Records with Keyword: Mixing
Showing records 1 to 25 of 29. [First] Page: 1 2 Last
Investigation of Low-Frequency Phenomena within Flow Pattern in Standard Mixing Vessel Induced by Pitched Blade Impeller
Tomáš Brůha, Pavel Procházka, Václav Uruba
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: axial impeller, macro instability, Mixing, oscillation, Oscillation Pattern Decomposition, Particle Image Velocimetry, primary circulation loop
An experimental study on the flow pattern dynamics in a standard mixing vessel with radial baffles filled with water and induced by a pitched blade impeller pumping downward is presented. Investigation is mainly focused on detection and analysis of quasi-periodical or periodical low-frequency phenomenon connected with time- and length-scales considerably exceeding the Blade Passage Frequency (hereinafter BPF) and common turbulent eddies. This phenomenon, which is expressed as large-scale mean-flow variations, is generally known as flow Macro-Instability (hereinafter MI). It could break-down just below the liquid surface, or it crashes to the liquid surface and causes its Macro-Swelling (hereinafter MS). Our investigation was based on classical two-dimensional (2D) Particle Image Velocimetry (hereinafter PIV) measurement within 3 selected vertical planes in the vessel and subsequent analysis of the velocity field. The dominant frequencies evaluated in the selected points and overall ana... [more]
Effect of Mixing Regimes on Cow Manure Digestion in Impeller Mixed, Unmixed and Chinese Dome Digesters
Abiodun O. Jegede, Grietje Zeeman, Harry Bruning
March 21, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: Chinese dome digester, hydraulically mixed, impeller mixed digester, Mixing, total solids (TS) concentration, unstirred digester
This study examines the effect of mixing on the performance of anaerobic digestion of cow manure in Chinese dome digesters (CDDs) at ambient temperatures (27−32 °C) in comparison with impeller mixed digesters (STRs) and unmixed digesters (UMDs) at the laboratory scale. The CDD is a type of household digester used in rural and pre-urban areas of developing countries for cooking. They are mixed by hydraulic variation during gas production and gas use. Six digesters (two of each type) were operated at two different influent total solids (TS) concentration, at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 days for 319 days. The STRs were mixed at 55 rpm, 10 min/hour; the unmixed digesters were not mixed, and the Chinese dome digesters were mixed once a day releasing the stored biogas under pressure. The reactors exhibited different specific biogas production and treatment efficiencies at steady state conditions. The STR 1 exhibited the highest methane (CH4) production and treatment efficiency (vo... [more]
The Multi-Advective Water Mixing Approach for Transport through Heterogeneous Media
Joaquim Soler-Sagarra, Vivien Hakoun, Marco Dentz, Jesus Carrera
March 8, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: heterogeneity, MAWMA, Mixing
Finding a numerical method to model solute transport in porous media with high heterogeneity is crucial, especially when chemical reactions are involved. The phase space formulation termed the multi-advective water mixing approach (MAWMA) was proposed to address this issue. The water parcel method (WP) may be obtained by discretizing MAWMA in space, time, and velocity. WP needs two transition matrices of velocity to reproduce advection (Markovian in space) and mixing (Markovian in time), separately. The matrices express the transition probability of water instead of individual solute concentration. This entails a change in concept, since the entire transport phenomenon is defined by the water phase. Concentration is reduced to a chemical attribute. The water transition matrix is obtained and is demonstrated to be constant in time. Moreover, the WP method is compared with the classic random walk method (RW) in a high heterogeneous domain. Results show that the WP adequately reproduces a... [more]
Gas Hold-Up and Mass Transfer in a Vessel with an Unsteady Rotating Concave Blade Impeller
Sebastian Frankiewicz, Szymon Woziwodzki
March 3, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: gas hold-up, gas-liquid, mass transfer, Mixing, unsteady mixing
The steady mixing of gas-liquid systems is used where a large development of the interfacial area is required. However, the presence of gas in the liquid reduces the efficiency of mass transfer by reducing the mixing power, due to the creation of gas formations behind the impeller blades and the reduction in density. The efficiency of mass transfer can be increased by using a concave blade impeller or unsteady mixing. Mass transfer efficiency studies for these impellers and unsteady mixing are limited. This paper presents an analysis of the influence of the impeller construction on the gas hold-up and volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa. Impellers with a different number of concave blades, and with alternatively arranged concave blades, were analyzed. The obtained results were compared with the standard flat blade turbine. The obtained results indicate that the arrangement of the concave blades has the greatest effect on reducing the gas hold-up and kLa. Higher values were obtaine... [more]
Reactive Transport: A Review of Basic Concepts with Emphasis on Biochemical Processes
Jesús Carrera, Maarten W. Saaltink, Joaquim Soler-Sagarra, Jingjing Wang, Cristina Valhondo
