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Records with Subject: Biosystems
Showing records 1 to 25 of 1257. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Optimal Design of Antibody Extraction Systems using Protein A Resin with Multicycling
Fred Ghanem, Purnima M. Kodate, Gerard M. Capellades, Kirti M. Yenkie
July 9, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Antibody therapies are important in treating life-threatening ailments such as cancer and autoimmune diseases. Purity of the antibody is essential for successful applications and Protein A selective resin extraction is the standard step for antibody recovery. Unfortunately, such resins can cost up to 30% of the total cost of antibody production. Hence, the optimal design of this purification step becomes a critical factor in downstream processing to minimize the size of the column needed. An accurate predictive model, as a digital twin representing the purification process, is necessary where changes in the flow rates and the inlet concentrations are modeled via the Method of Moments. The system uncertainties are captured by including the stochastic Ito process model of Brownian motion with drift. Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle under uncertainty is then applied to predict the flowrate control strategy for optimized resin use, column design, and efficient capturing of the antibodies. In... [more]
In Silico and In Vitro Analyses of Multiple Terpenes Predict Cryptotanshinone as a Potent Inhibitor of the Omicron Variant of SARS-CoV-2
Asmita Shrestha, Siddha Raj Upadhyaya, Bimal K. Raut, Salyan Bhattarai, Khaga Raj Sharma, Niranjan Parajuli, Jae Kyung Sohng, Bishnu P. Regmi
June 21, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: COVID-19, Omicron variant, spike protein, terpenes
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) underwent a substantial number of alterations, and the accompanying structural mutations in the spike protein prompted questions about the virus’s propensity to evade the antibody neutralization produced by prior infection or vaccination. New mutations in SARS-CoV-2 have raised serious concerns regarding the effectiveness of drugs and vaccines against the virus; thus, identifying and developing potent antiviral medications is crucial to combat viral infections. In the present study, we conducted a detailed in silico investigation that involves molecular docking, density functional (DFT) analysis, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and pharmacological analysis followed by an in vitro study with the spike protein. Among fifty terpenes screened, cryptotanshinone and saikosaponin B2 were found to be potent S1-RBD spike protein inhibitors, displaying considerable hydrogen bond interactions with ke... [more]
Transition Metal Complexes with Amino Acids, Peptides and Carbohydrates in Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis: A Short Review
Yuliya Titova
June 21, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: amino acid, asymmetric synthesis, carbohydrate, Catalysis, ligand, modified, organic catalytic synthesis, transition metal complex
The present review is devoted to the application of transition metal complexes with such ligands as amino acids, peptides and carbohydrates in catalysis. The literature published over the past 20 years is surveyed. Among the distinctive features of these ligands are their versatility, optical activity, stability and availability. Furthermore, depending on the specific synthetic task to be solved, these ligands open up almost infinite opportunity for modification. Largely thanks to their multifaceted reactivity, transition metal complexes with amino acids, peptides and carbohydrates can catalyze most of the known chemical reactions affording optically pure compounds. In this review, the emphasis is placed upon C(sp3)−H activation, cross-coupling and hydrogenation (including traditional hydrogenation in the presence of hydrogen gas and hydrogenation with hydrogen transfer) reactions. The choice is not accidental, since these reactions on the one hand display the catalytic versatility of... [more]
Improving the Quality of Tantalum Cylindrical Deep-Drawn Part Formation Using Different Lubricating Media-Coated Dies
Teng Xu, Shihao Dou, Mingwu Su, Jianbin Huang, Ningyuan Zhu, Shangpang Yu, Likuan Zhu
June 21, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: DLC, limit drawing ratio, lubrication media, surface topography quality, tantalum metal
