]
A Decentralized Informatics, Optimization, and Control Framework for Evolving Demand Response Services
Sean Williams, Michael Short, Tracey Crosbie, Maryam Shadman-Pajouh
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: community energy management, decentralized, demand response, Optimization
This paper presents a decentralized informatics, optimization, and control framework to enable demand response (DR) in small or rural decentralized community power systems, including geographical islands. The framework consists of a simplified lumped model for electrical demand forecasting, a scheduling subsystem that optimizes the utility of energy storage assets, and an active/pro-active control subsystem. The active control strategy provides secondary DR services, through optimizing a multi-objective cost function formulated using a weight-based routing algorithm. In this context, the total weight of each edge between any two consecutive nodes is calculated as a function of thermal comfort, cost (tariff), and the rate at which electricity is consumed over a short future time horizon. The pro-active control strategy provides primary DR services. Furthermore, tertiary DR services can be processed to initiate a sequence of operations that enables the continuity of applied electrical se... [more]
Power Resilience Enhancement of a Residential Electricity User Using Photovoltaics and a Battery Energy Storage System under Uncertainty Conditions
Nallapaneni Manoj Kumar, Aritra Ghosh, Shauhrat S. Chopra
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: battery energy storage, energy resilience, environmental analysis, four components of resilience, microgrid, photovoltaics, power outages, power supply system, prosumer, resilience framework, techno-economic modeling
Even in today’s modern electric grid infrastructure, the uncertainty in the power supply is more often seen and is mainly due to power outages. The reasons for power outages might be any of the following: extreme weather events, asset failure, natural disasters, power surges, acute accidents, and even operational errors by the workforce. Such uncertain situations are permitting us to think of it as a resilience problem. In most cases, the power outages may last from a few minutes to a few weeks, depending on the nature of the resilience issue and the power supply system (PSS) configuration. Therefore, it is imperative to understand and improve the resilience of a PSS. In this paper, a four-component resilience framework is proposed to study and compare the resilience of three different PSS configurations of residential electricity users (REUs) considering the realistic power outage conditions in the humid subtropical ecosystem. The proposed PSS configurations contain electric grid (EG)... [more]
A Method of DC Arc Detection in All-Electric Aircraft
Teng Li, Zhijie Jiao, Lina Wang, Yong Mu
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: arc fault detection, convolutional neural network, discrete wavelet transform, more electric aircraft, time–frequency analysis
Arc faults in an aircraft’s power distribution system (PDS) often leads to cable and equipment damage, which seriously threatens the personal safety of the passengers and pilots. An accurate and real-time arc fault detection method is needed for the Solid-State Power Controller (SSPC), which is a key protection equipment in a PDS. In this paper, a new arc detection method is proposed based on the improved LeNet5 Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model after a Time−Frequency Analysis (TFA) of the DC currents was obtained, which makes the arc detection more real-time. The CNN is proposed to detect the DC arc fault for its advantage in recognizing more time−frequency joint details in the signals; the new structure also combines the adaptive and multidimensional advantages of the TFA and image intelligent recognition. It is confirmed by experimental data that the combined TFA−CNN can distinguish arc faults accurately when the whole training database has been repeatedly trained 3 to 5 time... [more]
Exploring Vinyl Polymers as Soft Carbon Precursors for M-Ion (M = Na, Li) Batteries and Hybrid Capacitors
Afshin Pendashteh, Brahim Orayech, Jon Ajuria, María Jáuregui, Damien Saurel
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: anode material, hybrid capacitor, sodium storage, soft carbon, vinyl polymers
The viability of the sodium-ion batteries as a post-lithium storage technology is strongly tied to the development of high-performance carbonaceous anode materials. This requires screening novel precursors, and tuning their electrochemical properties. Soft carbons as promising anode materials, not only for batteries, but also in hybrid capacitors, have drawn great attention, due to safe operation voltage and high-power properties. Herein, several vinyl polymer-derived soft carbons have been prepared via pyrolysis, and their physicochemical and sodium storage properties have been evaluated. According to the obtained results, vinyl polymers are a promising source for preparation of soft carbon anode materials for sodium-ion battery application. In addition, their applicability towards Li-ion battery and hybrid capacitors (e.g., Li ion capacitors, LICs) has been examined. This work not only contrasts the carbonization products of these polymers with relevant physicochemical characterizati... [more]
