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Records with Type: Published Article
Showing records 1 to 25 of 4735. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Fluid Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from Palm Oil with Various Initial Water Contents
Cherng-Yuan Lin, Lei Ma
December 6, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: cold filter plugging point, fatty acid methyl esters, fluid characteristics, iodine value, water content
Biodiesel is regarded as a significant alternative fuel to petrodiesel due to its excellent combustion features and renewable character. The water content in the reactant mixtures needs to be considered so as to retard the conversion rate and it is suggested to be kept as low as possible. The fluid characteristics of biodiesel might be affected by initial water content; however, the optimum ratio of water content added to raw oil for achieving superior fluid characteristics of biodiesel has not yet been studied. Hence, this study empirically investigated the influences of the initial water content added to raw feedstock oil on the fluid characteristics of biodiesel. The experimental results show that an adequate amount of water content in the reactant mixture was found effective for improving the transesterification reaction and, in turn, the fluid characteristics. The biodiesel made from raw oil with 0.05 wt. % water content added was observed to bear the lowest water content, acid va... [more]
Redox Effects of Molecular Hydrogen and Its Therapeutic Efficacy in the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases
Md. Habibur Rahman, Johny Bajgai, Ailyn Fadriquela, Subham Sharma, Thuy Trinh Thi, Rokeya Akter, Seong Hoon Goh, Cheol-Su Kim, Kyu-Jae Lee
December 6, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: antioxidant, inflammation, molecular hydrogen, neurological disorder, neuroprotection, oxidative stress
Oxidative stress (OS) and neuroinflammatory stress affect many neurological disorders. Despite the clinical significance of oxidative damage in neurological disorders, still, no effective and safe treatment methods for neuro diseases are available. With this, molecular hydrogen (H2) has been recently reported as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent to treat several oxidative stress-related diseases. In animal and human clinical trials, the routes for H2 administration are mainly categorized into three types: H2 gas inhalation, H2 water dissolving, and H2-dissolved saline injection. This review explores some significant progress in research on H2 use in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, neonatal disorders of the brain, and other NDs (retinal ischemia and traumatic brain injury). Even though most neurological problems are not currently curable, these studies have shown the therapeutic potential for prevention, treatment, and mitig... [more]
A Review of Data Mining Applications in Semiconductor Manufacturing
Pedro Espadinha-Cruz, Radu Godina, Eduardo M. G. Rodrigues
December 6, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: data mining, Fault Detection, process control, quality control, semiconductor manufacturing, yield improvement
For decades, industrial companies have been collecting and storing high amounts of data with the aim of better controlling and managing their processes. However, this vast amount of information and hidden knowledge implicit in all of this data could be utilized more efficiently. With the help of data mining techniques unknown relationships can be systematically discovered. The production of semiconductors is a highly complex process, which entails several subprocesses that employ a diverse array of equipment. The size of the semiconductors signifies a high number of units can be produced, which require huge amounts of data in order to be able to control and improve the semiconductor manufacturing process. Therefore, in this paper a structured review is made through a sample of 137 papers of the published articles in the scientific community regarding data mining applications in semiconductor manufacturing. A detailed bibliometric analysis is also made. All data mining applications are... [more]
Numerical Reconstruction of Hazardous Zones after the Release of Flammable Gases during Industrial Processes
Zdzislaw Salamonowicz, Andrzej Krauze, Malgorzata Majder-Lopatka, Anna Dmochowska, Aleksandra Piechota-Polanczyk, Andrzej Polanczyk
December 6, 2022 (v1)
The storage of large numbers of batteries and accumulators is associated with an increased risk of their ignition, which results in the release of significant amounts of hydrogen into the environment. The aim of the study was to reconstruct hazardous zones after hydrogen and liquefied propane−butane (reference gas) release for different industrial processes with the use of numerical methods. Two numerical tools (Fire Dynamics Simulator and Ansys software) were applied for the three-dimensional reconstruction of flammable gas release. Propane−butane was produced from aerosol packages, and hydrogen was produced during battery charging. Emission was analyzed in an industrial building, and both emissions were independent processes. The obtained results indicated that the hazardous zones correspond to the lower explosive level concentrations for both analyzed gasses. Moreover, the high-resolution computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model for flammable gas emissions provided noninvasive and di... [more]