Lubrication is one of the key factors to improve metal-forming quality. In the process of deep drawing, seizing tumors easily occur on the contact surfaces between the tantalum metal and the mold, which greatly affects the forming quality of the deep-drawn parts. Quality-forming quality problems that occur during the deep drawing of tantalum metal are studied from the perspective of lubrication in this paper. Three lubrication media, caster oil, PE (polyethylene) film, and DLC (Diamond Like Carbon) film, were adopted in the deep drawing of tantalum cylindrical cups. A universal testing machine and microscope were used to investigate the effect of lubrication media on the limit-drawing ratio, maximum forming force, and surface topography quality during the deep drawing process of the tantalum sheet. The results reveal that the lubrication of the PE film and DLC film can greatly improve the forming quality of the tantalum metal sheet, in which the DLC film has higher wear resistance and... [more]
Elicitation as a Process of Enhancing Bioactive Compounds Concentration in Sprouts
Joanna Szulc, Katarzyna Czaczyk, Anna Dobrowolska, Grażyna Gozdecka, Błażej Błaszak
June 21, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: bioactive compounds, chlorine dioxide, elicitation, microbial quality, sprouts
During growth, plants produce bioactive compounds—secondary metabolites. Their concentration can be stimulated by the presence of a stressful factor—an elicitor. Since chlorine dioxide is commonly used in water plants to disinfect drinking water, its application as a plant elicitor seems to be very attractive. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of a new elicitor, ClO2, on the quality of seeds and bioactive compounds of sprouts. Elicitation of radish and broccoli seeds using ClO2 solutions did not significantly reduce their germination percentage (GP remained over 90%). Radish sprouts sprouted from seeds elicited in chlorine dioxide solutions with concentrations up to 800 ppm did not differ statistically significantly in terms of polyphenol content. Sprouts which were grown in the presence of ClO2 contained significantly fewer polyphenolic compounds. Elicitation of broccoli seeds in 800−1000 ppm ClO2 solutions causes an increase in total phenolic content and concentra... [more]
Competitive Effect of Zinc and Cadmium on the Biosorption of Chromium by Orange Waste
Ana Belén Pérez-Marín, Juan Francisco Ortuño, María Isabel Aguilar, Mercedes Lloréns, Víctor Francisco Meseguer
June 21, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: binary system, competitive biosorption, heavy metals, isotherm models, orange waste
Batch experiments were conducted to test orange waste (OW), an agricultural solid waste byproduct from the orange juice manufacturing industry, as adsorbent for binary solutions of Cd2+-Cr3+ and Zn2+-Cr3+. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the point of zero charge (pHpzc) were used to identify the functional groups on the OW surface involved in biosorption. The biosorption equilibrium data for both binary-metal solutions were obtained and fitted to various isotherm models. The extended Sips and the non-modified Redlich-Peterson isotherm models gave the best fit for the experimental data. According to the extended Sips model, the maximum biosorption capacity of OW was 0.573 mmol·g−1 for Cd2+, 0.453 mmol·g−1 for Zn2+, and 1.96 mmol·g−1 for Cr3+. The sorption capacity dropped to 0.061 mmol·g−1 for Cd2+ and to 0.101 mmol·g1 for Zn2+ in their binary systems with Cr3+ for the higher initial metal concentrations in the solution. However, the maximum sorption capacity of chrom... [more]
Assessment of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potential of Phenolic Extracts from Post-Distillation Solid Residues of Oregano, Rosemary, Sage, Lemon Balm, and Spearmint
Elisavet Bouloumpasi, Magdalini Hatzikamari, Stamatia Christaki, Athina Lazaridou, Paschalina Chatzopoulou, Costas G. Biliaderis, Maria Irakli
June 21, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: antibacterial effect, antioxidant activity, biological activity, extracts, herbs, solid waste, valorization
Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) are potential sources of natural polyphenols. Solid residues (SRs) from the essential oil (EO) industry are produced in significant volumes and may be used as natural sources of bioactive compounds. Therefore, this work was designed to examine the antioxidant and antibacterial characteristics of phenolic extracts obtained from SRs that have remained after EO distillation. SR extracts of Greek oregano, rosemary, spearmint, lemon balm, and Greek sage were assessed for their total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus cereus in the concentration range of 500-3000 mg/L. The rosemary and Greek sage extracts exhibited the strongest antibacterial activities against all the Gram-positive species, while the spearmint and oregano extracts were less effective and only had an... [more]
Experimental Research on the Influence of Ion Channels on the Healing of Skin Wounds in Rats
Alexandra Grigore, Ana Vatasescu-Balcan, Smaranda Stoleru, Aurelian Zugravu, Elena Poenaru, Miruna Engi, Oana Andreia Coman, Ion Fulga
June 21, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: amiodarone, potassium channels, wound healing