Zonal and Nodal Models of Energy Market in European Union
Piotr F. Borowski
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: energy market model, localization model, nodes model, regulatory, zone model
Along with economic development and development of power systems, new, more effective models of the energy market are sought. Traditional zonal models used on the electricity market have proved to be poorly adapted to new circumstances and phenomena occurring in the macroeconomic environment. The main aim of the research was to show the direction (including the nodal model and prosumer behavior) in which the energy market should develop in order to meet the state-of-the-art technical, ecological and social challenges. Therefore, with the new challenges, a new chapter has opened up on very interesting research for the electrical industry. There are new solutions for the development and modernization of models from the point of view of management and econometrics of the energy market, adapted to new challenges related to ecology, technology, and competition. This article presents the zone model with its imperfections and suggestions for its improvement and proposes a nodal model that may... [more]
Environmental and Comparative Assessment of Integrated Gasification Gas Cycle with CaO Looping and CO2 Adsorption by Activated Carbon: A Case Study of the Czech Republic
Kristína Zakuciová, Ana Carvalho, Jiří Štefanica, Monika Vitvarová, Lukáš Pilař, Vladimír Kočí
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: activated carbon, carbon capture economy, Carbon Dioxide Capture, environmental impacts, IGCC
The Czech Republic is gradually shifting toward a low-carbon economy. The transition process requires measures that will help to contain energy production and help to reduce emissions from the coal industry. Viable measures are seen in carbon capture technologies (CCTs). The main focus is on the environmental and economic comparison of two innovative CCTs that are integrated in the operational Czech energy units. The assessed scenarios are (1) the scenario of pre-combustion CO2 capture integrated into the gasification combined cycle (IGCC-CaL) and (2) the scenario of post-combustion capture by adsorption of CO2 by activated carbon (PCC-A). An environmental assessment is performed through a life-cycle assessment method and compares the systems in the phase of characterization, normalization, and relative contribution of the processes to the environmental categories. Economic assessment compares CCT via capture and avoided costs of CO2 and their correlation with CO2 allowance market tren... [more]
Adaptive Control of Four-Quadrant DC-DC Converters in Both Discontinuous and Continuous Conduction Modes
Hicham Chaoui, Mohamad Alzayed, Okezie Okoye, Mehdy Khayamy
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: adaptive control, CCM, DC-DC converters, DCM
The inherently different dynamics of a DC-DC converter while operating in both continuous conduction mode (CCM) and discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) necessitate an advanced controller to control the inductor current. A conventional PI controller cannot be used across both modes since it does not guarantee a smooth transition between both modes. Furthermore, in time-varying input-output voltage applications of the four-quadrant converter such as in battery charging applications, the location of the boundary between the CCM and the DCM changes dynamically, creating an uncertainty. Therefore, a robust controller is required to accurately track the inductor current in the presence of uncertainties. Thus, an adaptive controller is proposed in this work, which is based on the general inverse model of the four-quadrant converter in both modes. Moreover, gain scheduling is used to switch the parameters of the controller as the converter transits between the DCM and the CCM. The adaptability... [more]
A Comprehensive Review on Grid Connected Photovoltaic Inverters, Their Modulation Techniques, and Control Strategies
Muhammad Yasir Ali Khan, Haoming Liu, Zhihao Yang, Xiaoling Yuan
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: control strategies, current control, grid-connected PV inverters, grid-connected PV system, modulation techniques, multi-level inverters
The installation of photovoltaic (PV) system for electrical power generation has gained a substantial interest in the power system for clean and green energy. However, having the intermittent characteristics of photovoltaic, its integration with the power system may cause certain uncertainties (voltage fluctuations, harmonics in output waveforms, etc.) leading towards reliability and stability issues. In PV systems, the power electronics play a significant role in energy harvesting and integration of grid-friendly power systems. Therefore, the reliability, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of power converters are of main concern in the system design and are mainly dependent on the applied control strategy. This review article presents a comprehensive review on the grid-connected PV systems. A wide spectrum of different classifications and configurations of grid-connected inverters is presented. Different multi-level inverter topologies along with the modulation techniques are classifi... [more]