Ice Growth Suppression in the Solution Flows of Antifreeze Protein and Sodium Chloride in a Mini-Channel
Kazuya Taira, Tomonori Waku, Yoshimichi Hagiwara
December 6, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: antifreeze protein, growth suppression, ice layer, interface morphology, interface velocity, sodium chloride, solution flow
The control of ice growth inside channels of aqueous solution flows is important in numerous fields, including (a) cold-energy transportation plants and (b) the preservation of supercooled human organs for transplantation. A promising method for this control is to add a substance that influences ice growth in the flows. However, limited results have been reported on the effects of such additives. Using a microscope, we measured the growth of ice from one sidewall toward the opposite sidewall of a mini-channel, where aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and antifreeze protein flowed. Our aim was to considerably suppress ice growth by mixing the two solutes. Inclined interfaces, the overlapping of serrated interfaces, and interfaces with sharp and flat tips were observed in the cases of the protein-solution, salt-solution, and mixed-solution flows, respectively. In addition, it was found that the average interface velocity in the case of the mixed-solution flow was the lowest and decreas... [more]
Performance Characteristics in Runner of an Impulse Water Turbine with Splitter Blade
Lingdi Tang, Shouqi Yuan, Yue Tang, Zhijun Gao
December 6, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: Energy Conversion, flow characteristics, impulse water turbine, runner domain
The impulse water turbine is a promising energy conversion device that can be used as mechanical power or a micro hydro generator, and its application can effectively ease the current energy crisis. This paper aims to clarify the mechanism of liquid acting on runner blades, the hydraulic performance, and energy conversion characteristics in the runner domain of an impulse water turbine with a splitter blade by using experimental tests and numerical simulations. The runner was divided into seven areas along the flow direction, and the power variation in the runner domain was analyzed to reflect its energy conversion characteristics. The obtained results indicate that the critical area of the runner for doing the work is in the front half of the blades, while the rear area of the blades does relatively little work and even consumes the mechanical energy of the runner to produce negative work. The high energy area is concentrated in the flow passage facing the nozzle. The energy is gradua... [more]
Graphene Nanoplatelets Suspended in Different Basefluids Based Solar Collector: An Experimental and Analytical Study
Omer A. Alawi, Haslinda Mohamed Kamar, Abdul Rahman Mallah, Hussein A. Mohammed, Mohd Aizad Sazrul Sabrudin, Omar A. Hussein, Salim Newaz Kazi, Gholamhassan Najafi
November 27, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: characterization and stability, collector efficiency, flat plate solar collector (FPSC), GNPs
A flat plate solar collector (FPSC) was analytically studied, with functionalized graphene nanoplatelets (f-GNPs) as its working fluid. Four samples (wt % nanofluids) were prepared in different base fluids such as ethylene glycol (EG), distilled water (DW):EG (70:30), and DW:EG (50:50). Experimental results (via DW) were used to verify the effectiveness of the analytical model. Some of the operating conditions were taken into account in this research, including temperatures, power, and mass flow rates. Experimental techniques were used to elucidate the modified nanofluids’ physicochemical properties, such as its particle sizes, stability, and morphology, involving electron microscopes (EMs), UV−VIS, and X-ray techniques. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were applied to test the thermal analysis. The findings confirmed that the use of f-GNPs nanofluids enhanced the performance of the FPSC relative to the use of base fluids for all testing cond... [more]
Simultaneous Removal of Al, Cu and Zn Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using Ion and Precipitate Flotation Methods
Piotr Rybarczyk, Bożenna Kawalec-Pietrenko
November 27, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: aluminum, collector, copper, ion flotation, metal ions, precipitate flotation, zinc
This paper presents the results of investigations concerning the simultaneous removal of Al(III), Cu(II), and Zn(II) from dilute aqueous solutions using ion and precipitate flotation methods. The effects of initial solution pH, surface active substance concentration, and the gas velocity on the flotations’ efficiency and course are studied. Experimental results are discussed in terms of physicochemical aspects related to aqueous solutions of metal salts. The results indicate that satisfying simultaneous flotations of aluminum, copper and zinc species are observed if the pH value ranges between 7.0 and 9.0. It was found that an increase in collector concentration results in a decrease in the flotation rate constants. An increase in the gas velocity results in an increase in the ion and precipitate flotation rates.
