Records with Subject: Process Monitoring
Showing records 1 to 25 of 251. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Generalized Fault-Location Scheme for All-Parallel AT Electric Railway System
Zhengqing Han, Shuai Li, Shuping Liu, Shibin Gao
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: all-parallel AT railway system, fault location, fault state matrix, feeding condition
The existing fault location methods for all-parallel autotransformer railway systems (AARS) have limitations because they are generally designed for several given feeding conditions. In alternate feeding conditions, the existing fault location methods do not work well and may have large errors. To solve this problem, we have proposed a generalized fault location scheme for AARS in this paper. After analyzing the fault characteristics of AARS, we classified the feeding conditions of the faulted section of AARS into three types and introduced the corresponding fault location methods. In order to identify the faulted section and its feeding condition, we first formed a switch state matrix based on the adjacency matrix and mapped the fault current distribution into a current state matrix, then we unified the two matrices into a fault state matrix to reflect the fault state of the AARS. Finally, a generalized fault location scheme was proposed based on a fault state matrix. The proposed sch... [more]
Two Current-Based Methods for the Detection of Bearing and Impeller Faults in Variable Speed Pumps
Vincent Becker, Thilo Schwamm, Sven Urschel, Jose Alfonso Antonino-Daviu
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: advanced transient current signature analysis, bearing faults, circulation pump, cracked impeller, impeller clogging, load point-dependent fault indicator analysis, motor current signature analysis
The growing number of variable speed drives (VSDs) in industry has an impact on the future development of condition monitoring methods. In research, more and more attention is being paid to condition monitoring based on motor current evaluation. However, there are currently only a few contributions to current-based pump diagnosis. In this paper, two current-based methods for the detection of bearing defects, impeller clogging, and cracked impellers are presented. The first approach, load point-dependent fault indicator analysis (LoPoFIA), is an approach that was derived from motor current signature analysis (MCSA). Compared to MCSA, the novelty of LoPoFIA is that only amplitudes at typical fault frequencies in the current spectrum are considered as a function of the hydraulic load point. The second approach is advanced transient current signature analysis (ATCSA), which represents a time-frequency analysis of a current signal during start-up. According to the literature, ATCSA is mainl... [more]
A Low-Cost Online Health Assessment System for Oil-Immersed Service Transformers Using Real-Time Grid Energy Monitoring
Quynh T. Tran, Leon Roose, Binh Doan Van, Quang Ninh Nguyen
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: fuzzy logic, real-time energy monitoring, service transformer, transformer health
In this paper, we present a low-cost health assessment system for oil-immersed service transformers using a monitoring device to measure energy in real time. By assessing the important level of transformer components, three indicators, top oil temperature, vibration, and transformer load, were selected as main indicators to investigate the service transformer’s condition. An evaluation system using Fuzzy logic method is also presented in the paper to support monitor transformer health without adding the extra cost of installing expensive sensors. Different testing scenarios with different case studies were carried out on a simulated 50 kVA oil-immersed service transformer to express the feasibility and effectiveness of this low-cost, fast response health assessment system.
Energy Monitoring Technologies
Filipe Quintal
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Energy monitoring is a vast field of research [...]
A Novel Borehole Cataloguing Method Based on a Drilling Process Monitoring (DPM) System
Peng Guo, Zhongjian Zhang, Xuefan Wang, Zhongqi Yue, Maosheng Zhang
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: borehole cataloguing, drilling process monitoring, engineering management, engineering quality, geological drilling, rock mass
Borehole cataloguing is an important task in geological drilling. Traditional manual cataloguing provides the stratification of underground boreholes based on changes in core lithology. This paper proposes a novel borehole cataloguing method using a drilling process monitoring (DPM) system. This DPM cataloguing method stratifies a borehole according to the drilling speed through the rock. A 102 m borehole was drilled and cored in Baota district, Yan’an city, Shaanxi Province, China. The rock-breaking response parameters of the drill bit displacement, drill rod rotation speed and inlet pipe and outlet pipe oil pressures were monitored throughout the drilling process, and the drilling depth-penetration rate curve during the net drilling process was obtained. The changes in drilling speed show that the DPM cataloguing can identify the depths of the layer interfaces of the borehole and describe the stratification. The interface depth values obtained by DPM have little difference from the i... [more]
Measurement Technologies for Upstream and Downstream Bioprocessing
Carl-Fredrik Mandenius
March 28, 2023 (v1)
This special issue is devoted to new developments in measurement technologies for upstream and downstream bioprocessing [...]
