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Records with Subject: Other
Showing records 1 to 25 of 349. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Redox Effects of Molecular Hydrogen and Its Therapeutic Efficacy in the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases
Md. Habibur Rahman, Johny Bajgai, Ailyn Fadriquela, Subham Sharma, Thuy Trinh Thi, Rokeya Akter, Seong Hoon Goh, Cheol-Su Kim, Kyu-Jae Lee
December 6, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: antioxidant, inflammation, molecular hydrogen, neurological disorder, neuroprotection, oxidative stress
Oxidative stress (OS) and neuroinflammatory stress affect many neurological disorders. Despite the clinical significance of oxidative damage in neurological disorders, still, no effective and safe treatment methods for neuro diseases are available. With this, molecular hydrogen (H2) has been recently reported as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent to treat several oxidative stress-related diseases. In animal and human clinical trials, the routes for H2 administration are mainly categorized into three types: H2 gas inhalation, H2 water dissolving, and H2-dissolved saline injection. This review explores some significant progress in research on H2 use in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, neonatal disorders of the brain, and other NDs (retinal ischemia and traumatic brain injury). Even though most neurological problems are not currently curable, these studies have shown the therapeutic potential for prevention, treatment, and mitig... [more]
Performance Characteristics in Runner of an Impulse Water Turbine with Splitter Blade
Lingdi Tang, Shouqi Yuan, Yue Tang, Zhijun Gao
December 6, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: Energy Conversion, flow characteristics, impulse water turbine, runner domain
The impulse water turbine is a promising energy conversion device that can be used as mechanical power or a micro hydro generator, and its application can effectively ease the current energy crisis. This paper aims to clarify the mechanism of liquid acting on runner blades, the hydraulic performance, and energy conversion characteristics in the runner domain of an impulse water turbine with a splitter blade by using experimental tests and numerical simulations. The runner was divided into seven areas along the flow direction, and the power variation in the runner domain was analyzed to reflect its energy conversion characteristics. The obtained results indicate that the critical area of the runner for doing the work is in the front half of the blades, while the rear area of the blades does relatively little work and even consumes the mechanical energy of the runner to produce negative work. The high energy area is concentrated in the flow passage facing the nozzle. The energy is gradua... [more]
Rhizopus oligosporus-Assisted Valorization of Coconut Endosperm Waste by Black Soldier Fly Larvae for Simultaneous Protein and Lipid to Biodiesel Production
Chung Yiin Wong, Kunlanan Kiatkittipong, Worapon Kiatkittipong, Jun Wei Lim, Man Kee Lam, Ta Yeong Wu, Pau Loke Show, Hanita Daud, Pei Sean Goh, Mina Sakuragi, Elfis
November 27, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: biodiesel, black soldier fly, fungal fermentation, lipid, protein, Rhizopus oligosporus
Coconut endosperm waste (CEW) was treated by Rhizopus oligosporus via in situ and ex situ fermentations together with bioconversion into valuable black soldier fly larval biomass. The ex situ fermentation could overall enrich the nutritional compositions of CEW by hydrolyzing its complex organic polymers and exuding assimilable nutrients to enhance the black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) growth. Nevertheless, the larval gut bacteria were competing with Rhizopus oligosporus in in situ fermentation, derailing the hydrolysis processes and larval growth. Accordingly, the highest growth rates achieved were around 0.095 g/day, as opposed to only 0.065 g/day whilst using 0.5 wt% of Rhizopus oligosporus to perform ex situ and in situ fermentations, respectively. These were also underpinned by the greater amount of total CEW consumed when employing ex situ fermentation, with comparable metabolic costs to feeding on in situ-fermented CEW. The mature BSFL were subsequently harvested and the amounts o... [more]