An Overview on Fault Diagnosis, Prognosis and Resilient Control for Wind Turbine Systems
Zhiwei Gao, Xiaoxu Liu
November 27, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: condition monitoring, energy conversion systems, fault diagnosis, fault prognosis, resilient control, wind turbine
Wind energy is contributing to more and more portions in the world energy market. However, one deterrent to even greater investment in wind energy is the considerable failure rate of turbines. In particular, large wind turbines are expensive, with less tolerance for system performance degradations, unscheduled system shut downs, and even system damages caused by various malfunctions or faults occurring in system components such as rotor blades, hydraulic systems, generator, electronic control units, electric systems, sensors, and so forth. As a result, there is a high demand to improve the operation reliability, availability, and productivity of wind turbine systems. It is thus paramount to detect and identify any kinds of abnormalities as early as possible, predict potential faults and the remaining useful life of the components, and implement resilient control and management for minimizing performance degradation and economic cost, and avoiding dangerous situations. During the last 2... [more]
Rhizopus oligosporus-Assisted Valorization of Coconut Endosperm Waste by Black Soldier Fly Larvae for Simultaneous Protein and Lipid to Biodiesel Production
Chung Yiin Wong, Kunlanan Kiatkittipong, Worapon Kiatkittipong, Jun Wei Lim, Man Kee Lam, Ta Yeong Wu, Pau Loke Show, Hanita Daud, Pei Sean Goh, Mina Sakuragi, Elfis
November 27, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: biodiesel, black soldier fly, fungal fermentation, lipid, protein, Rhizopus oligosporus
Coconut endosperm waste (CEW) was treated by Rhizopus oligosporus via in situ and ex situ fermentations together with bioconversion into valuable black soldier fly larval biomass. The ex situ fermentation could overall enrich the nutritional compositions of CEW by hydrolyzing its complex organic polymers and exuding assimilable nutrients to enhance the black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) growth. Nevertheless, the larval gut bacteria were competing with Rhizopus oligosporus in in situ fermentation, derailing the hydrolysis processes and larval growth. Accordingly, the highest growth rates achieved were around 0.095 g/day, as opposed to only 0.065 g/day whilst using 0.5 wt% of Rhizopus oligosporus to perform ex situ and in situ fermentations, respectively. These were also underpinned by the greater amount of total CEW consumed when employing ex situ fermentation, with comparable metabolic costs to feeding on in situ-fermented CEW. The mature BSFL were subsequently harvested and the amounts o... [more]
Blended Sewage Sludge−Palm Kernel Expeller to Enhance the Palatability of Black Soldier Fly Larvae for Biodiesel Production
Ratchaprapa Raksasat, Kunlanan Kiatkittipong, Worapon Kiatkittipong, Chung Yiin Wong, Man Kee Lam, Yeek Chia Ho, Wen Da Oh, I Wayan Koko Suryawan, Jun Wei Lim
November 8, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: biodiesel, black soldier fly larvae, lipid, palm kernel expeller, sewage sludge
Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) have been employed for valorizing organic waste materials as the larvae are able to consume organic waste and transform it into valuable larval biomass. In this study, BSFL were found to potentially reduce blended sewage sludge. The addition of palm kernel expeller (PKE) fortified the protein and lipid content in blended sewage sludge substrates, leading to larval growth enhancement. In addition, the larval weight also influenced the lipid yield and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile. However, the optimum ratio of sewage sludge to PKE had to be determined as excess PKE content could become a threat to larval growth by contributing to the reduction of non-fiber carbohydrates content in the feed, thereby resulting in the decrease in lipid yield and FAME content. In this work, a sewage sludge to PKE ratio of 2:3 proffered the highest larval weight gained at 46.99 ± 2.09 mg/larva. Meanwhile, a proportion of 3:2 of sewage sludge to PKE was able provide th... [more]
