Records with Subject: Process Design
Showing records 1 to 25 of 1629. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Effect of the Backward Facing Step on a Transverse Jet in Supersonic Crossflow
Jincheng Zhang, Zhenguo Wang, Mingbo Sun, Hongbo Wang, Chaoyang Liu, Jiangfei Yu
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: backward facing step, LES, mixing enhancement, scramjet, transverse jet
A transverse jet in the supersonic crossflow is one of the most promising injection schemes in scramjet, where the control or enhancement of jet mixing is a critical issue. In this paper, the effect of the backward facing step on the characteristics of jet mixing was investigated by three-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES). The simulation in the flat plate configuration (step height of 0) was performed as the baseline case to verify the computation framework. The distribution of the velocity and pressure obtained by the LES agreed well with the experiment, which shows the reliability of the LES code. Then, two steps with a height of 1.0D and 1.58D (D is the injector diameter) were numerically compared to the non-step baseline case. The comparison of the three cases illustrates the effect of the large-scale recirculation region on the variable distribution, and shock and vortex structures in the flow field. In the windward region, the shear layers become thicker, and the convection... [more]
A Design Method for Magnetically Coupled Resonant Coils Considering Transmission Objectives and Dimension Constraints
Jingang Wang, Chen Shen, Pengcheng Zhao, Shucheng Ou, Zhi Xu, Ruiqiang Zhang, Zhiming Song
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: dimension constraints, magnetic flux, magnetically coupled resonant coils, parameters design, the PTE and PDL calculation model
This paper proposes a coil design method for the magnetically coupled resonant wireless power transfer (MCR-WPT) system. Based on the Biot−Savart law, the magnetic flux density at the observation point was derived, and the magnetic flux of the observation plane generated by the exciting coil was deduced to build the calculation model of power transfer efficiency (PTE) and power delivered to the load (PDL). The PTE and PDL curves via coil parameters could be fitted in minutes using numerical calculation. The coil was designed according to transmission objectives and dimension constraints. In addition, the calculated PTE and PDL were compared with those from finite element analysis to verify the credibility of the method. Finally, the actual curves of PTE and PDL were achieved, which showed a strong positive correlation with the corresponding curves from the calculation model. The relative average deviations of PDL curves were less than 6.11%. Meanwhile, coils designed with the numerical... [more]
Optimal Integration of Hydrogen-Based Energy Storage Systems in Photovoltaic Microgrids: A Techno-Economic Assessment
Fabio Serra, Marialaura Lucariello, Mario Petrollese, Giorgio Cau
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: energy storage system, hydrogen-based energy storage plant, hydrogen-based microgrid
The feasibility and cost-effectiveness of hydrogen-based microgrids in facilities, such as public buildings and small- and medium-sized enterprises, provided by photovoltaic (PV) plants and characterized by low electric demand during weekends, were investigated in this paper. Starting from the experience of the microgrid being built at the Renewable Energy Facility of Sardegna Ricerche (Italy), which, among various energy production and storage systems, includes a hydrogen storage system, a modeling of the hydrogen-based microgrid was developed. The model was used to analyze the expected performance of the microgrid considering different load profiles and equipment sizes. Finally, the microgrid cost-effectiveness was evaluated using a preliminary economic analysis. The results demonstrate that an effective design can be achieved with a PV system sized for an annual energy production 20% higher than the annual energy requested by the user and a hydrogen generator size 60% of the PV nomi... [more]
The Design of a Contactless Unregulated Power Converter for the Separated Modules
Yan Zhou, Yu Sun, Ziwen Yang
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: coils design, contactless unregulated power converter, separated modular structure