A Method for Predicting the Remaining Useful Life of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Particle Filter Using Kendall Rank Correlation Coefficient
Diju Gao, Yong Zhou, Tianzhen Wang, Yide Wang
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: lithium-ion battery, NARX neural network, particle filter (PF), remaining useful life (RUL)
With the wide application of lithium batteries, battery fault prediction and health management have become more and more important. This article proposes a method for predicting the remaining useful life (RUL) of lithium-ion batteries to avoid a series of safety problems caused by continuing to use the battery after reaching its service life threshold. Since the battery capacity is not easy to obtain online, we propose that some measurable parameters should be used in the battery discharge cycle to estimate battery capacity. Then, the estimated capacity is used to replace the measured value of the particle filter (PF) based on the Kendall rank correlation coefficient (KCCPF) to predict the RUL of the lithium batteries. Simulation results show that the proposed method has high prediction accuracy, stability, and practical value.
Multi-Horizon Forecasting of Global Horizontal Irradiance Using Online Gaussian Process Regression: A Kernel Study
Hanany Tolba, Nouha Dkhili, Julien Nou, Julien Eynard, Stéphane Thil, Stéphane Grieu
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: global horizontal irradiance, Machine Learning, online Gaussian process regression, online sparse Gaussian process regression, solar resource, time series forecasting
In the present paper, global horizontal irradiance (GHI) is modelled and forecasted at time horizons ranging from 30 min to 48 h, thus covering intrahour, intraday and intraweek cases, using online Gaussian process regression (OGPR) and online sparse Gaussian process regression (OSGPR). The covariance function, also known as the kernel, is a key element that deeply influences forecasting accuracy. As a consequence, a comparative study of OGPR and OSGPR models based on simple kernels or combined kernels defined as sums or products of simple kernels has been carried out. The classic persistence model is included in the comparative study. Thanks to two datasets composed of GHI measurements (45 days), we have been able to show that OGPR models based on quasiperiodic kernels outperform the persistence model as well as OGPR models based on simple kernels, including the squared exponential kernel, which is widely used for GHI forecasting. Indeed, although all OGPR models give good results whe... [more]
Modification of Interaction Forces between Smoke and Evacuees
Sungryong Bae, Jun-Ho Choi, Hong Sun Ryou
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: evacuation, inner smoke force, interaction between smoke and evacuees, modified BR-smoke model
The most used fire effect models on evacuees are only focused on the physical capacity of the evacuees. However, some of the evacuees in a fire situation continuously move through the familiar route, although the familiar route is smoke-filled and they know that they are moving towards the fire source. Thus, the additional evacuation models are required for considering the behavioral changes due to the psychological pressure when the evacuees are moving through the smoke or towards the fire source. In this study, the inner smoke region force is modified to improve the accuracy and practicality of the BR-smoke model by varying the walking speed according to the smoke density. Additionally, the BR-smoke model is applied to FDS+Evac to compare the simulation results of the modified BR-smoke model with those of existing models. Based on the results, the evacuation characteristics inside the smoke region can be improved by using the modified BR-smoke model because the evacuees are continuou... [more]
Economic Feasibility of Semi-Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower Plants in Open-Pit Mines
Michael Wessel, Reinhard Madlener, Christoph Hilgers
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, NPV evaluation, pumped hydro storage, value at risk