Microencapsulation of Flaxseed Oil—State of Art
Asma Yakdhane, Sabrine Labidi, Donia Chaabane, Anita Tolnay, Arijit Nath, András Koris, Gyula Vatai
November 7, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: characterization of microcapsule, emulsifier, emulsion, flaxseed oil, freeze-drying, matrix, microencapsulation, spray-drying
Microencapsulation is a well-known technology for the lipid delivery system. It prevents the oxidation of fatty acids and maintains the quality of lipid after extraction from oil seed and processing. In flaxseed oil, the amount of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids are 39.90−60.42% and 12.25−17.44%, respectively. A comprehensive review article on the microencapsulation of flaxseed oil has not been published yet. Realizing the great advantages of flaxseed oil, information about different technologies related to the microencapsulation of flaxseed oil and their characteristics are discussed in a comprehensive way, in this review article. To prepare the microcapsule of flaxseed oil, an emulsion of oil-water is performed along with a wall material (matrix), followed by drying with a spray-dryer or freeze-dryer. Different matrices, such as plant and animal-based proteins, maltodextrin, gum Arabic, and modified starch are used for the encapsulation of flaxseed oil. In some cases, emulsif... [more]
Permeability Evolution of Naturally Fractured Coal Injected with High-Temperature Nitrogen: Experimental Observations
Shengcheng Wang, Haijian Li, Lanying Huang
November 7, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: coal permeability, cycle number, N2 injection pressure, N2 temperature, triaxial test
The permeability of more than 70% of coal seams in China is less than 1 mD, creating difficulties in recovering underground coal methane. Therefore, a new technology of high-temperature nitrogen (HTN2) injection into the coal seam was proposed to improve the coal permeability and gas extraction rate. In this paper, the effects of the N2 temperature, injection pressure and cycle number on the permeability of naturally fractured coking coal has been investigated. When HTN2 was injected into coal samples, the results indicated that the permeability decreased over time in the beginning, suddenly increased to a large value, and was subsequently maintained in a relatively stable range. The maximum permeability ratio increased with the rise of the N2 temperature and injection pressure. An analysis indicated that the increase of coal permeability was the result of the increase of the global coal strain caused by thermal expansion and the adsorption-induced expansion. The maximum permeability r... [more]
A Study of Catechin Photostability Using Photolytic Processing
Jeu-Ming P. Yuann, Shwu-Yuan Lee, Meei-Ju Yang, Shiuh-Tsuen Huang, Chien-Wei Cheng, Ji-Yuan Liang
November 7, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: aluminum, catechin, light, proanthocyanidin, tea
Catechin exhibits numerous physiological characteristics. In this study, we determined the photosensitivity of catechin to various lights under alkaline conditions, and the mechanisms by which catechin generates free radical species and polymerizes via a photoreaction. In addition to this, the application of catechin photolysis was investigated. A solution of catechin is transparent, but turns yellowish under blue light illumination (BLI) in neutral or weak alkaline solutions. When catechin is subjected to BLI, a dimeric catechin (proanthocyanidin) and a superoxide anion radical (O2•−) are generated in a photolytic reaction. When ascorbic acid or gallic acid is added to catechin and the mixture is subjected to BLI at alkaline pH, fewer catechin dimers and less O2•− are produced, because both acids inhibit the photosensitive oxidation of catechin. When AlCl3 is added to catechin and the mixture is subjected to BLI at pH 8, a photolytic reaction is suppressed by AlCl3, and AlCl3 acts as... [more]