In the contactless unregulated power converter application with high output current, optimizing coil structures and using synchronous rectification are important for achieving high efficiency. This paper proposes a separated planar structure of coils to achieve the design goals and gives its equivalent circuit model. On the power transmitting pad, double coils are used to enhance the ability of the output power levels. In order to implement full-wave synchronous rectification (FWSR), the power receiving pad also adopts double coils. The power coils on both sides have similar structures to obtain a balance-induced voltage in each half of the switching period, and the principles of the optimal turn ratio in coils are discussed. Meanwhile, four typical self-driven coil structures are compared and analyzed. The effect of the coupling coefficient and load currents on the loss of the duty cycle is discussed. To satisfy the requirements of output voltage, the rules for selecting the minimum f... [more]
Financial Analysis of the Use of Two Horizontal Drain Water Heat Recovery Units
Kamil Pochwat, Sabina Kordana-Obuch, Mariusz Starzec, Beata Piotrowska
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: drain water heat recovery (DWHR) unit, financial analysis, net present value (NPV), waste heat recovery
The growing interest in the use of unconventional energy sources is a stimulus for the development of dedicated devices and technologies. Drain water heat recovery (DWHR) units can be an example of such devices. They allow the recovery of part of the heat energy deposited in grey water. This paper describes the results of research on the assessment of the financial profitability of the use of two horizontal heat exchanger solutions, taking into account the actual distribution of cold water temperature during the operating year in the plumbing and two operating regimes of the premises as the residential and service facilities. The analysis showed that the use of a horizontal heat exchanger with increased efficiency in a dwelling in a 15-year life cycle allowed for achieving more than twice as much savings (reaching up to EUR 1427) compared to a classic horizontal heat exchanger. At the same time, it was shown that the installation of this type of equipment was more profitable the greate... [more]
Density Difference Grid Design in a Point-Mass Filter
Jakub Matoušek, Jindřich Duník, Ondřej Straka
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: nonlinear filtering, nonlinear system, point-mass method, state estimation
The paper deals with the Bayesian state estimation of nonlinear stochastic dynamic systems. The stress is laid on the point-mass filter, solving the Bayesian recursive relations for the state estimate conditional density computation using the deterministic grid-based numerical integration method. In particular, the grid design is discussed and the novel density difference grid is proposed. The proposed grid design covers such regions of the state-space where the conditional density is significantly spatially varying, by the dense grid. In other regions, a sparse grid is used to keep the computational complexity low. The proposed grid design is thoroughly discussed, analyzed, and illustrated in a numerical study.
Design and Implementation of an Energy-Management System for a Grid-Connected Residential DC Microgrid
Alfredo Padilla-Medina, Francisco Perez-Pinal, Alonso Jimenez-Garibay, Antonio Vazquez-Lopez, Juan Martinez-Nolasco
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: embedded system, energy-management system, grid-connected, photovoltaic array, residential DC microgrid
The design and implementation of an energy-management system (EMS) applied to a residential direct current microgrid (DC-µG) is presented in this work. The proposed residential DC-µG is designed to provide a maximum power of one kilowatt by using two photovoltaic arrays (PAs) of 500 W, a battery bank (BB) of 120 V−115 Ah, a supercapacitor module of 0.230 F and a bidirectional DC−AC converter linked to the AC main grid (MG). The EMS works as a centralized manager and it defines the working operation mode for each section of the DC-µG. The operation modes are based on: (1) the DC-link bus voltage, (2) the generated or demanded power to each section of the DC-µG and (3) the BB’s state of charge. The proposed EMS—during the several working operation modes and at the same time—can obtain the maximum energy from the PAs, reduce the energy consumption from the main grid and keep the DC-link bus voltage inside a range of 190 V ± 5%. The EMS and local controllers are implemented by using LabVIE... [more]
A Numerical and Experimental Study of a Novel Heat Sink Design for Natural Convection Cooling of LED Grow Lights
Ram Adhikari, Dawood Beyragh, Majid Pahlevani, David Wood
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: heat transfer, LED grow light, natural convection cooling, rectangular fins with openings