Blended Sewage Sludge−Palm Kernel Expeller to Enhance the Palatability of Black Soldier Fly Larvae for Biodiesel Production
Ratchaprapa Raksasat, Kunlanan Kiatkittipong, Worapon Kiatkittipong, Chung Yiin Wong, Man Kee Lam, Yeek Chia Ho, Wen Da Oh, I Wayan Koko Suryawan, Jun Wei Lim
November 8, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: biodiesel, black soldier fly larvae, lipid, palm kernel expeller, sewage sludge
Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) have been employed for valorizing organic waste materials as the larvae are able to consume organic waste and transform it into valuable larval biomass. In this study, BSFL were found to potentially reduce blended sewage sludge. The addition of palm kernel expeller (PKE) fortified the protein and lipid content in blended sewage sludge substrates, leading to larval growth enhancement. In addition, the larval weight also influenced the lipid yield and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile. However, the optimum ratio of sewage sludge to PKE had to be determined as excess PKE content could become a threat to larval growth by contributing to the reduction of non-fiber carbohydrates content in the feed, thereby resulting in the decrease in lipid yield and FAME content. In this work, a sewage sludge to PKE ratio of 2:3 proffered the highest larval weight gained at 46.99 ± 2.09 mg/larva. Meanwhile, a proportion of 3:2 of sewage sludge to PKE was able provide th... [more]
Microencapsulation of Flaxseed Oil—State of Art
Asma Yakdhane, Sabrine Labidi, Donia Chaabane, Anita Tolnay, Arijit Nath, András Koris, Gyula Vatai
November 7, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: characterization of microcapsule, emulsifier, emulsion, flaxseed oil, freeze-drying, matrix, microencapsulation, spray-drying
Microencapsulation is a well-known technology for the lipid delivery system. It prevents the oxidation of fatty acids and maintains the quality of lipid after extraction from oil seed and processing. In flaxseed oil, the amount of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids are 39.90−60.42% and 12.25−17.44%, respectively. A comprehensive review article on the microencapsulation of flaxseed oil has not been published yet. Realizing the great advantages of flaxseed oil, information about different technologies related to the microencapsulation of flaxseed oil and their characteristics are discussed in a comprehensive way, in this review article. To prepare the microcapsule of flaxseed oil, an emulsion of oil-water is performed along with a wall material (matrix), followed by drying with a spray-dryer or freeze-dryer. Different matrices, such as plant and animal-based proteins, maltodextrin, gum Arabic, and modified starch are used for the encapsulation of flaxseed oil. In some cases, emulsif... [more]
Durability of Pavement Materials with Exposure to Various Anti-Icing Strategies
Shujuan Xu, Zhiliang Zhou, Lichao Feng, Na Cui, Ning Xie
November 7, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: anti-icing strategies, cost, durability, pavement, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Anti-icing is a critical topic in durability assessment for pavement infrastructures, and it varies according to local policies. To provide sufficient information to winter maintenance agencies, and help compare the merits and shortcomings of each strategy, this review summarizes the widely used anti-icing strategies, including elastic surfaces or high-friction overlays, asphalt binders mixed with anti-icing additives, pavement heating technologies, deicers, and fixed automated spray technology, from academic and practical perspectives, as well as explore the impact of deicers on the durability of concrete materials. Furthermore, the costs of each method were compared to evaluate the feasibility of them. This review not only provides a summary of previous anti-icing strategies, but also sheds light on future research trends that may help address the challenges of current anti-icing strategies, and further enhance anti-icing efficiency and reduce life cycle costs.