A Novel Mutual Information and Partial Least Squares Approach for Quality-Related and Quality-Unrelated Fault Detection
Majed Aljunaid, Yang Tao, Hongbo Shi
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: feature extraction, mutual information, partial least squares, process monitoring, quality-related fault detection
Partial least squares (PLS) and linear regression methods are widely utilized for quality-related fault detection in industrial processes. Standard PLS decomposes the process variables into principal and residual parts. However, as the principal part still contains many components unrelated to quality, if these components were not removed it could cause many false alarms. Besides, although these components do not affect product quality, they have a great impact on process safety and information about other faults. Removing and discarding these components will lead to a reduction in the detection rate of faults, unrelated to quality. To overcome the drawbacks of Standard PLS, a novel method, MI-PLS (mutual information PLS), is proposed in this paper. The proposed MI-PLS algorithm utilizes mutual information to divide the process variables into selected and residual components, and then uses singular value decomposition (SVD) to further decompose the selected part into quality-related an... [more]
Quality Assessment of Groundwater Resources in the City of Al-Marj, Libya
Jauda R. Jauda Hamad, Wan Zuhairi Yaacob, Abdelnaser Omran
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Al-Marj city, groundwater, physicochemical and biological parameters, water quality index
This study aimed to assess and compare the quality of groundwater in the city of Al-Marj in Libya with the international standard guidelines for drinking water recommended by the World Health Organisation. An evaluation of the groundwater wells in the study area was conducted. Standard techniques, such as Minitab (v. 16) and ArcGIS (v.10.2), were used for the analytics of the physicochemical and biological parameters of the groundwater samples. An assessment of the calculation of groundwater quality was conducted on the basis of temperature, pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, chloride, sulphate, bicarbonate, total hardness, calcium, potassium, magnesium, ammonia, ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrate, sodium, copper, iron, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria. Results indicated that most groundwater wells in the study area display a higher concentration of several pa... [more]
Monitoring E. coli Cell Integrity by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics: Opportunities and Caveats
Jens Kastenhofer, Julian Libiseller-Egger, Vignesh Rajamanickam, Oliver Spadiut
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, bioprocess monitoring, chemometrics, Machine Learning, process analytical technology, quality by design
During recombinant protein production with E. coli, the integrity of the inner and outer membrane changes, which leads to product leakage (loss of outer membrane integrity) or lysis (loss of inner membrane integrity). Motivated by current Quality by Design guidelines, there is a need for monitoring tools to determine leakiness and lysis in real-time. In this work, we assessed a novel approach to monitoring E. coli cell integrity by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Various preprocessing strategies were tested in combination with regression (partial least squares, random forest) or classification models (partial least squares discriminant analysis, linear discriminant analysis, random forest, artificial neural network). Models were validated using standard procedures, and well-performing methods were additionally scrutinized by removing putatively important features and assessing the decrease in performance. Whereas the prediction of target... [more]
Special Issue on “Advances in Microfluidics Technology for Diagnostics and Detection”
David J. Kinahan, Dario Mager, Elizaveta Vereshchagina, Celina M. Miyazaki
March 28, 2023 (v1)
In recent years microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip havecome to the forefront in diagnostics and detection [...]
Exergetic Evaluation of an Ethylene Refrigeration Cycle
Francisco Amaral, Alex Santos, Ewerton Calixto, Fernando Pessoa, Delano Santana
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Exergy, process monitoring, refrigeration cycles
The production of light olefins by selective steam cracking is an energy-intensive process, and ethylene and propylene refrigeration cycles are key parts of it. The objective of this study was to identify opportunities for energy savings in an ethylene refrigeration cycle through an exergetic analysis. Two main causes of lower operational efficiency were identified: (1) Lower polytropic efficiency of the refrigerant compressor and (2) operating with the compressor mini-flow valve open to ensure reliability. The evaluation showed that the amount of irreversibilities generated by the cycle in operation is 22% higher than that predicted by the original design, which represents a 14% lower exergy efficiency. There is a potential savings of 0.20 MW in the cycle’s energy consumption with the implementation of the following improvements: recover refrigerant compressor efficiency by performing maintenance on the equipment and optimize the flow distribution between the recycle valve, the level... [more]