Light-emitting diode (LED) grow lights are increasingly used in large-scale indoor farming to provide controlled light intensity and spectrum to maximize photosynthesis at various growth stages of plants. As well as converting electricity into light, the LED chips generate heat, so the boards must be properly cooled to maintain the high efficiency and reliability of the LED chips. Currently, LED grow lights are cooled by forced convection air cooling, the fans of which are often the points of failure and also consumers of a significant amount of power. Natural convection cooling is promising as it does not require any moving parts, but one major design challenge is to improve its relatively low heat transfer rate. This paper presents a novel heat sink design for natural convection cooling of LED grow lights. The new design consists of a large rectangular fin array with openings in the base transverse to the fins to increase air flow, and hence the heat transfer. Numerical simulations a... [more]
Parking Pose Generation for Autonomous Freight Collection by Pallet Handling Car-like Robot
Khayyam Masood, David Pérez Morales, Vincent Fremont, Matteo Zoppi, Rezia Molfino
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: autonomous vehicles, driver-less parking, freight handling, parking generation
This paper focuses on autonomous navigation for an electric freight vehicle designed to collect freight autonomously using pallet handling robots installed in the vehicle. Apart from autonomous vehicle navigation, the primary hurdle for vehicle autonomy is the autonomous collection of freight irrespective of freight orientation/location. This research focuses on generating parking pose for the vehicle irrespective of the orientation of freight for its autonomous collection. Freight orientation is calculated by capturing the freight through onboard sensors. Afterward, this information creates a parking pose using mathematical equations and knowledge of the vehicle and freight collection limitations. Separate parking spots are generated for separate loading bays of the vehicle depending on the availability of the loading bay. Finally, results are captured and verified for different orientations of freight to conclude the research.
Magnetic Refrigeration Design Technologies: State of the Art and General Perspectives
Ali Alahmer, Malik Al-Amayreh, Ahmad O. Mostafa, Mohammad Al-Dabbas, Hegazy Rezk
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: cooling, cooling, COP, magnetic refrigeration, magnetocaloric effect (MCE), refrigeration technologies
Magnetic refrigeration is a fascinating superior choice technology as compared with traditional refrigeration that relies on a unique property of particular materials, known as the magnetocaloric effect (MCE). This paper provides a thorough understanding of different magnetic refrigeration technologies using a variety of models to evaluate the coefficient of performance (COP) and specific cooling capacity outputs. Accordingly, magnetic refrigeration models are divided into four categories: rotating, reciprocating, C-shaped magnetic refrigeration, and active magnetic regenerator. The working principles of these models were described, and their outputs were extracted and compared. Furthermore, the influence of the magnetocaloric effect, the magnetization area, and the thermodynamic processes and cycles on the efficiency of magnetic refrigeration was investigated and discussed to achieve a maximum cooling capacity. The classes of magnetocaloric magnetic materials were summarized from prev... [more]
A Review of Behavioral Energy Reduction Programs and Implementation of a Pilot Peer-to-Peer Led Behavioral Energy Reduction Program for a Low-Income Neighborhood
Jennifer Hoody, Anya Galli Robertson, Sarah Richard, Claire Frankowski, Kevin Hallinan, Ciara Owens, Bob Pohl
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: energy behavior, energy burden, energy justice, energy savings, low-income, peer-to-peer, underserved communities
Utility-sponsored residential energy reduction programs have seen rapid advancement in the Unites States (US) over the past decade. These programs have particularly emphasized investments in energy efficient appliances and enveloped improvements. They have generally required co-investment by residents and, as a result, have mostly reached medium to high-income residents, with low income residences, in effect, supporting the utility investments through higher energy costs. Additionally, utility initiatives directed toward behavior-based energy reduction have reached residences with more advanced technologies, such as smart meters and smart Wi-Fi thermostats linked to phone apps, technologies generally not present in low-income residences. This research seeks to inform development of behavior-based energy reduction programs aimed specifically at low-income residences, premised on peer-to-peer energy education and support. It focuses on the design and implementation of a pilot program for... [more]