Making Concentrated Pterostilbene Highly Bioavailable in Pressure Processed Phospholipid Nanoemulsion
Fu-Min Sun, Yu-Jou Chou, Qingrong Huang, Jing-Yu Hu, Yuwen Ting
November 7, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: bioavailability, encapsulation, lecithin, nanoemulsion, pterostilbene
Pterostilbene, a dimethylether analog of resveratrol, has been found to have potent biological activity. However, the bioavailability of pterostilbene in the biological system is limited due to its poor solubility in an aqueous environment. A nanoemulsion system was designed for this purpose. Lecithin-based nanoemulsion was formed after 3 cycles through a high-pressure homogenizer at 500 psi. The rheological properties and particle size were measured using dynamic light scattering and a viscometer. The storage stabilities of the prepared formulation were determined based on its ability to maintain its particle size and loading concentration. According to the experimental results, the lecithin-based nanoemulsion system contained approximately 9.5% of pterostilbene. Over the 28-day stability test, the particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation of pterostilbene in the nanoemulsion did not change significantly, indicating good storage stability. The positive effect of the prepared na... [more]
A Quality Integrated Fuzzy Inference System for the Reliability Estimating of Fluorochemical Engineering Processes
Feng Xue, Xintong Li, Kun Zhou, Xiaoxia Ge, Weiping Deng, Xu Chen, Kai Song
November 7, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: fluorochemical engineering process, fuzzy inference system, process reliability estimating, prognostics and health management, quality prediction
Hypertoxic materials make it critical to ensure the safety of the fluorochemical engineering processes. This mainly depends on the over maintenance or the manual operations due to the lack of precise models and mechanism knowledge. To quantify the deviations of the operating variables and the product quality from their target values at the same time and to overcome the measurement delay of the product quality, a novel quality integrated fuzzy inference system (QFIS) was proposed to estimate the reliability of the operation status as well as the product quality to enhance the performance of the safety monitoring system. To this end, a novel quality-weighted multivariate inverted normal loss function was proposed to quantify the deviation of the product quality from the target value to overcome the measurement delay. Vital safety process variables were identified according to the expert knowledge. Afterward, the quality loss and the vital variables were inputs to an elaborate fuzzy infer... [more]
Durability of Pavement Materials with Exposure to Various Anti-Icing Strategies
Shujuan Xu, Zhiliang Zhou, Lichao Feng, Na Cui, Ning Xie
November 7, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: anti-icing strategies, cost, durability, pavement, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Anti-icing is a critical topic in durability assessment for pavement infrastructures, and it varies according to local policies. To provide sufficient information to winter maintenance agencies, and help compare the merits and shortcomings of each strategy, this review summarizes the widely used anti-icing strategies, including elastic surfaces or high-friction overlays, asphalt binders mixed with anti-icing additives, pavement heating technologies, deicers, and fixed automated spray technology, from academic and practical perspectives, as well as explore the impact of deicers on the durability of concrete materials. Furthermore, the costs of each method were compared to evaluate the feasibility of them. This review not only provides a summary of previous anti-icing strategies, but also sheds light on future research trends that may help address the challenges of current anti-icing strategies, and further enhance anti-icing efficiency and reduce life cycle costs.