At the level of skin wounds, an electrical potential difference develops between the edges of the wound and the center of the wound, which favors the migration of cells in the process of their healing. Cells migrate in an electric field because they have a certain electrical membrane potential. This potential is due to differences in the transmembrane electrochemical gradient. The transmembrane electrochemical gradient is due to the migration of sodium, potassium, and calcium ions into the corresponding ion channels. If this is the case, the modification of the functionality of these ion channels should influence the membrane potential and, as a consequence, the wound healing process. In this experiment, we set out to investigate whether the chemical manipulation of ion channels by amiodarone influences the wound healing process. Amiodarone blocks several types of ion channels, but at different concentrations: at low concentrations, it blocks only potassium channels; at medium concentr... [more]
Semi-Permanent Mass Production of Ac-225 for Cancer Therapy by the (3n,x) Reaction in Pressurized Water Reactor
Daiki Iwahashi, Yuto Sasaki, Tomoatsu Shinohara, Naoyuki Takaki
June 21, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: Ac-225, light water reactor, neutron transmutation, pressurized water reactor, Ra-226, targeted alpha therapy, Th-229, Th-230, Th-232
Alpha particle-emitting radiopharmaceuticals are in high demand for use in targeted alpha therapy. Ac-225 is currently produced using Th-229, but its annual production remains low, approximately 63 GBq. Previously, we produced a large amount of Ac-225 via the (n,2n) reaction in fast reactors; however, it required repetitive irradiation. In this work, we investigated a method to produce Th-229 via the (3n,x) reaction through long-term irradiation using neutrons from Pressurized Water Reactors. As target nuclides, Ra-226, which is commonly used for Ac-225 production, and Th-230, which is not widely used but is abundant, were selected. The evaluation was conducted under mixed conditions of Th-230 and Th-232. Ra-226 and Th-230 produce Th-229 (T1/2 = 7920 years) after long-term neutron irradiation. Th-229, which has a long half-life, the α-decays to produce Ra-225, and the β-decays of Ra-225 to produce Ac-225. These processes are semi-permanent owing to the long half-life of Th-229. Further... [more]
Influence of Cold Plasma Processing on the Stability of Phenolic Compounds of Araça-Boi (Eugenia stipitata) Juice
Elaine C. Porto, Dayanne L. H. Maia, Sueli Rodrigues, Fabiano A. N. Fernandes, Pedro H. Campelo
June 21, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: cold plasma, Eugenia stipitata, non-thermal technology, phenolic compounds
Knowledge of the chemical changes caused during plasma treatment is essential to enhance food quality. In this work, the influence of two cold plasma technologies, dielectric barrier discharge plasma and glow discharge plasma, on the phenolic profile of araça-boi (Eugenia stipitata) juice was investigated and assessed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Eight phenolic compounds were identified in araça-boi, with cinnamic acid being the major phenolic compound of the fruit juice, followed by protocatechuic acid. The effects of excitation frequency and plasma flow rate were evaluated because these are the main operating conditions that can be set for plasma treatments. The phenolic profile slightly changed due to the reaction of the phenolics with the reactive plasma species produced during the treatment, with the highest increase in phenolic content observed in the dielectric barrier discharge plasma operating at 1000 Hz. Both plasma systems increased the bioavailability... [more]
Physiological Performance and Biosorption Capacity of Exiguobacterium sp. SH31 Isolated from Poly-Extreme Salar de Huasco in the Chilean Altiplano: A Study on Rare-Earth Element Tolerance
Genesis Serrano, Jonathan Fortt, Juan Castro-Severyn, Rodrigo Castillo, Claudia Saavedra, Gabriel Krüger, Claudia Núñez, Francisco Remonsellez, Karem Gallardo
June 21, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: biosorption, Exiguobacterium strain SH31, extracellular polymeric substances, isotherms, rare-earth elements
Rare-earth elements (REEs) are crucial metals with limited global availability due to their indispensable role in various high-tech industries. As the demand for rare-earth elements continues to rise, there is a pressing need to develop sustainable methods for their recovery from secondary sources. Focusing on Exiguobacterium sp. SH31, this research investigates the impact of La, Eu, Gd, and Sm on its physiological performance and biosorption capacity. Tolerance was assessed at pHpzc from 7 to 8 with up to 1 mM rare-earth element concentrations. This study visualized the production of extracellular polymeric substances using Congo red assays and quantified them with ultraviolet−visible spectroscopy. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy characterized the functional groups involved in metal interactions. The SH31 strain displayed significant rare-earth element tolerance, confirmed extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production under all conditions, and... [more]