A Technique for Frequency Converter-Fed Asynchronous Motor Vibration Monitoring and Fault Classification, Applying Continuous Wavelet Transform and Convolutional Neural Networks
Tomas Zimnickas, Jonas Vanagas, Karolis Dambrauskas, Artūras Kalvaitis
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: asynchronous motor, bearings, classification, continuous wavelet transform, convolutional neural networks, deep networks, frequency converter, short circuit, vibration signals
In this article, a type of diagnostic tool for an asynchronous motor powered from a frequency converter is proposed. An all-purpose, effective, and simple method for asynchronous motor monitoring is used. This method includes a single vibration measuring device fixed on the motor’s housing to detect faults such as worn-out or broken bearings, shaft misalignment, defective motor support, lost phase to the stator, and short circuit in one of the phase windings in the stator. The gathered vibration data are then standardized and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is applied for feature extraction. Using morl wavelets, the algorithm is applied to all the datasets in the research and resulting scalograms are then fed to a complex deep convolutional neural network (CNN). Training and testing are done using separate datasets. The resulting model could successfully classify all the defects at an excellent rate and even separate mechanical faults from electrical ones. The best performing model... [more]
Self-Diagnosis of Multiphase Flow Meters through Machine Learning-Based Anomaly Detection
Tommaso Barbariol, Enrico Feltresi, Gian Antonio Susto
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: anomaly detection, data fusion, data mining, edge analytics, Machine Learning, Measuring Systems, oil and gas, process monitoring, Root Cause Analysis, self-diagnosis
Measuring systems are becoming increasingly sophisticated in order to tackle the challenges of modern industrial problems. In particular, the Multiphase Flow Meter (MPFM) combines different sensors and data fusion techniques to estimate quantities that are difficult to be measured like the water or gas content of a multiphase flow, coming from an oil well. The evaluation of the flow composition is essential for the well productivity prediction and management, and for this reason, the quantification of the meter measurement quality is crucial. While instrument complexity is increasing, demands for confidence levels in the provided measures are becoming increasingly more common. In this work, we propose an Anomaly Detection approach, based on unsupervised Machine Learning algorithms, that enables the metrology system to detect outliers and to provide a statistical level of confidence in the measures. The proposed approach, called AD4MPFM (Anomaly Detection for Multiphase Flow Meters), is... [more]
Combined Duval Pentagons: A Simplified Approach
Luiz Cheim, Michel Duval, Saad Haider
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: combined pentagons, DGA, Duval pentagons, fault classification, transformer
The paper describes a newly proposed combination of the two existing Duval Pentagons method utilized for the identification of mineral oil-insulated transformers. The aim of the combination is to facilitate automatic fault identification through computer programs, and at the same time, apply the full capability of both original Pentagons, now reduced to a single geometry. The thorough classification of a given fault (say, of the electrical or thermal kind), employing individual Pentagons 1 and 2, as originally defined, involves a complex geometrical problem that requires the build-up of a convoluted geometry (a regular Pentagon whose axes represent each of five possible combustible gases) to be constructed using computer language code and programming, followed by the logical localization of the geometrical centroid of an irregular pentagon, formed by the partial contribution of individual combustibles, inside two similar structures (Pentagons 1 and 2) that, nonetheless, have different... [more]
Phasor Estimation for Grid Power Monitoring: Least Square vs. Linear Kalman Filter
Yassine Amirat, Zakarya Oubrahim, Hafiz Ahmed, Mohamed Benbouzid, Tianzhen Wang
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: IEEE standard C37.118, kalman filter estimation (KFE), least square estimation (LSE), phasor and frequency estimation, phasor measurement units, power quality monitoring
This paper deals with a comparative study of two phasor estimators based on the least square (LS) and the linear Kalman filter (KF) methods, while assuming that the fundamental frequency is unknown. To solve this issue, the maximum likelihood technique is used with an iterative Newton−Raphson-based algorithm that allows minimizing the likelihood function. Both least square (LSE) and Kalman filter estimators (KFE) are evaluated using simulated and real power system events data. The obtained results clearly show that the LS-based technique yields the highest statistical performance and has a lower computation complexity.