Improved FAST Device for Inherent Safety of Oxide-Fueled Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors
Ahmed Amin E. Abdelhameed, Chihyung Kim, Yonghee Kim
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: anticipated transients without scram, coolant temperature coefficient, inherent safety, sodium-cooled fast reactors
The floating absorber for safety at transient (FAST) was proposed as a solution for the positive coolant temperature coefficient in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). It is designed to insert negative reactivity in the case of coolant temperature rise or coolant voiding in an inherently passive way. The use of the original FAST design showed effectiveness in protecting the reactor core during some anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events. However, oscillation behaviors of power due to refloating of the absorber module in FAST were observed during other ATWS events. In this paper, we propose an improved FAST device (iFAST), in which a constraint is imposed on the sinking (insertion) limit of the absorber module in FAST. This provides a simple and effective solution to the power oscillation problem. Here, we focus on an oxide fuel-loaded SFR that is characterized by a more negative Doppler reactivity coefficient and higher operating temperature than the metallic-loaded SFR cor... [more]
Hydraulic Conductivity of Rock Masses Surrounding Water Curtain Boreholes for Underground Oil Storage Caverns
Qi-Hua Zhang, Qing-Bing Liu, Ai-Jun Su, Yu-Jie Li, Yi-Hu Zhang
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: hydraulic conductivity, underground storage cavern, water curtain borehole, water injection test
The assessment of the groundwater flow rate around the cavern periphery is a critical requirement for the design of underground water-sealed oil storage caverns and commonly made through seepage analysis, where a reasonable estimation of the hydraulic conductivity of the host rock is the key issue. However, it is a challenge to accurately determine the hydraulic conductivity of natural rock masses owing to their heterogeneous and anisotropic nature. The underground storage cavern project has a unique favorable condition in that there is a water curtain system that can provide considerable hydraulic test data for inferring hydraulic parameters; however, no well-established method has ever been proposed to exploit these data for characterizing heterogeneity in hydraulic conductivity. This study presents a new approach to evaluate the spatial variation of hydraulic conductivity using water curtain borehole data. This approach treats the peripheral region of each borehole as a homogenous u... [more]
Tracking the Adoption of Electric Pressure Cookers among Mini-Grid Customers in Tanzania
Ansila Kweka, Anna Clements, Megan Bomba, Nora Schürhoff, Joseph Bundala, Erick Mgonda, Mattias Nilsson, Elliot Avila, Nigel Scott
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: electric cooking, electricity, fuel stacking, mini-grids, Tanzania
“Are electric cooking appliances viable clean cooking solutions for mini-grids?” To help answer this question, the Access to Energy Institute (A2EI) set up a pilot project in six different mini-grid locations around Lake Victoria in Tanzania and gave 100 households an electric pressure cooker (EPC) to use in their homes. Each EPC was connected to a smart meter to collect data on how the EPCs were used. The paper presents findings from a study designed around the A2EI pilot project that aims to provide an understanding of cooking practices, the adoption of electric cooking over time, and to assess the potential for electric cooking to substitute traditional cooking fuels. Through collaboration with the Modern Energy Cooking Services (MECS) program, Nexleaf Analytics, and PowerGen, the pilot has generated data on electrical energy consumption from 92 households in six remote areas as well as a comprehensive range of other datasets gathered from 28 households in two of the locations. This... [more]
Thermal Efficiency and Economics of a Boil-Off Hydrogen Re-Liquefaction System Considering the Energy Efficiency Design Index for Liquid Hydrogen Carriers
Minsoo Choi, Wongwan Jung, Sanghyuk Lee, Taehwan Joung, Daejun Chang
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: boil-off hydrogen, economics, energy efficiency design index, Exergy Efficiency, liquid hydrogen carrier, specific energy consumption