Analysis of Essential Oil of Salix babylonica Collected in Vietnam: Phytochemical Components and Antibacterial and Anticancer Activity
Phu Hiep Hoang, Thien Hien Tran, Van Khang Pham
June 21, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: anti-cancer activity, antibacterial activity, essential oil, Salix babylonica, volatile oil
This study investigated the chemical compositions and inhibitory activities of essential oils (EOs) of Salix babylonica from Vietnam. The gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system was used to analyze the chemical compositions of Salix babylonica essential oils. A total of twenty-eight and thirty-one compounds were identified in essential oils of the leaves and bark, among which many chemical compositions were identified for the first time in this plant. Salix babylonica essential oils demonstrated antibacterial activities against Gram-negative strains such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Escherichia coli and Gram-positive strains such as Staphylococcus aureus (SA), and demonstrated anti-cancer activities against three cancer cell lines (HepG2, MCF-7 cell, and A549). The evaluation of the ability to inhibit three strains of microorganisms and inhibit the growth of three cancer cell lines was first conducted using essential oils extracted from the plant species S. babylonica... [more]
Novel Betulin-1,2,4-Triazole Derivatives Promote In Vitro Dose-Dependent Anticancer Cytotoxicity
Alexandra Prodea, Andreea Milan, Marius Mioc, Alexandra Mioc, Camelia Oprean, Roxana Racoviceanu, Roxana Negrea-Ghiulai, Gabriel Mardale, Ștefana Avram, Mihaela Balan-Porcărașu, Slavița Rotunjanu, Cristina Trandafirescu, Irina Şoica, Codruța Șoica
June 21, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: betulin, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, cytotoxicity, melanoma, triazole derivatives
Betulin is a birch bark-derived lupane-type pentacyclic triterpene with a wide spectrum of biological activities. Given their enhanced antiproliferative potential and enhanced pharmacological profile, betulin derivatives are continuously investigated in scientific studies. The objective of the current study was to in vitro assess the antiproliferative properties of novel synthesized 1,2,4-triazole derivatives of diacetyl betulin. The compounds were investigated using three cancer cell lines: A375 (melanoma), MCF-7 (breast cancer), HT-29 (colorectal cancer), and HaCaT (human keratinocytes). Bet-TZ1 had the lowest recorded IC50 values (ranging from 22.41 to 46.92 μM after 48 h of exposure) than its precursor and other tested compounds in every scenario, with the highest cytotoxicity against the A375 cell line. Bet-TZ3 demonstrated comparable cytotoxicity to the previously mentioned compound, with an IC50 of 34.34 μM against A375. Both compounds caused apoptosis in tested cells, by induci... [more]
Enhanced Enzymatic Production of Antioxidant Peptides from Carya cathayensis Cake Using an Enzymatic Membrane-Coupled Reactor
Qingqing Wang, Yinzi Chang, Qinjie Yuan, Fenghua Wu, Hao Hu, Jiaojiao Zhang, Zhiping He
June 21, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: antioxidant peptides, Carya cathayensis cake, enzyme membrane coupling process, enzyme membrane reactor
This study establishes an enzymatic membrane-coupled production process for antioxidant peptides from Carya cathayensis cake by comparing the effects of not feeding, water feeding, substrate feeding, and gradient dilution feeding supplementary material modes, to assess their impact on production efficiency. The optimal operational conditions were determined as follows: pH 10.5, temperature 50 °C, and enzyme-to-substrate ratio of 10% (w/w). The continuous production using the gradient dilution supplementary material mode resulted in Chinese pecan antioxidant peptides with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging rate of 0.044 mg/mL, 2, 2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) radical scavenging rate of 0.518 mg/mL, and ferrous ion chelating ability (IC50) of 0.252 mg/mL. Compared with traditional enzymatic hydrolysis processes, the gradient dilution supplementary material enzymatic membrane-coupled production process increased peptide yield, peptide productio... [more]
Exploring the Antimelanoma Potential of Betulinic Acid Esters and Their Liposomal Nanoformulations
Andreea Milan, Marius Mioc, Alexandra Mioc, Narcisa Marangoci, Roxana Racoviceanu, Gabriel Mardale, Mihaela Bălan-Porcărașu, Slavița Rotunjanu, Irina Şoica, Codruța Șoica