Real-Time Monitoring of Microalgal Biomass in Pilot-Scale Photobioreactors Using Nephelometry
Eli S. J. Thoré, Floris Schoeters, Jornt Spit, Sabine Van Miert
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: algal cultivation, automation, biotechnology, cell density, microalgae, NTU, turbidity
The increasing cultivation of microalgae in photobioreactors warrants efficient and non-invasive methods to quantify biomass density in real time. Nephelometric turbidity assessment, a method that measures light scatter by particles in suspension, was introduced already several decades ago but was only recently validated as a high-throughput tool to monitor microalgae biomass. The light scatter depends on the density of the suspended particles as well as on their physical properties, but so far there are hardly any accounts on how nephelometric assessment relates to classic methods such as dry weight and spectrophotometric measurement across a broad biomass density range for different microalgae species. Here, we monitored biomass density online and in real time during the semi-continuous cultivation of three commercial microalgae species Chloromonas typhlos, Microchloropsis gaditana and Porphyridium purpureum in pilot-scale photobioreactors, and relate nephelometric turbidity to dry w... [more]
Safety Analysis Technique for System with Limited Data: Case Study of the Multipurpose Research Reactor in Indonesia
Heri Hermansyah, Anggraini Ratih Kumaraningrum, Julwan Hendry Purba, Edison, Masafumi Yohda
March 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: fuzzy fault tree analysis, primary cooling system, research reactor, RSG–GAS, safety analysis
Fault tree analysis (FTA) is frequently applied to deductively evaluate the safety systems of complex engineering systems such as chemical industries or nuclear facilities. To perform this analysis, generic data are commonly used due to the limitation of historical failure data of the system being evaluated. However, generic data have a degree of uncertainty and hence cannot represent the system’s actual performance. In addition, generic data are not applicable to older components due to the aging process, which obviously degrades the reliability of those components. To deal with this limitation, another safety analysis method, called fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA), has been proposed. The purpose of this study is to apply FFTA to evaluate the performance of the primary cooling systems of G.A. Siwabessy Multipurpose Reactor (RSG-GAS). RSG-GAS is a research reactor, which belongs to the National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN). Expert justifications were used to evaluate the... [more]
The Method of Calculating the Frequency of the Initiating Event in a Dual-Unit Site with the Example of LOOP Events
Wanxin Feng, Ming Wang, Zhixin Xu, Yu Yu
March 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: fault tree, initiating event, loss of off-site power, multi-unit risk, nuclear safety, PSA
In a nuclear power plant, the consequences of a multi-unit event occurring concurrently are more serious than those of a single-unit event. The first step in the probabilistic safety analysis of multi-units is to analyze the initiating events and calculate the frequency of initiating events for simultaneous events of multiple units. The difficulty in using the fault tree model is that the known data are all frequency data from a single unit and cannot be logically multiplied. In this paper, taking a dual unit as an example, we used the formula to convert the probability of failure of the second unit within 72 h and then build a fault tree model. After analyzing the results of the dual unit, the most frequent cut set was the common cause of failure of the main transformer and of the switching failure of the main and auxiliary external power. The final calculation of the frequency of simultaneous loss of off-site power events for the dual units within 72 h was 3.22 × 10−4/year. After com... [more]
Quantitative Measurement of Solids Holdup for Group A and B Particles Using Images and Its Application in Fluidized Bed Reactors
Chengxiu Wang, Zhihui Li, Jianjin Wei, Xingying Lan, Mao Ye, Jinsen Gao
March 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: calibration method, fluidization, image process, solids holdup, visualization system
Solids holdup as one of the main parameters in characterizing the performance of fluidized bed reactors is widely concerned. With its development and improvement, visualization technology has been applied in fluidization because of its little disturbance to the flow. In this study, four types of particles with different properties are tested in a narrow rectangular fluidized bed equipped with a high-speed video camera. Calibration curves of these different types of particles are achieved by correlating the grayscale of the digital images with the corresponding solids holdup. These calibration curves are further applied to obtain the average solids holdup across the sectional area and local solids holdup from the center towards the wall in both a gas-solids turbulent fluidized bed and a circulating fluidized bed to verify the results. The calibration method works well for solids holdup of different types of particles in both dense and dilute fluidization systems. This method is importan... [more]
Localization of HV Insulation Defects Using a System of Associated Capacitive Sensors
Krzysztof Walczak
March 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: capacitive sensor, insulation defects, partial discharges
The issue of detecting and locating defects generating partial discharges (PDs) is very important for the proper functioning of power grids. Despite the existence of many localization methods, both very large and relatively small objects are still a challenge due to the problem of obtaining the required measurement accuracy. This article presents the idea of the method of PD localization in small objects of simple structure with the use of a system of four capacitive probes. Based on the relative difference in the amplitudes of the signals recorded by the pair of capacitive sensors and considering their distance characteristics, it is possible to determine the place where the PD pulses are generated. In the example of measurements made on a support insulator, it was shown that the location of a defect using the proposed method allows for an indication accuracy of up to 0.5 cm.