This study analyzes the thermodynamic, economic, and regulatory aspects of boil-off hydrogen (BOH) in liquid hydrogen (LH2) carriers that can be re-liquefied using a proposed re-liquefaction system or used as fuel in a fuel cell stack. Five LH2 carriers sailing between two designated ports are considered in a case study. The specific energy consumption of the proposed re-liquefaction system varies from 8.22 to 10.80 kWh/kg as the re-liquefaction-to-generation fraction (R/G fraction) is varied. The economic evaluation results show that the cost of re-liquefaction decreases as the re-liquefied flow rate increases and converges to 1.5 $/kg at an adequately large flow rate. Three energy efficient design index (EEDI) candidates are proposed to determine feasible R/G fractions: an EEDI equivalent to that of LNG carriers, an EEDI that considers the energy density of LH2, and no EEDI restrictions. The first EEDI candidate is so strict that the majority of the BOH should be used as fuel. In the... [more]
Research on the Correction Method of the Capillary End Effect of the Relative Permeability Curve of the Steady State
Yanyan Li, Shuoliang Wang, Zhihong Kang, Qinghong Yuan, Xiaoqiang Xue, Chunlei Yu, Xiaodong Zhang
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: capillary end effect, relative permeability curve, tight reservoir
Relative permeability curve is a key factor in describing the characteristics of multiphase flow in porous media. The steady-state method is an effective method to measure the relative permeability curve of oil and water. The capillary discontinuity at the end of the samples will cause the capillary end effect. The capillary end effect (CEE) affects the flow and retention of the fluid. If the experimental design and data interpretation fail to eliminate the impact of capillary end effects, the relative permeability curve may be wrong. This paper proposes a new stability factor method, which can quickly and accurately correct the relative permeability measured by the steady-state method. This method requires two steady-state experiments at the same proportion of injected liquid (wetting phase and non-wetting phase), and two groups of flow rates and pressure drop data are obtained. The pressure drop is corrected according to the new relationship between the pressure drop and the core len... [more]
Study on Mineral Compositions of Direct Carbonated Steel Slag by QXRD, TG, FTIR, and XPS
Xue Wang, Wen Ni, Jiajie Li, Siqi Zhang, Keqing Li
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Capture, gypsum, orthogonal test design, steel slag, UCS, XPS
Steel slag CO2 sequestration helps mitigate global warming and decrease the stockpile of steel slag (SS). Through orthogonal design tests and single-factor tests, this paper evaluated the effects of the water/solid mass ratio (w/s), gypsum ratio (G/SS), molding pressure, and curing duration on uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and CO2 uptake of the compacts. The results indicated that high w/s enhanced both strength and CO2 capture ability. The proper addition of gypsum helps promote UCS increase and CO2 uptake of steel slag. In addition, increasing the molding pressure can significantly improve UCS without reducing CO2 uptake. The optimum conditions in the study were a w/s of 0.20, G/SS of 1/16, and molding pressure of 27 MPa, under which conditions 1 d UCS and CO2 uptake were 55.30 MPa and 12.36%, respectively. Microanalyses showed that gypsum activates mainly mayenite in steel slag. An increase in water addition also increased the hydration and carbonation products greatly, and th... [more]
How to Procure Flexibility Services within the Electricity Distribution System: Lessons from an International Review of Innovation Projects
Karim L. Anaya, Michael G. Pollitt
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: distribution energy resources, distribution system operators, flexibility services, innovation projects, international review, lessons, procurement, regulation
The aim of this paper is to analyse and evaluate the deployment of smart platforms (operated by distribution system operators—DSOs—or by independent parties) in key jurisdictions that facilitate the trading of flexibility services—primarily by DSOs. We look at key innovation projects/initiatives from seven jurisdictions, including Australia, France, Germany, Great Britain, Japan, The Netherlands and Norway. We have deliberately selected 13 use cases that operate under different regulatory frameworks and market rules, and have been recently implemented (from 2017 onwards). With the selection of key use cases this study seeks to discuss the different smart architecture solutions and main capabilities across different demonstrators and their relationship to business as usual. It also analyses flexibility market designs, identifies main characteristics, and compares different price formation schemes and procurement methods. The value of flexibility for DSOs is also discussed.