Implementation of an Automated Manufacturing Process for Smart Clothing: The Case Study of a Smart Sports Bra
Suhyun Lee, Soo Hyeon Rho, Sojung Lee, Jiwoong Lee, Sang Won Lee, Daeyoung Lim, Wonyoung Jeong
November 6, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: automated processes, automation, garment manufacturing processes, micro factory, smart clothing, smart factory
The garment manufacturing industry is a labor-intensive industry, with one of the slowest transitions to automation. Hence, it is essential to build a smart factory based on automated systems to improve productivity and allow responsive production in the market. In this study, the manufacturing processes for a smart sports bra were established and optimized using various automated machines. For this system, computer-based 3D virtual design software, a technical embroidery machine, an automatic cutting machine, an industrial robot arm with gripper, and an industrial pattern sewing machine were used. The design and materials of the sports bra were selected considering embroidery, cutting, robot gripping, and sewing processes. In addition, conductive thread and light-emitting diode (LED) sequences were used to implement smart functions to the sports bra. Transport of intermediate materials, work orders, and process conditions were optimized to improve the flexible connection of each proce... [more]
Screening of Ion Exchange Resins for Hazardous Ni(II) Removal from Aqueous Solutions: Kinetic and Equilibrium Batch Adsorption Method
Anna Wołowicz, Monika Wawrzkiewicz
November 6, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: Adsorption, ion exchangers, Lewatit MonoPlus TP220, nickel removal, water pollution
The development of new, cheaper, and more effective technologies to decrease the amount of wastewater containing heavy metals and to improve the quality is indispensable. Adsorption has become one of the alternative treatment methods. A small number of studies focusing on the batch technique for nickel ion removal by the new generation ion exchangers are described in the literature. In this paper, the Ni(II) removal from aqueous solutions using the ion exchange resins of different types was investigated. The experiments were conducted at different HCl and HCl/HNO3 concentrations, and the initial concentration was 100 mg Ni(II)/L. The investigation of the Ni(II) desorption from the chosen resins were carried out. The Ni(II) removal efficiency and the rate of removal are shown on the kinetic curves and the rate constants as well as kinetic parameters were collected and compared. The isotherm parameters were calculated and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy with the attenuated total... [more]
Coupling Microbial Electrolysis Cell and Activated Carbon Biofilter for Source-Separated Greywater Treatment
Mayank Dhadwal, Yang Liu, Bipro Ranjan Dhar
November 6, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: anionic surfactants, biofilter, granular activated carbon (GAC), greywater, microbial electrolysis cell
Reclamation and reuse of wastewater are increasingly viewed as a pragmatic tool for water conservation. Greywater, which includes water from baths, washing machines, dishwashers, and kitchen sinks, is a dilute wastewater stream, making it an attractive stream for extraction of non-potable water. However, most previous studies primarily focused on passively aerated biological and physicochemical treatment processes for greywater treatment. Here, we investigated an integrated process of a microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) followed by granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilter for greywater treatment. The integrated system could achieve 99.3% removal of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) and 98.7% removal of the anionic surfactants (linear alkylbenzene sulphonates) from synthetic greywater at a total hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 25 h (1 day for MEC and 1 h for GAC biofilter). For one-day HRT, the maximum peak volumetric current density from MEC was 0.65 A/m3, which was comparable... [more]
Black Soldier Fly Larval Valorization Benefitting from Ex-Situ Fungal Fermentation in Reducing Coconut Endosperm Waste
Chung Yiin Wong, Kunlanan Kiatkittipong, Worapon Kiatkittipong, Seteno K. O. Ntwampe, Man Kee Lam, Pei Sean Goh, Chin Kui Cheng, Mohammed J. K. Bashir, Jun Wei Lim
November 6, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: black soldier fly, coconut endosperm waste, entomoremediation, ex situ fermentation, Rhizopus oligosporus, valorization
Oftentimes, the employment of entomoremediation to reduce organic wastes encounters ubiquitous shortcomings, i.e., ineffectiveness to valorize recalcitrant organics in wastes. Considering the cost-favorability, a fermentation process can be employed to facilitate the degradation of biopolymers into smaller organics, easing the subsequent entomoremediation process. However, the efficacy of in situ fermentation was found impeded by the black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) in the current study to reduce coconut endosperm waste (CEW). Indeed, by changing into ex situ fermentation, in which the fungal Rhizopus oligosporus was permitted to execute fermentation on CEW prior to the larval feeding, the reduction of CEW was significantly enhanced. In this regard, the waste reduction index of CEW by BSFL was almost doubled as opposed to in situ fermentation, even with the inoculation of merely 0.5 wt % of Rhizopus oligosporus. Moreover, with only 0.02 wt % of fungal inoculation size to execute the ex... [more]
Inflation- and Energy-Adjusted Historical Prices Reflect Disruptive Events to Global Energy Systems
Thomas A. Adams II
October 21, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: coal price, Energy, gas price, inflation, oil price
The historical prices of oil, coal, and natural gas in the United States after adjusting for energy content and inflation are computed and provided in a comparative context from 1984 to the present (August 2022). The price history reflects impacts by disruptive local or global events. Although current oil and gas prices are high, when adjusted for inflation, they are still not as high as prices experienced during the early 1980s and late 2000s. However, high global inflation rates compound other factors that are increasing energy prices now, leading to record high prices in absolute terms, and sticker shock to consumers worldwide. The recent impacts of the pandemic, Texas Freeze, and Russian invasion of mainland Ukraine are evident. Although oil and gas generally trend up or down together, they remain decoupled on an energy basis as they have been since 2006.