Effect of the Coupled Pitch−Yaw Motion on the Unsteady Aerodynamic Performance and Structural Response of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine
Ziwen Chen, Xiaodong Wang, Shun Kang
November 7, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: aerodynamic performance, FOWT, platform pitching, platform yawing, structural response
The floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs) have many more advantages than the onshore wind turbines, but they also have more complicated aerodynamic characteristics due to complex platform motions. The research objective of this paper is to investigate unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of a FOWT under the pitch, yaw, and coupled pitch−yaw platform motions using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method in the Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulations. The pitch, yaw, and coupled pitch−yaw motions are studied separately to analyze the platform motions’ effects on the rotor blade. The accuracy of the numerical simulation method is verified, and the overall performances, including power and thrust, are discussed. In addition, the comparison of total aerodynamic performance, force coefficients at different spans and structural dynamic response is provided. The numerical simulation results show that the platform pitching is the main influencing factor of power flu... [more]
Implementation of an Automated Manufacturing Process for Smart Clothing: The Case Study of a Smart Sports Bra
Suhyun Lee, Soo Hyeon Rho, Sojung Lee, Jiwoong Lee, Sang Won Lee, Daeyoung Lim, Wonyoung Jeong
November 6, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: automated processes, automation, garment manufacturing processes, micro factory, smart clothing, smart factory
The garment manufacturing industry is a labor-intensive industry, with one of the slowest transitions to automation. Hence, it is essential to build a smart factory based on automated systems to improve productivity and allow responsive production in the market. In this study, the manufacturing processes for a smart sports bra were established and optimized using various automated machines. For this system, computer-based 3D virtual design software, a technical embroidery machine, an automatic cutting machine, an industrial robot arm with gripper, and an industrial pattern sewing machine were used. The design and materials of the sports bra were selected considering embroidery, cutting, robot gripping, and sewing processes. In addition, conductive thread and light-emitting diode (LED) sequences were used to implement smart functions to the sports bra. Transport of intermediate materials, work orders, and process conditions were optimized to improve the flexible connection of each proce... [more]
Extraction of Type I Collagen from Tilapia Scales Using Acetic Acid and Ultrafine Bubbles
Junko Kuwahara
November 6, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: circular dichroism, collagen, Sirius Red, tilapia scales, ultrafine bubbles
Type I collagen is commonly used in medical materials and cosmetics. While it can be extracted from the skin and bones of mammals, marine collagen has attracted attention recently, since the use of mammalian collagen could result in zoonosis, and products containing mammalian collagen are avoided due to some religious beliefs. Chemical extractions using strong acids and alkalis, thermal extractions, and other nonconventional methods have been used for collagen extraction. However, there are few reports on environmentally friendly methods. Although heat extractions provide higher yields of collagen, they often cause collagen denaturation. Therefore, dilute acetic acid and ultrafine bubbles of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and ozone were used to extract type I collagen from tilapia scales. The extraction performance of the different conditions employed was qualitatively analyzed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, and the collagen concentration was quantified using circular dichroism spectroscopy by... [more]
Separation and Rectification of Chloroacetyl Chloride from TiCl4
Fuxing Zhu, Liang Li, Dafu Zhang, Shangrun Ma, Zhanshan Ma, Kehui Qiu
November 6, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: chloroacetyl chloride (CAC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, orthogonal design, removal efficiency, separation behavior, TiCl4 solution
Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) is an important intermediate material for the preparation of titanium products. The organic impurities in TiCl4 are easily accumulated during the production of titanium sponges due to the problems of imperfect detection methods and the lack of effective control methods, resulting in a poor quality of sponge titanium. Among all impurities, chloroacetyl chloride (CAC) is the most important in TiCl4. Herein, the determination of the CAC content in TiCl4 solution, with a low detection limit of 0.633 ppm, was established by the standard addition method using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. This test method presented good repeatability, excellent accuracy, and moderate precision. Furthermore, the influencing factors of CAC separation in the continuous rectification process, including the heating power (the ratio of total heating power to feed rate), reflux temperature, top tower pressure, and feed temperature were optimized based on an orthogona... [more]