Development of Empirical Correlation of Two-Phase Pressure Drop in Moisture Separator Based on Separated Flow Model
Woo-Shik Kim, Jae-Bong Lee, Ki-Hwan Kim
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: moisture separator, separated model, steam generator, two-phase pressure drop
Pressure drop across the moisture separator installed in the steam generator of a nuclear power plant affects the power generation efficiency, and so accurate pressure drop prediction is important in generator design. In this study, an empirical correlation is proposed for predicting the two-phase pressure drop through a moisture separator. To ensure the applicability of the correlation, a series of two-phase air-water experiments were performed, and the results of the present test and of the benchmark test of high-pressure steam-water were used in developing the correlation. Based on the experimental results, quality, dimensionless superficial velocity, density ratio of the working fluid, and the geometrical factor were considered to be important parameters. The two-phase pressure drop multiplier was expressed in terms of these parameters. The empirical correlation was found to predict the experimental results within a reasonable range.
Ushering in a New Dawn: Demand-Side Local Flexibility Platform Governance and Design in the Finnish Energy Markets
Nayeem Rahman, Rodrigo Rabetino, Arto Rajala, Jukka Partanen
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: demand-side flexibility, energy platform, Finnish energy markets, flexibility, flexibility service, local flexibility market, platform governance and design, platforms
Energy ecosystems are under a significant transition. Local flexibility marketplaces (LFM) and platforms are argued to have significant potential in contributing to such a transition. The purpose of this study was to answer the following research question: how do market conditions and stakeholders shape emerging LFM platform governance choices? We approached this objective with an exploratory single-case study by conducting ten semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the Finnish energy ecosystem. The results of the content and pattern analyses revealed the key challenges to LFM implementation such as the current regulatory treatment of flexibility, high costs of gadget installations, and ensuring sufficient liquidity in the market. In addition, we also demonstrated that despite such barriers, the Finnish ecosystem is largely pragmatic about LFMs’ in its midst. All in all, we contributed to the non-technological streams of LFM literature by developing an exhaustive framework... [more]
Guidelines for Determining the Initial Shape and Specifications of High-Speed AFPM Based on Recent Research
Jae-Beom Kang, Ji-Young Lee, Ji-Heon Lee
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: air mobility, axial-flux permanent-magnet machine(AFPM), design key issues, dynamic performance limit, high-speed electric machine
This paper presents guidelines for determining the initial shape and specifications of a high-speed axial-flux permanent-magnet (AFPM) machine in a hybrid-electric propulsion system in two steps based on previous studies and product review results related to high-speed AFPMs. In the first step, three characteristics to be considered when designing AFPMs were classified as: electromagnetic, thermal, and mechanical. Then, the factors that should be considered in the design process to satisfy each characteristic were organized. In the second step, “the speed−output power” relationship was defined to predict the limits of applying AFPMs to high-speed applications, allowing an estimation of the limits of the speed range that can be used within the proposed output power.