On Catalytic Kinetics of Enzymes
Jianshu Dong
October 31, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: biological macro-substrate, Catalysis, catalytic coefficient, catalytic efficiency, catalytic step, enzyme, kinetics, macromolecule, time
Classical enzyme kinetic theories are summarized and linked with modern discoveries here. The sequential catalytic events along time axis by enzyme are analyzed at the molecular level, and by using master equations, this writing tries to connect the microscopic molecular behavior of enzyme to kinetic data (like velocity and catalytic coefficient k) obtained in experiment: 1/k = t equals to the sum of the times taken by the constituent individual steps. The relationships between catalytic coefficient k, catalytic rate or velocity, the amount of time taken by each step and physical or biochemical conditions of the system are discussed, and the perspective and hypothetic equations proposed here regarding diffusion, conformational change, chemical conversion, product release steps and the whole catalytic cycle provide an interpretation of previous experimental observations and can be testified by future experiments.
Spray Drying for Direct Compression of Pharmaceuticals
Nizar Al-Zoubi, Shadi Gharaibeh, Ahmad Aljaberi, Ioannis Nikolakakis
October 31, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: active pharmaceutical ingredient, co-processing, direct compression, excipient, multifunctional, oral disintegration, spray drying, sustained release, tablets
Tableting by direct compression (DC) is one of the simplest and most cost-effective drug manufacturing approaches. However, most active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and excipients lack the compression and flow properties required to meet the needs of high-speed industrial tablet presses. Therefore, the majority of DC APIs and excipients are modified via processing/co-processing particle engineering techniques to boost their properties. Spray drying is one of the most commonly employed techniques to prepare DC grades of APIs and excipients with prominent advantages. This review aims to present an overview of the commercially marketed and investigationally-prepared DC APIs and excipients produced by spray drying.