June 10, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: betulinic acid, betulinic acid derivatives, cytotoxicity, liposomal formulation, melanoma
Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpene belonging to the lupane-group that exhibits a wide range of pharmacological activities. BA derivatives are continuously being researched due to their improved anticancer efficacy and bioavailability. The current research was conducted in order to determine the antiproliferative potential of three synthesized BA fatty esters using palmitic, stearic and butyric acids and their liposomal nanoformulations. The cytotoxic potential of BA fatty esters (Pal-BA, St-BA, But-BA) and their respective liposomal formulations (Pal-BA-Lip, St-BA-Lip, But-BA-Lip) has been assessed on HaCaT immortalized human keratinocytes and A375 human melanoma cells. Both the esters and their liposomes acted as cytotoxic agents against melanoma cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The butyryl ester But-BA outperformed BA in terms of cytotoxicity (IC50 60.77 μM) while the nanoformulations St-BA-Lip, But-BA-Lip and BA-Lip also displayed IC50 values (... [more]
Thermal Stabilization of Lipases Bound to Solid-Phase Triazine-Scaffolded Biomimetic Ligands: A Preliminary Assessment
Diogo Ferreira-Faria, M. Ângela Taipa
June 7, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: affinity-like interactions, biomimetic ligands, cutinase, invertase, lipases, thermal stability
Biomimetic ligands are synthetic compounds that mimic the structure and binding properties of natural biological ligands. The first uses of textile dyes as pseudo-affinity ligands paved the way for the rational design and de novo synthesis of low-cost, non-toxic and highly stable triazine-scaffolded affinity ligands. A novel method to assess and enhance protein stability, employing triazine-based biomimetic ligands and using cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi as a protein model, has been previously reported. This innovative approach combined the concepts of molecular modeling and solid-phase combinatorial chemistry to design, synthesize and screen biomimetic compounds able to bind cutinase through complementary affinity-like interactions while maintaining its biological functionality. The screening of a 36-member biased combinatorial library enabled the identification of promising lead ligands. The immobilization/adsorption of cutinase onto a particular lead (ligand 3′/11) led to a not... [more]
Impact of Doxycycline Addition on Activated Sludge Microflora and Microbial Communities
Hayet Djelal, Djouza Haddouche, Megane Lebreton, Vanessa Barros, Cristian Villegas, Patrick Dabert
June 7, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: doxycycline, microbial community, microscopic observations, sludge settleability, Wastewater
Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are exposed to high concentrations of micropollutants that can impact conventional activated sludge treatment. The consequences of this include failure to meet discharge standards and the disintegration of flocs, leading to poor sludge settleability. This lab-scale study focuses on the influence of doxycycline, an antibiotic widely used against human and animal diseases, on protozoa, metazoa, and bacterial communities under sludge growing conditions. Doxycycline was added to the mixed liquor of a communal WWTP up to 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg of doxycycline L−1 and incubated in batch conditions for 23 days. The regular addition of nutrient and carbon sources was preformed every 2 days to prevent sludge starvation. Sludge growth, conductivity, and settleability were measured and compared to sludge microbial community structure, determined by microscopic observations and high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing. The high doxycycline concentration neg... [more]
Pulsed Electric Field Technology for Recovery of Proteins from Waste Plant Resources and Deformed Mushrooms: A Review
Ramya Ramaswamy, Sivaneasan Bala Krishnan, Susanna Su Jan Leong
June 7, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: deformed mushroom parts, protein extraction, pulsed electric field, waste plant resources
Proteins are complex molecules, which play a vital role in our body’s function, the building of tissues, and the regulation of metabolic activity. They are crucial to children’s growth and serve as a key component in the body’s process of distributing oxygen. Proteins fuel the body by supplying the required nutrition and energy. Currently, there is an increasing demand for proteins on large scales with no detrimental effects. The adverse health effects of animal proteins have resulted in a growing preference for plant-based proteins, which offer a healthier daily dosage. Valuable proteins can be extracted from various parts of the plant, including stems, leaves, seeds, fruits, vegetables, and roots. Notably, protein extraction from waste plant and mushroom parts minimizes the product wastage and improves the overall production to support economic sustainability. There are several protein extraction techniques available, where the replacement of non-thermal methods with thermal ones is... [more]