This work aims at the economic evaluation of a semi-underground pumped hydro storage power plant erected in an abandoned open-pit mine. For the exploratory model-based analysis, we develop and apply both a simple deterministic and a stochastic net present value (NPV) approach, the latter of which uses a Monte Carlo simulation to account for revenue uncertainty from electricity price fluctuations. The analytical framework developed is applied to two promising sites in the Rheinland region in Germany, Hambach and Inden, making reasonable parameter value assumptions and considering and ignoring the lengthy duration of lower reservoir flooding. The investor’s value-at-risk is computed for alternative performance indicators (NPV, net cash recovery, profit-to-investment ratio, and specific production costs) to compare the different outcomes in terms of the project’s financial risk distribution. Calculations show that a semi-underground pumped hydro storage power plant in an abandoned open-pi... [more]
Multi-Criteria Comparative Analysis of Clean Hydrogen Production Scenarios
Bartosz Ceran
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: clean hydrogen, photovoltaic-electrolysis, sustainable hydrogen production
Different hydrogen production scenarios need to be compared in regard to multiple, and often distinct aspects. It is well known that hydrogen production technologies based on environmentally-friendly renewable energy sources have higher values of the economic indicators than methods based on fossil fuels. Therefore, how should this decision criterion (environmental) prevail over the other types of decision criteria (technical and economic) to make a scenario where hydrogen production only uses renewable energy sources the most attractive option for a decision-maker? This article presents the results of a multi-variant comparative analysis of scenarios to annually produce one million tons of pure hydrogen (99.999%) via electrolysis in Poland. The compared variants were found to differ in terms of electricity sources feeding the electrolyzers. The research demonstrated that the scenario where hydrogen production uses energy from photovoltaics only becomes the best option for the environm... [more]
Energy Management of Hybrid Diesel/Battery Ships in Multidisciplinary Emission Policy Areas
Mohsen Banaei, Fatemeh Ghanami, Mehdi Rafiei, Jalil Boudjadar, Mohammad-Hassan Khooban
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: emission management, energy management, hybrid diesel/battery ships
All-electric ships, and especially the hybrid ones with diesel generators and batteries, have attracted the attention of maritime industry in the last years due to their less emission and higher efficiency. The variant emission policies in different sailing areas and the impact of physical and environmental phenomena on ships energy consumption are two interesting and serious concepts in the maritime issues. In this paper, an efficient energy management strategy is proposed for a hybrid vessel that can effectively consider the emission policies and apply the impacts of ship resistant, wind direction and sea state on the ships propulsion. In addition, the possibility and impact of charging and discharging the carried electrical vehicles’ batteries by the ship is investigated. All mentioned matters are mathematically formulated and a general model of the system is extracted. The resulted model and real data are utilized for the proposed energy management strategy. A genetic algorithm is... [more]
A Real Options Approach to Valuate Solar Energy Investment with Public Authority Incentives: The Italian Case
Antonio Di Bari
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: American option, net present value, real options, solar energy investment, tax benefit
Solar energy investment represents currently a valid reason to support sustainable economic development. In fact, over the last few years, governments have applied different measures to incentivize private consumers and firms to use renewable energies. Photovoltaic (PV) projects are characterized by uncertainty due to meteorological conditions, the unpredictable behavior of government, and managerial flexibility. Since the Net Present Value (NPV) approach is not able to capture these uncertain factors, it was replaced with the Real Options Approach (ROA). The latter method manages to embed flexibility in PV investment using binomial trees. This paper valuates PV investment in all regional areas in Italy using an integrated approach between the discounted cash flows method and real option value, called Expanded Net Present Value (ENPV). We fit the probability of tax benefits into a binomial lattice model after analyzing the geographical position and weather conditions of all regional ca... [more]
Insights on Germany’s Future Congestion Management from a Multi-Model Approach
Dirk Hladik, Christoph Fraunholz, Matthias Kühnbach, Pia Manz, Robert Kunze
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: agent-based modeling, capacity mechanism, congestion management, demand-side modeling, market splitting, model coupling, optimal power flow