March 2, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: bio-geo-chemical reactions, biofilms, dispersion, effective transport, heterogeneity, microbial communities, Mixing, solute transport
Reactive transport (RT) couples bio-geo-chemical reactions and transport. RT is important to understand numerous scientific questions and solve some engineering problems. RT is highly multidisciplinary, which hinders the development of a body of knowledge shared by RT modelers and developers. The goal of this paper is to review the basic conceptual issues shared by all RT problems, so as to facilitate advancement along the current frontier: biochemical reactions. To this end, we review the basic equations to indicate that chemical systems are controlled by the set of equilibrium reactions, which are easy to model, but whose rate is controlled by mixing. Since mixing is not properly represented by the standard advection-dispersion equation (ADE), we conclude that this equation is poor for RT. This leads us to review alternative transport formulations, and the methods to solve RT problems using both the ADE and alternative equations. Since equilibrium is easy, difficulties arise for kine... [more]
Simulation Analysis of Power Consumption and Mixing Time of Pseudoplastic Non-Newtonian Fluids with a Propeller Agitator
Shiji Wang, Peng Wang, Jianping Yuan, Jinfeng Liu, Qiaorui Si, Dun Li
February 28, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Mixing, propeller, pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluids
In order to study the effect of a high twist rate propeller on the flow field characteristics of pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluids, the numerical simulation method was used to analyze the mixing flow field of pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluids at different concentrations in this paper. By changing the rotational speed and the blade installation height, the vorticity, turbulent energy, mixing power consumption, mixing time and mixing energy of the flow field were analyzed. By analyzing and comparing the research results, it was found that increasing the mixing propeller speed can effectively improve the mixing effect. Single-layer arrangement of mixing propeller is not suitable to be placed close to the bottom of the tank, and the mixing of the upper flow field is weaker. Under the same conditions, when the viscosity of pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid is increased, the high vorticity and high turbulence energy area is reduced to the mixing propeller area, and the time required for mi... [more]
Numerical and Experimental Study on Combustion Characteristics of Micro-Gas Turbine Biogas Combustor
Aiguo Liu, Ruiyang Fan, Qiaochu Liu, Lei Xi, Wen Zeng
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biogas combustion, DLE, emission, micro-gas turbine, Mixing
The use of biogas in land-based gas turbines for power generation is a promising approach to reducing greenhouse gases and our dependence on fossil fuels. The focus of this research was to investigate the fuel/air mixing and combustion performance in an DLE (dry low emission) type can combustor designed for a micro-gas turbine. The fuel and air mixing uniformity was studied considering the air flow characteristic and fuel injection performance through the numerical simulation. The influence of the fuel/air mixing characteristics on the combustion characteristics was studied by numerical simulation and experimental tests. The combustion characteristics studied included the temperature field in the combustor, the pattern factor at the combustor outlet, combustion efficiency, and pollutant emission characteristics. The results show the position of the fuel nozzle has little effect on the mixing uniformity due to the limited mixing space for the micro-gas turbine combustor, while there are... [more]
Analysis of the Thermal Processes in an Electromagnetic Mill
Dariusz Całus
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: electromagnetic mill, FEM analysis, grinding, liquid cooling, Mixing, thermal analysis, thermal equivalent circuit
The purpose of this research is to develop effective methods for the thermal calculation of an electromagnetic mill. The article deals with the structural features of the liquid cooling system of such a device, with direct channel cooling of the induction coils. By analysing the recent research in this area, I have revealed that in order to achieve this goal it is expedient to use the finite element method (FEM). I have also suggested the input data for the boundary values to calculate a three-dimensional thermal field of an electromagnetic mill with an internal diameter of the working chamber of 200 mm. I have also graphically shown the results of calculating this problem using FEM analysis. Based on the analysis of the temperature field and gradient, I have also synthesized and substantiated the structure of the thermal equivalent circuit, which approximates the active part of the mill with a complex of five bodies with internal heat release and enables an approximate estimation of i... [more]
System COP of Ejector-Based Ground-Source Heat Pumps
Mouhammad El Hassan
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: binary fluid ejector (BFE), coefficient of performance (COP), entrainment ratio, ground source heat pump (GSHP), Mixing, supersonic ejector