Effect of Recycling on Thermomechanical Properties of Zein and Soy Protein Isolate Bioplastics
Fahimeh Alsadat-Seyedbokaei, Manuel Felix, Carlos Bengoechea
June 7, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: bioplastics, injection moulding, recycle, soy protein isolate (SPI), zein
Bioplastics are an alternative to reduce the environmental damage caused by petroleum-based plastics. However, the effect of primary recycling (reprocessing) of bioplastics from biomass resources has not yet been well studied. If successful, this would boost the landing of recyclable and biodegradable bio-based materials to the market. In order to meet the challenge of recycling bioplastics, it is necessary to study the reprocessing of bio-based materials that potentially behave as thermoplastics. This study investigated the primary recyclability of Zein- and soy protein isolate (SPI)-based bioplastics by reprocessing. Protein powders were initially mixed with glycerol (Gly), which acts as a plasticizer, and the blends were subjected to injection moulding. Initial specimens were reprocessed by injection moulding up to five times. The effect of reprocessing was evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), tensile test, and water uptake capacity (WUC). Finally, the property−structure... [more]
Alternative Processes for Apple Juice Stabilization and Clarification: A Bibliometric and Comprehensive Review
Lea Nehmé, Myriam El Tekle, Nathalie Barakat, Alexandra El Khoury, Samar Azzi-Achkouty, Youssef El Rayess
June 7, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: apple juice, clarification, enzymes, membrane filtration, non-thermal pasteurization, patulin
Apple juice is one of the most consumed fruit juices in the world. Raw apple juice is viscous, turbid, and brown in color and contains several spoilage microorganisms. These are the reasons behind the application of several steps of clarification and stabilization prior to juice commercialization. Thermal pasteurization remains the most used process for apple juice microbial stabilization, but it damages its organoleptic and nutritional characteristics. Juice settling used for clarification does not allow the achievement of the desired level of clarification. Therefore, this article provides a comprehensive and bibliometric review of all the alternative treatments for thermal pasteurization in order to reduce microorganisms and patulin levels such as pulsed electric fields, microwave processing, high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasonication, etc., and their effect on apple juice characteristics as well as the techniques used for apple juice clarification.
The Crucial Impact of Microbial Growth and Bioenergy Conversion on Treating Livestock Manure and Antibiotics Using Chlorella sorokiniana
Hee-Jun Kim, Sangjun Jeong, YeonA Lee, Jae-Cheol Lee, Hyun-Woo Kim
June 7, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: antibiotics, biodiesel, bioenergy conversion, livestock excreta, microalgae
The residual antibiotics in livestock excreta (LE) have been regarded as a potential threat to the ecosystem and human society. Some photoautotrophic microalgae, however, were found to metabolize them during active biomass photosynthesis. This study investigates how the strength of the antibiotics impacts the overall biodiesel yield and composition of the harvested microalgal biomass grown from LE. The microalgal growth results demonstrate that increasing the concentration of residual antibiotics suppresses the microalgal growth rate from 0.87 d−1 to 0.34 d−1. This 61% lower biomass production rate supports the proposition that the kinetic impact of antibiotics may slow lipid synthesis. Moreover, the analytical results of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) demonstrate that amoxicillin substantially reduces the C16:0 content by over 96%. This study evidences that the functional group similarity of amoxicillin may competitively inhibit the esterification reaction by consuming methanol. This... [more]
Anti-Glioblastoma Potential and Phenolic Profile of Berry Juices
Mirela Kopjar, Drazen Raucher, Mary Ann Lila, Josip Šimunović
June 7, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: anthocyanins, antiproliferative potential, dwarf elderberry juice, raspberry juice, wild blackberry juice
Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive and lethal brain tumors. Due to the failure of conventional chemotherapies and targeted drugs pursuit of natural, less toxic agents is on the rise as well as their utilization in glioblastoma treatment. Consequently, this study explores the antiproliferative potential of selected berry juices (wild blackberry (Rubus discolor), dwarf elderberry (Sambucus ebulus), and raspberry (Rubus idaeus)) on glioblastoma cells (U87-MG and GBM43) in comparison to temozolomide. The juices were assessed for total phenolic content, proanthocyanins, polyphenol profiles, and antioxidant activity. Wild blackberry and dwarf elderberry juices exhibited higher total polyphenols, proanthocyanins, and monomeric anthocyanins compared to raspberry juice. HPLC analysis revealed distinctive anthocyanins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids in each juice. With the DPPH assay, the highest antioxidant potential had wild blackberry juice, while with other assays dwarf elderberry ju... [more]
Enhancing Alkaline Protease Stability through Enzyme-Catalyzed Crosslinking and Its Application in Detergents
Haichuan Yang, Xiankun Ren, Yating Zhao, Tengjiao Xu, Jing Xiao, Hao Chen
June 7, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: alkaline protease, laundry detergent, stability, TG enzyme
Enzymatic additives, particularly alkaline proteases, play a crucial role in enhancing detergent effectiveness against protein-based stains. Despite advancements in enzyme stabilization techniques, there is a need for innovative strategies to further improve protease stability in laundry detergents. However, research exploring the utilization of substrate imprinting technology to achieve this objective remains limited. Therefore, this study aims to enhance the stability of alkaline proteases in laundry detergents by employing casein as an imprinting substrate and utilizing transglutaminase-mediated (TGase) crosslinking to modify proteases 102 and 306. The optimal temperature, pH, and thermal stability of the modified alkaline proteases 102 and 306 showed no significant changes. However, these two modified alkaline proteases exhibited varying degrees of improvement in stability among the 14 detergent additives tested. Under 40 °C incubation for 24 h, the relative enzyme activity of modi... [more]
Comparing Quality and Functional Properties of Protein Isolates from Soybean Cakes: Effect of De-Oiling Technologies
Giulia Cestonaro, Rodrigo Gonzalez-Ortega, Antonella L. Grosso, Ksenia Morozova, Giovanna Ferrentino, Matteo Scampicchio, Enrico Costanzo
June 7, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: alternative protein sources, functional properties, green extraction, oilseed co-products, solvent extraction
Driven by growing concerns about food supply and the environment, research on alternative protein sources has become increasingly important. In this context, de-oiled seed cakes, particularly soybean cakes, have emerged as a promising option. However, the conventional methods, such as organic solvent extraction, from which these cakes are obtained present several limitations. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) as an alternative method for de-oiling soybean seeds and obtaining related protein isolates. By using SFE for de-oiling, it was possible to achieve 19% more protein isolates from soybean cakes than the conventional de-oiling method using hexane. Moreover, protein isolates from the SFE de-oiled cake reported significantly improved (p < 0.05) emulsifying abilities and water absorption capacity. Gel electrophoresis and differential scanning calorimetry indicated the presence of a higher concentration of proteins in their native stat... [more]
Simulation of Ni2+ Chelating Peptides Separation in IMAC: Prediction of Langmuir Isotherm Parameters from SPR Affinity Data
Rachel Irankunda, Pauline Jambon, Alexandra Marc, Jairo Andrés Camaño Echavarría, Laurence Muhr, Laetitia Canabady-Rochelle
June 7, 2024 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: chromatography modeling, IMAC, metal chelating peptides, Simulation, sorption isotherm, SPR, transport dispersive model
Chromatography modeling for simulation is a tool that can help to predict the separation of molecules inside the column. Knowledge of sorption isotherms in chromatography modeling is a crucial step and methods such as frontal analysis or batch are used to obtain sorption isotherm parameters, but they require a significant quantity of samples. This study aims to predict Langmuir isotherm parameters from Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) affinity data (requiring less quantity of sample) to simulate metal chelating peptides (MCPs) separation in Immobilized Metal ion Affinity Chromatography (IMAC), thanks to the analogy between both techniques. The validity of simulation was evaluated by comparing the peptide’s simulated retention time with its experimental retention time obtained by IMAC. Results showed that the peptide affinity constant (KA) can be conserved between SPR and IMAC. However, the maximal capacity (qmax) must be adjusted by a correction factor to overcome the geometry differenc... [more]
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