Screening of Ion Exchange Resins for Hazardous Ni(II) Removal from Aqueous Solutions: Kinetic and Equilibrium Batch Adsorption Method
Anna Wołowicz, Monika Wawrzkiewicz
November 6, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: Adsorption, ion exchangers, Lewatit MonoPlus TP220, nickel removal, water pollution
The development of new, cheaper, and more effective technologies to decrease the amount of wastewater containing heavy metals and to improve the quality is indispensable. Adsorption has become one of the alternative treatment methods. A small number of studies focusing on the batch technique for nickel ion removal by the new generation ion exchangers are described in the literature. In this paper, the Ni(II) removal from aqueous solutions using the ion exchange resins of different types was investigated. The experiments were conducted at different HCl and HCl/HNO3 concentrations, and the initial concentration was 100 mg Ni(II)/L. The investigation of the Ni(II) desorption from the chosen resins were carried out. The Ni(II) removal efficiency and the rate of removal are shown on the kinetic curves and the rate constants as well as kinetic parameters were collected and compared. The isotherm parameters were calculated and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy with the attenuated total... [more]
A Comparative Study on the Modelling of Soybean Particles Based on the Discrete Element Method
Dongxu Yan, Jianqun Yu, Liusuo Liang, Yang Wang, Yajun Yu, Long Zhou, Kai Sun, Ping Liang
November 6, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: discrete element method, ellipsoidal equation model, multi-ball model, multiple contacts, particle modelling, soybean particles
To solve the poor universality in the existing modelling approaches of soybean particles, we proposed a soybean particle modelling approach by combining five, nine, and 13 balls. The soybean seeds from three varieties (Suinong42, Jidou17, and Zhongdou39 with a sphericity of 94.78%, 86.86%, and 80.6%, respectively) are chosen as the study objects. By the comparisons between the simulation results and the test results in the “self-flow screening” and “piling angle” tests, it is concluded that the soybean particle modelling approach we presented in this paper is a universal modelling approach appropriate for soybean particles with different sphericities. The five-ball model is appropriate for the soybean particles with high sphericity, and the nine- or 13-ball models are applicable to those with low sphericity. The soybean particle modelling approach we presented is also compared with the ellipsoidal equation modelling approach for soybean particles and with the modelling approaches prese... [more]
Optimization and Validation of an Extraction Method for Endosulfan Lactone on a Solid Substrate
Paola T. Vázquez-Villegas, Rocío Meza-Gordillo, María C. Luján-Hidalgo, Abumalé Cruz-Salomón, Víctor M. Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Federico A. Gutiérrez-Miceli, Juan J. Villalobos-Maldonado, Joaquín A. Montes-Molina
November 6, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: endosulfan lactone, HPLC UV-VIS, Optimization, response surface, solvent extraction, ultrasound
Endosulfan lactone is a metabolite obtained from the biological oxidation of the insecticide endosulfan by action of the microorganisms present in the soil. This metabolite is more toxic and persistent than the parent compound. Therefore, it is extremely important to be able to determine the presence of this metabolite in the soil. However, accessible methods for extraction of endosulfan lactone in soil were not found in published literature. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate two conventional methods of liquid−solid extraction for the determination of endosulfan lactone in solid substrate using two solvents (ethyl acetate and acetonitrile) and HPLC UV-VIS. The acetonitrile and rotary agitation extraction method was the one with the highest efficiency (97%), optimized using a factorial 32 response surface design, and validated in terms of linearity and precision. The linearity shown was r > 0.999 in a wide spike level (0.15−100 mg kg−1), with the detection limit (DL... [more]
Optimisation of Energy Use in Bioethanol Production Using a Control Algorithm
Jarosław Knaga, Stanisław Lis, Sławomir Kurpaska, Piotr Łyszczarz, Marcin Tomasik
November 6, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: bioethanol, computer modelling and simulation, energy use optimisation, process control
In this work, the possibility of limiting energy consumption in the manufacturing process of bioethanol to obtain biofuel was analysed. For this purpose, a control algorithm has been optimised while retaining the good quality of the control signals. New in this study is the correlation of the control algorithm not only with the signal’s quality, but also with the energy consumption in such an energy-intensive process as rectification. The rectification process in a periodic production system has been researched. The process was modelled on a test station with the distillation mixture capacity of 25 dm3. For the optimization, the following control algorithms have been applied: relay, PID and PID after modification to I-PD. The simulation was carried out on a transfer function model of the plant that has been verified on a real object, a rectification column. The simulations of energy consumption and control signal’s quality have been carried out in the Matlab®-Simulink environment after... [more]
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