Compared to mechanical compressors, ejector-based refrigeration systems can make direct use of many forms of thermal energy, including waste heat, solar thermal, or biogases. It is known that SE systems have a lower thermal efficiency compared to mechanical compressors because of their lower performance at high compression ratios. In the present work, binary fluid ejector heat pumps with high efficiency are presented based on a proper selection of the binary fluids and the ejector geometry for specific operating conditions of a ground-source heat pump cooling system (GSHP). The existing literature on ejector-based refrigeration systems considers the thermal COP and does not account for many energy losses across the system. In the present paper, the system COP of an ejector-based GSHP that accounts for all energy exchange processes is determined. A method for the calculation of the work done by the boiler feed pump, the refrigeration expansion valve, and the ground loop circulation pump... [more]
Changes in Hydrophobic Interactions among Gluten Proteins during Dough Formation
Sonoo Iwaki, Katsuyuki Hayakawa, Bin-Xiao Fu, Chikako Otobe
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: aggregation, dough, flour, hydrophobic interaction, Mixing, wheat
In this study, changes in hydrophobic interactions among gluten proteins were analyzed during dough mixing. Size-exclusion high-performance chromatography and two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis were performed on proteins extracted with 1-propanol by weakening the hydrophobic interaction. The amount of proteins extracted with 30% 1-propanol increased from the start of mixing to peak consistency, suggesting that the hydrophobic interactions among the strongly aggregated proteins weakened and resulted in disaggregation. The amount of proteins extracted with 10% 1-propanol decreased during hydration, indicating that these proteins aggregated through relatively weak hydrophobic interactions. The proteins that extractability decreased were mainly low molecular weight glutenin, α-gliadin, and γ-gliadin. The amount of monomeric proteins extracted with 30% 1-propanol decreased after peak consistency. The decreased protein was mainly ω-gliadin, indicating that ω-gliadin... [more]
Automated Compartment Model Development Based on Data from Flow-Following Sensor Devices
Jonas Bisgaard, Tannaz Tajsoleiman, Monica Muldbak, Thomas Rydal, Tue Rasmussen, Jakob K. Huusom, Krist V. Gernaey
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: automatic zoning, compartment model, flow-follower, hydrodynamics, Mixing, stirred bioreactor
Due to the heterogeneous nature of large-scale fermentation processes they cannot be modelled as ideally mixed reactors, and therefore flow models are necessary to accurately represent the processes. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used more and more to derive flow fields for the modelling of bioprocesses, but the computational demands associated with simulation of multiphase systems with biokinetics still limits their wide applicability. Hence, a demand for simpler flow models persists. In this study, an approach to develop data-based flow models in the form of compartment models is presented, which utilizes axial-flow rates obtained from flow-following sensor devices in combination with a proposed procedure for automatic zoning of volume. The approach requires little experimental effort and eliminates the necessity for computational determination of inter-compartmental flow rates and manual zoning. The concept has been demonstrated in a 580 L stirred vessel, of which models hav... [more]
Gas Dispersion in Non-Newtonian Fluids with Mechanically Agitated Systems: A Review
Paloma Lins Barros, Farhad Ein-Mozaffari, Ali Lohi
February 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: gas dispersion, gas holdup, mass transfer coefficient, Mixing, non-Newtonian fluids
Gas dispersion in non-Newtonian fluids is encountered in a broad range of chemical, biochemical, and food industries. Mechanically agitated vessels are commonly employed in these processes because they promote high degree of contact between the phases. However, mixing non-Newtonian fluids is a challenging task that requires comprehensive knowledge of the mixing flow to accurately design stirred vessels. Therefore, this review presents the developments accomplished by researchers in this field. The present work describes mixing and mass transfer variables, namely volumetric mass transfer coefficient, power consumption, gas holdup, bubble diameter, and cavern size. It presents empirical correlations for the mixing variables and discusses the effects of operating and design parameters on the mixing and mass transfer process. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates the advantages of employing computational fluid dynamics tools to shed light on the hydrodynamics of this complex flow. The liter... [more]
Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of a Pharmaceutical Full-Scale Hydrogenation Reactor
David Fernandes del Pozo, Mairtin Mc Namara, Bernardo J. Vitória Pessanha, Peter Baldwin, Jeroen Lauwaert, Joris W. Thybaut, Ingmar Nopens
February 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: CFD simulation, full-scale reactor, hydrogenation, mass transfer, Mixing, numerical simulation, Rushton turbine, surface vortex