Fault Location for Distribution Smart Grids: Literature Overview, Challenges, Solutions, and Future Trends
Jorge De La Cruz, Eduardo Gómez-Luna, Majid Ali, Juan C. Vasquez, Josep M. Guerrero
March 17, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, fault classification, fault location, local measurement-based techniques, low-voltage and DC smart grids, microgrids, resiliency of smart grids, smart grids
Thanks to smart grids, more intelligent devices may now be integrated into the electric grid, which increases the robustness and resilience of the system. The integration of distributed energy resources is expected to require extensive use of communication systems as well as a variety of interconnected technologies for monitoring, protection, and control. The fault location and diagnosis are essential for the security and well-coordinated operation of these systems since there is also greater risk and different paths for a fault or contingency in the system. Considering smart distribution systems, microgrids, and smart automation substations, a full investigation of fault location in SGs over the distribution domain is still not enough, and this study proposes to analyze the fault location issues and common types of power failures in most of their physical components and communication infrastructure. In addition, we explore several fault location techniques in the smart grid’s distribu... [more]
Multifrequency Impedance Tomography System for Research on Environmental and Thermal Processes
Jan Porzuczek
March 9, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: EIDORS, electrical impedance tomography, general purpose instruments, multifrequency, process monitoring
The possibility for spatial and temporal monitoring of environmental, chemical or thermal processes is of high importance for their better understanding thus control and optimization. Therefore, measurement methods that enable such opportunities might be especially valuable for researchers and process engineers. For this reason, in this paper the novel Electrical Impedance Tomography system is proposed that enables the visualization of the processes in which the electrical conductivity of material is changing. The proposed EIT system is based mostly on general purpose equipment. It consists of three laboratory-grade devices: a signal generator, a switching device and a data acquisition card for voltage measurement. In addition to those devices, the current source was constructed to complete the system. The EIT system was designed to have the ability of sourcing the current of frequency up to 250 kHz. A set of validation experiments were carried out to verify the EIT system accuracy. Th... [more]
Fault Classification System for Switchgear CBM from an Ultrasound Analysis Technique Using Extreme Learning Machine
Sanuri Ishak, Chong Tak Yaw, Siaw Paw Koh, Sieh Kiong Tiong, Chai Phing Chen, Talal Yusaf
March 9, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: artificial neural network, condition-based maintenance, decision-making, extreme learning machine, fault diagnosis, graphical user interface, switchgear, ultrasound
Currently, the existing condition-based maintenance (CBM) diagnostic test practices for ultrasound require the tester to interpret test results manually. Different testers may give different opinions or interpretations of the detected ultrasound. It leads to wrong interpretation due to depending on tester experience. Furthermore, there is no commercially available product to standardize the interpretation of the ultrasound data. Therefore, the objective is the correct interpretation of an ultrasound, which is one of the CBM methods for medium switchgears, by using an artificial neural network (ANN), to give more accurate results when assessing their condition. Information and test results from various switchgears were gathered in order to develop the classification and severity of the corona, surface discharge, and arcing inside of the switchgear. The ultrasound data were segregated based on their defects found during maintenance. In total, 314 cases of normal, 160 cases of the corona,... [more]
Comprehensive Risk Management in Passive Buildings Projects
Maria Krechowicz, Jerzy Zbigniew Piotrowski
March 8, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: fault tree analysis, fuzzy logic, passive buildings, risk management
Nowadays, we can observe a growing interest in passive buildings due to global climate change, environmental concerns, and growing energy costs. However, developing a passive building is associated with meeting many Passive House requirements, which results in their increased complexity as well as many challenges and risks which could threaten the successful completion of the project. Risk management is a key tool enabling meeting today’s challenging passive house project’s demands connected with quality, costs, deadlines, and legal issues. In this paper, a new model of risk management dedicated for passive buildings based is proposed, in which a novel Fuzzy Fault Tree integrated with risk response matrix was developed. We proposed 171 risk remediation strategies for all 16 recognized risks in passive buildings projects. We show how to apply the proposed model in practice on one passive building example. Thanks to applying the proposed risk management model an effective reduction of th... [more]
Fault Diagnosis of DCV and Heating Systems Based on Causal Relation in Fuzzy Bayesian Belief Networks Using Relation Direction Probabilities
Ali Behravan, Bahareh Kiamanesh, Roman Obermaisser
March 8, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: causal relations, DCV, diagnostic classifier, fault classification, fault diagnosis, fuzzy Bayesian belief network, HVAC, relation direction probabilities
The state-of-the-art provides data-driven and knowledge-driven diagnostic methods. Each category has its strengths and shortcomings. The knowledge-driven methods rely mainly on expert knowledge and resemble the diagnostic thinking of domain experts with a high capacity in the reasoning of uncertainties, diagnostics of different fault severities, and understandability. However, these methods involve higher and more time-consuming effort; they require a deep understanding of the causal relationships between faults and symptoms; and there is still a lack of automatic approaches to improving the efficiency. The data-driven methods rely on similarities and patterns, and they are very sensitive to changes of patterns and have more accuracy than the knowledge-driven methods, but they require massive data for training, cannot inform about the reason behind the result, and represent black boxes with low understandability. The research problem is thus the combination of knowledge-driven and data... [more]
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