In Germany, the political decision to phase out nuclear and coal-fired power as well as delays in the planned grid extension are expected to intensify the current issue of high grid congestion volumes. In this article, we investigate two instruments which may help to cope with these challenges: market splitting and the introduction of a capacity mechanism. For this purpose, we carry out a comprehensive system analysis by jointly applying the demand side models FORECAST and eLOAD, the electricity market model PowerACE and the optimal power flow model ELMOD. While a German market splitting has a positive short-term impact on the congestion volumes, we find the optimal zonal delimination determined for 2020 to become outdated by 2035 resulting in new grid bottlenecks. Yet, readjusting the zonal configuration would lower the ability of the market split to provide regional investment incentives. Introducing a capacity mechanism with a congestion indicator allows allocating new power plants... [more]
Simulation of Incidental Distributed Generation Curtailment to Maximize the Integration of Renewable Energy Generation in Power Systems
Ingo Liere-Netheler, Frank Schuldt, Karsten von Maydell, Carsten Agert
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: congestion management, distributed generation curtailment, load flow analysis, power system operation, power system security, renewable energy integration
Power system security is increasingly endangered due to novel power flow situations caused by the growing integration of distributed generation. Consequently, grid operators are forced to request the curtailment of distributed generators to ensure the compliance with operational limits more often. This research proposes a framework to simulate the incidental amount of renewable energy curtailment based on load flow analysis of the network. Real data from a 110 kV distribution network located in Germany are used to validate the proposed framework by implementing best practice curtailment approaches. Furthermore, novel operational concepts are investigated to improve the practical implementation of distributed generation curtailment. Specifically, smaller curtailment level increments, coordinated selection methods, and an extension of the n-1 security criterion are analyzed. Moreover, combinations of these concepts are considered to depict interdependencies between several operational as... [more]
Laboratory Testing of Novel Polyfraction Nanoemulsion for EOR Processes in Carbonate Formations
Piotr Kasza, Marek Czupski, Klaudia Wilk, Mateusz Masłowski, Rafał Moska, Łukasz Leśniak
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: carbonates, chemical EOR, contact angle, core floods, polyfraction nanoemulsion
Nanoemulsions and polymers are widely used for increasing the efficiency of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. The application of both these additives enables the synergistic use of several physical phenomena that are crucial to the process. One of the methods used for assessing these processes is laboratory core flooding tests using natural cores. In various experiments, carbonate rocks are subjected to oil displacement under high pressure and temperature. Polymer solutions and a newly developed polyfraction nanoemulsion are tested. The test results confirm the usefulness of these products for EOR processes and demonstrate their stability under high pressure, high temperature, and in the presence of H2S. Under these conditions the polymers maintain high efficiency in displacing crude oil from carbonate rocks, while the tested nanoemulsion improves the wettability of carbonate rocks and reduces interfacial tension, factors which increase the efficiency of oil displacement.The best... [more]
Indirect Vector-Controlled Brushless Doubly-Fed Twin-Stator Induction Generator for Wind Energy Conversion Application
Mona I. Abdelkader, Ahmed K. Abdelsalam, Ahmed A. Hossameldin
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: active-reactive power control, back-to-back converter, brushless doubly-fed induction machine (BDFIM), brushless doubly-fed twin-stator induction generator (BDFTSIG), doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG), indirect vector control, wind energy conversion system (WECS)
Wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) seem certain to play a major part in the world’s energy future due to their known high power capacity. The maximum power tracking is unavoidable due to the wind velocity variation and the non-linear relation with the turbine mechanical power. Commercial wind turbines are commonly coupled to either doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs), wound rotor synchronous generators (WRSG) or permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs). The DFIG-based WECS has several advantages over others. One of which is the power converter in such systems only deals with rotor power, hence the converter rating can run at reduced power rating. However, DFIG has the famous disadvantage of the presence of slip rings which leads to increased maintenance costs and outage times. Hence, brushless doublyfed induction machines (BDFIMs) can be considered as a viable alternative at the penalty of complicated controller requirement and limited decoupling control capability due t... [more]
Optimization of Apartment-Complex Layout Planning for Daylight Accessibility in a High-Density City with a Temperate Climate
Sewon Lee, Kyung Sun Lee