The pharmaceutical industry has been quite successful in developing new hydrogenation processes, and the chemistry of hydrogenation is currently well understood. However, it is a complex process to scale and optimize due to its high exothermicity, use of expensive catalysts and solvents, and its mass transfer requirements. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a CFD model to be able to describe the mass transfer, hydrodynamics, and mixing with respect to changes in rotational speed for a full-scale pharmaceutical hydrogenation reactor. In the first stage, a simple CFD model is used to predict the development of the surface vortex, and it is validated against literature data. In the second stage, the CFD model is tested on a full-scale configuration equipped with a Rushton turbine and a bottom kicker to study the formation of the surface vortex. Simulation results show the ability to predict the development of the surface vortex. These results are used to estimate the liquid hei... [more]
The Effect of Water, Nanoparticulate Silica and Dry Water on the Flow Properties of Cohesionless Sand
Leigh Duncan Hamilton, Harald Zetzener, Arno Kwade
February 21, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: cohesion, dry water, flowability, fumed silica, granular materials, liquid bridges, Mixing, water storage
Cement hydration within particle bed concrete 3D printing processes can be benefited by storing water in the otherwise dry aggregate bulk material. Additional water also has the advantage of acting as a source of passive cooling. However, even small amounts of liquid lead to detrimental effects on bulk properties, such as the flowability. For that reason, this study proposes implementing dry water (DW) in order to store large amounts of water in a bulk material of non-absorbent, coarse sand whilst maintaining its initial bulk properties. DW is essentially created by mixing water and hydrophobic fumed silica in a high shear process, leading to water droplets surrounded by a protective silica shell. Herein, several DW variants, distinguished by their deionised water to hydrophobic silica ratio, were mixed with non-absorbent, coarse sand particles. In addition, mixtures were produced to contain a specific overall water content of up to wH2O = 5% within the bulk material. It was shown that... [more]
The Influence of Hydrodynamic Changes in a System with a Pitched Blade Turbine on Mixing Power
Jacek Stelmach, Czesław Kuncewicz, Szymon Szufa, Tomas Jirout, Frantisek Rieger
October 14, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: impeller, Mixing, pitched blade turbine, power consumption
This paper presents an analysis of hydrodynamics in a tank with a 45° and 60° pitched blade turbine impeller operating while emptying the mixer and with an axial agitator working during axial pumping-down of water at different water levels above the impeller. Measurements made with the PIV method confirmed the change in direction of pumping liquid after the level dropped below the critical value, with an almost unchanged liquid stream flowing through the mixer. It was found that an increase in the value of the tangential velocity in the area of the impeller took place and the quantity of this increase depended on the angle of the blade pitch and the rotational frequency of the impeller. Change in this velocity component increased the mixing power.
Mixing of Particles in a Rotating Drum with Inclined Axis of Rotation
Parag Widhate, Haiping Zhu, Qinghua Zeng, Kejun Dong
July 29, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: discrete element method, Mixing, rotating drum
Various experimental and numerical studies have been carried out to study the mixing processes inside rotating drums with a horizontal axis of rotation in the past, but little effort has been made to investigate the rotating drums with an inclined axis of rotation, though such inclined drums exist in industrial waste management, food processing, power and pharmaceutical industries. To fill this gap, in this work, the discrete element method was used to study the mixing phenomena of a rotating drum for different angles of inclination from 0° to 15°. It was found that for inclined rotating drums, the whole bed Lacey mixing index is higher than that for the horizontal drum by 7.2% when the angle of inclination is 10°. The mixing index is related to the area ratio of the active region to the whole bed and volumetric fill. Increase in volumetric fill would lead to the decrease of the mixing index. The mixing index and area ratio exhibit similar patterns along the length of the drum for diff... [more]
The Dynamics of Globally Unstable Air-Helium Jets and Its Impact on Jet Mixing Intensity
Agnieszka Pawlowska, Andrzej Boguslawski
July 29, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: Mixing, mixing length scales, turbulence
The paper presents experimental investigations of the low-density air-helium jets. The paper is aimed at the analysis of the flow conditions promoting the local absolute instability leading to global flow oscillations. A number of the test cases are analysed with a wide range of the shear layer thickness showing conditions favorable for the global modes and also mixing intensity triggered by such a regime. It is shown that high mixing intensity is determined not only by the global regime but also by the vortex pairing process. The results are compared with a recently proposed universal scaling law for an onset into the global mode. The results turn out to be far from this scaling law and the reasons for such discrepancies are discussed. The measurements show also that if the shear layer at the nozzle exit is thin enough the global modes are suppressed. The mechanism leading to the global mode suppression under such conditions is carefully analysed.