There Is Plenty of Room inside a Bluff Body: A Hybrid Piezoelectric and Electromagnetic Wind Energy Harvester
Mahmood Al-Riyami, Issam Bahadur, Hassen Ouakad
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: bluff-body design, hybrid energy harvester, piezoelectric and electromagnetic energy harvester, vortex-induced vibration
In this paper, a piezoelectric and electromagnetic hybrid wind energy harvester is proposed. The general design of the harvester comprises multiple cantilever piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) and electromagnetic energy harvesters (EEHs) embedded inside the bluff body that is attached to the free end of PEHs. This research work investigates utilizing the room inside the bluff body to enclose harvesters to have a more compact and efficient harvesting system. A comprehensive coupled dynamic model of the harvester (HEH) is developed using Lagrange’s formulation. The electromechanical and electromagnetic coupling coefficient equations are derived. The coupled equations of motion are solved analytically and numerically with an exact agreement. A parametric analysis is conducted to study the effect of the design parameters on the overall performance of the harvester in terms of output power and bandwidth. The proposed design evidently presents itself as a promising concept in utilizing... [more]
Performance Analysis of an Experimental Linear Encoder’s Reading Head under Different Mounting and Dynamic Conditions
Donatas Gurauskis, Krzysztof Przystupa, Artūras Kilikevičius, Mikołaj Skowron, Matijošius Jonas, Joanna Michałowska, Kristina Kilikevičienė
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: grating, measuring scale, moiré effect, optical encoder, reading head
The performance of an optical linear encoder is described and evaluated by certain parameters such as its resolution, accuracy and repeatability. The best encoder for a particular application, just like other sensors, is usually selected according these parameters. There are, however, many side effects that have a direct influence on the optimal operation of an encoder. In order to understand how to minimize these harmful effects, a deeper knowledge of an encoder’s performance and a method for determining these factors are necessary. The main aspects of an encoder’s accuracy, resolution and repeatability are briefly reviewed in this paper. Discussed and developed in previous work, the experimental reading head for a Moiré effect-based optical linear encoder is used for the experimental analysis of the influence of different reading head designs on an encoder’s performance under various mounting inaccuracies and dynamic conditions.
Experimental Study on the Transient Disturbance Characteristics and Influence Factors of Pantograph−Catenary Discharge
Mengzhe Jin, Man Hu, Hao Li, Yixuan Yang, Weidong Liu, Qingyuan Fang, Shanghe Liu
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: arcing discharge, current pulse, electromagnetic disturbance, experimental investigation, pantograph–catenary, radiation, railway, relative motion
The transient electromagnetic disturbance generated by arcing discharge between the pantograph and catenary can pose a significant risk to the safe operation of electrified railways. In order to better comprehend its properties, a pantograph−catenary discharge generating device is designed to simulate the discharge phenomenon with moving electrodes in this experimental investigation. The effects of the applied voltage, the gap distance, and the relative motion between the pantograph and catenary on the time- and frequency-domain features of the discharge current and electromagnetic field are investigated. The variation trends of pulse peak current, rise time, pulse repetition frequency, maximum amplitude, and characteristic frequency in the radiation spectrum are retrieved under varying experimental settings, and the effect mechanisms are derived from the physics of gas discharge. A dynamic discharge test is conducted in this study in order to further understand the effect of electrode... [more]
Design and Analysis of Novel CO2 Conditioning Process in Ship-Based CCS
Wentao Gong, Eryk Remiezowicz, Philip Loldrup Fosbøl, Nicolas von Solms
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide Capture, CCS hub Dunkirk, CO2 conditioning, CO2 liquefaction, DMXTM process
In this work, CO2 conditioning processes for ship-based CCS sequestration are modelled using the software APSEN HYSYS V11. This study uses the captured CO2 gas from the 3D project as the feed. The feed stream contains water, H2S, and CO as contaminants. The purification processes for dehydration, desulfurization, and CO removal are reviewed. Two liquefaction approaches, the open-cycle and the closed-cycle liquefaction, are modelled and compared for transport pressures 7 and 15 bar. It is found that the energy requirement of the open-cycle process is higher than that of the closed-cycle liquefaction process. For the closed-cycle design, two refrigerants, ammonia and propane, are considered. Results show that the energy requirement of the process using ammonia is lower than that of propane. When comparing the two transport pressures, it is found that liquefaction at 15 bar requires less energy than 7 bar. On top of that, both refrigerants are unsuited for the liquefaction of CO2 at 7 bar... [more]
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