Predicting the Potency of Anti-Alzheimer’s Drug Combinations Using Machine Learning
Thomas J. Anastasio
October 31, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, Artificial Intelligence, artificial neural network, drug combination, drug repurposing, Machine Learning, multifactorial disorder, neurodegeneration, polypharmacy
Clinical trials of single drugs intended to slow the progression of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) have been notoriously unsuccessful. Combinations of repurposed drugs could provide effective treatments for AD. The challenge is to identify potentially effective combinations. To meet this challenge, machine learning (ML) was used to extract the knowledge from two leading AD databases, and then “the machine” predicted which combinations of the drugs in common between the two databases would be the most effective as treatments for AD. Specifically, three-layered artificial neural networks (ANNs) with compound, gated units in their internal layer were trained using ML to predict the cognitive scores of participants, separately in either database, given other data fields including age, demographic variables, comorbidities, and drugs taken. The predictions from the separately trained ANNs were statistically highly significantly correlated. The best drug combinations, jointly determined from both s... [more]
Commercial Thermal Technologies for Desalination of Water from Renewable Energies: A State of the Art Review
Jhon Jairo Feria-Díaz, María Cristina López-Méndez, Juan Pablo Rodríguez-Miranda, Luis Carlos Sandoval-Herazo, Felipe Correa-Mahecha
October 30, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: desalination, multi effect distillation, multi stage flash, renewable energies, vapor compression distillation
Thermal desalination is yet a reliable technology in the treatment of brackish water and seawater; however, its demanding high energy requirements have lagged it compared to other non-thermal technologies such as reverse osmosis. This review provides an outline of the development and trends of the three most commercially used thermal or phase change technologies worldwide: Multi Effect Distillation (MED), Multi Stage Flash (MSF), and Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD). First, state of water stress suffered by regions with little fresh water availability and existing desalination technologies that could become an alternative solution are shown. The most recent studies published for each commercial thermal technology are presented, focusing on optimizing the desalination process, improving efficiencies, and reducing energy demands. Then, an overview of the use of renewable energy and its potential for integration into both commercial and non-commercial desalination systems is shown. Fi... [more]
Integrating Machine Learning, Radio Frequency Identification, and Consignment Policy for Reducing Unreliability in Smart Supply Chain Management
Suman Kalyan Sardar, Biswajit Sarkar, Byunghoon Kim
October 25, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: environment, Machine Learning, radio frequency identification, smart supply chain management, unreliability
Adopting smart technologies for supply chain management leads to higher profits. The manufacturer and retailer are two supply chain players, where the retailer is unreliable and may not send accurate demand information to the manufacturer. As an advanced smart technology, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is implemented to track and trace each product’s movement on a real-time basis in the inventory. It takes this supply chain to a smart supply chain management. This research proposes a Machine Learning (ML) approach for on-demand forecasting under smart supply chain management. Using Long-Short-Term Memory (LSTM), the demand is forecasted to obtain the exact demand information to reduce the overstock or understock situation. A measurement for the environmental effect is also incorporated with the model. A consignment policy is applied where the manufacturer controls the inventory, and the retailer gets a fixed fee along with a commission for selling each product. The manufacturer... [more]
The Air and Sewage Pollutants from Biological Waste Treatment
Marta Wiśniewska, Mirosław Szyłak-Szydłowski
October 25, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: biological treatment, chemical oxygen demand, odorant concentration, odour concentration, olfactometry, technological sewage
The mechanical-biological waste treatment plants (MBTP), which include the municipal waste biogas plants, have an important role in sustainable urban development. Some plants are equipped with a sewage pre-treatment plant, which is then directed to the sewerage system and the treatment plant. Others, on the other hand, have only a non-drainage tank. The parameters of technological sewage (TS) or processing technology could reduce sewage contamination rates. In addition to the quality of sewage from waste treatment plants, the emission of odours is also an important problem, as evidenced by the results obtained over the sewage pumping station tank. The conducted statistical analysis shows a significant positive correlation between odour concentration (cod) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Analysing the individual compounds, a high positive correlation was also found—the strongest being between H2S, NH3 and VOCs. In the case of sewage compounds, the insignificant correlation betwee... [more]