Mixing in Turbulent Flows: An Overview of Physics and Modelling
Jacek Pozorski, Marta Wacławczyk
May 17, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: FDF method, large eddy Simulations, Mixing, PDF method, Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes, scalar variables, turbulence
Turbulent flows featuring additional scalar fields, such as chemical species or temperature, are common in environmental and industrial applications. Their physics is complex because of a broad range of scales involved; hence, efficient computational approaches remain a challenge. In this paper, we present an overview of such flows (with no particular emphasis on combustion, however) and we recall the major types of micro-mixing models developed within the statistical approaches to turbulence (the probability density function approach) as well as in the large-eddy simulation context (the filtered density function). We also report on some trends in algorithm development with respect to the recent progress in computing technology.
An Experimental Study of Turbulent Mixing in Channel Flow Past a Grid
Daniel Duda, Vitalii Yanovych, Václav Uruba
May 11, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: 3D scanning, Agrawal decomposition, grid turbulence, Mixing, particle image velocimetry, turbulent kinetic energy
Grid turbulence is considered to be a canonical case of turbulent flow. In the presented paper, the flow structure is analyzed from the point of view of mixing properties, where vortical structures and their properties play a significant role. That is why the effect of various length-scales in turbulence is studied separately. The experimental study uses the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method. The original method for spatial spectrum evaluation is applied. Results on vortex spatial spectrum and isotropy are presented. The scaling of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) is measured; furthermore, the TKE is decomposed according to the length-scales of the fluctuations. By this method, we found that the decay of TKE associated with the smallest length-scales is more sensitive to the Reynolds number than that at larger length-scales. The TKE at the largest investigated length-scales decays more slowly. The turbulence decay-law is studied for various Reynolds numbers. The second and fourth s... [more]
Hydrodynamics and Mass Transfer Analysis in BioFlow® Bioreactor Systems
Marian Kordas, Maciej Konopacki, Bartłomiej Grygorcewicz, Adrian Augustyniak, Daniel Musik, Krzysztof Wójcik, Magdalena Jędrzejczak-Silicka, Rafał Rakoczy
April 30, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: agitation, bioreactors, mass transfer, Mixing, Modelling, power consumption
Biotechnological processes involving the presence of microorganisms are realized by using various types of stirred tanks or laboratory-scale dual-impeller commercial bioreactor. Hydrodynamics and mass transfer rate are crucial parameters describing the functionality and efficiency of bioreactors. Both parameters strictly depend on mixing applied during bioprocesses conducted in bioreactors. Establishing optimum hydrodynamics conditions for the realized process with microorganisms maximizes the yield of desired products. Therefore, our main objective was to analyze and define the main operational hydrodynamic parameters (including flow field, power consumption, mixing time, and mixing energy) and mass transfer process (in this case, gas−liquid transfer) of two different commercial bioreactors (BioFlo® 115 and BioFlo® 415). The obtained results are allowed using mathematical relationships to describe the analyzed processes that can be used to predict the mixing process and mass transfer... [more]
Large Eddy Simulations of Reactive Mixing in Jet Reactors of Varied Geometry and Size
Krzysztof Wojtas, Wojciech Orciuch, Łukasz Makowski
March 1, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, confined impinging jet reactors, large eddy simulation, Mixing, parallel chemical reactions
We applied large eddy simulation (LES) to predict the course of reactive mixing carried out in confined impinging jet reactors (CIJR). The reactive mixing process was studied in a wide range of flow rates both experimentally and numerically using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). We compared several different reactor geometries made in different sizes in terms of both reaction yields and mixing efficiency. Our LES model predictions were validated using experimental data for the tracer concentration distribution and fast parallel chemical test reactions, and compared with the k-ε model supplemented with the turbulent mixer model. We found that the mixing efficiency was not affected by the flow rate only at the highest tested Reynolds numbers. The experimental results and LES predictions were found to be in good agreement for all reactor geometries and operating conditions, while the k-ε model well predicted the trend of changes. The CFD method used, i.e., the modeling approach using c... [more]