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: building layout, daylight accessibility, Genetic Algorithm, Optimization, urban plan, useful daylight illumination (UDI)
As interest in sustainable design increases, many methods have been suggested to develop an integrated sustainable design process. However, due to the lack of a scientific procedure using parametric tools for an objective evaluation, it is difficult to move forward with integrated sustainable design. In addition, the design priority of the indoor environment is still relatively low because of the score composition of the green-building certification system. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a simulation tool and method to help apartment-complex layout planning in urban contexts by focusing on the indoor daylight environment. In particular, Korean cities are densely formed with high-rise buildings in a small area, so the Korean Building Act has complicated provisions to reduce overshadowing between buildings. To reduce unnecessary wasted time while checking these complicated regulations, a simulation was used to automatically check building offsets. Galapagos, a component of Rhino-... [more]
From “Coal to Gas” to “Coal to Biomass”: The Strategic Choice of Social Capital in China
Qiang Wang, Thomas Dogot, Yueling Yang, Jian Jiao, Boyang Shi, Changbin Yin
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: analytic hierarchy process (AHP), centralized biogas production (CBP), public–private partnership (PPP), straw-briquetting fuel (SBF), strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats (SWOT)
Currently, the Chinese government is promoting the transformation of clean energy in rural areas to reduce the consumption of coal to cope with the smog. It is mainly based on “coal to gas”. The development of biomass resources in agricultural areas is an alternative means of energy supply. In order to improve rural energy structure, we propose to upgrade “coal to gas” to “coal to biomass” derived from centralized biogas production (CBP) and straw-briquetting fuel (SBF). This study deals with the question of financing such projects. The public−private partnership (PPP) model is seen as a response that can mobilize social capital to finance investments in these new modes of production and energy supply in rural areas. Based on an analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of the two projects considered above, an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was carried out with the assistance of experts in order to clarify the strategic choices which are more suitable fo... [more]
Available Energy in Cars’ Exhaust System for IoT Remote Exhaust Gas Sensor and Piezoelectric Harvesting
Francesco Madaro, Iman Mehdipour, Antonio Caricato, Francesco Guido, Francesco Rizzi, Antonio Paolo Carlucci, Massimo De Vittorio
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: aluminum nitride, IoT remote sensor, light-duty diesel engine, piezoelectric harvester
The exhaust system of the light-duty diesel engine has been evaluated as a potential environment for a mechanical energy recovery system for powering an IoT (Internet of Things) remote sensor. Temperature, pressure, gas speed, mass flow rate have been measured in order to characterize the exhaust gas. At any engine point explored, thermal energy is by far the most dominant portion of the exhaust energy, followed by the pressure energy and lastly kinetic energy is the smallest fraction of the exhaust energy. A piezoelectric flexible device has been tested as a possible candidate as an energy harvester converting the kinetic energy of the exhaust gas flow, with a promising amount of electrical energy generated in the order of microjoules for an urban or extra-urban circuit.
Effect of the Backward Facing Step on a Transverse Jet in Supersonic Crossflow
Jincheng Zhang, Zhenguo Wang, Mingbo Sun, Hongbo Wang, Chaoyang Liu, Jiangfei Yu
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: backward facing step, LES, mixing enhancement, scramjet, transverse jet
A transverse jet in the supersonic crossflow is one of the most promising injection schemes in scramjet, where the control or enhancement of jet mixing is a critical issue. In this paper, the effect of the backward facing step on the characteristics of jet mixing was investigated by three-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES). The simulation in the flat plate configuration (step height of 0) was performed as the baseline case to verify the computation framework. The distribution of the velocity and pressure obtained by the LES agreed well with the experiment, which shows the reliability of the LES code. Then, two steps with a height of 1.0D and 1.58D (D is the injector diameter) were numerically compared to the non-step baseline case. The comparison of the three cases illustrates the effect of the large-scale recirculation region on the variable distribution, and shock and vortex structures in the flow field. In the windward region, the shear layers become thicker, and the convection... [more]
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