Tiny Cold Atmospheric Plasma Jet for Biomedical Applications
Zhitong Chen, Richard Obenchain, Richard E. Wirz
October 25, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: biomedical applications, cold atmospheric plasma, tiny plasma jet
Conventional plasma jets for biomedical applications tend to have several drawbacks, such as high voltages, high gas delivery, large plasma probe volume, and the formation of discharge within the organ. Therefore, it is challenging to employ these jets inside a living organism’s body. Thus, we developed a single-electrode tiny plasma jet and evaluated its use for clinical biomedical applications. We investigated the effect of voltage input and flow rate on the jet length and studied the physical parameters of the plasma jet, including discharge voltage, average gas and subject temperature, and optical emissions via spectroscopy (OES). The interactions between the tiny plasma jet and five subjects (de-ionized (DI) water, metal, cardboard, pork belly, and pork muscle) were studied at distances of 10 mm and 15 mm from the jet nozzle. The results showed that the tiny plasma jet caused no damage or burning of tissues, and the ROS/RNS (reactive oxygen/nitrogen species) intensity increased wh... [more]
Enhanced Anti-Fouling Behavior and Performance of PES Membrane by UV Treatment
Francesca Russo, Maria Bulzomì, Emanuele Di Nicolò, Claudia Ursino, Alberto Figoli
October 25, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: anti-fouling membranes, green solvent, hydrophilicity, membrane-surface modification, polarclean, UV-treatment, water treatment
An easy method to prepare hydrophilic PES membranes with anti-fouling properties was developed by UV-polymerization of poly vinyl pirrolidone (PVP) on membrane surfaces. The modified membrane surfaces were analyzed by ATR-FTIR, and the new hydrophilic nature of the membranes was determined by contact angle measurements. The novel membranes were prepared using Rhodiasolv® Polarclean as a green solvent and compared with a control PES membrane, without the exposure at the hydrophilization procedure. The influences of the UV lamp distance (15 and 30 cm) and the exposure time (0 cm to 60 cm) were evaluated. All membranes were characterized in terms of surface morphology, porosity, pore size, and pure water permeability (PWP). The treated membranes resulted in an increase in hydrophilicity and in improved performances in terms of PWP and foulant rejection. In particular, an anti-fouling test was performed using a solution of 100 mg/L of humic acid (HA) as a model foulant. The UV-treated memb... [more]
Improved Glucose Recovery from Sicyos angulatus by NaOH Pretreatment and Application to Bioethanol Production
Hyung-Eun An, Kang Hyun Lee, Ye Won Jang, Chang-Bae Kim, Hah Young Yoo
October 25, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: bioethanol, pretreatment, Sicyos angulatus, sodium hydroxide
As greenhouse gases and environmental pollution become serious, the demand for alternative energy such as bioethanol has rapidly increased, and a large supply of biomass is required for bioenergy production. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant on the planet and a large part of it, the second-generation biomass, has the advantage of not being a food resource. In this study, Sicyos angulatus, known as an invasive plant (harmful) species, was used as a raw material for bioethanol production. In order to improve enzymatic hydrolysis, S. angulatus was pretreated with different NaOH concentration at 121 °C for 10 min. The optimal NaOH concentration for the pretreatment was determined to be 2% (w/w), and the glucan content (GC) and enzymatic digestibility (ED) were 46.7% and 55.3%, respectively. Through NaOH pretreatment, the GC and ED of S. angulatus were improved by 2.4-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively, compared to the control (untreated S. angulatus). The hydrolysates from S. angul... [more]
High-Resolution Non-Contact Microwave Sensor for Water-Cut Measurements
Bushra Kamal, Zahra Abbasi, Hassan Hassanzadeh
October 19, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: non-contact sensing, planar microwave sensor, production monitoring, water cut measurement
A novel, real-time, non-contact, non-invasive and high-sensitivity planar microwave sensor is developed for water cut measurements of crude oil samples. This sensor demonstrates the capability of measuring water cut of bitumen in real-time, which is of low-cost and eliminates the hurdles of current measurement techniques, prevents loss of production, and paves the way for oil field automation. The platform of the proposed sensor is based on a passive split ring resonator-based sensor with a defected ground gap coupled transmission line as the reader. The performance of the microwave sensor has been verified with varying water concentration in oil samples. The non-contact nature and high-resolution of the proposed structure enables monitoring of water cut in the full range.