Application of Theoretical and Experimental Findings for Optimization of Mixing Processes and Equipment
Tomáš Jirout, Dita Jiroutová
December 17, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: agitator, blending, hydrofoil impeller, impeller efficiency, Mixing, particle suspension, pumping capacity
The homogenization of the agitated batch and ensuring the suspension of particles are the most frequently encountered requirements in terms of mixing applications. These operations are affected by the flow of the agitated batch. The geometrical parameters of the mixing system, especially the shape of the agitator blade, affect flow and circulation in the agitated batch. The present work provides a general description of the most common processes in the agitated batch (blending and particle suspension), hydrodynamic parameters (flow in agitated batches, pumping and circulation capacity of impellers) and the geometrical configurations of the mixing equipment (shape of vessel, baffle and impeller, and their mutual arrangement) that influence the process. The dimensionless process characteristics of the agitator were derived by theoretical analysis. These characteristics were applied to evaluate an extensive set of experimental data with various geometric configurations of the mixing equip... [more]
Scale-Up of Mixing Equipment for Suspensions
Tomáš Jirout, František Rieger, Dorin Ceres
December 17, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: axial agitator, Mixing, scale-up, suspension
This paper deals with the scale-up of equipment for the mixing of suspensions. The measurement of just-suspended agitator speeds was carried out with standard, pitched, four-blade turbines and folded, four-blade turbines in three vessels (290 mm, 600 mm, and 800 mm in diameter) for several particle sizes and concentrations. The results of measurements confirmed that scale-up based on dimensionless Froude number dependence, on the relative particle size and concentration, can be used. On the basis of the results, a scale-up rule for agitator speeds in a given suspension and equipment geometry was recommended, and various conclusions reported by different investigators were discussed.
DEM Investigation of the Influence of Particulate Properties and Operating Conditions on the Mixing Process in Rotary Drums: Part 2—Process Validation and Experimental Study
Jakub Hlosta, Lucie Jezerská, Jiří Rozbroj, David Žurovec, Jan Nečas, Jiří Zegzulka
April 1, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: DEM, homogenization, Mixing, particulates, rotating drum, validation
The process of homogenization of particulates is an indispensable part of many industrial processes, and, therefore, it is necessary to pay a special attention to this area and develop it. This paper deals with a complex study of homogenization of particulate matters in a rotary drum in terms of shape, size, and density of particles. In addition, the influence of operating parameters, such as drum filling capacity, rotational speed, and drum filling pattern are also investigated. Studies of reproducibility of discrete element method simulations, effects of rotary drum sizes or effects of drum volumetric filling to the mixture homogeneity index were also carried out. In general, the least satisfactory values of the homogeneity index resulted from the mixing of particles with different densities. The dominating factor of homogenization was the drum filling-up degree. The course of the homogeneity index in 140, 280, and 420 mm drums was very similar and after five revolutions of the drum,... [more]
Systematic Experimental Investigation of Segregation Direction and Layer Inversion in Binary Liquid-Fluidized Bed
Alberto Di Renzo, Giacomo Rito, Francesco P. Di Maio
April 1, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: expansion, layer inversion, liquid-fluidization, Mixing, multi-component beds, segregation
Multi-component liquid-fluidized beds are encountered in a variety of industrial processes. Often, segregation severely affects the performance of the process unit. Unfortunately, size-driven and density-driven separation processes may occur with a complex interplay, showing prevailing mechanisms that change with the operating conditions. For example, when the solids exhibit contrasting differences in size and density, even the direction of segregation can turn out hard to predict, giving rise for some systems to the so-called “layer inversion phenomenon”. A systematic experimental investigation is presented on 14 different binary beds composed of glass beads and ABS spheres with different size and density ratios and different bed composition. The analysis allows assessing the reliability of a model for predicting the segregation direction of fluidized binary beds (the Particle Segregation Model, PSM). By measurements of the solids’ concentration at the surface, expansion/segregation p... [more]
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