Deep Chemometrics using One Dimensional Convolutional Neural Networks for Predicting Crude Oil Properties from FTIR Spectral Data
Souvik Ta, Shahla Alizadeh, Lakshminarayanan Samavedham, Ajay K. Ray
October 19, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: Crude Oil Properties, FTIR, Neural Network architectures, One Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network
The determination of physicochemical properties of crude oils is a very important and time-intensive process that needs elaborate laboratory procedures. Over the last few decades, several correlations have been developed to estimate these properties, but they have been very limited in their scope and range. In recent years, methods based on spectral data analysis have been shown to be very promising in characterising petroleum crude. In this work, the physicochemical properties of crude oils using FTIR spectrums are predicted. A total of 107 samples of FTIR spectral data consisting of 6840 wavenumbers is used. One Dimensional convolutional neural networks (CNNs) were used with FTIR spectral data as the one-dimensional input and Keras and TensorFlow were used for model building. The Root Mean Square Error decreased from 160 to around 60 for viscosity when compared to previous machine learning methods like PLS, PCR, and PLS-GA on the same data. The important hyper-parameters of the CNN w... [more]
Combined Heat and Power System with Zero Carbon Emission by Integrating Catalytic Methane Pyrolysis and Carbon Conversion
Tianyue Li, Jian Long, Wenli Du, Feng Qian, Vladimir Mahalec
October 14, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: Carbon capture and In-Situ Conversion, Combined Heat and Power System, Methane Pyrolysis
Many industrial plants require electricity and high temperature thermal energy which are typically generated by burning hydrocarbon fuels. This study proposes an energy system that produces electricity and thermal energy by burning hydrocarbons without emitting CO2 through integration of catalytic methane pyrolysis (CMP), carbon capture and in-situ conversion (CCISC), methanol synthesis as well as combined heat and power (CHP) system. The system can eliminate CO2 emissions by industrial plants and residential areas and produce methanol and carbon black as chemical by-products, in addition to producing electricity and thermal energy. Result shows that the maximum net electricity efficiency can reach 52%.
A Mini Review on Antiwetting Studies in Membrane Distillation for Textile Wastewater Treatment
Guang Yang, Jianhua Zhang, Mingguo Peng, Erdeng Du, Yong Wang, Guocheng Shan, Ling Ling, Hui Ding, Stephen Gray, Zongli Xie
October 18, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: membrane antifouling, membrane distillation, polymeric membranes, textile wastewater
The textile industry is an important contributor to the growth of the global economy. However, a huge quantity of wastewater is generated as a by-product during textile manufacturing, which hinders the ongoing development of textile industry in terms of environmental sustainability. Membrane distillation (MD), which is driven by thermal-induced vapor pressure difference, is being considered as an emerging economically viable technology to treat the textile wastewater for water reuse. So far, massive efforts have been put into new membrane material developments and modifications of the membrane surface. However, membrane wetting, direct feed solution transport through membrane pores leading to the failure of separation, remains as one of the main challenges for the success and potential commercialization of this separation process as textile wastewater contains membrane wetting inducing surfactants. Herein, this review presents current progress on the MD process for textile wastewater t... [more]
Techno-Economic Analysis of Automated iPSC Production
Bastian Nießing, Raphael Kiesel, Laura Herbst, Robert H. Schmitt
October 18, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: automation, digitalization, economic analysis, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), StemCellFactory
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) open up the unique perspective of manufacturing cell products for drug development and regenerative medicine in tissue-, disease- and patient-specific forms. iPSC can be multiplied almost without restriction and differentiated into cell types of all organs. The basis for clinical use of iPSC is a high number of cells (approximately 7 × 107 cells per treatment), which must be produced cost-effectively while maintaining reproducible and high quality. Compared to manual cell production, the automation of cell production offers a unique chance of reliable reproducibility of cells in addition to cost reduction and increased throughput. StemCellFactory is a prototype for a fully automated production of iPSC. However, in addition to the already tested functionality of the system, it must be shown that this automation brings necessary economic advantages. This paper presents that fully automated stem cell production offers economic advantages in addition t... [more]
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